35 Burst results for "Research Associate"

"research associate" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

05:12 min | 2 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on KQED Radio

"A senior research associate at the Harvard Law School Project on Disability, Ari. Thanks for joining us, Thank you so much for having me. He doesn't think so. I'm tan Xena Vega with you on the take away. Vote tallies show that Joe Biden is the winner in Georgia, a state that hasn't turned blue since 1992. But the state has also begun the labor intensive process of recounting all of the ballots in 2020 by hand. Georgia has until November, 18th to finish counting all of the ballots to you. Mitchell is a Washington correspondent with the Atlanta Journal Constitution. And she's with us to explain all of this to you. Welcome back to the takeaway. Thanks for having me again. Why are we doing a hand recount in Georgia? Well, the easy answers because these secretaries state decided that was the most transparent way. To audit the election and Ensure to anyone any naysayers that it was accurate. And so he even though it didn't require it, he called for a full hand count of the presidential election. So to you, we know this is a very labor intensive process. Will all the counties be done with the count by November? 18th. The recount has to end by midnight on Wednesday. And then, of course, November 20th deadline for certification, But it's looking like it's going well, actually. Ah, lot of the biggest counties in Georgia are done already. They finished over the weekend. Some of the other counties in metro Atlanta stay. They'll be done by Monday, the end of Monday, so it looks like the deadlines will be met. No, Tia. This remind us again the original vote tally because Georgia was one of the states that we've all been waiting to see which way it would go. And apparently, so far, At least, it looks like Joe Biden has one. The state of Georgia. What this is a state. As you know, that hasn't gone for a Democratic candidate since 1992 What tipped the scales here this time around. So it's the state as we mentioned, never got around to really finishing the counting and certifying the numbers before the recount was called, but it looks like Joe Biden is gonna win by about 14,000 votes, and that's attributed to Donald Trump losing support, particularly in Atlanta suburbs and kind of that outer ring of ex urbs if you will before you get to that solid red rural Georgia And a lot of older voters, independent voters, college educated voters, um and fewer white women were willing to support Donald Trump this time around. That's how Joe Biden was able to win Georgia. Wondering if there's any chance that we could see different results after the recount, or is this pretty much as you mentioned earlier, just for the sake of transparency and maybe to appease some of what the president Mentioned that his concerns are with this election. Yes, definitely to appease those Trump supporters who have questioned the integrity of the election. Of course, we know because of human error. There could be a shift here. They're some of the larger counties or some of the counties reported literally one or two difference in balance. One or two vote difference. Um So we do not expect a sizable change in the outcome again. We're talking about a 14,000 vote margin. It could change you know by a handful of votes, you know, 10 2030 is what the trend is looking like, but not anything that could change the outcome of the election in Georgia. Do you? Mitchell is the Washington correspondent with the Atlanta Journal Constitution to you. Thanks so much as always. Thank you. All right, everybody. The holidays are coming up and all this week we've been asking you. How are you and your family safely celebrating the holidays this year during Cove it This is Cathy from Westport, Connecticut. And we are definitely preparing to be outside socially distance and wear masks when necessary, helping for some sort of Festive winter. How are we doing Thanksgiving away from everybody? I block step, a box of plea potatoes, my garden sage from potatoes and various items, and I expect all my kids to cook their own and send me a picture of how great they fail on Zoom so they'll appreciate what I did. Well, if we have our help, we have everything that's all we need to remember. This year. We have a lot of gratitude for the people that are alive. 8778698253 is our number. Your holiday takes all this week on the take away. Support for KQED comes.

Georgia Joe Biden Mitchell Donald Trump Atlanta Journal Atlanta Harvard Law School senior research associate KQED Westport president Connecticut
Fracking can harm human health, physicians group warns

Climate Connections

01:12 min | 3 months ago

Fracking can harm human health, physicians group warns

"About. Two decades ago natural gas production in the US began to boom largely because of the growth of fracking a technique for extracting large volumes of gas from deep underground burning. Natural Gas produces less carbon pollution and releases fewer harmful particles to the air. Then burning coal but Barbara Gottlieb of the nonprofit Physicians for social, responsibility says fracking is not without its own consequences for human health. She says, the process can emit toxic pollution such as benzene formaldehyde into water and the air, and there's a growing body of research associate active fracking sites with a range of symptoms from headaches too premature birth. That's how extreme these problems are in their terribly worrisome for health professionals. She says, the natural gas industry also contributes to health risks far beyond a fracking site methane leaks from the wells it leaks from the pipelines and compressor stations methane. A potent greenhouse gas contributes to global warming and the health risks. It causes from heat related illness to injuries and even death during extreme storms and flooding. So Physicians for social responsibility has called for a ban on fracking and a rapid transition to clean energy

Barbara Gottlieb United States Headaches Research Associate
Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01

Scientific Sense

59:58 min | 3 months ago

Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods, leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society. And help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot. com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense. Dot Com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen. Dot Info. My guests today's facade John. WHO's professor of Law and society at Griffith University in Brisbane Australia. He's also adjunct professor of law at Queensland University of Technology and Research Associated University College Under Center for Blockchain Technologies, he who suggests on the Bloomberg professional globalization of law and the technology in law. But come John. Hello. Thank you. Sure. Yeah. So I want to start with one of your recent people, professions and expertise hog machine learning, and blockchain redesigning the landscape of professional knowledge and organization. In invite you say machine learning has entered the world of the professions. The different impacts automation will have huge impacts on the nature of work and society. Engineering architecture and medicine or early and enthusiastic adopters. Other professions especially law at late you say at in some cases with leptons adopters. could you talk about you know sort of the landscape all? Of Law, profession and. They today in terms of opting these technologies. Certainly Louis interesting because it's a very old profession is. Often considered one of the. Original traditional professions along with medicine and the church. And in a sense law has used different kinds of technology might say I mean does it? Based around writing. And then the printing press and So on yet that. It's always being based on a craft. A skill which the individual person is that enables them to do, whatever is quote if you like and. said, there's never been a lot of room for any kind of automation. Certainly, the has been space for using. A people who are not fully qualified as low as about as paralegals, people like that, who will do a lot of repetitive work document checking and things like that and so on. But what will get into now is the situation where automation through machine learning. There's other kinds of artificial intelligence. is able to start constructing documents example contracts. Check dollop a documents for particular clauses and things like that mature they're up to date and this incense is. Replacing now, the kind of work that noise will do. So I think in some ways more more of of the profession of law is gonNA be subject to automation, but distinction I would many because I think it's quite important here is that A lot of what lawyers do. Is actually quite. Active that that that that the drafting contracts overtime or or they're reviewing documents to some sort or another or they're getting through particular. Negotiation. And so you know a lot of it is the same, but they build up the expertise through doing these same kinds of were over and over again and What we're now finding is that instead of having young lawyers coming in and doing what you might call the grunt work of checking documents and going through discovery applications where he goes through the size boxes of evidence to decide. which are the appropriate documents you want the emails, the invoices order, this sort of stuff that is the kind of work which is lending itself to automation. And, and so that his taking away a lot of the work which is used for trading purposes with young lawyers and is just doing it much quicker. will quickly I mean More efficiently in many ways and probably expensive much much expensive a Lotta. This work is being outsourced to you know legal process outsourcing India or Philippines South Africa places like that. So yeah, that's that's right and so in some ways, the group of lawyers who do the work which requires the skill, the judgment. Is Reducing in some ways. That pool is getting smaller. Yeah Yeah it's it's interesting. The the distinction that you make between automation. And in my job and let's call it decision making right which is you know a lot of work in the business side of this. So for example. in the nineties in large pharmaceutical company So you think about you know rnd. People might think it has really complex selection of programs that design of them, portfolio management, risk management, all those decisions. Genuine companies be say well, senior managers with lots of experience and intuition make those decisions really well right and so that's statement would automatically implied that machines can really do much there. But what we find in the mid nineties says that is systematic analysis of data make those decisions. Don't better. Actually, I've Tom to humans humans. Always seem to make decisions. These are typically bonding the decision. So if you go back and look at it, alternative experiment has not been wrong. So we have no date to say it was a good decision at typically. So human scaffold, fifty percents of making good decisions So do you know just throwing a coin or letting monkey make those decisions so? Yup We found that even complex decision making that humans hold. you know close to their you know kind of domain I'm not necessarily. So we have machines That could do that much better than I. Don't know there's an analog of that in in law I I. Think The may be actually I mean Two three years ago the royal. Society in England decided to arrange a working party on machine learning. One of the things that they put together a a roundtable on machine learning professions resolved to talk about that night and I talked about the history of professions in technology and. and. I think one of the peculiar things that came out to in relation to law is that law. Has always been a sort of on its own. If you think about medicine, for example, medicines always had the teacher hospital institution that sort of straddles the academic quilt and the practice walls and brings those people together and as a result. INCORPORATES loss of, scientific, work. Engineering work as well computing work and things like that. And that's been the first teaching hospital king into existence in in the French revolution in Seventeen eighty-nine. A long history of that. If you look at law, there was nothing equivalent to that whatsoever and there is in fact, actually a big gap between what academy does on what the practitioners in your do so that As a result as before law has come to this a quite late but what we are. Finding I think is that Certainly the management consultancy finding is that because of the nature of a lot of what goes on in legal office a remarkable amount of it can be automated. So what we are getting now is companies setting themselves up to do this automated work. So. We have companies which do nothing but contract our instruction formation sort of company. The typical lawyer would would say to a client Do you WANNA contract classes. Yes I want this for this. And loyal galway draft contract back with it, and then in the con- comes back against as I need another contract, you go through the same process. which is good for the lawyer but not necessarily good kind. What we're finding now is the company's not can think of a few of them that will, in fact, go into the company's show order contracts. Let's see the entire. Corpus of contracts you've got there and they will analyze them. And basically say, all right. We can create a new contract in automated way fairly easily it may need some modification according to special circumstances but on the whole, it's fairly standard and and they can do that INNOVA systematic world meaning the contracts are reviewed that checked. If they're going to expire marketing, you want an unable just the system will cope with that if you're. Yeah. So yeah. No No. No so I was just going to say yes. So that the distinction you make, you know in terms education sort of systematic graduate level education that because as you say, it is low in one sense of soft proficient. You say in called professions like made it to text reengineering this team has a strong concern ensuring that expertise applied in the public interest when as low little bit different from from bad and economics in some sense sort of in the same same vein we have now made economics at really odd. of mathematics you know north of analytics there. Whether they are actually useful from policy making perspective is left to debate but at least it has been an attempt to make this make economic video hard. So so I don't know A. Fascination has been in in law I very much that will happen in law. Oh there things are beginning to happen I mean let me just boob. At. One example I learned in that workshop that I mentioned the Royal Society held. With somebody from the engineering profession talking about. The difference in skills between people who above forty I'm below forty he said. If he he was about Forty Years Austin design an aeroplane, takeout pen and paper Pencil, and paper and. I don't know anyone under forty could do that would know how to do that go onto a computer program undecided there. So you can see that the incorporation of technology into the academy through to the actual. Occupation. Than phones and things is is already a standard and they're in law. It isn't law. As you said, it's still very much a soft skill although I will argue that there is a difference between the way nor is viewed in different parts of the world. So in the United States A law is I think more tilted towards the sciences. So low in economics is one of the big things in the. US. So you got a lot of people working in the of lower economics who might go onto antitrust work no competition work and things like that which across a lot of economics, mathematics and Statistics and so on. In, say a Europe Australia and so on. Law is more allied towards the humanities. And the classics. So it doesn't have that kind of scientific underpinning in that way. So anything that's going to change in these parts if you like is going to be something that's going to be imported from outside. And is going to have a very dramatic impact when whether it does An and I think that's yet to happen. I don't think there's been sort of Cambrian explosion. If you like in in law, the will be one I'm sure but but law has an advantage over engineering economics or the other areas you might. That's With the nature of the rule of law and absent justice is since law as a a way of ordering society is absolutely crucial to everything else. Then, Law and lawyers will say will look you know we have a special status here is different amid leave engineer. We certainly want to make sure bridges stay up. We don't want down but we can design different kinds of bridges. We can design different kinds of legal bills, but they're also the fundamental rules If you want to you know if you're an engineering company and you want to build a bridge in a different country, you're going to have to do it on the basis of the legal rules, which will be just vise by the lawyers according to the country's there in so on. So in in that was what? I might put in a special category if you live. Yea. Yea. Let me let me push NBA John. So. The. The conference that you mentioned you know the Internet is under forty and engineers at. So so one could argue you know from an engineering perspective could argue e- It sexually dangerous. To not use machines to build aircraft the goes you know all the technology that cap today actually help us make the trap lot safer. granted. If you sit down with a blank sheet of paper and Pencil, you might get the principal right. But, but the technology has advanced so much that you really have to use. Technology to do so in some sense, engineering is pushed back. that. I argue this myself then they were naive engineering school. I had a V exposed at my daughter bent to school. She used the same physics book. Twenty, five. meter. I argue that that is sort of backward because data speed no need for an engineer to really learn Newtonian physics anymore because it is prescriptive, it's deterministic can make machines, learn it very quickly and so why spend all? Right. So so then you know if you think about the the law field. I wonder if there is a senior argument that is to say Dan and tape really good lawyer casts lot of intuitions dot expedients to crap something Contract or a discourse, but then maybe the machine scan actually do it even better We haven't really tested that hypothesis yet. Right be almost have this idea that humans are always dominant. Or machines but that the not be true as technology lancers. So what do you think about that in the in the? It's a very important point actually because the. American bosses. being modifying its ethical rules recently to say that lawyers have a duty and obligation to keep up to date with technology. So we already know the technology is now a an important part and I have to say when when I say the word technology, I mean this at all kinds of levels from what you can do with Microsoft word for example, it strays plug ins all the way up to artificial intelligence IBM, Watson, or something like that So that if if lawyers become. A. Uses of technology whether this small firms or big firms or what have you a under the Aba now they they actually have an obligation to make sure that they are up to date. They can't just say we didn't know what we were doing. So I think in that respect, there is a there was a move. The other move that is taking place is actually the push from from the clients. Now, this you have to look into ways one is with corporate clients. The corporation seen US lawyers have to use noise if you'd like want their work done. PHILOS- money on Chiba they wanted to more efficiently They don't want the best piece of work every time they want something that works and they want officiant. UTA A and so on. So it was interesting I think a few years ago. The General Counsel Cisco. Actually made a speech. Saying that he expected his. Lawyers Law firms who worked for the company to be reducing their fees year on year. Now, that's the opposite of what lawyers normally do, which is to raise them year on year. So say that that's one push which is. Very profound push now, coming from the client himselves who are using the beginning to use their procurement departments in in the companies and things like that to help purchase legal services the other aspects which is just as important in this is if you look at the role of lawyers and individuals. So if you is what access to to legal services, it's expensive lawyers are not cheap they charge our money We don't know how to judge the quality of their work and so on. because. There was a credence which we just know that So. On this is where technology can begin to step in and provide services which are. Efficient and often quite. what very well for the individual saying that this. Technology can be seen to be improving access to justice a Lotta people. Yeah. Yeah yes. I want to come back to this. John. I think this is a very important point. So bent on put has a lot of uncertainty. Uncertainty maybe not not the right term, but it's called deterministic. It shows beatty ability and so the determination of quality it's not as easy as hard media India nearing or. Right business economics legal all sorts of well foreign that category and the application of technology sort of a different different meaning there but I want to touch on one of the things that you say in the paper, and that is you mentioned this before and that's about training training the next generation. So you savior regulating bodies professions are involved in the collection and reproduction of knowledge intended to be used by the entire body professionals, and so there was an expectation here that you know seeing it professionals. Is Providing the wisdom that knowledge mission to train the next generation now in a technology driven. regime. discuss vacations right. Our expert is going to be a computer engineer in the future. And so so how does that work from from cleaning and knowledge Asian will I think this is This is a crucial issue in it's one which the profession hasn't. Really. Got To grips with yet I think because you think of technology in terms of Predictive analytics a document review and things like this most law schools are not preparing students for this they may be a a a a causal to on some aspect of technology, but it's not something which lawyers themselves are learning. So I think what is going to happen is we're going to find a blending of skills occurring. So law firms will be sense having to bring in a range of technologists who perhaps have. A scales a straddle, both sides of the lines, the lawyers like this too I think I think we're going to find an avangard Who will begin to develop skills that allow them to talk to both sides of the line, the tech people and? Below people if you likes and there will be people who will acquire develop these skills as well but that's that's still some way down the line I didn't think we're anywhere near there yet, and part of the reason for that I think is that you know law is still a very highly regulated profession and and the regulators themselves are in the same situation they are unsure about what is going to happen and they also feel they have an obligation to. Not only ensure that. Customers clients and consumers are protected but in some ways, the profession is protected to if you like so. You know it's it's a it's a fine balancing. There I. Think. It's a fight balancing act and you'd say if the changing changing things. So going back, you know you care as an individual eighteen status of expert. Some form of encapsulation of knowledge and analysis occurs enabling professional experts, derived diagnoses, decisions, and conclusion wrapped late. and you make some distinctions. Type of learning that. Human? Beings. That the distinction between doing drive and become a gift and laster Yes yes. Yes I think that's important. So the the the the principle behind this is that Individuals can acquire a lot of knowledge in in various areas. So as I say learning how to drive a car, you learn how to change gear you though with the speeds. Braking different rates, conditions, and things like that. So. If you WANNA take that further and become a formula one drive or something like that. Then you have to undergo a very different kind of training and that kind of thing becomes a lot more collective rather than individual because you start to you're you're going to be in a group that is gonna be doing a particular kind of our driving. If you like everybody in the group has to understand what each other is doing that group, you can't have people going right a racetrack at two hundred miles an hour or thinking individually feel like they have to have a collective consciousness. About. How to drive in that situation? That's nothing like how? You and I might drive. I'm not saying we bad drivers just saying spreading very different. So I think professional work is not. That different from this in a way. So once you you can go through school and you can do your law degree and you can learn your low. We can learn you engineering's this applies to or professions really. But in order to become a professional in order to become somebody who can operate function within that. Group if you like you then have yourself have to develop collective consciousness and and one way of thinking about it is that we we can kind of tacit knowledge. This assorted knowledge you learn on the job from people, which is not always articulated in a precise formulate kind way but it's something you pick up from the way. Somebody does something you just recognize aw that that's how they've done that might not be. Written down anywhere or anything like that. But you know that's different from now exiting differently from the way that wise doing I think X.'s doing it better I and you and you just, and you can absorb that. That's what I mean by this kind of tacit knowledge and that comes about from the professional context. As how the professional context develops becomes absolutely crucial to how you introduce new ways of doing things new my daddy's new skills new outlooks if you like and I. Think this is where we're on the cost of of this beginning to develop I mean we we know it's got to be done quite how it's going to be done. is yet to be. So. So let me make a statement John and I want I want your reaction to it so eat in hard sciences eight years against again medicine. Expertise has about a consistent happy of remorse. Whereas enor- economics and business in general, let's say expertise is not about the ability to apply rules but to deal with. and at and if that is true, it has lot of implications rate. It has implications as to how we might divide work. Between. And machine in the future. And the skills that universities need to impart on on on new graduates are also quite different. So I always argued in the business. engineering contexts that universities having changed the dog they get mentioned before they're using the same. Using the same. Out Thirty four years without asking the question are those skills relevant, anymore or more importantly watch. Really relevant for a human being in the future rate. do you agree with that that expertise assert more about dealing exceptions apply? Putting it actually. I. I can see the logic behind what you. Saying I think what distinguishes? A good professional whether it's a good engineer good architect or good lawyer or doctor is is somebody who has a certain? This may sound strange but it's the. Imagination. Creativity. about. Kind of flare that allows them to function on the nausea they they've got and developed over the years and the experience. Gathered from Nova pitching what they'd be doing over the years and so on, and it allows them to see around things in ways which they perhaps would. I can give you an example if you like a law. So I'm in in Germany and some other countries. For example, there's a particular way of bundling together mortgage securities I I won't go to detail about this, but this statute that enables you do it. And then you can sell these securities and get money. In certain countries, the UK, the US, and so on. This, NICI. So in a sense to put this kind of a a deal together it. Couldn't be done if you live. So a bank came to one of the large English law firms and said, look we wanted we want to replicate this in in the UK, want to set a market this we're not the statues off there. What can you do and what was interesting was that the law firm then went back to first principles lawyers who were looking at this went back I suppose they looked at some vape basic areas of law matter your trust. And contract from what have you? I'm from that they constructed elite supplement that looked very much like the one in Germany, but without stat sheet and they tested it and it worked. Out To be credibly successful. So much so that the German government started German legal profession started to complain because they said. You can only do this by statute and these we find a way of doing it three. I suppose using law and there it is an they were vowed shops by but that was a particular example if you like of of what you were talking about, they took the exceptions they went back to first principles and said you know or How would we get? This is where we gotta get to, and this is a way right at the beginning what are the steps we need to take and and? And that's what a good loyal will do if you. Right right? Yeah. So that's very important point. So you in your paper dawn as the DREYFUSS and rice note that the proficient performer immersed in the world of skillful activities sees what needs to be done. But decides how to do it. So as we move into a and other technologies, I think it's important point it is. Right from Dad benefactor culture we have been using humans as you mentioned before in lots of with meted activities big not designed for humans I would I would contend enjoy doing things over and over again, and if you had thought of doing that, yeah, because they have to do it for living right and so so we should be moving to word It would where anything that is with pita on delegated to the machine at automation in the bottom of that and Appealed autonation you can have intelligent automation you can have you know reinforcement learning those types of things you have some aspects of intelligence into the into the two. And deploy humans Don't Miss. They're really good at in some case. I'm. So you know we've been studying the green for ages be our no close. It feels to understand mother. Heck it does You know it's not neat learning it. Oh, BBC of. thirty years ago as see that person again, you could see you could you could have a feeling. Then you've seen that before and and what the brain has done actually not only as he that pattern but also age that matter intuitively for thirty years and say, yes, that face I, guess before. and. So there are some superpowers the brain has reaped have been applying the all all. So for a technology might allow. Look I. Think Technology will allow us to incredibly complex things without having to think about too much I. Mean if you look at the way a port functions, for example, any major port these days they've got millions of containers and ships going through them all the time. So there's a lot of paper going through the you those charter parties, bills of lading guarantees. So the lot of legal work that's being done it, it's all quite standard stuff. I mean everybody. KNOWS, what needs to be done and so on. Now, some people are beginning to think while the best way to handle a port if you like I for everybody should know is to put everything that's going on in the poor into a blockchain so that you can see the whole supply chain. You see when something comes in, you can determine when the goods are being offloaded. When they're being shipped, you can stop making the payments as a result of the. Operation of the smart contracts if you like, and the whole thing would be just one quite seamless. In some ways without that much human intervention really just need oversight Some bits of coordination so on. But at the moment is still a a lot of humans are vote in that shipping people, law people, all sorts of things which is. I think insane. That's a waste of resources. We know that there are people who have all kinds of problems that require that creative flair she like as so why waste money on the routine stuff when you could develop skills to the the real need if you like in that way? Yeah Yeah. So I, want that some that bit that John Blockchain, for example, as you mentioned. So so one reason especially in the professions like law and business humans have an advantage justice dimension of trust. and you know at least our generation we don't really. At eighty level, right. So so having that. Human human touch is still extremely important for us. Now, technologies like Blockchain, for example, actually allows that trust to be tensely decoupled, right? Yeah, and I think I think you're right. Look I. Think I mean one of the reasons we make contracts is because We, don't trust each other. So we we devised these documents with all the conditions in them. Something goes wrong. This is what will happen things like that and so on. What are the interesting things? You know people really rely on contracts are met you. You draw up a contract. And the to business people stick him in the drawer I never look at again less something really really fundamental goes wrong but they know sumit doesn't that never look at that again. So you say value of the contract, what did it actually do if you look at some of the Asian countries say like Taiwan or parts of China, you have a assistant coach Guanxi, which is where people developed effective relationships by knowing each other over a period of time around business that allows them to develop trust it. So You know there are different ways of of handling trust, but we we seem to spend a lot of time on trying to minimize something You know which we don't really do a lot of if you like. So I think one of the advantages of of blockchain is that it just it removes a lot of this from from the equation if there's certain things you know that can happen. as a result off if this thing that systems. Lead happened And you know. As, long as you've got oversight and you can see what's going on than. You don't need to be too concerned about it. It will just do what it needs to do in that way and So. Again. That's still very much in the early stages, but we are seeing situations where supply chains A shipping goods from one country to another can actually be done under smart contracts through a blockchain. Technology if you live. That that is now happening I associate goodful dealing with things like gum counterfeiting if you're. Producing. Particular high-quality could site move our phones or particular pharmaceutical products and so on you know it's one way of guaranteeing the quality of the product is you couldn't I say look you can examine the whole supply chain or the data is there. And you know his Eq- code look at it and you get the whole thing going all the way back The. Again, issues around that if you're dealing with the digital. Is Much easier once you start dealing with physical products then you have. A question of how do you get that first initial digitization of the physical if you'd like to goes on so though some people I know here in Australia who? Run A company called Beef Ledger, which is trying to export beef straight beef to China using the blockchain supply chain, which will. Guarantee the security, and the quality of the goods to the Chinese consumer APP because having problems with this before. But I will tell you now do doing something like that does require that the people you are dealing with. You're going to set this up with You have to have a trusting relationship with you before you can set up a technology that will do away with the So we're still in that. That's really early days. I think another a lot of time way to go right Yeah, but the technology works it. Clean potential one could argue contracts exist because they probably known performance if you have a technology that drives that probably the of non-performance zero, then you can actually get rid of for contract. Yeah limit. It is. Not. Goes back to that earlier point I made that. Most most contracts are fairly standard. You know a routine things they're there to. Record a series of transactions payments that have gone on between people without the to do much. If you like you know once you you're you're doing the business, the contract just kind of records that in perpetuity. So the small contract just takes that into a different area and an an actually does the whole implementation and execution without people to be involved in that too much and there's something goes wrong. But if it if it all goes right then back it is done you need to you don't you think about it Right. Yeah. Hasn't been jumping to another are forthcoming people globalization law at. A time of crisis in the? Global Lawyer and so in the say Nikolai Condom Nieve a Russian economists in the nineteen thirties believed the worst economy operates long sixty year cycles Then he called K. Braves. And you safeguarding coronavirus analysis, the fifth psycho young's from nineteen eighty to twenty thirty. It's you save twenty, nineteen forthcoming John You might have. I think so I think say because I, tell you off the what's happening this year I thought my good I couldn't My God. I was just. Owners because you know a contract device these waves up into into what he calls four seasons spring summer or winter at, and we're in the winter off this fifth cycle if you like this is. All the bad stuff happens and he's news war. Famine Disease I think wait a minute that sounds Yes yes. That's exactly right. A. But one of the interesting things about contractors was that you know he he a because he's A. Solid economists are installing a dip executed. By the way you know he he got fed up ninety that was the end of Nikolai unfortunately but he. He said instead of know if you like the ownership of the means of production are being the determinate for changeover from system system, he said it's it's technology and and that the technology will drive you out of the downswing of the last cycle into the upswing of the new cycle, and and the way that works is the win. You're in this kind of winter period because of the kind of economic. Gloom pervades if you like people tend to hold back in subsurface vestment in terms of technological innovation of what have you and so a lot of energy resources, resources, money capital if you like builds up to a second point when people say we're GONNA go for this is this is it? And that's when if you like technology comes to the fall on, really drives it forward. So from that perspective, what he's saying is that you know come right about twenty thirty. If. Things are going slowly now regarding technology they're going to speed up. In. This period and that's when it will. You know really also take take off and people have looked back over our preceding cycles and they've you know it works if you like not just their. Fantasy theory there are also the people who do Cleo dynamics in history these the quantitative historians and they've done a similar kind of analysis of historical periods and said, yeah, you know there are all these citrical. Processes that take place even revolutions occur and big upset occurs and what have you and and. One of their Perspectives which I find quite interesting is that they say one of the reasons for revolutions come about is caused a lease beginning to compete with each other and and an an I look at say trump in in America and I look at the Democrats and I I I would say Modine, India I look she in China and different groups of elites who are engaged really profound struggle for the future of their countries if you live. Out which again is leading to this kind of potential eruption of activity and a new ways of doing things. Yeah. It makes a lot of intuitive sense gone. So one way to think about this also. There are a lot of excesses. So innovating go good their excesses in the system people to believe that invincible they changed assumptions about. because they don't see any. and. Financial markets to right. So these cycles and real real mass that uniquely talking about you can see the. Happening in the financial markets more clearly. But what he's saying is that he happens mortgage and you ask in this paper in two thousand, nineteen for in many ways go. Crystallization off the settling ketone economic forces lost throat ear Kublai doomed as populous. Separates nationalism and lead clients and I think they have that we have probably the answer to that. But you see I think. One of the points I was trying to make an in in this paper walls that Global Law. If you like is is, is the a kind of synthesis off chaos? How do we bring some kind of order to chaos now once you start seeing the undermining? Of his global institutions, you see trump was withdrawn from the W. H. O.. He's he's are criticized NATO he he won't have the do with the International, Criminal Court and so we've got this kind of real life tension now between a an international legal order that's being built up since the Second World War both Ekit economic and legal order is Global And so we can't just a radical globalization I mean even even with covert, we can't eradicate mobilize ation we've got to. Handle covert the Kobe pandemic on a global basis. Otherwise, we'll. We're lost it retreats to a national. Approach is not gonNA. Work? We'll be defeated in that race is going to be global. Might. Be One of my questions in in paper was will who are the people who are going to be doing this? Kind of bringing the the order to chaos if you like and that made argument that it's got to be the global lawyer. And this is a person who not only understand their national legal system but also able to communicate with lawyers and officials. From around the world if you like. To be able to develop a kind of common. Language common discourse that enables them to stop putting these things together are, and it's not just a simple massa of saying mathematically, it works this way or not. It requires the kind of pulling together of people, but it requires that sort of common understanding which. Comes out of what I was saying about this idea of testing knowledge you know as you got this kind of professional consciousness you know how people ought to behave and how they will interact with you, and then that enables you to be out of bizarre to predict how you can do things and so on and so on. That basis I think we can operate kind of global order. It had a a below the institutional level if you're not kind of private. As opposed to the public according and that will put three. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah you know I the limit John I don't know if you think this way I limit one could as. Want to stay need for. Countries what does the need for legal system differentials? We set this up with the premise that it's easier to manage small chunks. one could also argue with Edmund Affect. -nology that you don't need to segment this debate that we have done. which might make these types of issues you know. See where you're coming from and I'm going to say yes or no? Yes, I think the home range of of questions that can be handled by the technology the ones we got pay I don't chain, etc. I don't I didn't see any issues there but there are a lot of decisions that needs to be made a book in terms of putting things together and resolve disputes that can only function at a human level because it's not. These are not decisions that are simple binary decisions. If you'd like, it's yes or no it's it's often a lot more nuance than complex about I mean, one of the resources in the World Kiva Zero System, the world amendment which is being fought over if you like is water, a water is probably one of the most valuable resources anywhere and it's you often find that rivers and things like that sort of flow between countries, they form borders. And and you are you know people if you look at the Nile, ESL start stopping in Sudan throwaway down to the Mediterranean. So he goes to countries all three countries, east European and then into Egypt's and so unwell well, who has the right to put it dime at a particular place and things like that all of that has to be cooled in act. You see a not going to be done at a human level that that's what caused the skills in negotiation judgment interpretation understanding if you like of the other people, no machine can do that I got. Yes before we conclude, I want to touch on one other thing So in the paper, you say as technology and culture intersect more and more. Ethical conundrums will intensify these raising questions about the rights and obligations of robots. And go beyond as moves. Three laws of robotics in two issues of rights of all moon. Algorithm, stem serves. So this is this is an area that be Kevin babies even even really form some notions allowed rights of all modes at rights of a are. Sai, gets more sophisticated. Yes. Yes. I do. I, mean I think this is one of the issues we already know some of the problems with algorithms and and you know can we can be are they transplanted from you see what's going on the ethical issues around the construction and implementation of algorithms and things like that. But I I I think looking into the future we all going to rely on things like robots. And various kinds of machines so much more so that if you look at a country like Japan, which is a a an aging population such that it doesn't have sufficient younger people to look after the people who need looking often. So machines, I'll be part of that, and that means people will stop forming real relationships with machines and and so that's when I would say. Okay. So let's think about how we View a potential rights of machine that we give. We give rise to humans. Yes. We know that we give rights to animals. Now we've also given rights to viz in forest in some countries as well as so machines I think our. Next logical step you know do we do we treat them with respect Let me give you one. Very classic example yet the production of. Robots for sex if you like is a major industry at the moment, some manufacturers say they want to program them say that people can act out rape fantasies will do we want that I? Mean you know should we be at first of all? You know? We should be having people behave in this particular kind of way, but even an uncertain if you do it against another human being, you'll be punished for it and you say we'll a machine is a piece of property you should be you should be doing that but I'm getting to think that maybe a machines should be treated with dignity say that we are treat ourselves with. Dixie. This a kind of reflexive situation here what we? Do to machines we do to each other, and they may again due to US depending on how they evolve and and move forward in that way is a very contentious issue. A lot of people would reject that right out of hand I agree I think we've got to stop thinking about stop dining forward because I. think we're going to at some point again. I. Don't know when. But at some point we will be having to deal with that. It's a it's a very important point. Joan. So if I understand you correctly, you know that the rights to animals the rights to inanimate. INANIMATE things like Lubers The recent those exist is because of its effects on humans and can see video a clear link in the future we would see a very clear link between a algorithms and robots ended affects on human. So this is not me You know each not fantasy in the sense that yeah, robots should have rights, but rather it's a more conceptual question. Any fraud did not have rights each going to cabin negative I I think that's absolutely true. I mean just to highlight that if you like this firm called Boston Dynamics that produces. Robots and they produced these videos of these. Now, these robots are resistant being pushed over and things like that, and it was quite interesting because a lot of people say all you can't treat them in this way. This is awful and so what I mean that that's the answer for more fighting to to the extreme extent. But it I think you know on the basis what you're saying, you know how we Oakland. Hold human beings accountable to each other in an increasingly complex world machines have become part of that. We can't just have them all sitting on the edge as though they're not part of who we are, what we are and how we do things. Right. So. Incursion Johnny fuel sort of look forward five years. At. The intersection of law and technology. But you think people see sort of the biggest. I. Think you'll see it two wins. On the you know for the individual The individual, you're going to see a lot of them just interacting. With artificial Tennessee, say lost questions about what my rights for this how do I deal with a tendency agreement? How do I complain against a producer company or something like that or that's going to be automated? is fairly straightforward to do and and it will only need A. Minimal. Amount of human inside of. An intervention if you like. At the other end at the. In I think we're GONNA see more and more technology coming in because as those basic functions that are. Being, carried out by junior people or or paralegals or things like that are the ones which are going to be increasing, automating creasing. I'm. We will replace the humans and just let machines do that because there's no point in wasting human resources on that whether that means we need fuel or more lawyers That's an open question I think it will that we need different kinds of lawyers We will need Roy Moore to logically aware much more sophisticated. They don't it's be programmers or odors or anything like that, but they need to have a quite a a a a strong understanding and gross what's going on in technology in that way if you like so. Yeah. We can definitely see an. Yeah, so I, think you mentioned the so from a structure perspective in all forum DC law firm sprucing to word. It a group of equity partners. Around it by machine so to speak well, I. Think. I was in that paper or another one I. I'm S-. Forecast. Law. Firms. Being. Distributed decentralized we'll tournaments organizations running on a blockchain with with the various people. into setting when they will no I. Think the law firm is still a very strong and powerful is Shutian, that's not gonNA disappear straight away. But certainly the numbers of partners who control things will shrink. They'll that will get smarter as proportion and yes, they will be surrounded by machines and they surrounded by people who are servicing those machines. Your excellent. Yeah. Thanks for doing this weekend. John really enjoyed the conversation. Thank you very much. It's been great fun and very

Blockchain John Gill Eappen Eappen Queensland University Of Techn Blockchain Technologies Australia Griffith University India United States German Government Innova Bloomberg Inflammation Royal Society Brisbane John Blockchain Chiba
"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

44:57 min | 3 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new Ideas Affect Society? And, help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense. Dot? Net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense dot com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen Dot Info. Mike yesterday's Dr Mark Hoffman, who is a research associate professor in the University of Minnesota Against City. He is also chief research inflammation officer in the children's Mussa hospital in Kansas City. Kiss research interests include health data delayed indication sharing initialisation Boca Mark. Thank you for inviting me. Absolutely. So I start with one of your papers Kato you need the use by our system implementation in defy date data resource from hundred known athlete off my seasons. So Michio inflicted. Data aggregated for marketable sources provide an important resource for my medical research including digital feel typing. On. Like. Todd beat to from a single organization. Guitar data introduces a number of analysis challengers. So. So you've worked with some augmentation log and in almost all cases be used. Data coming from that single macy's listen primary care behavioral. Or specialty hospitals and I always wondered you know wouldn't be nice. Get a data set. That sort of abrogates data from the radio on-ice. Asians but a lot of different challenges around that. So you wanted to talk a bit about that. I'd be happy to the resource that we've worked with. Is primarily a called health fax data resource. It's been in operation for almost twenty years. And the the the model is that organizations who are. Using these Turner Electronic. Health. Record. Enter into an agreement was turner they agreed to provide data rights to sern are. The identifies the date of affords aggregated into this resource. And certner provides data mapping, which is really critical to this type of work. It also the aggregate the data. And for the past probably six years. Then, they provide the full data set to especially academic contributors who want to do research with that resource. And I've been on both sides of that equation Lead that group during my career there, and then now I have the opportunity to really focus research on that type of data. So before we get into the details smog so e Itar Systems. So this is. Essentially patient records. So he gets dated like demographics out family history, surgical history hats, medications, lab solves it could have physician nodes no snow. So it's it's a combination of a variety of different types of data, right? A couple of things on the examples you gave it includes demographics. Discreet Laboratory results Medication orders. Many vitals so If access the blood pressure and pulse data. It does not include text notes because those can't be. Automatically identified consistently. So. We don't have access currently to TEX notes. Out of an abundance of caution. That his Hobby Stephen, physician writes something down they could use names they could use inflammation that could then point back to their. Patients Makita Perspective been the data's aggregated, the primary issue shoe that date has completely the identified, right? Correct. So. So yeah. So the data that we receive there's eighteen identifiers. Hip requires be removed from data. And those include obvious things like name address email addresses are another example One of the. Things. That is also part of the benefit of working with this particular resource. The. Dates of clinical service are not allowed to be provided under hip. White is done with this resource that allows us to still have a longitudinal view is. For any given patient in the data set the dates are shifted by A. Consistent. Pattern that for any given patient it can be. One two three four five weeks forward or one, two, three, four or five weeks backward. But that preserves things like day of the week effect. So for example, you see -nificant increase in emergency department encounters over weekends and you don't WanNa lose. Visibility to that. but it also allows us to receive. Very, granular early time stamped events in so. We can gain visibility into the time that a blood specimen was collected, and then the time that the result was reported back. And so we're able to do very detailed analyses with this type of resource. Right right and I don't know the audience our market is fragmented. Tau himself e Amorebieta providers out there. and so two issues. One is sort of. Standardization as to how these databases are designed and structured and others even that standardization that the actual collection of the data. In itself is not standardized played. So vk CAV vk potentially lot inability coming from different systems. Correct and that's part of what the paper that you mentioned Evaluates so. Often, night you out in the field in conferences you hear. Comparisons kind of lumping all organizations using one. Vendor lumping all using another together but as you get closer to it, you quickly learn that. It's not even clear. It's within those. Vendor markets. There's variation from organization to organization in how they use the e Hr and so. Because the identities of the. Contributing organizations are blinded to those of us who work with the data. We have to be creative about how we. Infer those implementation details, and so with this paper, we describe a couple of methods that We think move things forward towards that goal. Yes. So I'm not really familiar with that. So you mentioned a couple of things here. One is the the merge network. So this initiative including electric medical records and genomics network and pc off net the national patient, centered clinical research network support. Decentralized analyses that goes disparate systems by distributing standardized quotas to site. So this is a situation where you have multiple systems sort of. Communicating with each other and this net folks at allowing to sort of quickly them In some standardized fashion. So In this type of technology, there's janitorial core models. One is the. Federated or distributed model, the other is a centralized data aggregation. So there are examples including those that are mentioned in the paper where. Queries are pushed to the organization and. They need to do significant work upfront to ensure that there are standardizing their terminologies the same way. And once they do that upfront work than they're able to perform the types of queries that are distributed through those. Federated Networks. With. Okay. So that just one click on so that the police have standardized. So all on the at Josh site, then they have like some sort of a plan slater from from Stan Day squatty do all the data structure. And in many cases, they work through an intermediate technology. that would be. In general, consider it like a data warehouse. And so the queries are running against the production electric. Health record. That has all kinds of implications on patient care where you don't want to slow down performance. By using these intermediaries They can receive queries and then Follow that mapping has occurred. Than, they're able to to run those distributed queries. Okay. And the other model is You know. You say the g through the medical quality, improvement consortium and sooner to the health facts initiative. So this says in Sodas case, for example, in swags. This is essentially picking up data from the right deals, clients and Dan standardizing and centralizing data in a single database is that that is correct. One benefit of that model is that Organizations who for example, may not be academic and don't have the. Resources to do that data mapping themselves by handing out over that task over to the vendor you get a broader diversity of the types of organizations so you can have. A safety net hospitals you can have. Critical access rural hospitals, and other venues of care that are probably under represented in some of those. More academically driven models. And clearly the focus on healthcare about I would imagine applications in pharmaceutical out indeed to right I. Don't know if it s use and bad direction there has been some were performed with these data resources to. Characterize different aspects of medications, and so it does have utility in value. In a variety of. Analytical contexts. I was thinking about you know a lot of randomized clinical trials going on into Kuwait context and One of the issues of dispatch seem development toils that are going on that one could argue the population there are not really well to percents. it may be number by Auditees, men, people that deputy existing conditions. and. So he will serve at my come out of facedly trial. granted might work for the population. Tried it minority have sufficient? more largely. So I wanted this type of well I guess we don't really have an ID there right. So clearly, you don't know who these people are but they could be some clustering type analysis that might be interesting weight from It's very useful for Health Services Research and for outcomes research for you know what I characterize digital phenotype being. they can then guide. More, more formal research. you know you can use this type of resource to. Make sure. You're asking a useful question and make sure that there's likely to be. Enough patients who qualify for given study. Maybe you're working on a clinical trial in your casting your net to narrow you can. Determine that with this type of data resource. And is the eight tiff date who has access to it typically. So for this data resource on, it's through the vendor so. You need to have some level of footprint with them. which is the case with our organization. They're definitely a broadening their strategies. So they're. Gaining access into health systems that aren't exclusively using their electronic health records so. It's exciting to be a part of that that process. and to again work with them to. Analyze the data. I think. To the example you gave a formal randomized trials. In key part of what were growing our research to focus on is because this is real world data. You learn what's happening in practice whether or not it's well aligned with guidelines or formal protocols. And doing that there's many opportunities for near-term interventions that can improve health outcomes simply by. Identifying where providers may be deviating more from. Best Practices in than taking steps through training and education to kind of get them back towards those best practices. This data is a fresh on a daily basis. It's not. It's because it's so large and bulky? Typically we've received it on a quarterly basis in since it's retrospective analysis that's not been a major barrier. But. mechanistically, on onto soon aside is data getting sort of picked up from this system that it's harvested every day and then it's aggregated bundled and distributed on A. On a different timescale. Okay okay. So. From again, going to the, it's our system designed issue and implementation You say many HR systems comprised of more news at specific clinical processes or unit such as Pharmacy Laboratory or surgery talked about that. But then then people implement them this of fashion right they they implement modules by that can be a factor or sometimes they may want. One vendor for their primary electronic health record, but another vendor for their laboratory system. and so that's where you don't see a hundred percent usage of every module and every organization. And detailed number of different you know sort of noise creating issues in data one. This is icy speech over from ICT denied ten. and I don't know history of this but this was supposed to be speech with sometime in twenty fifteen. That's correct. So there is A. You know. There's a date in October of Twenty fifteen where most organizations were expected to have completed that transition. When I see with researchers who aren't as familiar with the you know the whole policy landscape around `electronic health records that? you can imagine researchers who assumed that all data before that date in October is is nine and all data after that date would be icy the ten. While we demonstrate in this paper, is that that transition was not Nearly, that clean and it was a much more, you know there are some organizations who just It the bullet and completed in twenty fourteen, and there are other organizations that were still lagging. In. Two Thousand Sixteen. Potentially because they weren't as exposed to those incentives in other things that you know stipulated the transition so. Part of why were demonstrating with that particular part of that work was that. you know these transitions aren't always abrupt. Yeah and and and so that is one issue and then you know a lot of consistency inconsistency issues fade. So we see that in in single systems and one of the items note here as you know if you think about the disposition code for death. you could have a right your race supercenter, right? It's a death expire expedite at home hospice, and so on. if this is a problem for a single system, but then many think about aggregating data from multiple sources this this problem sort of increased exponentially. Absolutely. So one of the challenges with documenting and and finding where you know if a patient has A deceased that. There's just multiple places to put that documentation in the clinical record. The Location in the record that. We have found to be the most consistent is what's called discharge disposition. By as we show in that analysis, that field is not always used document that and so if you're doing outcomes research and one of your key. Outcome metrics is death. And there are organizations that. Aren't documenting death in a place that successful. You should filter those out of your analysis before moving forward. And so part of what we wanted to promote is the realization that. That's the type of consideration that needs to be made The four. Publishing. Your data about an outcome metrics like death that. You're not. If you're never gonNA see that outcome it doesn't mean that people are. Dying in that particular facility, it just means it's not documented in the place that successful. Right. Yeah. So you know you on your expedience. Unique Position Mark because you you look at it from the from the vendor's perspective you're in an academic setting you're also in practice in a hospital. What's your sense of these things improving the on a track of getting getting this more standardize or it's camping in the other direction I think in general there is improvement I think The. Over the past eleven years through various federal mandates, including meaningful use and so forth. Those of all incentive organizations to utilize. Standard terminologies more consistently than was the case beforehand. I think there's still plenty of room for improvement and You know it's it's a journey, not a destination, but I think things have improved substantially. I was wondering there could be some applications of artificial intelligence here to In a clearly TATECO systems and you'd like the most them pity human resource intensive Yvonne to get it completely right. So one question would be you know, could be actually used a Dick needs to get it maybe ninety nine percent white. And that the human deal with exceptions I definitely think that that's an exciting direction that You want those a algorithms to be trained with good data, and that's a big part of what's motivated us to. Put this focus on data quality and Understanding these strange nuances that are underpinning that date has so that. As we move towards a in machine learning and so forth. We have a high level of confidence in the data that's training those algorithms. Right. Yeah. I think that a huge opportunity here because it's not quite as broad as NFL, not natural language processing it is somewhat constrained. that is a good part of it. The back part of it is that is highly technical. and so. you know some of the techniques you know you can have a fault tolerance in certain dimensions such as you know, misspellings lack of gambling and things like that. But as you have Heidi technical data, you cannot apply those principles because he could have misspelling the system may not be able to. Get, sometimes, and that's where you know I think. It's totally feasible to use. Resources to you know when you're dealing with. Tens of millions of patients and billions of detailed records. Using a I'd even identify those patterns of either. Inconsistent data or missing data it's also very powerful just to. kind of flag in identified. Areas that need to be focused on to lead to a better analysis. Greg Wait Be Hefty. Use that information somehow did is a belt of information that you know and so it just filtering into decision processes that the are really losing it. So hopefully getting improving in that dimension I've jumping to another paper bittersweet interesting. So it's entitled rates and predictors of using opioids in the Emergency Department Katrina Treat Mike Dean in Young Otto's and so so this is sort of a machine learning exercise you have gone through to locate you know coup is getting prescribed. OPIOIDS water the conditions for the Democrat not Nestle demographics but different different maybe age and things like that gender. and and then ask the question desert has some effect on addiction. In the long term rights. So that project To great example of team science though. We. Assembled a team of subject matter experts in neurology pain management. And Data Science and. The neurologist and pain management experts. Identified an intriguing question that we decided to pursue with data. In their question was. Based on anecdotal observation and so we thought it'd be interesting to see how well the data supported that. Observation is that. for youth and young adults Treated or admitted into the emergency. Department. With a migraine headache that. All too often they were treated with an opioid. And so we Use the same day to resource that we were discussing earlier. To explore that. Question. And using data from a hundred and eighty distinct emergency departments. We found that on average twenty, three percent of those youth and young adults were treated with. An opioid medication while they were in the emergency department. In general, it should be almost zero percent in general. There's really Better medications to us, four people presenting with a migraine. and. So this fits into obviously the OPIOID crisis it. it demonstrates the. Scenario describing that. You know using real world data. You can identify patterns of clinical behavior that. Don't match guideline. And the good news is that the? correctable and so through. Training and communication there's great opportunity to. To, manage this. Really. Striking. So fifteen thousand or so inevitably the encounters. And nearly a quarter of this encounters you say involved inoculate. and these are not just Misha and Congress right. It is not filtered down to migraine encounters. Okay. Okay. So these fifteen thousand just might in encounters might vein being repeating disease So once you. If you make a statement and. This or not Easter conditioning issue here. So you get your pain, you go to an emergency department and you get treated with an opioid you get quick tactical relief. From pain. auditing condition expect that in the next episode. So you can say we didn't pursue that particular question, but that is Definitely key part of. Managing the OPIOID crisis is that drug seeking behavior and so Part of our goal was to quantify that and use this as an opportunity to educate providers that. You really shouldn't be treating migraines with an opioid in there are better alternatives and. So we we felt that this was an important contribution to that national dialogue, but we didn't specifically pursue the question of whether the patients we analyzed. Within. Encounter show up Subsequently. With the same symptoms. Right right. Yeah you it develop into period when problematic patterns of drug use comedy. FEST MERGE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF OPIOID misuse estimated to be two to four percent and debts in each goofy just young adult drew from overdoses are rising. and. You say that literally prescribe IOS has been slumping loose future opioid misuse by thirty three percent. Betas Mehta say really huge number. I think just validates the importance of this of this work. Interesting mark. I don't know you exploded on data. Last the question if you look at the aggregate data, it'd be flying opioid. Misuse. what percentage of the total number. Actually started from. You know some sort of medical encounter has mike or some sort of. related encounter that could be completed otherwise was three a bit opioid. in that encounter documented resulted in that misuse. So what so If you look at the active misuse problem that we have today. do you have a sense of what percentage of that goal is actually started I? Think the exciting thing about this type of research is for everyone questioned that you pursue you have. You have ten new that you can pursue. We haven't. Delved into that specific area, but it's It's very ripe for further analysis and A considerable part of where I end my colleagues and our time as. We do this type of work to get an initial analysis published. And then You know in my leadership role I just WANNA. support people like my colleagues on this paper Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. in in using data to. Support their research into identify those follow. I mean, he tests policy implications. So it's sweet important work. and. If you find it direct relationship here than you have to ask you know from from a medical perspective what is right intervention? maybe is not just added of care just best practice but clearly should be the bay You know things should be looked at you say you're American Academy of Neurology has included avoidance of using opioid to treat gain one of stop top flight choosing wisely recommendations. For high-value duck in this gives Really evidence to to support that. The other thing that's really intriguing is this level of variation from site to site in. Some Sun facilities are very much aligned with the guidelines. Others are at the you know well, above twenty three percent. And that gives an opportunity for a really precision. conversations about you know, where does our organization stand on that spectrum? Yeah that's a that's an interesting avenue to right. So you know one could ask he says some sort of push sliced Intervention if we can fly goal of patients who who had gone an opioid sexually don't have an addiction problem. that as you know Anna, the kofoed does. if you can fly those type of patterns than you can think about. A customized within electronic health record systems. There's. The ability to provide decisions poor. There's certainly phenomena called pop up fatigue were physicians. You know they don't like having so many pop up windows but at the same time. It's Within the capability of an e e Hr to do that if then logic if patient has. migraine medication order equals opioid. encourage the provider to pause and reconsider that. Right, right and so this is supervised machine learning type analysis where so you have. you have number features that comes directly from each else. So each sex race ethnicity. insurance type. Encounter prostate suggest duration. time of the year and so on. and you have labeled data in this case I guess you have able tater because you would know if op- inscribed on trade. Okay and so are the two questions here. One is to ask the question given a new patient and those features. you could assign a probability that that patient will be prescribed will. Definitely. Impress the data from that predictive Minds. Right and then can you so that data definitely tell you if the patient is going to progress into some sort of an addiction issue. So. Earn Predicting Substance Abuse. So. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. There's additional diagnosis codes that document. whether a patient has a history of substance abuse disorder. and. So it would be feasible to. Identify the with those diagnosis codes in than really look at their prior history. Of What other conditions were they treated for? What medications were they give in? to develop that model. One of the things in this case that helped with this study is that just in general, it's not advised get. So there are other things that are much more of a gray area. Or whether opioid is as useful, but in this case. The really not. Considered. To be helpful for migraines compared to other options and so that help us have a fairly clear cut scenario to do this work. Yeah. This this won't be the data like you say once you do something like this, you have been other things you could. You could stop asking. So unquestioned that that been to my mind as you know, how did they hugged the actually prescribing opioids? Is it the patient asking for it all so? Off that was another scoping thing with this project is focused on what happens within the emergency. Room. So it's it's. Really, medication order in administration that happens. In that emergency room setting. Whether or not the patient. was. Requesting that you know if they came in and said, this has worked for me before. Can I have it again? we don't have visibility to that. Right. Right. And so from a practical perspective So the the analysis that you did slightly ended up with the Family Clyde power we think it is. Compelling. Pretty compelling. So as as a new patient gets into e D either high. and what I mean by that probably is if there is a history of substance abuse property. the physician has really think twice about. The use of may be the well, and in this case, even without that history. Just because it's not considered to be an effective treatment. You know encouraging them to pause in that decision making. In this particular case is as effective as wall. Right. So looking forward. In if you think about both of these issues, one is the data quality data aggregation data standardized recent problem in the the right of Utah Systems have did that the talked about? And then if we can get to a level that we can look at cross a large data set. Beacon, ask. More. US specific questions, treatment. Optimum treatment type questions. subpoenaed. US The mark big think B be hunting. Certainly, the volume and variety of data that we're able to work with will be even greater I, think the. Opportunity To. Look, holistically at how upstream data capture. Effects Downstream data. Analysis. example I frequently give is if we have a Aggregate Data said we identify. Ten patients whose way in that data such shows up as being. Something that's completely infeasible. let's say they're documented is being. Fifty year old person who weighs two pounds. Clearly air. What's important is? Creating the process to communicate that back upstream. Because that clinical decision. Support. Many drug dosing things are evaluated using weight based logic and so. That same logic that's Evaluating the appropriateness of dosage. It's going to be running against an incorrect value in that may or may not always be visible. So I really am intrigued with that holistic opportunity. In it I am I remain just we have three or four additional papers coming out. About other examples where Provider behaviors not aligned with Best Practices and I'm just excited about you know when you compare that to how long it takes to develop a new drug or how long it takes to. To a really long term research. This research has the opportunity for a pretty quick turnaround on an effective intervention. A really that. Other so much that right. Providers. been taught in a no, but they're. Not always using that in practice and so to help them. Identify, those topics in just modifying behaviors is. In the scheme of things, it's a very straightforward way to improve. So. You know the entire spectrum from essentially getting the data. Right or cleaner like you know Missa mischaracterized or miss input data like wait or something like that. To to get. Better diagnosis better treatment modalities. policies there and from a femme perspective clearly inflammation therefore clinical trials. I was even thinking about drug interaction type. Inflammation. I haven't been involved in the former de for awhile but. Typically, this type of data doesn't get back into automatic processes that fast but I think that is all I know there's strong interest in Pharma in. Working with this type of data there a again looking at real world behavior. This is an excellent resource for off label medication use at. you know where Pharma's Always interested in repurposing existing medications the. Regulatory Processes, much more straightforward for that because the safety is already been. Evaluated and so. The. Significant Opportunity With this, there's also just exciting. Patterns of you know. What are those unrecognised correlations? That's where the machine learning opportunities are really exciting where. You know we're not always asking the right question. And the data can show us what we should be. Yeah exactly. So if the machine a sort of red flags something or create hypotheses. that Cubans have missed sometimes, those types of things are extremely powerful. because maybe that sometimes it's countering tutor. and so we all look at data with an Incan bias. The beauty of machines that at least on the surface began deploy Michigan. This volume of data. Techniques like machine deep learning can recognize those subtle but consistent associations. Wait quite. Excellent. Idea this has been great mark Thanks so much time with me. I enjoyed it very much. Thank you. But

"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

44:57 min | 3 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new Ideas Affect Society? And, help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense. Dot? Net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense dot com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen Dot Info. Mike yesterday's Dr Mark Hoffman, who is a research associate professor in the University of Minnesota Against City. He is also chief research inflammation officer in the children's Mussa hospital in Kansas City. Kiss research interests include health data delayed indication sharing initialisation Boca Mark. Thank you for inviting me. Absolutely. So I start with one of your papers Kato you need the use by our system implementation in defy date data resource from hundred known athlete off my seasons. So Michio inflicted. Data aggregated for marketable sources provide an important resource for my medical research including digital feel typing. On. Like. Todd beat to from a single organization. Guitar data introduces a number of analysis challengers. So. So you've worked with some augmentation log and in almost all cases be used. Data coming from that single macy's listen primary care behavioral. Or specialty hospitals and I always wondered you know wouldn't be nice. Get a data set. That sort of abrogates data from the radio on-ice. Asians but a lot of different challenges around that. So you wanted to talk a bit about that. I'd be happy to the resource that we've worked with. Is primarily a called health fax data resource. It's been in operation for almost twenty years. And the the the model is that organizations who are. Using these Turner Electronic. Health. Record. Enter into an agreement was turner they agreed to provide data rights to sern are. The identifies the date of affords aggregated into this resource. And certner provides data mapping, which is really critical to this type of work. It also the aggregate the data. And for the past probably six years. Then, they provide the full data set to especially academic contributors who want to do research with that resource. And I've been on both sides of that equation Lead that group during my career there, and then now I have the opportunity to really focus research on that type of data. So before we get into the details smog so e Itar Systems. So this is. Essentially patient records. So he gets dated like demographics out family history, surgical history hats, medications, lab solves it could have physician nodes no snow. So it's it's a combination of a variety of different types of data, right? A couple of things on the examples you gave it includes demographics. Discreet Laboratory results Medication orders. Many vitals so If access the blood pressure and pulse data. It does not include text notes because those can't be. Automatically identified consistently. So. We don't have access currently to TEX notes. Out of an abundance of caution. That his Hobby Stephen, physician writes something down they could use names they could use inflammation that could then point back to their. Patients Makita Perspective been the data's aggregated, the primary issue shoe that date has completely the identified, right? Correct. So. So yeah. So the data that we receive there's eighteen identifiers. Hip requires be removed from data. And those include obvious things like name address email addresses are another example One of the. Things. That is also part of the benefit of working with this particular resource. The. Dates of clinical service are not allowed to be provided under hip. White is done with this resource that allows us to still have a longitudinal view is. For any given patient in the data set the dates are shifted by A. Consistent. Pattern that for any given patient it can be. One two three four five weeks forward or one, two, three, four or five weeks backward. But that preserves things like day of the week effect. So for example, you see -nificant increase in emergency department encounters over weekends and you don't WanNa lose. Visibility to that. but it also allows us to receive. Very, granular early time stamped events in so. We can gain visibility into the time that a blood specimen was collected, and then the time that the result was reported back. And so we're able to do very detailed analyses with this type of resource. Right right and I don't know the audience our market is fragmented. Tau himself e Amorebieta providers out there. and so two issues. One is sort of. Standardization as to how these databases are designed and structured and others even that standardization that the actual collection of the data. In itself is not standardized played. So vk CAV vk potentially lot inability coming from different systems. Correct and that's part of what the paper that you mentioned Evaluates so. Often, night you out in the field in conferences you hear. Comparisons kind of lumping all organizations using one. Vendor lumping all using another together but as you get closer to it, you quickly learn that. It's not even clear. It's within those. Vendor markets. There's variation from organization to organization in how they use the e Hr and so. Because the identities of the. Contributing organizations are blinded to those of us who work with the data. We have to be creative about how we. Infer those implementation details, and so with this paper, we describe a couple of methods that We think move things forward towards that goal. Yes. So I'm not really familiar with that. So you mentioned a couple of things here. One is the the merge network. So this initiative including electric medical records and genomics network and pc off net the national patient, centered clinical research network support. Decentralized analyses that goes disparate systems by distributing standardized quotas to site. So this is a situation where you have multiple systems sort of. Communicating with each other and this net folks at allowing to sort of quickly them In some standardized fashion. So In this type of technology, there's janitorial core models. One is the. Federated or distributed model, the other is a centralized data aggregation. So there are examples including those that are mentioned in the paper where. Queries are pushed to the organization and. They need to do significant work upfront to ensure that there are standardizing their terminologies the same way. And once they do that upfront work than they're able to perform the types of queries that are distributed through those. Federated Networks. With. Okay. So that just one click on so that the police have standardized. So all on the at Josh site, then they have like some sort of a plan slater from from Stan Day squatty do all the data structure. And in many cases, they work through an intermediate technology. that would be. In general, consider it like a data warehouse. And so the queries are running against the production electric. Health record. That has all kinds of implications on patient care where you don't want to slow down performance. By using these intermediaries They can receive queries and then Follow that mapping has occurred. Than, they're able to to run those distributed queries. Okay. And the other model is You know. You say the g through the medical quality, improvement consortium and sooner to the health facts initiative. So this says in Sodas case, for example, in swags. This is essentially picking up data from the right deals, clients and Dan standardizing and centralizing data in a single database is that that is correct. One benefit of that model is that Organizations who for example, may not be academic and don't have the. Resources to do that data mapping themselves by handing out over that task over to the vendor you get a broader diversity of the types of organizations so you can have. A safety net hospitals you can have. Critical access rural hospitals, and other venues of care that are probably under represented in some of those. More academically driven models. And clearly the focus on healthcare about I would imagine applications in pharmaceutical out indeed to right I. Don't know if it s use and bad direction there has been some were performed with these data resources to. Characterize different aspects of medications, and so it does have utility in value. In a variety of. Analytical contexts. I was thinking about you know a lot of randomized clinical trials going on into Kuwait context and One of the issues of dispatch seem development toils that are going on that one could argue the population there are not really well to percents. it may be number by Auditees, men, people that deputy existing conditions. and. So he will serve at my come out of facedly trial. granted might work for the population. Tried it minority have sufficient? more largely. So I wanted this type of well I guess we don't really have an ID there right. So clearly, you don't know who these people are but they could be some clustering type analysis that might be interesting weight from It's very useful for Health Services Research and for outcomes research for you know what I characterize digital phenotype being. they can then guide. More, more formal research. you know you can use this type of resource to. Make sure. You're asking a useful question and make sure that there's likely to be. Enough patients who qualify for given study. Maybe you're working on a clinical trial in your casting your net to narrow you can. Determine that with this type of data resource. And is the eight tiff date who has access to it typically. So for this data resource on, it's through the vendor so. You need to have some level of footprint with them. which is the case with our organization. They're definitely a broadening their strategies. So they're. Gaining access into health systems that aren't exclusively using their electronic health records so. It's exciting to be a part of that that process. and to again work with them to. Analyze the data. I think. To the example you gave a formal randomized trials. In key part of what were growing our research to focus on is because this is real world data. You learn what's happening in practice whether or not it's well aligned with guidelines or formal protocols. And doing that there's many opportunities for near-term interventions that can improve health outcomes simply by. Identifying where providers may be deviating more from. Best Practices in than taking steps through training and education to kind of get them back towards those best practices. This data is a fresh on a daily basis. It's not. It's because it's so large and bulky? Typically we've received it on a quarterly basis in since it's retrospective analysis that's not been a major barrier. But. mechanistically, on onto soon aside is data getting sort of picked up from this system that it's harvested every day and then it's aggregated bundled and distributed on A. On a different timescale. Okay okay. So. From again, going to the, it's our system designed issue and implementation You say many HR systems comprised of more news at specific clinical processes or unit such as Pharmacy Laboratory or surgery talked about that. But then then people implement them this of fashion right they they implement modules by that can be a factor or sometimes they may want. One vendor for their primary electronic health record, but another vendor for their laboratory system. and so that's where you don't see a hundred percent usage of every module and every organization. And detailed number of different you know sort of noise creating issues in data one. This is icy speech over from ICT denied ten. and I don't know history of this but this was supposed to be speech with sometime in twenty fifteen. That's correct. So there is A. You know. There's a date in October of Twenty fifteen where most organizations were expected to have completed that transition. When I see with researchers who aren't as familiar with the you know the whole policy landscape around `electronic health records that? you can imagine researchers who assumed that all data before that date in October is is nine and all data after that date would be icy the ten. While we demonstrate in this paper, is that that transition was not Nearly, that clean and it was a much more, you know there are some organizations who just It the bullet and completed in twenty fourteen, and there are other organizations that were still lagging. In. Two Thousand Sixteen. Potentially because they weren't as exposed to those incentives in other things that you know stipulated the transition so. Part of why were demonstrating with that particular part of that work was that. you know these transitions aren't always abrupt. Yeah and and and so that is one issue and then you know a lot of consistency inconsistency issues fade. So we see that in in single systems and one of the items note here as you know if you think about the disposition code for death. you could have a right your race supercenter, right? It's a death expire expedite at home hospice, and so on. if this is a problem for a single system, but then many think about aggregating data from multiple sources this this problem sort of increased exponentially. Absolutely. So one of the challenges with documenting and and finding where you know if a patient has A deceased that. There's just multiple places to put that documentation in the clinical record. The Location in the record that. We have found to be the most consistent is what's called discharge disposition. By as we show in that analysis, that field is not always used document that and so if you're doing outcomes research and one of your key. Outcome metrics is death. And there are organizations that. Aren't documenting death in a place that successful. You should filter those out of your analysis before moving forward. And so part of what we wanted to promote is the realization that. That's the type of consideration that needs to be made The four. Publishing. Your data about an outcome metrics like death that. You're not. If you're never gonNA see that outcome it doesn't mean that people are. Dying in that particular facility, it just means it's not documented in the place that successful. Right. Yeah. So you know you on your expedience. Unique Position Mark because you you look at it from the from the vendor's perspective you're in an academic setting you're also in practice in a hospital. What's your sense of these things improving the on a track of getting getting this more standardize or it's camping in the other direction I think in general there is improvement I think The. Over the past eleven years through various federal mandates, including meaningful use and so forth. Those of all incentive organizations to utilize. Standard terminologies more consistently than was the case beforehand. I think there's still plenty of room for improvement and You know it's it's a journey, not a destination, but I think things have improved substantially. I was wondering there could be some applications of artificial intelligence here to In a clearly TATECO systems and you'd like the most them pity human resource intensive Yvonne to get it completely right. So one question would be you know, could be actually used a Dick needs to get it maybe ninety nine percent white. And that the human deal with exceptions I definitely think that that's an exciting direction that You want those a algorithms to be trained with good data, and that's a big part of what's motivated us to. Put this focus on data quality and Understanding these strange nuances that are underpinning that date has so that. As we move towards a in machine learning and so forth. We have a high level of confidence in the data that's training those algorithms. Right. Yeah. I think that a huge opportunity here because it's not quite as broad as NFL, not natural language processing it is somewhat constrained. that is a good part of it. The back part of it is that is highly technical. and so. you know some of the techniques you know you can have a fault tolerance in certain dimensions such as you know, misspellings lack of gambling and things like that. But as you have Heidi technical data, you cannot apply those principles because he could have misspelling the system may not be able to. Get, sometimes, and that's where you know I think. It's totally feasible to use. Resources to you know when you're dealing with. Tens of millions of patients and billions of detailed records. Using a I'd even identify those patterns of either. Inconsistent data or missing data it's also very powerful just to. kind of flag in identified. Areas that need to be focused on to lead to a better analysis. Greg Wait Be Hefty. Use that information somehow did is a belt of information that you know and so it just filtering into decision processes that the are really losing it. So hopefully getting improving in that dimension I've jumping to another paper bittersweet interesting. So it's entitled rates and predictors of using opioids in the Emergency Department Katrina Treat Mike Dean in Young Otto's and so so this is sort of a machine learning exercise you have gone through to locate you know coup is getting prescribed. OPIOIDS water the conditions for the Democrat not Nestle demographics but different different maybe age and things like that gender. and and then ask the question desert has some effect on addiction. In the long term rights. So that project To great example of team science though. We. Assembled a team of subject matter experts in neurology pain management. And Data Science and. The neurologist and pain management experts. Identified an intriguing question that we decided to pursue with data. In their question was. Based on anecdotal observation and so we thought it'd be interesting to see how well the data supported that. Observation is that. for youth and young adults Treated or admitted into the emergency. Department. With a migraine headache that. All too often they were treated with an opioid. And so we Use the same day to resource that we were discussing earlier. To explore that. Question. And using data from a hundred and eighty distinct emergency departments. We found that on average twenty, three percent of those youth and young adults were treated with. An opioid medication while they were in the emergency department. In general, it should be almost zero percent in general. There's really Better medications to us, four people presenting with a migraine. and. So this fits into obviously the OPIOID crisis it. it demonstrates the. Scenario describing that. You know using real world data. You can identify patterns of clinical behavior that. Don't match guideline. And the good news is that the? correctable and so through. Training and communication there's great opportunity to. To, manage this. Really. Striking. So fifteen thousand or so inevitably the encounters. And nearly a quarter of this encounters you say involved inoculate. and these are not just Misha and Congress right. It is not filtered down to migraine encounters. Okay. Okay. So these fifteen thousand just might in encounters might vein being repeating disease So once you. If you make a statement and. This or not Easter conditioning issue here. So you get your pain, you go to an emergency department and you get treated with an opioid you get quick tactical relief. From pain. auditing condition expect that in the next episode. So you can say we didn't pursue that particular question, but that is Definitely key part of. Managing the OPIOID crisis is that drug seeking behavior and so Part of our goal was to quantify that and use this as an opportunity to educate providers that. You really shouldn't be treating migraines with an opioid in there are better alternatives and. So we we felt that this was an important contribution to that national dialogue, but we didn't specifically pursue the question of whether the patients we analyzed. Within. Encounter show up Subsequently. With the same symptoms. Right right. Yeah you it develop into period when problematic patterns of drug use comedy. FEST MERGE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF OPIOID misuse estimated to be two to four percent and debts in each goofy just young adult drew from overdoses are rising. and. You say that literally prescribe IOS has been slumping loose future opioid misuse by thirty three percent. Betas Mehta say really huge number. I think just validates the importance of this of this work. Interesting mark. I don't know you exploded on data. Last the question if you look at the aggregate data, it'd be flying opioid. Misuse. what percentage of the total number. Actually started from. You know some sort of medical encounter has mike or some sort of. related encounter that could be completed otherwise was three a bit opioid. in that encounter documented resulted in that misuse. So what so If you look at the active misuse problem that we have today. do you have a sense of what percentage of that goal is actually started I? Think the exciting thing about this type of research is for everyone questioned that you pursue you have. You have ten new that you can pursue. We haven't. Delved into that specific area, but it's It's very ripe for further analysis and A considerable part of where I end my colleagues and our time as. We do this type of work to get an initial analysis published. And then You know in my leadership role I just WANNA. support people like my colleagues on this paper Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. in in using data to. Support their research into identify those follow. I mean, he tests policy implications. So it's sweet important work. and. If you find it direct relationship here than you have to ask you know from from a medical perspective what is right intervention? maybe is not just added of care just best practice but clearly should be the bay You know things should be looked at you say you're American Academy of Neurology has included avoidance of using opioid to treat gain one of stop top flight choosing wisely recommendations. For high-value duck in this gives Really evidence to to support that. The other thing that's really intriguing is this level of variation from site to site in. Some Sun facilities are very much aligned with the guidelines. Others are at the you know well, above twenty three percent. And that gives an opportunity for a really precision. conversations about you know, where does our organization stand on that spectrum? Yeah that's a that's an interesting avenue to right. So you know one could ask he says some sort of push sliced Intervention if we can fly goal of patients who who had gone an opioid sexually don't have an addiction problem. that as you know Anna, the kofoed does. if you can fly those type of patterns than you can think about. A customized within electronic health record systems. There's. The ability to provide decisions poor. There's certainly phenomena called pop up fatigue were physicians. You know they don't like having so many pop up windows but at the same time. It's Within the capability of an e e Hr to do that if then logic if patient has. migraine medication order equals opioid. encourage the provider to pause and reconsider that. Right, right and so this is supervised machine learning type analysis where so you have. you have number features that comes directly from each else. So each sex race ethnicity. insurance type. Encounter prostate suggest duration. time of the year and so on. and you have labeled data in this case I guess you have able tater because you would know if op- inscribed on trade. Okay and so are the two questions here. One is to ask the question given a new patient and those features. you could assign a probability that that patient will be prescribed will. Definitely. Impress the data from that predictive Minds. Right and then can you so that data definitely tell you if the patient is going to progress into some sort of an addiction issue. So. Earn Predicting Substance Abuse. So. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. There's additional diagnosis codes that document. whether a patient has a history of substance abuse disorder. and. So it would be feasible to. Identify the with those diagnosis codes in than really look at their prior history. Of What other conditions were they treated for? What medications were they give in? to develop that model. One of the things in this case that helped with this study is that just in general, it's not advised get. So there are other things that are much more of a gray area. Or whether opioid is as useful, but in this case. The really not. Considered. To be helpful for migraines compared to other options and so that help us have a fairly clear cut scenario to do this work. Yeah. This this won't be the data like you say once you do something like this, you have been other things you could. You could stop asking. So unquestioned that that been to my mind as you know, how did they hugged the actually prescribing opioids? Is it the patient asking for it all so? Off that was another scoping thing with this project is focused on what happens within the emergency. Room. So it's it's. Really, medication order in administration that happens. In that emergency room setting. Whether or not the patient. was. Requesting that you know if they came in and said, this has worked for me before. Can I have it again? we don't have visibility to that. Right. Right. And so from a practical perspective So the the analysis that you did slightly ended up with the Family Clyde power we think it is. Compelling. Pretty compelling. So as as a new patient gets into e D either high. and what I mean by that probably is if there is a history of substance abuse property. the physician has really think twice about. The use of may be the well, and in this case, even without that history. Just because it's not considered to be an effective treatment. You know encouraging them to pause in that decision making. In this particular case is as effective as wall. Right. So looking forward. In if you think about both of these issues, one is the data quality data aggregation data standardized recent problem in the the right of Utah Systems have did that the talked about? And then if we can get to a level that we can look at cross a large data set. Beacon, ask. More. US specific questions, treatment. Optimum treatment type questions. subpoenaed. US The mark big think B be hunting. Certainly, the volume and variety of data that we're able to work with will be even greater I, think the. Opportunity To. Look, holistically at how upstream data capture. Effects Downstream data. Analysis. example I frequently give is if we have a Aggregate Data said we identify. Ten patients whose way in that data such shows up as being. Something that's completely infeasible. let's say they're documented is being. Fifty year old person who weighs two pounds. Clearly air. What's important is? Creating the process to communicate that back upstream. Because that clinical decision. Support. Many drug dosing things are evaluated using weight based logic and so. That same logic that's Evaluating the appropriateness of dosage. It's going to be running against an incorrect value in that may or may not always be visible. So I really am intrigued with that holistic opportunity. In it I am I remain just we have three or four additional papers coming out. About other examples where Provider behaviors not aligned with Best Practices and I'm just excited about you know when you compare that to how long it takes to develop a new drug or how long it takes to. To a really long term research. This research has the opportunity for a pretty quick turnaround on an effective intervention. A really that. Other so much that right. Providers. been taught in a no, but they're. Not always using that in practice and so to help them. Identify, those topics in just modifying behaviors is. In the scheme of things, it's a very straightforward way to improve. So. You know the entire spectrum from essentially getting the data. Right or cleaner like you know Missa mischaracterized or miss input data like wait or something like that. To to get. Better diagnosis better treatment modalities. policies there and from a femme perspective clearly inflammation therefore clinical trials. I was even thinking about drug interaction type. Inflammation. I haven't been involved in the former de for awhile but. Typically, this type of data doesn't get back into automatic processes that fast but I think that is all I know there's strong interest in Pharma in. Working with this type of data there a again looking at real world behavior. This is an excellent resource for off label medication use at. you know where Pharma's Always interested in repurposing existing medications the. Regulatory Processes, much more straightforward for that because the safety is already been. Evaluated and so. The. Significant Opportunity With this, there's also just exciting. Patterns of you know. What are those unrecognised correlations? That's where the machine learning opportunities are really exciting where. You know we're not always asking the right question. And the data can show us what we should be. Yeah exactly. So if the machine a sort of red flags something or create hypotheses. that Cubans have missed sometimes, those types of things are extremely powerful. because maybe that sometimes it's countering tutor. and so we all look at data with an Incan bias. The beauty of machines that at least on the surface began deploy Michigan. This volume of data. Techniques like machine deep learning can recognize those subtle but consistent associations. Wait quite. Excellent. Idea this has been great mark Thanks so much time with me. I enjoyed it very much. Thank you. But

Dr. Mark Hoffman, Research Associate Professor at the University of Missouri, Kansas City - burst 01

Scientific Sense

44:57 min | 3 months ago

Dr. Mark Hoffman, Research Associate Professor at the University of Missouri, Kansas City - burst 01

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new Ideas Affect Society? And, help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense. Dot? Net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense dot com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen Dot Info. Mike yesterday's Dr Mark Hoffman, who is a research associate professor in the University of Minnesota Against City. He is also chief research inflammation officer in the children's Mussa hospital in Kansas City. Kiss research interests include health data delayed indication sharing initialisation Boca Mark. Thank you for inviting me. Absolutely. So I start with one of your papers Kato you need the use by our system implementation in defy date data resource from hundred known athlete off my seasons. So Michio inflicted. Data aggregated for marketable sources provide an important resource for my medical research including digital feel typing. On. Like. Todd beat to from a single organization. Guitar data introduces a number of analysis challengers. So. So you've worked with some augmentation log and in almost all cases be used. Data coming from that single macy's listen primary care behavioral. Or specialty hospitals and I always wondered you know wouldn't be nice. Get a data set. That sort of abrogates data from the radio on-ice. Asians but a lot of different challenges around that. So you wanted to talk a bit about that. I'd be happy to the resource that we've worked with. Is primarily a called health fax data resource. It's been in operation for almost twenty years. And the the the model is that organizations who are. Using these Turner Electronic. Health. Record. Enter into an agreement was turner they agreed to provide data rights to sern are. The identifies the date of affords aggregated into this resource. And certner provides data mapping, which is really critical to this type of work. It also the aggregate the data. And for the past probably six years. Then, they provide the full data set to especially academic contributors who want to do research with that resource. And I've been on both sides of that equation Lead that group during my career there, and then now I have the opportunity to really focus research on that type of data. So before we get into the details smog so e Itar Systems. So this is. Essentially patient records. So he gets dated like demographics out family history, surgical history hats, medications, lab solves it could have physician nodes no snow. So it's it's a combination of a variety of different types of data, right? A couple of things on the examples you gave it includes demographics. Discreet Laboratory results Medication orders. Many vitals so If access the blood pressure and pulse data. It does not include text notes because those can't be. Automatically identified consistently. So. We don't have access currently to TEX notes. Out of an abundance of caution. That his Hobby Stephen, physician writes something down they could use names they could use inflammation that could then point back to their. Patients Makita Perspective been the data's aggregated, the primary issue shoe that date has completely the identified, right? Correct. So. So yeah. So the data that we receive there's eighteen identifiers. Hip requires be removed from data. And those include obvious things like name address email addresses are another example One of the. Things. That is also part of the benefit of working with this particular resource. The. Dates of clinical service are not allowed to be provided under hip. White is done with this resource that allows us to still have a longitudinal view is. For any given patient in the data set the dates are shifted by A. Consistent. Pattern that for any given patient it can be. One two three four five weeks forward or one, two, three, four or five weeks backward. But that preserves things like day of the week effect. So for example, you see -nificant increase in emergency department encounters over weekends and you don't WanNa lose. Visibility to that. but it also allows us to receive. Very, granular early time stamped events in so. We can gain visibility into the time that a blood specimen was collected, and then the time that the result was reported back. And so we're able to do very detailed analyses with this type of resource. Right right and I don't know the audience our market is fragmented. Tau himself e Amorebieta providers out there. and so two issues. One is sort of. Standardization as to how these databases are designed and structured and others even that standardization that the actual collection of the data. In itself is not standardized played. So vk CAV vk potentially lot inability coming from different systems. Correct and that's part of what the paper that you mentioned Evaluates so. Often, night you out in the field in conferences you hear. Comparisons kind of lumping all organizations using one. Vendor lumping all using another together but as you get closer to it, you quickly learn that. It's not even clear. It's within those. Vendor markets. There's variation from organization to organization in how they use the e Hr and so. Because the identities of the. Contributing organizations are blinded to those of us who work with the data. We have to be creative about how we. Infer those implementation details, and so with this paper, we describe a couple of methods that We think move things forward towards that goal. Yes. So I'm not really familiar with that. So you mentioned a couple of things here. One is the the merge network. So this initiative including electric medical records and genomics network and pc off net the national patient, centered clinical research network support. Decentralized analyses that goes disparate systems by distributing standardized quotas to site. So this is a situation where you have multiple systems sort of. Communicating with each other and this net folks at allowing to sort of quickly them In some standardized fashion. So In this type of technology, there's janitorial core models. One is the. Federated or distributed model, the other is a centralized data aggregation. So there are examples including those that are mentioned in the paper where. Queries are pushed to the organization and. They need to do significant work upfront to ensure that there are standardizing their terminologies the same way. And once they do that upfront work than they're able to perform the types of queries that are distributed through those. Federated Networks. With. Okay. So that just one click on so that the police have standardized. So all on the at Josh site, then they have like some sort of a plan slater from from Stan Day squatty do all the data structure. And in many cases, they work through an intermediate technology. that would be. In general, consider it like a data warehouse. And so the queries are running against the production electric. Health record. That has all kinds of implications on patient care where you don't want to slow down performance. By using these intermediaries They can receive queries and then Follow that mapping has occurred. Than, they're able to to run those distributed queries. Okay. And the other model is You know. You say the g through the medical quality, improvement consortium and sooner to the health facts initiative. So this says in Sodas case, for example, in swags. This is essentially picking up data from the right deals, clients and Dan standardizing and centralizing data in a single database is that that is correct. One benefit of that model is that Organizations who for example, may not be academic and don't have the. Resources to do that data mapping themselves by handing out over that task over to the vendor you get a broader diversity of the types of organizations so you can have. A safety net hospitals you can have. Critical access rural hospitals, and other venues of care that are probably under represented in some of those. More academically driven models. And clearly the focus on healthcare about I would imagine applications in pharmaceutical out indeed to right I. Don't know if it s use and bad direction there has been some were performed with these data resources to. Characterize different aspects of medications, and so it does have utility in value. In a variety of. Analytical contexts. I was thinking about you know a lot of randomized clinical trials going on into Kuwait context and One of the issues of dispatch seem development toils that are going on that one could argue the population there are not really well to percents. it may be number by Auditees, men, people that deputy existing conditions. and. So he will serve at my come out of facedly trial. granted might work for the population. Tried it minority have sufficient? more largely. So I wanted this type of well I guess we don't really have an ID there right. So clearly, you don't know who these people are but they could be some clustering type analysis that might be interesting weight from It's very useful for Health Services Research and for outcomes research for you know what I characterize digital phenotype being. they can then guide. More, more formal research. you know you can use this type of resource to. Make sure. You're asking a useful question and make sure that there's likely to be. Enough patients who qualify for given study. Maybe you're working on a clinical trial in your casting your net to narrow you can. Determine that with this type of data resource. And is the eight tiff date who has access to it typically. So for this data resource on, it's through the vendor so. You need to have some level of footprint with them. which is the case with our organization. They're definitely a broadening their strategies. So they're. Gaining access into health systems that aren't exclusively using their electronic health records so. It's exciting to be a part of that that process. and to again work with them to. Analyze the data. I think. To the example you gave a formal randomized trials. In key part of what were growing our research to focus on is because this is real world data. You learn what's happening in practice whether or not it's well aligned with guidelines or formal protocols. And doing that there's many opportunities for near-term interventions that can improve health outcomes simply by. Identifying where providers may be deviating more from. Best Practices in than taking steps through training and education to kind of get them back towards those best practices. This data is a fresh on a daily basis. It's not. It's because it's so large and bulky? Typically we've received it on a quarterly basis in since it's retrospective analysis that's not been a major barrier. But. mechanistically, on onto soon aside is data getting sort of picked up from this system that it's harvested every day and then it's aggregated bundled and distributed on A. On a different timescale. Okay okay. So. From again, going to the, it's our system designed issue and implementation You say many HR systems comprised of more news at specific clinical processes or unit such as Pharmacy Laboratory or surgery talked about that. But then then people implement them this of fashion right they they implement modules by that can be a factor or sometimes they may want. One vendor for their primary electronic health record, but another vendor for their laboratory system. and so that's where you don't see a hundred percent usage of every module and every organization. And detailed number of different you know sort of noise creating issues in data one. This is icy speech over from ICT denied ten. and I don't know history of this but this was supposed to be speech with sometime in twenty fifteen. That's correct. So there is A. You know. There's a date in October of Twenty fifteen where most organizations were expected to have completed that transition. When I see with researchers who aren't as familiar with the you know the whole policy landscape around `electronic health records that? you can imagine researchers who assumed that all data before that date in October is is nine and all data after that date would be icy the ten. While we demonstrate in this paper, is that that transition was not Nearly, that clean and it was a much more, you know there are some organizations who just It the bullet and completed in twenty fourteen, and there are other organizations that were still lagging. In. Two Thousand Sixteen. Potentially because they weren't as exposed to those incentives in other things that you know stipulated the transition so. Part of why were demonstrating with that particular part of that work was that. you know these transitions aren't always abrupt. Yeah and and and so that is one issue and then you know a lot of consistency inconsistency issues fade. So we see that in in single systems and one of the items note here as you know if you think about the disposition code for death. you could have a right your race supercenter, right? It's a death expire expedite at home hospice, and so on. if this is a problem for a single system, but then many think about aggregating data from multiple sources this this problem sort of increased exponentially. Absolutely. So one of the challenges with documenting and and finding where you know if a patient has A deceased that. There's just multiple places to put that documentation in the clinical record. The Location in the record that. We have found to be the most consistent is what's called discharge disposition. By as we show in that analysis, that field is not always used document that and so if you're doing outcomes research and one of your key. Outcome metrics is death. And there are organizations that. Aren't documenting death in a place that successful. You should filter those out of your analysis before moving forward. And so part of what we wanted to promote is the realization that. That's the type of consideration that needs to be made The four. Publishing. Your data about an outcome metrics like death that. You're not. If you're never gonNA see that outcome it doesn't mean that people are. Dying in that particular facility, it just means it's not documented in the place that successful. Right. Yeah. So you know you on your expedience. Unique Position Mark because you you look at it from the from the vendor's perspective you're in an academic setting you're also in practice in a hospital. What's your sense of these things improving the on a track of getting getting this more standardize or it's camping in the other direction I think in general there is improvement I think The. Over the past eleven years through various federal mandates, including meaningful use and so forth. Those of all incentive organizations to utilize. Standard terminologies more consistently than was the case beforehand. I think there's still plenty of room for improvement and You know it's it's a journey, not a destination, but I think things have improved substantially. I was wondering there could be some applications of artificial intelligence here to In a clearly TATECO systems and you'd like the most them pity human resource intensive Yvonne to get it completely right. So one question would be you know, could be actually used a Dick needs to get it maybe ninety nine percent white. And that the human deal with exceptions I definitely think that that's an exciting direction that You want those a algorithms to be trained with good data, and that's a big part of what's motivated us to. Put this focus on data quality and Understanding these strange nuances that are underpinning that date has so that. As we move towards a in machine learning and so forth. We have a high level of confidence in the data that's training those algorithms. Right. Yeah. I think that a huge opportunity here because it's not quite as broad as NFL, not natural language processing it is somewhat constrained. that is a good part of it. The back part of it is that is highly technical. and so. you know some of the techniques you know you can have a fault tolerance in certain dimensions such as you know, misspellings lack of gambling and things like that. But as you have Heidi technical data, you cannot apply those principles because he could have misspelling the system may not be able to. Get, sometimes, and that's where you know I think. It's totally feasible to use. Resources to you know when you're dealing with. Tens of millions of patients and billions of detailed records. Using a I'd even identify those patterns of either. Inconsistent data or missing data it's also very powerful just to. kind of flag in identified. Areas that need to be focused on to lead to a better analysis. Greg Wait Be Hefty. Use that information somehow did is a belt of information that you know and so it just filtering into decision processes that the are really losing it. So hopefully getting improving in that dimension I've jumping to another paper bittersweet interesting. So it's entitled rates and predictors of using opioids in the Emergency Department Katrina Treat Mike Dean in Young Otto's and so so this is sort of a machine learning exercise you have gone through to locate you know coup is getting prescribed. OPIOIDS water the conditions for the Democrat not Nestle demographics but different different maybe age and things like that gender. and and then ask the question desert has some effect on addiction. In the long term rights. So that project To great example of team science though. We. Assembled a team of subject matter experts in neurology pain management. And Data Science and. The neurologist and pain management experts. Identified an intriguing question that we decided to pursue with data. In their question was. Based on anecdotal observation and so we thought it'd be interesting to see how well the data supported that. Observation is that. for youth and young adults Treated or admitted into the emergency. Department. With a migraine headache that. All too often they were treated with an opioid. And so we Use the same day to resource that we were discussing earlier. To explore that. Question. And using data from a hundred and eighty distinct emergency departments. We found that on average twenty, three percent of those youth and young adults were treated with. An opioid medication while they were in the emergency department. In general, it should be almost zero percent in general. There's really Better medications to us, four people presenting with a migraine. and. So this fits into obviously the OPIOID crisis it. it demonstrates the. Scenario describing that. You know using real world data. You can identify patterns of clinical behavior that. Don't match guideline. And the good news is that the? correctable and so through. Training and communication there's great opportunity to. To, manage this. Really. Striking. So fifteen thousand or so inevitably the encounters. And nearly a quarter of this encounters you say involved inoculate. and these are not just Misha and Congress right. It is not filtered down to migraine encounters. Okay. Okay. So these fifteen thousand just might in encounters might vein being repeating disease So once you. If you make a statement and. This or not Easter conditioning issue here. So you get your pain, you go to an emergency department and you get treated with an opioid you get quick tactical relief. From pain. auditing condition expect that in the next episode. So you can say we didn't pursue that particular question, but that is Definitely key part of. Managing the OPIOID crisis is that drug seeking behavior and so Part of our goal was to quantify that and use this as an opportunity to educate providers that. You really shouldn't be treating migraines with an opioid in there are better alternatives and. So we we felt that this was an important contribution to that national dialogue, but we didn't specifically pursue the question of whether the patients we analyzed. Within. Encounter show up Subsequently. With the same symptoms. Right right. Yeah you it develop into period when problematic patterns of drug use comedy. FEST MERGE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF OPIOID misuse estimated to be two to four percent and debts in each goofy just young adult drew from overdoses are rising. and. You say that literally prescribe IOS has been slumping loose future opioid misuse by thirty three percent. Betas Mehta say really huge number. I think just validates the importance of this of this work. Interesting mark. I don't know you exploded on data. Last the question if you look at the aggregate data, it'd be flying opioid. Misuse. what percentage of the total number. Actually started from. You know some sort of medical encounter has mike or some sort of. related encounter that could be completed otherwise was three a bit opioid. in that encounter documented resulted in that misuse. So what so If you look at the active misuse problem that we have today. do you have a sense of what percentage of that goal is actually started I? Think the exciting thing about this type of research is for everyone questioned that you pursue you have. You have ten new that you can pursue. We haven't. Delved into that specific area, but it's It's very ripe for further analysis and A considerable part of where I end my colleagues and our time as. We do this type of work to get an initial analysis published. And then You know in my leadership role I just WANNA. support people like my colleagues on this paper Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. in in using data to. Support their research into identify those follow. I mean, he tests policy implications. So it's sweet important work. and. If you find it direct relationship here than you have to ask you know from from a medical perspective what is right intervention? maybe is not just added of care just best practice but clearly should be the bay You know things should be looked at you say you're American Academy of Neurology has included avoidance of using opioid to treat gain one of stop top flight choosing wisely recommendations. For high-value duck in this gives Really evidence to to support that. The other thing that's really intriguing is this level of variation from site to site in. Some Sun facilities are very much aligned with the guidelines. Others are at the you know well, above twenty three percent. And that gives an opportunity for a really precision. conversations about you know, where does our organization stand on that spectrum? Yeah that's a that's an interesting avenue to right. So you know one could ask he says some sort of push sliced Intervention if we can fly goal of patients who who had gone an opioid sexually don't have an addiction problem. that as you know Anna, the kofoed does. if you can fly those type of patterns than you can think about. A customized within electronic health record systems. There's. The ability to provide decisions poor. There's certainly phenomena called pop up fatigue were physicians. You know they don't like having so many pop up windows but at the same time. It's Within the capability of an e e Hr to do that if then logic if patient has. migraine medication order equals opioid. encourage the provider to pause and reconsider that. Right, right and so this is supervised machine learning type analysis where so you have. you have number features that comes directly from each else. So each sex race ethnicity. insurance type. Encounter prostate suggest duration. time of the year and so on. and you have labeled data in this case I guess you have able tater because you would know if op- inscribed on trade. Okay and so are the two questions here. One is to ask the question given a new patient and those features. you could assign a probability that that patient will be prescribed will. Definitely. Impress the data from that predictive Minds. Right and then can you so that data definitely tell you if the patient is going to progress into some sort of an addiction issue. So. Earn Predicting Substance Abuse. So. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. There's additional diagnosis codes that document. whether a patient has a history of substance abuse disorder. and. So it would be feasible to. Identify the with those diagnosis codes in than really look at their prior history. Of What other conditions were they treated for? What medications were they give in? to develop that model. One of the things in this case that helped with this study is that just in general, it's not advised get. So there are other things that are much more of a gray area. Or whether opioid is as useful, but in this case. The really not. Considered. To be helpful for migraines compared to other options and so that help us have a fairly clear cut scenario to do this work. Yeah. This this won't be the data like you say once you do something like this, you have been other things you could. You could stop asking. So unquestioned that that been to my mind as you know, how did they hugged the actually prescribing opioids? Is it the patient asking for it all so? Off that was another scoping thing with this project is focused on what happens within the emergency. Room. So it's it's. Really, medication order in administration that happens. In that emergency room setting. Whether or not the patient. was. Requesting that you know if they came in and said, this has worked for me before. Can I have it again? we don't have visibility to that. Right. Right. And so from a practical perspective So the the analysis that you did slightly ended up with the Family Clyde power we think it is. Compelling. Pretty compelling. So as as a new patient gets into e D either high. and what I mean by that probably is if there is a history of substance abuse property. the physician has really think twice about. The use of may be the well, and in this case, even without that history. Just because it's not considered to be an effective treatment. You know encouraging them to pause in that decision making. In this particular case is as effective as wall. Right. So looking forward. In if you think about both of these issues, one is the data quality data aggregation data standardized recent problem in the the right of Utah Systems have did that the talked about? And then if we can get to a level that we can look at cross a large data set. Beacon, ask. More. US specific questions, treatment. Optimum treatment type questions. subpoenaed. US The mark big think B be hunting. Certainly, the volume and variety of data that we're able to work with will be even greater I, think the. Opportunity To. Look, holistically at how upstream data capture. Effects Downstream data. Analysis. example I frequently give is if we have a Aggregate Data said we identify. Ten patients whose way in that data such shows up as being. Something that's completely infeasible. let's say they're documented is being. Fifty year old person who weighs two pounds. Clearly air. What's important is? Creating the process to communicate that back upstream. Because that clinical decision. Support. Many drug dosing things are evaluated using weight based logic and so. That same logic that's Evaluating the appropriateness of dosage. It's going to be running against an incorrect value in that may or may not always be visible. So I really am intrigued with that holistic opportunity. In it I am I remain just we have three or four additional papers coming out. About other examples where Provider behaviors not aligned with Best Practices and I'm just excited about you know when you compare that to how long it takes to develop a new drug or how long it takes to. To a really long term research. This research has the opportunity for a pretty quick turnaround on an effective intervention. A really that. Other so much that right. Providers. been taught in a no, but they're. Not always using that in practice and so to help them. Identify, those topics in just modifying behaviors is. In the scheme of things, it's a very straightforward way to improve. So. You know the entire spectrum from essentially getting the data. Right or cleaner like you know Missa mischaracterized or miss input data like wait or something like that. To to get. Better diagnosis better treatment modalities. policies there and from a femme perspective clearly inflammation therefore clinical trials. I was even thinking about drug interaction type. Inflammation. I haven't been involved in the former de for awhile but. Typically, this type of data doesn't get back into automatic processes that fast but I think that is all I know there's strong interest in Pharma in. Working with this type of data there a again looking at real world behavior. This is an excellent resource for off label medication use at. you know where Pharma's Always interested in repurposing existing medications the. Regulatory Processes, much more straightforward for that because the safety is already been. Evaluated and so. The. Significant Opportunity With this, there's also just exciting. Patterns of you know. What are those unrecognised correlations? That's where the machine learning opportunities are really exciting where. You know we're not always asking the right question. And the data can show us what we should be. Yeah exactly. So if the machine a sort of red flags something or create hypotheses. that Cubans have missed sometimes, those types of things are extremely powerful. because maybe that sometimes it's countering tutor. and so we all look at data with an Incan bias. The beauty of machines that at least on the surface began deploy Michigan. This volume of data. Techniques like machine deep learning can recognize those subtle but consistent associations. Wait quite. Excellent. Idea this has been great mark Thanks so much time with me. I enjoyed it very much. Thank you. But

Gill Eappen Mike Yesterday Dr Mark Hoffman Children's Mussa Hospital Turner Electronic Certner Migraine Inflammation Federated Networks Stan Day Squatty Michio Kato University Of Minnesota Makita GIL Federated Kansas City
Dr. Mark Hoffman, Research Associate Professor at the University of Missouri, Kansas City - burst 01

Scientific Sense

44:57 min | 3 months ago

Dr. Mark Hoffman, Research Associate Professor at the University of Missouri, Kansas City - burst 01

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new Ideas Affect Society? And, help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense. Dot? Net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense dot com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen Dot Info. Mike yesterday's Dr Mark Hoffman, who is a research associate professor in the University of Minnesota Against City. He is also chief research inflammation officer in the children's Mussa hospital in Kansas City. Kiss research interests include health data delayed indication sharing initialisation Boca Mark. Thank you for inviting me. Absolutely. So I start with one of your papers Kato you need the use by our system implementation in defy date data resource from hundred known athlete off my seasons. So Michio inflicted. Data aggregated for marketable sources provide an important resource for my medical research including digital feel typing. On. Like. Todd beat to from a single organization. Guitar data introduces a number of analysis challengers. So. So you've worked with some augmentation log and in almost all cases be used. Data coming from that single macy's listen primary care behavioral. Or specialty hospitals and I always wondered you know wouldn't be nice. Get a data set. That sort of abrogates data from the radio on-ice. Asians but a lot of different challenges around that. So you wanted to talk a bit about that. I'd be happy to the resource that we've worked with. Is primarily a called health fax data resource. It's been in operation for almost twenty years. And the the the model is that organizations who are. Using these Turner Electronic. Health. Record. Enter into an agreement was turner they agreed to provide data rights to sern are. The identifies the date of affords aggregated into this resource. And certner provides data mapping, which is really critical to this type of work. It also the aggregate the data. And for the past probably six years. Then, they provide the full data set to especially academic contributors who want to do research with that resource. And I've been on both sides of that equation Lead that group during my career there, and then now I have the opportunity to really focus research on that type of data. So before we get into the details smog so e Itar Systems. So this is. Essentially patient records. So he gets dated like demographics out family history, surgical history hats, medications, lab solves it could have physician nodes no snow. So it's it's a combination of a variety of different types of data, right? A couple of things on the examples you gave it includes demographics. Discreet Laboratory results Medication orders. Many vitals so If access the blood pressure and pulse data. It does not include text notes because those can't be. Automatically identified consistently. So. We don't have access currently to TEX notes. Out of an abundance of caution. That his Hobby Stephen, physician writes something down they could use names they could use inflammation that could then point back to their. Patients Makita Perspective been the data's aggregated, the primary issue shoe that date has completely the identified, right? Correct. So. So yeah. So the data that we receive there's eighteen identifiers. Hip requires be removed from data. And those include obvious things like name address email addresses are another example One of the. Things. That is also part of the benefit of working with this particular resource. The. Dates of clinical service are not allowed to be provided under hip. White is done with this resource that allows us to still have a longitudinal view is. For any given patient in the data set the dates are shifted by A. Consistent. Pattern that for any given patient it can be. One two three four five weeks forward or one, two, three, four or five weeks backward. But that preserves things like day of the week effect. So for example, you see -nificant increase in emergency department encounters over weekends and you don't WanNa lose. Visibility to that. but it also allows us to receive. Very, granular early time stamped events in so. We can gain visibility into the time that a blood specimen was collected, and then the time that the result was reported back. And so we're able to do very detailed analyses with this type of resource. Right right and I don't know the audience our market is fragmented. Tau himself e Amorebieta providers out there. and so two issues. One is sort of. Standardization as to how these databases are designed and structured and others even that standardization that the actual collection of the data. In itself is not standardized played. So vk CAV vk potentially lot inability coming from different systems. Correct and that's part of what the paper that you mentioned Evaluates so. Often, night you out in the field in conferences you hear. Comparisons kind of lumping all organizations using one. Vendor lumping all using another together but as you get closer to it, you quickly learn that. It's not even clear. It's within those. Vendor markets. There's variation from organization to organization in how they use the e Hr and so. Because the identities of the. Contributing organizations are blinded to those of us who work with the data. We have to be creative about how we. Infer those implementation details, and so with this paper, we describe a couple of methods that We think move things forward towards that goal. Yes. So I'm not really familiar with that. So you mentioned a couple of things here. One is the the merge network. So this initiative including electric medical records and genomics network and pc off net the national patient, centered clinical research network support. Decentralized analyses that goes disparate systems by distributing standardized quotas to site. So this is a situation where you have multiple systems sort of. Communicating with each other and this net folks at allowing to sort of quickly them In some standardized fashion. So In this type of technology, there's janitorial core models. One is the. Federated or distributed model, the other is a centralized data aggregation. So there are examples including those that are mentioned in the paper where. Queries are pushed to the organization and. They need to do significant work upfront to ensure that there are standardizing their terminologies the same way. And once they do that upfront work than they're able to perform the types of queries that are distributed through those. Federated Networks. With. Okay. So that just one click on so that the police have standardized. So all on the at Josh site, then they have like some sort of a plan slater from from Stan Day squatty do all the data structure. And in many cases, they work through an intermediate technology. that would be. In general, consider it like a data warehouse. And so the queries are running against the production electric. Health record. That has all kinds of implications on patient care where you don't want to slow down performance. By using these intermediaries They can receive queries and then Follow that mapping has occurred. Than, they're able to to run those distributed queries. Okay. And the other model is You know. You say the g through the medical quality, improvement consortium and sooner to the health facts initiative. So this says in Sodas case, for example, in swags. This is essentially picking up data from the right deals, clients and Dan standardizing and centralizing data in a single database is that that is correct. One benefit of that model is that Organizations who for example, may not be academic and don't have the. Resources to do that data mapping themselves by handing out over that task over to the vendor you get a broader diversity of the types of organizations so you can have. A safety net hospitals you can have. Critical access rural hospitals, and other venues of care that are probably under represented in some of those. More academically driven models. And clearly the focus on healthcare about I would imagine applications in pharmaceutical out indeed to right I. Don't know if it s use and bad direction there has been some were performed with these data resources to. Characterize different aspects of medications, and so it does have utility in value. In a variety of. Analytical contexts. I was thinking about you know a lot of randomized clinical trials going on into Kuwait context and One of the issues of dispatch seem development toils that are going on that one could argue the population there are not really well to percents. it may be number by Auditees, men, people that deputy existing conditions. and. So he will serve at my come out of facedly trial. granted might work for the population. Tried it minority have sufficient? more largely. So I wanted this type of well I guess we don't really have an ID there right. So clearly, you don't know who these people are but they could be some clustering type analysis that might be interesting weight from It's very useful for Health Services Research and for outcomes research for you know what I characterize digital phenotype being. they can then guide. More, more formal research. you know you can use this type of resource to. Make sure. You're asking a useful question and make sure that there's likely to be. Enough patients who qualify for given study. Maybe you're working on a clinical trial in your casting your net to narrow you can. Determine that with this type of data resource. And is the eight tiff date who has access to it typically. So for this data resource on, it's through the vendor so. You need to have some level of footprint with them. which is the case with our organization. They're definitely a broadening their strategies. So they're. Gaining access into health systems that aren't exclusively using their electronic health records so. It's exciting to be a part of that that process. and to again work with them to. Analyze the data. I think. To the example you gave a formal randomized trials. In key part of what were growing our research to focus on is because this is real world data. You learn what's happening in practice whether or not it's well aligned with guidelines or formal protocols. And doing that there's many opportunities for near-term interventions that can improve health outcomes simply by. Identifying where providers may be deviating more from. Best Practices in than taking steps through training and education to kind of get them back towards those best practices. This data is a fresh on a daily basis. It's not. It's because it's so large and bulky? Typically we've received it on a quarterly basis in since it's retrospective analysis that's not been a major barrier. But. mechanistically, on onto soon aside is data getting sort of picked up from this system that it's harvested every day and then it's aggregated bundled and distributed on A. On a different timescale. Okay okay. So. From again, going to the, it's our system designed issue and implementation You say many HR systems comprised of more news at specific clinical processes or unit such as Pharmacy Laboratory or surgery talked about that. But then then people implement them this of fashion right they they implement modules by that can be a factor or sometimes they may want. One vendor for their primary electronic health record, but another vendor for their laboratory system. and so that's where you don't see a hundred percent usage of every module and every organization. And detailed number of different you know sort of noise creating issues in data one. This is icy speech over from ICT denied ten. and I don't know history of this but this was supposed to be speech with sometime in twenty fifteen. That's correct. So there is A. You know. There's a date in October of Twenty fifteen where most organizations were expected to have completed that transition. When I see with researchers who aren't as familiar with the you know the whole policy landscape around `electronic health records that? you can imagine researchers who assumed that all data before that date in October is is nine and all data after that date would be icy the ten. While we demonstrate in this paper, is that that transition was not Nearly, that clean and it was a much more, you know there are some organizations who just It the bullet and completed in twenty fourteen, and there are other organizations that were still lagging. In. Two Thousand Sixteen. Potentially because they weren't as exposed to those incentives in other things that you know stipulated the transition so. Part of why were demonstrating with that particular part of that work was that. you know these transitions aren't always abrupt. Yeah and and and so that is one issue and then you know a lot of consistency inconsistency issues fade. So we see that in in single systems and one of the items note here as you know if you think about the disposition code for death. you could have a right your race supercenter, right? It's a death expire expedite at home hospice, and so on. if this is a problem for a single system, but then many think about aggregating data from multiple sources this this problem sort of increased exponentially. Absolutely. So one of the challenges with documenting and and finding where you know if a patient has A deceased that. There's just multiple places to put that documentation in the clinical record. The Location in the record that. We have found to be the most consistent is what's called discharge disposition. By as we show in that analysis, that field is not always used document that and so if you're doing outcomes research and one of your key. Outcome metrics is death. And there are organizations that. Aren't documenting death in a place that successful. You should filter those out of your analysis before moving forward. And so part of what we wanted to promote is the realization that. That's the type of consideration that needs to be made The four. Publishing. Your data about an outcome metrics like death that. You're not. If you're never gonNA see that outcome it doesn't mean that people are. Dying in that particular facility, it just means it's not documented in the place that successful. Right. Yeah. So you know you on your expedience. Unique Position Mark because you you look at it from the from the vendor's perspective you're in an academic setting you're also in practice in a hospital. What's your sense of these things improving the on a track of getting getting this more standardize or it's camping in the other direction I think in general there is improvement I think The. Over the past eleven years through various federal mandates, including meaningful use and so forth. Those of all incentive organizations to utilize. Standard terminologies more consistently than was the case beforehand. I think there's still plenty of room for improvement and You know it's it's a journey, not a destination, but I think things have improved substantially. I was wondering there could be some applications of artificial intelligence here to In a clearly TATECO systems and you'd like the most them pity human resource intensive Yvonne to get it completely right. So one question would be you know, could be actually used a Dick needs to get it maybe ninety nine percent white. And that the human deal with exceptions I definitely think that that's an exciting direction that You want those a algorithms to be trained with good data, and that's a big part of what's motivated us to. Put this focus on data quality and Understanding these strange nuances that are underpinning that date has so that. As we move towards a in machine learning and so forth. We have a high level of confidence in the data that's training those algorithms. Right. Yeah. I think that a huge opportunity here because it's not quite as broad as NFL, not natural language processing it is somewhat constrained. that is a good part of it. The back part of it is that is highly technical. and so. you know some of the techniques you know you can have a fault tolerance in certain dimensions such as you know, misspellings lack of gambling and things like that. But as you have Heidi technical data, you cannot apply those principles because he could have misspelling the system may not be able to. Get, sometimes, and that's where you know I think. It's totally feasible to use. Resources to you know when you're dealing with. Tens of millions of patients and billions of detailed records. Using a I'd even identify those patterns of either. Inconsistent data or missing data it's also very powerful just to. kind of flag in identified. Areas that need to be focused on to lead to a better analysis. Greg Wait Be Hefty. Use that information somehow did is a belt of information that you know and so it just filtering into decision processes that the are really losing it. So hopefully getting improving in that dimension I've jumping to another paper bittersweet interesting. So it's entitled rates and predictors of using opioids in the Emergency Department Katrina Treat Mike Dean in Young Otto's and so so this is sort of a machine learning exercise you have gone through to locate you know coup is getting prescribed. OPIOIDS water the conditions for the Democrat not Nestle demographics but different different maybe age and things like that gender. and and then ask the question desert has some effect on addiction. In the long term rights. So that project To great example of team science though. We. Assembled a team of subject matter experts in neurology pain management. And Data Science and. The neurologist and pain management experts. Identified an intriguing question that we decided to pursue with data. In their question was. Based on anecdotal observation and so we thought it'd be interesting to see how well the data supported that. Observation is that. for youth and young adults Treated or admitted into the emergency. Department. With a migraine headache that. All too often they were treated with an opioid. And so we Use the same day to resource that we were discussing earlier. To explore that. Question. And using data from a hundred and eighty distinct emergency departments. We found that on average twenty, three percent of those youth and young adults were treated with. An opioid medication while they were in the emergency department. In general, it should be almost zero percent in general. There's really Better medications to us, four people presenting with a migraine. and. So this fits into obviously the OPIOID crisis it. it demonstrates the. Scenario describing that. You know using real world data. You can identify patterns of clinical behavior that. Don't match guideline. And the good news is that the? correctable and so through. Training and communication there's great opportunity to. To, manage this. Really. Striking. So fifteen thousand or so inevitably the encounters. And nearly a quarter of this encounters you say involved inoculate. and these are not just Misha and Congress right. It is not filtered down to migraine encounters. Okay. Okay. So these fifteen thousand just might in encounters might vein being repeating disease So once you. If you make a statement and. This or not Easter conditioning issue here. So you get your pain, you go to an emergency department and you get treated with an opioid you get quick tactical relief. From pain. auditing condition expect that in the next episode. So you can say we didn't pursue that particular question, but that is Definitely key part of. Managing the OPIOID crisis is that drug seeking behavior and so Part of our goal was to quantify that and use this as an opportunity to educate providers that. You really shouldn't be treating migraines with an opioid in there are better alternatives and. So we we felt that this was an important contribution to that national dialogue, but we didn't specifically pursue the question of whether the patients we analyzed. Within. Encounter show up Subsequently. With the same symptoms. Right right. Yeah you it develop into period when problematic patterns of drug use comedy. FEST MERGE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF OPIOID misuse estimated to be two to four percent and debts in each goofy just young adult drew from overdoses are rising. and. You say that literally prescribe IOS has been slumping loose future opioid misuse by thirty three percent. Betas Mehta say really huge number. I think just validates the importance of this of this work. Interesting mark. I don't know you exploded on data. Last the question if you look at the aggregate data, it'd be flying opioid. Misuse. what percentage of the total number. Actually started from. You know some sort of medical encounter has mike or some sort of. related encounter that could be completed otherwise was three a bit opioid. in that encounter documented resulted in that misuse. So what so If you look at the active misuse problem that we have today. do you have a sense of what percentage of that goal is actually started I? Think the exciting thing about this type of research is for everyone questioned that you pursue you have. You have ten new that you can pursue. We haven't. Delved into that specific area, but it's It's very ripe for further analysis and A considerable part of where I end my colleagues and our time as. We do this type of work to get an initial analysis published. And then You know in my leadership role I just WANNA. support people like my colleagues on this paper Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. in in using data to. Support their research into identify those follow. I mean, he tests policy implications. So it's sweet important work. and. If you find it direct relationship here than you have to ask you know from from a medical perspective what is right intervention? maybe is not just added of care just best practice but clearly should be the bay You know things should be looked at you say you're American Academy of Neurology has included avoidance of using opioid to treat gain one of stop top flight choosing wisely recommendations. For high-value duck in this gives Really evidence to to support that. The other thing that's really intriguing is this level of variation from site to site in. Some Sun facilities are very much aligned with the guidelines. Others are at the you know well, above twenty three percent. And that gives an opportunity for a really precision. conversations about you know, where does our organization stand on that spectrum? Yeah that's a that's an interesting avenue to right. So you know one could ask he says some sort of push sliced Intervention if we can fly goal of patients who who had gone an opioid sexually don't have an addiction problem. that as you know Anna, the kofoed does. if you can fly those type of patterns than you can think about. A customized within electronic health record systems. There's. The ability to provide decisions poor. There's certainly phenomena called pop up fatigue were physicians. You know they don't like having so many pop up windows but at the same time. It's Within the capability of an e e Hr to do that if then logic if patient has. migraine medication order equals opioid. encourage the provider to pause and reconsider that. Right, right and so this is supervised machine learning type analysis where so you have. you have number features that comes directly from each else. So each sex race ethnicity. insurance type. Encounter prostate suggest duration. time of the year and so on. and you have labeled data in this case I guess you have able tater because you would know if op- inscribed on trade. Okay and so are the two questions here. One is to ask the question given a new patient and those features. you could assign a probability that that patient will be prescribed will. Definitely. Impress the data from that predictive Minds. Right and then can you so that data definitely tell you if the patient is going to progress into some sort of an addiction issue. So. Earn Predicting Substance Abuse. So. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. There's additional diagnosis codes that document. whether a patient has a history of substance abuse disorder. and. So it would be feasible to. Identify the with those diagnosis codes in than really look at their prior history. Of What other conditions were they treated for? What medications were they give in? to develop that model. One of the things in this case that helped with this study is that just in general, it's not advised get. So there are other things that are much more of a gray area. Or whether opioid is as useful, but in this case. The really not. Considered. To be helpful for migraines compared to other options and so that help us have a fairly clear cut scenario to do this work. Yeah. This this won't be the data like you say once you do something like this, you have been other things you could. You could stop asking. So unquestioned that that been to my mind as you know, how did they hugged the actually prescribing opioids? Is it the patient asking for it all so? Off that was another scoping thing with this project is focused on what happens within the emergency. Room. So it's it's. Really, medication order in administration that happens. In that emergency room setting. Whether or not the patient. was. Requesting that you know if they came in and said, this has worked for me before. Can I have it again? we don't have visibility to that. Right. Right. And so from a practical perspective So the the analysis that you did slightly ended up with the Family Clyde power we think it is. Compelling. Pretty compelling. So as as a new patient gets into e D either high. and what I mean by that probably is if there is a history of substance abuse property. the physician has really think twice about. The use of may be the well, and in this case, even without that history. Just because it's not considered to be an effective treatment. You know encouraging them to pause in that decision making. In this particular case is as effective as wall. Right. So looking forward. In if you think about both of these issues, one is the data quality data aggregation data standardized recent problem in the the right of Utah Systems have did that the talked about? And then if we can get to a level that we can look at cross a large data set. Beacon, ask. More. US specific questions, treatment. Optimum treatment type questions. subpoenaed. US The mark big think B be hunting. Certainly, the volume and variety of data that we're able to work with will be even greater I, think the. Opportunity To. Look, holistically at how upstream data capture. Effects Downstream data. Analysis. example I frequently give is if we have a Aggregate Data said we identify. Ten patients whose way in that data such shows up as being. Something that's completely infeasible. let's say they're documented is being. Fifty year old person who weighs two pounds. Clearly air. What's important is? Creating the process to communicate that back upstream. Because that clinical decision. Support. Many drug dosing things are evaluated using weight based logic and so. That same logic that's Evaluating the appropriateness of dosage. It's going to be running against an incorrect value in that may or may not always be visible. So I really am intrigued with that holistic opportunity. In it I am I remain just we have three or four additional papers coming out. About other examples where Provider behaviors not aligned with Best Practices and I'm just excited about you know when you compare that to how long it takes to develop a new drug or how long it takes to. To a really long term research. This research has the opportunity for a pretty quick turnaround on an effective intervention. A really that. Other so much that right. Providers. been taught in a no, but they're. Not always using that in practice and so to help them. Identify, those topics in just modifying behaviors is. In the scheme of things, it's a very straightforward way to improve. So. You know the entire spectrum from essentially getting the data. Right or cleaner like you know Missa mischaracterized or miss input data like wait or something like that. To to get. Better diagnosis better treatment modalities. policies there and from a femme perspective clearly inflammation therefore clinical trials. I was even thinking about drug interaction type. Inflammation. I haven't been involved in the former de for awhile but. Typically, this type of data doesn't get back into automatic processes that fast but I think that is all I know there's strong interest in Pharma in. Working with this type of data there a again looking at real world behavior. This is an excellent resource for off label medication use at. you know where Pharma's Always interested in repurposing existing medications the. Regulatory Processes, much more straightforward for that because the safety is already been. Evaluated and so. The. Significant Opportunity With this, there's also just exciting. Patterns of you know. What are those unrecognised correlations? That's where the machine learning opportunities are really exciting where. You know we're not always asking the right question. And the data can show us what we should be. Yeah exactly. So if the machine a sort of red flags something or create hypotheses. that Cubans have missed sometimes, those types of things are extremely powerful. because maybe that sometimes it's countering tutor. and so we all look at data with an Incan bias. The beauty of machines that at least on the surface began deploy Michigan. This volume of data. Techniques like machine deep learning can recognize those subtle but consistent associations. Wait quite. Excellent. Idea this has been great mark Thanks so much time with me. I enjoyed it very much. Thank you. But

Gill Eappen Mike Yesterday Dr Mark Hoffman Children's Mussa Hospital Turner Electronic Certner Migraine Inflammation Federated Networks Stan Day Squatty Michio Kato University Of Minnesota Makita GIL Federated Kansas City
"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

04:05 min | 3 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"It is not filtered down to migraine encounters. Okay. Okay. So these fifteen thousand just might in encounters might vein being repeating disease So once you. If you make a statement and. This or not Easter conditioning issue here. So you get your pain, you go to an emergency department and you get treated with an opioid you get quick tactical relief. From pain. auditing condition expect that in the next episode. So you can say we didn't pursue that particular question, but that is Definitely key part of. Managing the OPIOID crisis is that drug seeking behavior and so Part of our goal was to quantify that and use this as an opportunity to educate providers that. You really shouldn't be treating migraines with an opioid in there are better alternatives and. So we we felt that this was an important contribution to that national dialogue, but we didn't specifically pursue the question of whether the patients we analyzed. Within. Encounter show up Subsequently. With the same symptoms. Right right. Yeah you it develop into period when problematic patterns of drug use comedy. FEST MERGE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF OPIOID misuse estimated to be two to four percent and debts in each goofy just young adult drew from overdoses are rising. and. You say that literally prescribe IOS has been slumping loose future opioid misuse by thirty three percent. Betas Mehta say really huge number. I think just validates the importance of this of this work. Interesting mark. I don't know you exploded on data. Last the question if you look at the aggregate data, it'd be flying opioid. Misuse. what percentage of the total number. Actually started from. You know some sort of medical encounter has mike or some sort of. related encounter that could be completed otherwise was three a bit opioid. in that encounter documented resulted in that misuse. So what so If you look at the active misuse problem that we have today. do you have a sense of what percentage of that goal is actually started I? Think the exciting thing about this type of research is for everyone questioned that you pursue you have. You have ten new that you can pursue. We haven't. Delved into that specific area, but it's It's very ripe for further analysis and A considerable part of where I end my colleagues and our time as. We do this type of work to get an initial analysis published. And then You know in my leadership role I just WANNA. support people like my colleagues on this paper Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. in in using data to. Support their research into identify those follow. I mean, he tests policy implications. So it's sweet important work. and. If you find it direct relationship here than you have to ask you know from from a medical perspective what is.

Mark Connelly Jennifer Bickel. migraine Mehta mike
"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

02:23 min | 3 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we.

AI Tries to Save the Whales

WSJ The Future of Everything

09:11 min | 5 months ago

AI Tries to Save the Whales

"We head to the Pacific northwest to understand the obstacles that confront these endangered orcas and how researchers are using artificial intelligence to help orcas and humans to coexist. WHAT HAPPENED TO J thirty five or Tala wasn't an anomaly the southern resident cavs have been struggling to survive for some time they've been listed as endangered in both the US and Canada since the mid arts. But their numbers continue to fall in two, thousand five there were eight. Now there are just seventy two in the wild one lives in captivity. Their home waters in the sailor, see an elaborate network of channels that span the coasts of Seattle Vancouver from Olympia Washington in the south to the middle of Vancouver Island British Columbia in the north. The see encompasses puget sound the Strait of Georgia and the Strait of Juan De. FUCA. Much of it is rich in natural beauty and teeming with wildlife with rural shorelines backlit by tall evergreens and craggy. Hills. It's a magnet for nature lovers who crave inactive lifestyle, but the Pacific northwest has been getting crowded these paths few decades with people competing for space with the local wildlife as of two thousand twenty. Washington's population was nearly eight million and Vancouver's topped out at about two and a half million and is projected to grow. It's become a busy place. So you see things like Bald Eagles nesting next to satellite dishes in busy parking lots. Big. Ravens Beg for food next to cold press coffeeshops commuters hop on ferry boats here like people in other towns take the train or the car. On these trips they can sometimes spot the southern resident orcas milling about but a lot of the time the orchestra framed by ferry boats or container ships. The area's ports are growing along with the population. In twenty eighteen Porta Vancouver ship activity reached a record high and the port is undergoing numerous expansions. Increased. Commercial ship traffic on top of recreational boat activity is one of the biggest threats facing the whales that live here. This traffic causes numerous problems ships pollute the water, and they're loud under the waves. As we're about to find out the ocean is getting crowded and noisy, and it's negatively impacting the whales. Dr Lance Barrett Lennard is the director of the Marine Mammal Research Program at the Vancouver Aquarium. There's also a lot of heavy vessel traffic that comes in some of the going to the port of Vancouver some of the going to the port of Seattle unfortunately both both major west coast ports. have their roots running through. Southern Resident Critical Habitat. But the obvious problem he says is that more boats increase the chances that Wales will get hit. especially, if the boats are going fast. Whale is far less likely to be hit by ship that's running slow, and if it's running less than ten knots, a good chance to survive even if it is hit, that's just the facts. So regulators started issuing slowdown directives, it few areas these slowdowns are mandatory, but in the Pacific northwest or the orcas live, they remain mostly voluntary. Mariner say they want to avoid the ORCAS but there are business conflicts John? Berg. Is With Pacific, Merchant Shipping Association a Trade Group that represents about thirty shipping lines that do business along the Pacific coast. For a lot of ships. Schedule Integrity. Is. Paramount. and. So they need to be at a certain port at a certain day in a certain time. And so planning is essential especially since coming in late can mean higher fees and lost revenue. Mariners go back and forth about how quiet ships they talk about things like reducing noise by finding optimum speed or by retrofitting or upgrading vessels with more efficient quieter parts. They even say that in some cases slower vessels. Moore of Iraq. Now to researchers, this is a settled question, the faster ship the louder the ship. And it's the noise that is even more detrimental to the ORCAS than ship. Strikes. The underwater cacophony is mostly generated by ship's propeller. It releases vapor filled bubbles. ORCAS like all CETACEANS rely on echo location to communicate, made and find food. For ORCAS, it's how they find salmon as the ORCAS chase salmon they make clicking sounds that they send out into the ocean. The click then bounces off of the salmon and creates an echo, and that's how they know where the salmon are underwater noise pollution specialist. Dr Lindy Wildcard is an adjunct research associate at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia Canada. CETACEANS are particularly vocal of the US sounds to find their prey actively using bio sonar. And the various noise sources that humans put into the ocean can affect. Wales and that they are masked, that is the sounds of interests are obliterated by by US adding this sort of acoustics smog of of noise so they can't hear as well. You can actually hear the masking that wildcard is talking about listen to this underwater recording of northern resident orcas who have different dialects from their neighbors, the southern resident or is this recording was provided by Orca lab a nonprofit research center based on Hanson Island near British. Columbia. Canada. Those. SQUEALS ARE ORCA calls. Here's what happens if you overlay their calls with recording of the ship underwater. It drowns out the ORCAS squeals. All you hear is ship noise. That's because the sound created by the ship is at the same high frequency ranges the ORCAS. It's kind of like being at a dinner party where people are talking over each other. But for the ORCAS, the increased sound means they'll lose their seat at the table. If the ORCAS can't hear themselves they can't hear the seminar and so they can't find food. And that can have far reaching impacts that affect the entire population. Their stress hormones can increase. with, noise with the seismic Airgun sounds they also reduce their vocalisations to the point of sometimes falling outright silent, which means they can't communicate with each other and that probably affects mating. If mayors could know where the ORCAS are. They could try to avoid that part of the ocean or at least slow down. So their engine noise doesn't drown the ORCAS OUT Ideally. They'd only have to go slow when the orcas were in the area, but it can be hard for ship captains to confirm where the whales are in fog rain or even under normal circumstances ship captains can't always see them they often miss them. So some conservationists along with the Canadian government installed underwater hydrophones in the Salish Sea along the coast of British Columbia near known ORCA HABITAT, they wanted to be able to track the ORCAS through their echo location calls. But remember how it works. Sound was drowned out by the ship's well, it's not just hard for the orchestra here. It's hard for the humans to. It can take people a long time to listen to all those recordings figuring out what is well sound, and what is this ship fish or other marine life sounds the orcas make noise at all hours of the day and night, and all of that sound even that record overnight has to be listened to by someone. Up. Next. How artificial intelligence can help speed this process up? And maybe find a solution for both the ships and the whales.

Orcas Vancouver Pacific Northwest United States Pacific Seattle Canada Vancouver Island British Colum Wales Southern Resident Critical Hab Strait Of Georgia Cavs Porta Vancouver Vancouver Aquarium Tala Puget Juan De Sound Columbia
Malaysia court sentences ex-Prime Minister Najib Razak to serve up to 12 years in jail for crimes linked to 1MDB scandal

Morning Edition

02:12 min | 6 months ago

Malaysia court sentences ex-Prime Minister Najib Razak to serve up to 12 years in jail for crimes linked to 1MDB scandal

"Court has found former Prime Minister Najib Razak guilty. He's been sentenced to 12 years in prison. This was in his first corruption trial connected To the plundering of the so called one Mdb State Investment fund. This is part of one of the largest most far reaching financial scandals in history involved at least 10 countries, including the United States, Michael Sullivan reports. Things could have gone a lot better for Najeeb today, the judge finding him guilty on all seven counts of abuse of power, criminal breach of trust and three counts of money laundering in a trial widely seen as a test of Malaysia's commitment to the rule of law. I think it's a good day for Malaysia. Bridget Welsh is a research associate with the University of Nottingham. And an expert on Malaysian politics. Speaking from the capital, Kuala Lumpur, This decision actually re affirms that the rule of law is working. The judge was very careful and laying out his decision, and I think that there was set the sense that the decision move forward in a very uncertain political environment and the judiciary. At least this has ruled the day and with that there has been a sense of justice. Now Jeeves Fall from Grace has been swift just two years ago. Then Prime Minister. Najib's party was dealt a shocking defeat in the general election, in part because of the public's discussed with one MDB scandal, which saw billions siphoned off from the government investment fund into individual bank accounts, including prosecutors say Najib's The Jeep has maintained his innocence and said on Facebook last night that he was misled by others and that the charges against him are political in nature. It's going to be a long process of appeals and their two more paces, and it may be a number of years, but you know he will basically not be allowed to contest the election. During this process, and that's important, Brigitte Wolf says, and helps Malaysia's current prime minister Modena seen who heads a shaky coalition that includes Najib's party. She says Mujahideen will gain the most from today's rulings because he will be seen as putting the country before politics malicious restoring its reputation internationally, and it used to be in the top 10 countries for corruption. Now this makes it stand tall, and I think that is that really serves Malaysia well for NPR

Prime Minister Najib Razak Malaysia Prime Minister Brigitte Wolf Kuala Lumpur Michael Sullivan Najeeb United States Bridget Welsh University Of Nottingham Mujahideen Facebook Research Associate NPR
Computer Aided Biology Platform Helps Companies Meet the Challenges of 21st Century Biomanufacturing

Cell Culture Dish Podcast

04:40 min | 8 months ago

Computer Aided Biology Platform Helps Companies Meet the Challenges of 21st Century Biomanufacturing

"Marcus co-founded synthase after working as a research associate in synthetic biology at University College London where he developed novel Bio Synthesis Methods using pathway engineering prior to ucla, he was a bio transformation scientists working as part of an industrial biotechnology group that conducted more than ninety contract research projects for over twenty clients. Marcus has a PhD in plant biochemistry from Durham. I'd like to start by asking if you could tell us a bit about the concept of bioprocessing four point zero, and what it means to the industry. By purchasing full. Has Come from a cut derived from the attempts of industry full point. And will that's referring to. Is the Barracks Industrial Revolution which happen which is made human production Gamal as sophisticated, inefficient through the ages first industrial revolution, we just quoting a Siamese what steams to be used as a power source, replacing manual effort, the chemical energy. Dramatic increases the productivity as possible. Within Industry and then moving onto electrification, innovation production lines any more efficient ways of producing products an visit us. Industrialization around Automation Electronic Control that. So they find the content industry full point. As is often referred to in thinking. Okay. How can we connect all of the different devices of pieces of information that we might have particular setting? Connect those in to to the digital. Computing where you can have data storage across crossing and data analysis, so then debates this. Use of automated production is that one level higher allows the three sophisticated knowledge in control of what's going on, we take. This is particularly important for area such as processing. Biological Because of the complexity of what we daily with, so we really need to be able to get to grips with the complexity of the processes. Running on wore the day to this coming out with those and get into Rica era format such we can use asked me as we progress. That's really interesting. You explain. The Solutions synthase provides in this area. said they didn't start out as companies as we all now, so these days we provide software ted help people do their science recently made this offering the first late is because we processing. Those looking for ways of doing more sophisticated automated experiments in order to address the next is the will to do so the cool capability software. Anthony is the older generation. ultimated instructions abolish Christ calls. While is means is the scientists can rapidly specify They want to run. The works out all the details down to the every step of run protocal it can convert those detailed actions. The scripts that needed particular. These Commission and Toronto away from the intent. The scientist is given the software old way through old details that needed to actually run at intended experiment. Includes will to calculating the volumes concentrations, the reagents in the samples that needed shows the US to set those regions on on your. So then using that. Hey, go on the road. Will that wrong this? Project Hope with instructions. To generate. Amidst. Substantially more usable impactful at the moment there's a real issue It's highly flexible due to the complexities of programming and so out, there allows much more flexible, useful information. Law Context for more complex experimentation. So. Now's where we started. To do some really cool experiments that we re proud, generated number case studies which show the power of using automation in all science. But. It also has a really big beneficial effect when it comes to digital integration. If we think about all the different devices we have within the lab. Is the automation is? Also Dr and actually we have about electrical devices in particular, which is an associated with those. Two nations which actually produced the data, which is the whole point running experience in the first place. What we need is a way of structuring dates from all of these diverse diversities equipment.

Scientist Marcus Automation Electronic Control Barracks Industrial Revolution Durham Ucla United States Research Associate University College London Gamal Toronto Commission Anthony
Using a Game to Improve Resilience in Teens With Rosemary Lokhorst

Live Happy Now

05:41 min | 8 months ago

Using a Game to Improve Resilience in Teens With Rosemary Lokhorst

"Good Day and welcome to episode two hundred, sixty, three of live, happy now. This is Paula Phelps and this week. We're going to imagine. Living in a world has been plagued by a great tragedy. The. World is you know is gone. All the stores are closed and you can't see your friends. Sound familiar. Interestingly enough. We're talking about shadow's edge. A mobile game and lifestyle platform that was created to help teens and young adults build resilience skills. Today we're talking with Rosemary law forced one of the creative minds behind this innovative platform. Let's listen as she explains how this game has helped. Teens and young adults deal with chronic illness, anxiety and now a pandemic. Rosemary. Welcome to live happy now. Thank you I'm very flattered sphere. Well, we have a lot talk about because you've got so many different components to shadow's edge, but before we start talking about those components. Can you explain the game to us? So shadow's edge is a free mobile game that is helping teens and young adults build emotional resilience and the game dust that true self help content that is delivered right where they are on their devices playing games, so we incorporate principles of narrative therapy and artistic expression and turned that into a game to meet them rather. Rather at, can you explain what narrative therapies narrative therapy is the principle that you tell your story and talk about what you're going through that you're actually start to work on it internally. Bunch of research associated with that budge. The idea is that for example I've had trauma and top about various times with potentially with different people that I started incorporating how what has happened to me into my story and as I started doing rats. I Tell Louisville differently each time, and that's because. Because you are accepting what's happened to you and I will actually to move forward, and it sounds like it'd be a great thing for the teen market because a lot of times talking about your feelings is difficult and just saying this is what I need. You don't necessarily have the language for that. Yes, and especially in a try it teams. That's what they're meant to do. They're meant to become more independent, and there's so many things going on in the brain with gross and with becoming. Becoming their own person, they're finding their own identity, and I think that specific he now, even just in general teams are so much more pressure than we were when you were younger. There's so much more pressure to be the best that everything. There's so much more pressure from outside from your social media in all kinds of TV shows where people become billionaires by the age of twenty right, it can feel like some of these genes after Tuesday, full career path by age fourteen already and so. That stress in addition to just really finding out who they are and becoming more independent is just very heavy on their minds, and that's not always easy for them to the neck. Stress any in addition to that our research is also shown when we were harvesting over fourteen million conversations of teens online that they actually prefer eating out to somebody that is potentially not really in their immediate few, because they don't know if they would be understood there and you mentioned the research. You did a lot research. There's so much science and research that goes into the backhand of this and I want to get to that, but. But you have created this whole platform. Can you talk about where the idea began to get us here? Absolutely more than just a game, and that's why this is a great question, an answer a little bit so that you can see sort of how it all came together. It all started with a book. Our founders Sherry, Subroto. She had a brain Schumer when she was younger, and she experienced firsthand that there's really no tools that are appealing and engaging for young people out there to help them through that journey of dealing with something really harsh comes your way, and so when against all odds? She survived Jackson. Jackson went into psychology for years. She did lots of workshops teens with young adults, and upon her twenty fifth year of survivorship. She then decided she wanted to do more, and so she wrote a book with France, that was called digging deep, and for that she set up a foundation and the foundation digging deep, published the book and distributed to over seven hundred hospitals in the US with about thirty five thousand copies, basically two parents professionals psychologists, the male started working with the book, and they loved it, and so with that she also than established log for parents and professionals to help them guide them, you know. Know how to deal with these kinds of things, talks your team. All kinds of subjects and a lot of subjects actually came from parents requested by healthcare professionals, and that sort of where I answered. You know she was running out of books and I knew her already were friends. She knew I had a technical background and she knew I had storytelling backgrounds though she said you know Rosie. I want to do more with this and I'm running out of books. How can I make this into something digital you know? How can we reach a wider audience with this self? Help content that we've had in the book. And, so we look at what's possible. What's the other people will redoing engineers? That wasn't really a lot around. You know. There were gangs that were focused on shooting your cancer, or that were specific applications to monitor your diabetes there things to make you feel more healthy physically, but really on the mental side, and so we really set out to do something that helps teens in medium that they're comfortable with and. And, so that's why we decided to build games versus an

Rosemary Jackson Paula Phelps Louisville Schumer United States Subroto Rosie France
Malaysia gets new PM, Muhyiddin Yassin, after week of turmoil

Between The Lines

07:53 min | 11 months ago

Malaysia gets new PM, Muhyiddin Yassin, after week of turmoil

"To Malaysia which has a new prime minister seventy two year old my eden. Yesen it's less than a week after the abrupt resignation of the world's most national later. This is the ninety four year old Muhammad Muhammad that plunged Malaysian politics into turmoil. So how has this South East Asia nation about thirty one to thirty two million people? How has it gone from an inclusive? And reformist government to a nationalist conservative law. Within days. Bridget Welch is an honorary research associate at the University of Nottingham. That's at Malaysia's Asia Research Institute bridget. Welcome back to between the lines. Great to be here now. Mahadi rule Malaysia for more than two decades until a two thousand and three in my twenty. It mighty gripe political comeback. Those last time we had you on the program bridge. What did he suddenly resign? Listen to us into his tenure. Well I it's reasonably clear that had he had very serious tensions between himself and anwer Abraham and the coalition that he led the pocket harp on coalition was divided and ultimately it split And as a consequence of that The the coalition collapsed and part of the collapsed however in the ball to move to a new coalition government and mightier himself was not willing to accept what other other parties in the coalition were doing montier resented working with. I'm no particularly the former leaders of the former government who were Who are tainted by corruption allegations? So what we see is a situation where Montier many politicking dividing rule many of the trying to split the pot the coalition itself his his reluctance to to leave Turn power over to Anwar set the conditions for the power. Grab that took place but at the same time Montier was not willing to go full. Go through with it. Because he wasn't willing to to allow the new new coalition to include the members of who he stood against when he came back into power. I'm into thousand. Mahalia and You mentioned ny Abraham now. Let's be clear. He's the protege turned. Raul turned ally although they fill out about a waco so ago they have reunited though having I think they have reunited from a perspective of They're now forming the opposition. But they have not yet completely resolved their differences. The fact of the matter is is that if Montier had supported Anwar clearly laid out a time line and stopped the politicking within the coalition then the government would not have collapsed. So I think for now. They are working together against a now common enemy. Who was someone who took the took took over the government in a in a power grab but at the same time that doesn't necessarily mean that they are fully resolved the question of the Lisa Session? If alcohol everyone was to come back to government says he feels but tried he success that. Yes in his malign nationalist. He's backed by this corruption tarnished former governing party. You mentioned the Mama tells more about yes so mine didn't yes and has been in politics for over forty years He joined politics in nineteen. Seventy eight He came into. I'm no He was the Chief Minister of the the very important state of Jehovah on the southern part of Malaysia and he has served in different capacities as different ministries that has held six different ministries In I'm no I'm he has not necessarily Had A clear Persona that That an extensive grassroots but he's been a very effective tactician and capable administrator And as a consequence he rose through the ranks through I'm no And he became deputy prime minister under the previous government From two thousand nine to two thousand fifteen We didn't ask known predominantly for three things He's I known for defining himself I as a Malay- as opposed to a Malaysian which is of course part of the reason. There's the brand that he is. Emily nationalist government and this new coalition that exists combines is predominantly Malays based parties And so this is something. It seems to have been Quite defining of who he is. The second thing is is that he's also known for standing up for against Najib on they won. Mvp scandal He he was sacked and after putting pressure On on Najeib to on these issues of corruption and he after in this happened in two thousand fifteen when the scandal is revealed so he stood up for On this important issue. And he's also known now for The effective maneuvering up becoming the winner in the power. Grab Which of course they're very different views and Malaysia about this Those looking at this recognized that that there are real serious. Ethical concerns about Whether or not amyloid and Yeltsin actually had the numbers which really did not seem to be the case in terms of A majority government When he was positioning himself for taking over power And others feel that that there's a there's an that he had. He had more than most numbers at that time and that he should that He was effective and moving and getting the position of power. There people in Malaysia are divided right now. Some people are are willing to give mood in a chance Wanting the situation to be more stable is and others very very angry that they feel that their sister the government has been stolen from them their dreams of different Malaysia of stolen for them. And there's a bit of considerable fear among people that this that lead in Yassin were lot real will be an old Malaysia. Politician Aka using the levers of power using issues of race using of issues of of of exclusion as a way to build up his powerbase so to the extent that this new Malaysian pm a struggles to govern and of course we have to remember elected public. Mandates does this mean this unprecedented instabilities. Luckily to continue the fact of the matter is is that Malaysia is a coalition government And is dealing with the situation of coalition governments in coalition governments across the world. You have one type of party set. A parties emerged. And then you can have a very unstable situation that a new set of parties emerged from Malaysia. This is a very new dynamic and of course it played out in the uniquely Malaysian Way with with intense amount of personal drama and Intrigue Enemies and betrayals Because the politics of Malaysia or highly personalized Right now mood in is Has Very is behold into the parties that he that he is that a put him into office and and the questions of Prot. Who is he's going to prosecute or maintain the prosecution's how much Islam governance he's GonNa put in whether he's actually GonNa try to seem to have any reform without his gonNA use race relations and of course importantly now lead in. Essen is is somebody who's just recently had a very serious bout of pancreatic cancer so the issue of the leadership succession is is equally important for this new government so there are very important points of instability and and as a result of that This is something that the people are watching very carefully. The instability is also facilitated by the fact that the opposition the new opposition bucket on Harapan. Now is that is actually quite emboldened by how this power crap has taken place.

Malaysia Montier Prime Minister South East Asia Muhammad Muhammad Anwar Bridget Welch Anwer Abraham University Of Nottingham Mahalia Harapan Asia Research Institute Essen Raul Research Associate Najib Yeltsin MVP Waco
Yaakov Lappin: Europe's Refugee Crisis II and the Virtual Caliphate

Jonny Gould's Jewish State

05:52 min | 11 months ago

Yaakov Lappin: Europe's Refugee Crisis II and the Virtual Caliphate

"Predicted the rise of Islamic state. And where it would establish a caliphate in his book. The virtual caliphate published nearly a decade ago. It's Yaacov Lapeyton military affairs correspondent and analyst research. Associate Bagan sit at center for research studies at Bar. Ilan University and in House analyst with the Miriam Institute. And it's with thanks to Chief Executive Sergeant Benjamin Anthony for making our introduction in nineteen twenty four the last caliphate. An Islamic state as envisioned by the Koran was dismantled in Turkey but in twenty eleven the virtual caliphate outlined an Islamic state that already exist on computer servers around the world used by Islamists to carry out functions typically reserved for physical state like creating training camps mapping out to states constitution and drafting tax laws. His book predicted how Islamists equipped with twenty first century technology to achieve as Seventh-century Vision would upload the virtual caliphate into the physical world. You predicted I. S I did and I even humbly. I predicted that they would establish it in either Iraq or any area where they would find a failure of state sovereignty. I didn't foresee Syria. But I certainly saw the crescent of Iraq area has a place where he's Law mcstay could upload it's vision and absolutely we have seen this transition from the online jihadist world into the physical off-line territorial world you've seen this vision being uploaded and then destroyed by a coalition of Western countries. I look at contemporary history around the world. I'm looking at that terrible attack on this for non-christians is not the same. Inspired idea that they are testing the Buddhist majority in Sri Lanka the Muslims there or are they sending another message is one hundred percent of the same ideology. Salafi Jihadists Salafi jihadists believe that they are in a state of war with the entire world. Where anywhere that does not fall in line with their fundamentalist a vision of how state should be run which is the most extreme of adherence to Islamic law They consider themselves to be municipal war with that place. It doesn't matter if it's an Arab Muslim country that's not religious with them. A Christian country a secular country where Buddhists country and the terrorist cell to carry out this relaxed bombings is perhaps the same Salafi Jihadist ideology that gave birth to al Qaeda and two Islamic. State's Yaacov as you develop these ideas through your research. What extraordinary developments have you found? Well when I was researching the virtual caliphate book which was as you point out approximately a decade ago. I was amazed by first of all how accessible this online activity was was an English. I was being exposed to English. Recruitment chat rooms where a senior Islamist jihadist figures were basically bringing me in British Muslims into their way of thinking and I was alarmed by this by published articles in the times when I was exposing this activity and it also makes me about how how easy it was to get into these foreign taxable. This entire world was these days. I know that things have changed very much so I'm not active in this line of research anymore. But I'm well aware that these chat rooms are encrypted. They're very difficult to enter and they've lowered their profiles so the activities still very much going on very much danger to international security much harder for people who are looking for to find it and get into these four without being spotted by therefore managers now since he wrote the book. We have seen the rise of Islamic state in Iraq and Syria than subsequent defeat and the consequential mass migration of refugees into Europe which has changed the politics of Europe is the gap between the people and their governments in the West bigger than ever in the West. It's hard for me to comment on because I Expertise does not focus on the West. What I can say about migration and how it's going to change Middle Eastern migration to the West. And how could change politics is is? This is just one reason why Middle Eastern refugees are pouring into the West. Another reason is say take the Assad regime. The Assad regime is responsible for millions of Syrians. Leaving the state of Syria. And the fact is that most of these people who are who have emigrated from Syria who who escaped conflict there are Sunnis and they're running away because of the coalition of Shiite Alawites who are waging the war in Syria on behalf of us have basically ethically funds them from their homes through mass murderer and war-crimes so what we're seeing here. Sectarian Warfare Creating wave upon wave of refugees from the Middle East and I think that will destabilize To a certain extent the political systems in the West if it repeat itself C. Another wave which I think is quite likely I mean if I said continues. He's about to launch a major offensive in Italy And if that creates another wave of refugees or if Turkey makes good on its threats to open the gates open the floodgates on Syrian refugees and let them travelling to Europe and we'll see this trend

Syria West Iraq Europe Assad Analyst Turkey Yaacov Lapeyton Middle East Sri Lanka Yaacov Chief Executive Ilan University Benjamin Anthony Miriam Institute Italy
"research associate" Discussed on Biz Talk Radio

Biz Talk Radio

05:32 min | 11 months ago

"research associate" Discussed on Biz Talk Radio

"Research associate from the urban institute so that technology the contradictions alert is really a starting point and it's how it's integrated and using and investigations that's really crucial for the departments with us also in a place or maybe it's not a high crime area at all but there's just a large gathering of people like for example we remember the shooting in Las Vegas okay is there a possibility of that being set up in such a way where as knowledge gets better at least even the people around there they'll know immediately where the shot is coming from and it kind of a least eliminates that kind of search for and you know kind of doing it the hard way you can't wait for the next shot to see where that's coming from where they can increase the response to that yeah so in terms of like the accuracy of the technology they the the vendor themselves have a I believe it's like a twenty five metre radius around the around the ten point and that's just for a stake of of I've been stationed there in their technology but we found that through interviews with officers and sergeants they typically will they'll find people do you know passing to firearms during a private sale in their backyard and apply the ten point on you know the back porch and they because it's a pain point that defender sees that the officers can also see they can then go and follow up with that presidents day a week we believe there was a shooting occurring here we want to clarify what was happening and them and learn more about that and it can be very very accurate second party questions in terms of response time so we look at response differences of gunshot detection alerts compared to those traditional nine one one calls for service from community members and in each of the cities for shots fired which are just those types of nine one one calls working over say I heard a gunshot I'm not exactly sure where it was we found that officers responded much faster compared to those events for gunshot detection alert roughly thirty seconds to three minutes about three and a half minutes faster and what was interesting about this was that it wasn't that officers were treating these types of alerts differently or these types of shooting notifications differently they weren't saying this is a gunshot detection alert I need to respond faster or this is actually a call for service I'm gonna take a little bit more cautiously the the increase in response time really came from the technology being able to notify the department of the shooting events faster than I can remember can notify department and we saw a large increases in the speed that the parties are notified and and therefore an officer can then be re assigned and begin their response incredible last question is really involved with training and I know you'll say this obviously this is most effective when is thoroughly incorporated into training is that going on right now is that kind of the planet is this thing is released throughout the country really there has to be that part of the the training in the implementation is just so important to really make it as effective as possible yeah absolutely and we found across each of the three departments that training was very light for this technology in most cases it was a very short you know less than twenty minute conversation with recruits about this is an additional tool that you can have it and use in your responses we learn that it training itself with implemented unevenly across the departments also across time so when I was first implemented indeed agencies you know years ago at that point there's a lot of excitement around it and because of that they had longer training that we need more data now that it's been out for a number of years and they're used to it as as an agency standard the trains are are much but they're they're not as intense or as as details we also found that there are very few trains for other stakeholders in the departments such as crime analyst who can use the data from the system from gunshot detection technology and to create crime reports or you know weekly or monthly reports identify hot spots of shootings or even in Milwaukee we saw that they were using that information to identify gang shootings and and retaliation against students and try to get ahead of the curve to prevent future shootings at the former retaliation there's a lot of data behind the scene that's important state agencies as well that can be used but if there is a crime analysts aren't aren't even familiar with the system or they're not using the data and if they don't learn about it your training and they can't do that and create these types of reports well as you can hear the urban institute does some great work Daniel Lawrence thank you so much for being with us couple things before we go where do we find out more about gunshot detection technology and then secondly if we just want to get involved with the urban institute and see what they're doing every day where do we go shares of gunshot detection technology there's a few different vendors out there our valuation focused on shots spotter they're the the that a large vendor and and the field on the on the urban institute we're looking in Washington DC and our website is urban dot org and we have and I say we had my my team that worked on the study we have a number of publications coming out on this evaluation but there are a couple things out all already.

Research associate urban institute
Understanding 'church and state' in Brazil

Monocle 24: The Globalist

09:55 min | 1 year ago

Understanding 'church and state' in Brazil

"Today's show. We'll look at a couple of places which is and politicians make pretty unabashed best use of each other and at one country where a critical mass of the population seems to have grown tired of the arrangement. We'll stop in Brazil who's new president. Cheyenne Shaya Bolsonaro. One power on campaign heavily geared towards the least generous impulses Brazil's traditional Catholic believers and it's increasingly influential and rather less tolerant evangelical converts joining me to discuss. This is Antonio San Pyo research associate for conflict security and development at the International Institute for Strategic Agents Studies. Antonio I'll start with the very basics generally right now how religious a country is Brazil. Well Brazil is a very religious country. People's religion is quite important for their dentists. Mostly although obviously in the big urban centers in the southeast where people are wealthier and more connected to coacher and things this tends to be a bit smaller but resists to a very large Catholic country. There are a lot of. Catholics is by far the majority the Evangelical Population Elation Brazil has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades and it is estimated now that there are about thirty percent of the population identifying themselves as if Angelico but this population is divided in several different nations different churches but these population tends to be extremely conservative -servative in social terms in terms of controversial social freedom issues like gay marriage abortion and other issues. We'll come back to the van Jellicoe presently because they are a relatively recent arrival certainly in the Brazilian political sphere at least to the extent they now operate if we look at the Catholic Church in particular which is as you point out historically the root of Brazilian faith. How politically active or influential? Have they been. The Catholic. Search has been relatively modest or discreet in terms of politics in never officially endorses. Any candidates TASR assumed for itself a role as an actor and a supporting pillar in the more impoverished communities in Brazil Brazil as a country with large areas that are extremely poor and marginalized It is very important in urban areas. Where the poor resort to religion as an escape scape from the realities from the marginalization that the broader society and the broader economy regard them with so it is an important factor in social terms but politically medically? It hasn't had a lot of influence in Brazilian politics at least in this current era of democracy since the mid nineteen eighties. So is it fair to say. Even the evangelical more explicitly politically ambitious in the Catholic Church. was they want to take more direct role in Brazilian politics. Absolutely I believe and have been by far more active and more proactive in seeking political influence the Evangelical priests in their churches especially those of the biggest searching in Brazil such as the Universal Church of God the occasion of your cell to Hanes deals led by Juma do it you must see a do also owns a very large. TV Station in Brazil called record TV and he hasn't being extremely vocal but he has given even some public comments supporting able scenario the far-right candidate that ended up winning the elections now. The president of Brazil and there are several media reports showing how even though the public indoctrination or public mention of candidates and support in the church during ceremonies themselves themselves are quite discreet or sometimes completely absent on the margins of the religious ceremonies in the way that people talk and discuss with each other. They are quite supportive of what is currently the far right movement in Brazil the talk phone crime conservative in social terms so this is a very strong movement. Many Brazilian a majority of the evangelicals showed support for Djabel scenario by some poles seventy percent of Brazilians who identify as evangelical voted full. Oh Bolsheviks what's your sense of which way round the horse and the car were there by which I mean were evangelical voting Wgir Bolsonaro. Because because they think he's the guy always Bolsonaro going out of his way to convince evangelical that he's the guy so the interesting thing. Is that Djabel. Sano is N- aunt and oven jellicoe. He doesn't follow jellicoe religion his Catholic however his wife is of Jellicoe and he has demonstrated several policy positions nations and other philosophical points that are very aligned with evangelical concern so for instance the transfer of the Brazilian embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem Jerusalem. He stated publicly during the campaign than closer to the election. He showed that he wasn't sure about it. And now he continues to tiptoe on that however it was a point that is widely supported by the fans Alecos because of their belief that the Jews should return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple so at the second coming of Christ would come to believe that is very widespread evangelical community at least in Brazil and other points such as publicly stating certainly in the pass on to some extent the president also stating opposition to gay marriage to the presence of gender and sexual education in schools that evangelical bellicose think is beyond unacceptable for their ultra-orthodox views. Sold these points. jellicoe symbols on auto are very well aligned. There are some voices in the oven. Jellico community that worry about the long term implications abused for the Evangelical Movement as a whole for its future because at the same time that there are very comfortable. Alliances of positions between both scenario and the evangelicals Bono also states some points that are quite violent excellent and points regarding public securities. Such as shooting took you criminal supporting torture off. Criminals suspected criminals and these tend to afflict particularly the poor and particularly poor black men which is also the constituencies the demographics that tend to be more heavily. Evangelical John Jellicoe so it's not a complete harmony of thoughts but so far the social conservatives mobile zone auto and of the Jellicoe movements have become quite aligned. Wind is it a challenge for President Bolsonaro or any Brazilian politician to try to manage the The expectations the hopes and the energies of both the van Jellicoe and the Catholic Church. Are there points of difference between them at all. I believe that it is a challenge to acquire the political political support of these different communities while also attending or respecting the less conservative positions of the rest of the Brazil's population. So the reason why this balance between jellicoe Catholic hasn't been very prominent in recent years. Is that the Evangelical Movement has been quite divided politically whereas the Catholic Church doesn't explicitly get involved in politics. The evangelicals have been involved but in a very fragmented way so they haven't really supported a single presidential candidate or a single political party. Brazil country with around thirty parties represented in Congress and it is is very fragmented and there are evangelicals in many many parties. Do Workers Party that is now. The main opposition the arch enemy of Bozon Otto and his right wing wing movement. The work aspired self aligned itself with the Evangelical so during Duma rousseff and Duma Roussev went back on some policy proposals to provide sexual education gender education schools because of Evangelical Influence Tube. Resilient political fashion diva jellicoe movement. Woman has been quite versatile and adaptive in align itself to whoever is in power in order to increase its influence and tried to block some of the moves against its philosophy and its main driving influences main driving voice has been against social freedom issues abortion gay marriage sexual education schools and things like that so just as a final thought then if as does seem to be the case. Brazilian politics has become more conservative. At least if we think think of that phenomenon as being personified by the current President Dawda extent is that being driven by religious faith whether it is the more traditional oh Catholic faith or the the new genetic evangelical faith. I think a big part of this right-wing shift of Brazil and the growing conservatism servicemen. That has been demonstrated by political leaders is being driven by evangelicals would just saw that the number of evangelical representing Congress rose by ten percent in the lower chamber of Congress in the October elections so their presence in politics has been increasing. It's just not something that is to the dominant can't power. Its shares power with some all the conservative sections so for instance in Brazil there is a faction of Congress that is called BBB so for stands for bullets bowls or cattle and Bible so the agribusiness influence is very strong as well and they also have a conservative view view. Those that support the more freedom to bear arms also tend to align themselves with the social conservatives of Jellicoe so these forces allied lied to themselves the form of important source off conservatives and to some extent swing shift in Brazilian politics Antonio some thank

Brazil Jellicoe Evangelical Population Elation Brazil Brazil President Trump Cheyenne Shaya Bolsonaro John Jellicoe Catholic Church Van Jellicoe Congress Antonio San Pyo Catholic Church. International Institute For St Antonio Research Associate Jerusalem
A Top Keto Researcher Shares Her Findings

The Keto Answers Podcast

09:32 min | 1 year ago

A Top Keto Researcher Shares Her Findings

"I think you'd be on the podcast today. Anger Anthony Yes. Yes you are Maybe you say give people information just a little bit of your background currently what you do I'm a research associate at the University in South Florida and the Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology I worked with Dr Dominic Douglas. You know we have a lab here where we we study metabolism and how it pertains to the development and potential therapeutic interventions for a variety of diseases. primary focus for me would be cancer Um so he's been cancer. Metabolism things like Akita Genetic Diet or other non talk ways the target metabolism could be a useful advent to standard of Care Therapy for cancer better level so looked at eight non toxic metabolic targeted therapies or other these jazz seizure disorders and also near genetic disorders including some rare disorders like Kabuki Syndrome which is something that we've recently started studying so we have a wide array of interest kind of all related to how we can optimized metabolism to prevent and treat the gotta before we dive in deeper and I think what you do on a day-to-day basis just curious as far as your background and what got you interested in this field in the first place sure so I was always interested in. I was even a a young on girl. I was very much like a tomboy. I would always be playing outside like you know catch lizards grasshoppers than I was just so interested in those dot dot kind of so biology plus always really interested in me to the point where I never really thought about doing anything else. I probably from the time that I knew being scientists was an option. I was decidedly going to be a scientist and I always really loved the idea of contributing something new to be in a wealth of knowledge that was out there so just reading scientific textbooks and thinking about how literally each each launch of their represents an advise some fine history that had an interesting question or idea and tested dot hypothesis and came up with something new that had never been known before and that really drew me the being though after to High School I went to college with that in mind I studied biochemistry molecular biology at Hendrix College which is a small college in Arkansas which is where I grew up had a really great experience there where the the call all just very intent on experiential learning and so I was actually able to work in a neuro science research lab for three years at Undergrad and able to do really really interesting research and actually present at them national conferences even while I was an Undergrad which kind of furthered heard my you know solidified my interest in going on to graduate school and being scientists so then I decided to do my PhD after Undergrad and I came down to University of South Florida for or a PhD program in Biomedical Sciences and started looking around four labs to join though when you start a PhD program you have to identify who's GonNa be your nature Professor and the project that you're going to work work are gone for your dissertation project and that's what I'm doctor you know he was a new faculty member here. USF This is about ten years ago or so and he was doing a load of work at that time for the Navy looking at mitigation negation strategies to combat a unique type of seizure that manifest when you breathe high oxygen concentrations at depth so such a navy diver might experience and that led him down the rabbit hole to booking at he does this which of course the Ketogenic Diet had been used clinically for a hundred years actually to treat epilepsy mets refractory to education and so he was doing work in that field and at the time has kind of stumbled across this idea about a ton of research on at the time by the thought that maybe toes Hud's them properties that could be anticancer and that it was at the time I was looking for a research lab and I met Dr Casino and you described these ideas to me and it just sounded really fascinating in part because it seems so novel. It's funny now when I think about at that time the idea of diet impacting something as serious as cancer. It seemed surprising to me because now it seems so obvious that something so impactful the Diet would have major impacts on something like cancer but at the time it was very enterprising and I I'd had some personal experience with with cancer and and my father had had brain tumors starting when he was very young he had them even had them irradiated was pretty pretty intense radiation therapy which saved his life allowed him to live past you know his back speculation into his you know into relatively old age and and allowed me to to come around so that radiation saved his life but 'cause very long lasting negative effects and that he had cognitive physical decline over time and you know this was at a time we're a lot better now at using targeted radiation to eliminate much of those off target effects but at the time it was kind of more intense whole brain irradiation type therapy and I think I was just very intrigued by this idea that maybe there's here's the non toxic ways that we can before standard of care therapies so that we can protect our healthy tissue while putting more stress on the tumor and I I love that idea about potentially using diet do that and and I think that that really kind of caught my cut my eye. I and I decided to join Donovan and start up the Kantha research program and his love so now still split your serve research focuses. This is in in everybody all in on this sort of like metabolic therapies or or how do you split up. Yeah I would say our whole lab is it's pretty dynamic and their interest we kind of have people have more specific areas adventures expertise I I really enjoy and tend to focus on the cancer work in our lab dominate the classically trained neuroscientists and daas more his wheelhouse but we all kind of are familiar with the whole territory and contribute in other ways. I think that is also really important part to this kind kind of science as being multidisciplinary because we understand and learn a lot from each other though we're lucky about the epilepsy field has a very long history three of studying diet and metabolism and not do these days and there's a lot that we can learn from each other those are those and cancer biology for example or people studying nearer nearer developmental disorders can look at things like epilepsy and learn from I'm definitely we have people who kind of tend to focus on certain things were all also contributing to most of the projects that come out of the lab okay. How many resources do you guys have the right. Now we have about Devon fulltime not fall and then we have a number of students who come in and we'll volunteer or work as a student researcher for some period of time here and there so I would say I'm sure on yours and the answer is not enough of course always okay okay so one of the things you mentioned before was that you sort of have this transition in how you're thinking about cancer therapies and in that you know how could nutrition affect any of this nine eleven obviously. How can it not so? What did you learn that brought you from one mindset to the other. I think just the learning how impactful nutrition is on everything that happens in our bodies. I mean it is I would say one of the main them Eli but but our body is receiving it it tell their internal system a lot about the outside world.

Cancer Anthony Yes Scientist Dr Dominic Douglas Research Associate Department Of Molecular Pharma South Florida Kabuki Syndrome USF Donovan Hendrix College Arkansas High School ELI Navy University Of South Florida Devon
"research associate" Discussed on Bad Science

Bad Science

13:38 min | 1 year ago

"research associate" Discussed on Bad Science

"Out west pesticides things like that we thing uncalled integrated pest management where you can collect a bunch of spires release them out into a agricultural area of having to put out a bunch of chemicals so yeah they're they're helping us out for sure so there's some direct benefits but i think the real reason you appreciate it just because they're cool you know karadzic i'll keep trying on that one but i don't know kenny i mean cool but more frightening than cool for me maybe that's why they're maybe did you say you spend some time watching their behavior and watch you know eat we had more experiences where we were getting into spider world instead the spiders coming into our world you know maybe we would see him a little bit different life i mean that's a good point seeing it in action like do its thing i was fascinated i thought that was like the the closest i've come to being a spider expert yeah my fear of bugs does not necessarily come from seeing them in the wild or in their natural habitats it really comes from you're in my space bitch i need you out now yeah it's intrusion of you you know there's a lack of control happening in my own home that freaks me out it has very little to do with the actual bug yeah we got to be more like kenny and get out to these tropical rainforests and check out these spiders i'm sure we're both just down to do well i hear the amazon's nice right now sorry dark turns in this podcast look out guys okay so i had a couple of things that this movie just i don't know sparked my interest in so one thing there's this really funny any scene were there in the van and meryl streep is asking chris cooper's character about just dropping stuff that he loves because she's trying to like look for a passion that's like her jermaine drive in the movie her passion is to be passionate about something and he's super passionate about orchids and so she's asking him like but what about these other passions that you've had didn't you love fish or something that he gets into a story about fish and he's like i was obsessed with fish i would go deep diving the ocean i love the ocean and then one morning i woke up and i said fuck fish and now now i never went to the ocean again i'm just over it and so i was just curious because it made me think about my own life if you guys have had a passion before that you were just all in on and you know either as a kid or teenage years then just one day decided like nope i'm done with this now onto the next thing i i off meryl's whole arc of like i want to be passionate about anything i'm just again i'm like curl get yourself to therapy clearly you're suppressing oppressing something so much i think what we actually like i mean i bet i'm going to wage a gas here that kenny's love of insects comes from a very young time like when he was a little little little kid he got really into this shit and was like spiders are cool and then he followed that throughout his adulthood adulthood and thus became scientists cities today but i look at maryland i'm like gee surely either something happened something like very dark happened for you to just like shutdown eddie memories of anything passionate or you're just the most boring person alive like you have no pasha nothing like you're just stopping yourself like little oh yes she seems to be just like caught up in this weird elite is a job i don't know where a brighter color try try writing for differ magazine company new york or go to the go to the hamptons anything that gets you out of your right lane jump into this very strange field of orchid hunting at orchid drugs which i also wanted to ask about like what the hell is that are there other orchid drugs yeah so kenny answer we both if you ever dropped something a passion of yours that you were just like i'm done with this now and we're gonna get these orca drugs okay so hashemi's now that i've just like you know sort of cold turkey meryl don't be american so don't be america and maybe john laroche's main point is that it doesn't matter what you're passionate about is just finding somebody you can be passionate about it and what it is less important john rochon is kind of saying and why he says fuck fish is it it's not that he loved best is that he loved being obsessed with fish what was your other question the other question was orchid drugs bro yeah so where can we snort some powdered orchid kelly green cocaine was was working drug steph was not re-offend right kind of the point of the movie is is that the protagonist was kind of forced to to make up stories to make his movies exciting but there are flowers we can snort right well they're flowers have certainly provided a medicines that's for sure i mean poppies come to mind right what's your experience with that my streets poppies i wrote it but there are a lot ton of other drugs there are a lot of drugs that come out of the amazon that were still discovering all the time okay an off-the-record which ones are you experiment you gotta get it before the damn thing burns down you gotta get in there kenny take the trip trip of your life before jody percent of the world's oxygen just evaporates yeah and tell us which wants to do because i don't want to do the wrong drugs and then you know be tripping for four four years sounds like a good project for a student out there i'm just imagining the what student that's like no this we'll work i can make this a thesis i can spend seven years just being really fucking yeah and so you never like we're into a goth the the clothes and music and then decided like oh no i'm not a kid anymore i don't think i had like a big i don't know i guess i would probably went through some we're faces like that big thing for a while and then words that's absolutely accurate pokemon hoping uh-huh oh that's a good point mongo okay great then there was a writer's block so of huge part of the film is him suffering from writer's block he can't can't he doesn't know how to make the movie doesn't know how to write it out and so i wanted to know if you know if you had writer's block nadia ever and how do you deal with it and kenny i don't know if there's like science blocker walker research blocks or something but but i just wanted your both of your takes a perfect writer i'm just kidding now i think i've had it definitely had blocked but i think really what it is that i think the idea of writer's block is very romanticized and the notion of it is again a great way to sort of self sabotage tauch if you really think about it procrastination is essentially we procrastinate because we're afraid of dying because the minute we actually set forth and do a thing we have to to face our fear whether that's a fear of failure whether it's a fear of acceptance of fear of achievement whatever that thing is so you put off stuff because you don't want to face that fear just yet so i feel like when i've had i'm gonna put it in quotes writer's block it's really more just this long-term procrastinating where it's not so much oh i can't solve this thing it's that either for whatever reason i don't have the mental or physical energy to face that thing in the back of my head that charlie are nick cage one i should say really you hear his veto or as the film and you hear him just being like i'm fat stupid you but i'm bald i'm a mess and i think that's a that's many people it's a very a relatable identifiable things they hear that voice in your head telling you not to do things because society and your peers and your family and all these people that put those voices in your head when you're really little they start to come out when you're an adult trying to do a creative endeavor so i really say that like as far as writer's block goes i think i've got there's been times where i've gone maybe a few weeks or months without picking up something i've have definitely had moments where i go i know that whatever that thing i'm working on isn't ready yet and i don't know that i can fix it this second which which is like another thing that's driving me nuts about the film that i was watching charlie just like i'm like go take a shower go do a vacation anything like you need to get out of your comfort zone not that a shower is out of your comfort but like you need to do just walk the dog like so many people if they say like how do you break you know how do you how do you solve a story or whatever it's like just do anything else in like your brain will naturally start to giving you're giving your brain a break from staring at the page will give yourself the opportunity community to like let it come through and filter it and then you go there it is yeah yeah i love that that's just i think a great classic remedy for being stuck and problem solving is just take your focus away from the problem he had to go to new york and then the minute he goes to new york that's when he starts solving things and i'm like you should have just taken a trip to the desert is an hour away you know you wanna take a trip you always talk about it he has to go to santa barbara to go to that or confessed that he keeps trying to bring women too and i'm like look i get that though i get that it's a horny plant but also like you don't need to be horny on your work expedition just go take yourself to see like the mission go hi it's like a nice little john right away from santa barbara just get put yourself in a different situation because it does does force your brain to problem solve when you're not in that or just like give yourself a break why was he always thinking about work he's just that's the kind of guy he is probably a subdued passive dude got caught down a little bit i also love ohi by the way great oh hi tourism board is gonna love this that's a good just to take take a break go to ohio it's like nobody touched it since like nineteen eighteen what's this money from the ohio tourism board i'll just put that on my chest we'll edit at at that part out so they don't know that we're getting paid and kenny what about you how do you solve when you're stuck yeah i mean i think we all have writers blocker curb you know what we're gonna use it a lot i think all points you guys are are spot on you're you're doing these projects is research don't work out some of them do and you really need to write that up and make it public public so it's a common phrase that research really doesn't exist unless it's disseminated at knowing can read about it you know it's like tree fell in the woods so you can do that and then we do this thing called peer review so i write up this this research i have and i wanna submitted to a journal so i sent it to the journal they look at it if they think it's good enough if they send it out to anonymous other scientists who then essentially read it and territory shreds and trying to poke holes in it and find everything that's wrong i'm going to revise it and if they like it and they don't reject you eventually gets published so from you can expect like a year or two like is people spend many years from submission to getting published so regarding writer's block getting those responses back especially a you know some people are really kind of polite and nice and have good comments other people just like you know a rip your science apart that can be pretty daunting so i think a big challenge especially for younger folks in science is to kind of maintain that self-motivation kinda have it within you to keep the persistent even if even if you're down in the dumps about your work i can't imagine having to send off script and then having to wait a full year ear and then a bunch of people have come back and ripped it apart that is excruciating so sorry yeah he's gotta be sure right it makes science it also prevents junk science from being published usually but yeah it as far as having this is a career there are there are better parts jolly thing will thank god that at least once the science is published that becomes legislation immediately ah right there's no red tape or loopholes or people that have to vote depending on if it's an election year it's just like oh the scientific community has all aw decided on this they've gone through peer review and so now that's the law that's how it works great so on that note people i should check out your podcast nadia why do you know that tell us about the podcast yeah check out my podcast why do you know that i co host steve schlage also very funny i hi we basically want to know why you know so much about an incredibly specific topics so we interview all walks of life about something that they really really are into not just obsessed with but like as hyper-specific as we can possibly get whether that isn't offend a person a cultural movement et cetera great okay that sounds fun and it's available wherever you get your.

kenny four four years seven years one day
Amateurs Identify U.S. Spy Satellite Behind President Trump's Tweet

KCBS Radio Morning News

04:42 min | 1 year ago

Amateurs Identify U.S. Spy Satellite Behind President Trump's Tweet

"Late last week president trump shared a photo of failed rocket and satellite launch in Iran on Twitter after some investigation by amateur satellite trackers it's believe that photo came from a satellite known as USA to do for it's one of America's most advanced a spy satellites a very little is known about it for more we're joined live on the KCBS ring central news line by grace Lou a research associate in the east Asian nonproliferation program and the Middlebury institute of International Studies in Monterey great thanks for the time. thank you for having me so okay what little what do we know about this the satellite. well we know that these are capabilities that are highly classified and they are generally talked about in public there's speculation that the US government certainly has this type of technology but I think it's a little different when we see the actual subtly image itself and we see how high quality there isn't a lot of detail you can see on the ground yeah for those who haven't seen the photos of the president tweeted out the other day it's remarkably detailed it's believed by I guess a lot of people sleuthing this thing that it may have been of a photograph of a photograph so to speak somebody took a picture of a hard copy photo but you can read you know the writing around the edge of the launch ring is it's quite remarkable. yes certainly it's beyond the resolution most commercially available satellite images that we can buy as open source researchers inducing this level of detail again was astounding and well you know experts and use spatial analysts in the field no that is this technology exists and the US government probably uses it quite often again it's pretty shocking to see the images. what must be great for people who study this stuff people like you but I'm sure that you know defense department officials not thrilled that something like that was put out on Twitter. absolutely I think one of the issues and the reason why declassifying information usually takes such a long process because you don't want to give away information that you're not intending to share so even if there's nothing in the image itself that the US government didn't want to share with the public there are researchers and analysts who can gather a different details about the satellite and the sensor that's taking the image and derive more information about the about the government's capabilities so you don't want to giveaway details that you know you don't intend to share so how many of these class of satellites are up there may not knowing where they are isn't actually the hard part of the problem I guess for people to keep an eye on the sky into the map how many are up there. right well that's a great question and I wish I had the answer thank you one of the things that the US military and the government would want to keep on the down low is you know how many of these satellites do they have what is fair orbital pattern it and that's just you know something that you want to keep I was up there hard as possible so that you're not revealing your capabilities one can assume that they keep an eye on places that they would want to keep an eye on the right. certainly and that's not the case only with government satellite but as some of the open source commercially available satellite images that we work with are often either test or designed to orbit around sting sensitive areas around the world so that we have more imagery more often and more frequently over these places let me ask you one final question based on what you've seen of this image how much more detailed is it than what we had previously been privy to. much higher resolution than what I'm used to dealing looking at the image you can actually see things like small a door workers just stares on. each individual step on the stairs going down to the launch pad and those are just some of the details that we need are not custom to sing and I assume if we saw personnel on the pad we could actually either make out faces or at least general facial features so I think it I mean it's incredible capability and really something that you know we know exists but again it's a different story when you see the image itself thank you for the times when it's degrees solutions a research associate in the east Asian nonproliferation program at the Middlebury institute of International Studies in

Donald Trump Iran Twitter President Trump
Will China's Economy Overtake The US?

The Indicator from Planet Money

08:50 min | 1 year ago

Will China's Economy Overtake The US?

"Worth of goods and services every year, whereas China produces about thirteen trillion dollars worth so China's still a bit behind, but the Chinese economy is growing more than twice as fast as the US economy and also China is just a way bigger country. It has about four times as many people as the US. So if you take those two mathematical facts, a faster growth, rate and way, more people and plug them into a spreadsheet as we love to do every single day here at the indicator plugs into spreadsheets, it seems inevitable that China will eventually maybe even not that eventually have a bigger overall Connie than the US we made exactly this point in an episode of the indicator earlier this year, but an old friend of the shows a friend with quite a deep understanding of China was listening. I'm George Magnus. I'm a research associate at the school of oriental and African studies in London. And also at the China center it opted university. And I'm the author of the book called red flags. Why sees China is in jeopardy? Having just finished his book on China. George call this up to say, he was not really buying this idea that China would inevitably overtake the US life is not quite as simple as that. It doesn't really work. According to spread cheese. What sad. Can you imagine? If it did, I know and we actually did it. When listeners tell us that we are missing a part of the story. I mean, most of the time we. Careful. This is indicated for planet money, I'm card Garcia, and I'm Stacey van today on the show. Why nothing is inevitable, especially when it comes to the US and Chinese economies. Support for this podcast and the following message. Come from fund rise the future of real estate investing access private market real estate projects from high rises in DC to multifamily apartments in LA. Get your first three months of fees waived at fund rise dot com slash indicator. Support also comes from gain bridge gain bridge offers in new ities designed for the digital age. Simplified products with guaranteed returns that you can buy direct. Learn more at gained bridge dot life slash NPR. Gain bridge is not available in all states. Okay. Economist George Magnus offers us three reasons why it is not inevitable that the Chinese economy will overtake the US economy. So the first reason I think for skepticism is that I think that China will not be able to sustain the kinds of levels of growth that the government says it is now achieving in order for China. Catch up. It's a Connie has to continue growing a lot faster than the US economy last year. The US economy grew by less than three percent. China's economy grew at more than six percents more than twice as fast, but George thinks that kind of Chinese growth just cannot last. I mean several years ago it was growing at around nine or ten percent. Now, it's come down to what the government says six to six and a half most private for Costas think it's more like five to five and a half. But I think in the next kind of ten or fifteen years it's going to continue to come down to something that's much slow. Maybe something of around three or four percent. And here's the reason George thinks that China cannot keep up those growth rates, it's because of what's driving the growth. Most of the growth has been coming in China from investment, and which is like a building, Plum, and factories, and railroads and ports and infrastructure. And so on. And you can only do that in, you know, forever. Kind of thing if it's always commercially viable and pays for itself. Somehow the idea here is that when the Chinese government and Chinese companies invest a lot of money into the economy. Those investments should be for things that will bring more economic benefits in the future. That's what an investment is. But in China a lot of the money being invested is going to things that won't payoffs as George the classic example is investing in apartment complexes that nobody will ever live in or you know, in malls that nobody will ever shop in eventually those investments have to be written off as worthless. And any money that was borrowed to make those investments will not be paid back and that will harm economic growth rates in the future. So that's reason number one white is not inevitable that China will overtake the US reason. Number two, George says is that the Chinese currency? The renminbi will lose some of its value against the US dollar, and it's worth explaining why this. Would matter. So if the Chinese renminbi loses value against the dollar, then Chinese people and Chinese companies cannot afford to buy as many dollars dollars that they need if they're going to buy things made in the US or elsewhere that are priced in dollars. In other words, win the value of the Chinese currency goes down. It means the Chinese economy is less rich. And it's Connie is smaller the right now. The Chinese government manages the value of the renminbi against the dollar which saying sayings that within the next decade or to the Chinese government will force the renminbi to become weaker against the dollar. The Chinese government will have to do this Jorde says because it has printed so much of its currency in trying to stimulate the Chinese economy that the currency's value will simply have to fall my contention is that over this time period. There will be a meaningful and probably very significant devaluation of the Chinese currency, which will mean that perhaps by twenty twenty five for example that China. GDP relative to America's may not look that different from what it does look today. And that brings us to join his third reason that it's not inevitable that China's economy will become bigger than the US economy referred reason caught if is is that a lot of countries tend to get stuck in what we call a middle income trap. So they can grow out of poverty, not with these. But but managed to do it. But then they have to get smarter when they have to try to become rich and achieve the kind of Paris with the most advanced economies in the world today, the middle income trap is this idea that country can go from being a low income country to being a middle income country pretty easily just by investing in some very basic things like infrastructure and housing if you other things that most countries need for a functioning economy, but after that it's really hard for country to go from being a middle income country, which is what China is right now to being an advanced economy. Like the US in the countries of western Europe. A lot of countries have tried to make that leap. But a lot of them have failed which is why it's called the middle income trap. They're trapped with middle income status on the problem. The China has is really about its institutions because we generally think that the key to getting out of the middle. Income trap is to have good competitive regulatory legal educational intent logical institutions that basically nurture innovation and technological efficiency and productivity to become an advanced economy. China will need to be able to compete with other countries across a lot of high tech industries, but to compete in those industries, it helps to have entrepreneurs retesting ideas in the market who are competing with one another to come up with the best technologies and who don't face a lot of regulatory barriers to starting up their private companies, and George says, the problem is how much control the Chinese government holds over to Connie. And the regulatory and legal barriers imposed by the government all of which makes it harder for those entrepreneurs and new businesses to really flourish and to compete in those high tech sectors. And this third reason that China won't be able to escape the middle income trap. Because it lacks the right institutions is probably the one that is the most hotly debated because even though the government has started to control more and more of the Chinese economy. It's also thrown a lot of money at developing those high tech sectors. So it might still be successful in some them. George just doubts that spending a lot of money without the right institutions in place will be enough for China to compete across enough of those sectors to catch up with the US. So those are the three reasons and note, by the way that George never says it's impossible that the Chinese economy will one day overtake the US economy. He just doesn't think it is inevitable world after all is a messy place in all that mess. Genus cannot be typed into a spreadsheet yet. Working on it. This episode of the indicator was produced by

China United States George Magnus Chinese Government China Center Connie Renminbi Research Associate School Of Oriental London LA Garcia Costas Stacey Van America Twenty Twenty Plum Paris Western Europe
Papadopoulos: Informant Who Tried To 'Seduce' Me Was CIA Not FBI

America Trends

00:39 sec | 1 year ago

Papadopoulos: Informant Who Tried To 'Seduce' Me Was CIA Not FBI

"George popadopoulos who served as a campaign advisor to president. Donald Trump has a new book deep state target. It gives his account of his work on Trump's twenty sixteen campaign popadopoulos tells CNN he did not know the Turkish woman who allegedly sought to seduce him. I have no idea who this person is. And I think some of the investigations into what happened in twenty sixteen probably going to bear that answer for for everyone on we now know that she was in some sort of research associate as I explained she just didn't fit that profile. She really match the profile of some sort of agents. So I was very suspicious right away about her popadopoulos says he believes the woman was CIA affiliated with Turkish until

Donald Trump George Popadopoulos CIA CNN Research Associate Advisor President Trump
Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

60-Second Science

03:18 min | 2 years ago

Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All monogamy. What makes one species pair off while members of a closely related species? Play the field. The answer may lie in their genes. Researchers at the university of Texas at Austin, we're interested in how complex characteristics arise during evolution. We chose to investigate. This question using anonymous mating systems because animals listening systems are available in all of the different vertebra Clayton's Rebecca young a research, associate and evolutionary biologists. Who led the study able to find species that had independently evolved monogamy in each of these lineages Young's colleague, Hans Hoffman professor of integrative biology ads. So we decided early on that we didn't just want to study a particular group of animals, like mice or fish, for example, or particular group of birds. In compare between monogamy and nominal there. But instead take very broad look across the prince across four hundred fifty million years of Lucien when these fish birds, and frogs and us she at the last common ancestor. The researchers chill is five pairs of species and look to see if they can spot a signature pattern of gene activity that was shared only by the animals that were monogamous and they discovered a set of twenty four genes whose activity in the brain is strongly associated with monogamy, including genes involved in rural development, learning and memory and Coug nation the results appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. And again, this is surprising because they've evolved monogamy independently. And the species have diverse for hundreds of millions of years from one another. So we might expect because of this distance evolutionary distance that gene, expression brain will be quite different. But in fact, we find this share signature that. Seems to be related to the mating system of the organism. No, those chains may not be setting up entirely new patterns of behavior. They may just be building on underlying mechanisms that all species share take. For example, pair bonding Herrmann. One has to tolerate another individual for a long period of time, yet even members of the most intolerant species have to put up with one another at least for as long as it takes to get the meeting done shrews, great example, they tolerate each other for one day year into those mechanisms already exist in in very aggressive species that they just happened for short periods of time. And we think potentially what's going on is as modifications of these conserved pathways that exists in different kinds of mating systems. Get elaborated or modified in the volition of monogamy in principle young and Hoffman and their collaborators could have extended their study of monogamy to humans perhaps comparing. Our gene expression signature to that of one of our less monogamous relatives say chimps the results could suggest whether we should pick up a few extra cards for Valentine's Day. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Hans Hoffman Rebecca Young Lucien University Of Texas Coug National Academy Of Sciences Austin Herrmann Clayton Professor Sixty Seconds Four Hundred Fifty Million Yea One Day
2018 in Review: Election Highs and Lows

Monocle 24: The Foreign Desk

06:57 min | 2 years ago

2018 in Review: Election Highs and Lows

"Unsurprisingly all things considered the citizens of many countries decided that it was time to put someone else in charge in two thousand eighteen but did they make the right choices on nonstop net. Extra jet that award hundred. I should is a military scientist author and research associate at so SS South Asia institute, she considered the decision of her country Pakistan to elect former cricketer Imran Khan as prime minister. He has really brought about a new generation of supporters and voters who are very grateful. Very intolerant. To give you an example in Karachi, Imran Khan recently made a speech saying that, you know, people in job who support Nevada schrief donkeys. And then what is body follow? As did the got hold of a real donkey in Karachi and beat it up to death. So it's violence. I mean, they're very Gresley. If you watched them in social media the foul he's foul mouth. So it's almost kind of fascism that he's bringing a new fascist flavor. That is bringing to politics. That's what's different. I don't think that the taste will change is just that a new make belief world has been. Created through media through narrative management, and in this the military has a large and to play giving the view from Mexico where voters bucked international trends by electing a left wing populist is Andre Rosenthal. A former deputy foreign minister of Mexico ambassador to the UK and Sweden Representative to the UN and now international consultant on Latin American affairs. I think the first thing new president Mexico has to do is to tell the truth campaigns are one thing, but once you're in office, and once you know, what the situation is regarding the checks and balances that you have either on the legislative side, or in the media or civil society, you need to tell Mexicans the truth. If you continue to promise all sorts of impossible things like free education for everybody know exams to get into university selling off the presidential air airplane fleet traveling by car everywhere giving up the president's residence and and living in his house or renting. Little house near the offices things like that those are very populist promises, which resonate with a group of people. But they are things he will not be able to fulfil. And therefore, I think at the end of the day, his first speech his first act as president elect, even before he takes office needs to be to begin to tell the truth one of the main themes of elections this year, wherever they were taking place was an increasing disconnect between the public and the politicians. It was no different in Iraq, which was long overdue. He is NPR's. Jane Arraf, people are incredibly disillusioned with politicians and not just politicians. The interesting thing is they're disillusioned with tribal leaders. They're disillusioned with religious leaders. So there's a lot of skepticism we've seen that reflected in the turnout results in the Iraqi election, for instance, and really a lot of cynicism about whether this group of politicians will. Be any better than the next group. Even though they talk a good game. And also in Iraq Renauld monsoon academy fellow with the Middle East and North Africa program at Chatham house. Well, it's been fifteen years and the Iraqis are asking fifteen years, what have these leaders done, the political tribal religious leaders? What have they done in terms of basic services in terms of employment and the answer they're coming up with is not much? And so the bigger gap in Iraqi society today isn't the gut between Kurds and Shia which is sort of defined post two thousand three Iraq. The biggest gap is the gap between the citizens and the elite between the rulers and the ruled many sort of people from bustling all the way up to slay. My NIA have very similar demands. So what you're seeing are the Shia protesting against their own leaders and Kurds protests against on Kurdish leaders. They're tired of identity politics. They know that any Iraq since two thousand and three Kurds Sunni and Shia leaders have all become wealthy at the expense of the majority of the population. Those are the citizens. But to go back to where we came in and to try to conclude review of two thousand eighteen on a note more positive than being mealy. Glad it's all over is it possible that the tunnel down, which we all traveling has a light at the end of it. And is it possible that that light has been illuminated accidentally by the most unlikely Pathfinder more presidential than any president that's ever held this office that I can Amy pope is associate fellow at the US and the Americas program at Chatham house and former deputy homeland security advisor to Barrack Obama. So she's not quick to jump to President Trump's defense. But is the even a glimmer of good news from his presidency? So far, I think it is the role of women in society. It is the election of so many women to congress, and it's the conversation that has been going on since his election about the metoo movement about the exploitation of young women beh-. Savior is that had pretty much been accepted for decades as long as women have been in the workforce are now front and center. And that's frankly in large part due to him the access Hollywood tape and comments about how he was treating women galvanized a conversation galvanized commitment from women to engage in public life. Women. I know who had no interest in politics are now organizing fundraisers getting out getting out the vote writing speaking. That's a great thing. And that is not that we've been trying to crack for many many years. And so I suppose hats off to Donald Trump for bringing the women to the table before to UCLA, Geoffrey Howard, Jeff any optimism for us. I think the way in which Trump may be an advertently making America greater again is by getting Americans to think seriously about the role of moral values in politics. And I think there's a long standing. Tenancy to think that when you go to the voting booth you're just going to vote for your own pocketbook devote for your own self interest. And I think that assumption is is under pressure and people are once again as in all the great moments of American history in the great moments in the history of any democracy taking seriously, the idea that the purpose of politics is to provide for certain basic rights and opportunities for all. And when our institutions are subverted in when they are not being dedicated to that proper purpose, it's important to hold political leaders accountable. So if the president is able to inadvertently reawakened in people a sense of moral commitment in passion in public life. That would be a terrific inadvertent achievement.

President Trump Iraq Karachi Imran Khan Chatham House Mexico America Donald Trump South Asia Institute Pakistan Jane Arraf Nevada Prime Minister Deputy Foreign Minister Scientist NPR UN Congress
SC county judges toss same-sex domestic violence cases

24 Hour News

00:31 sec | 2 years ago

SC county judges toss same-sex domestic violence cases

"Crew members into the ocean to have been rescued. They were five crewmen aboard the KC one thirty which is a propeller driven aircraft us for aerial refueling. And there were two aboard the F eighteen fighter so far to crew members have been pulled from the water that was correspondent Dave Martin reporting. The first woman to publicly identify yourself as a victim of former Michigan State University sports, Dr Larry Nassar, so statutes of limitations need to be. Address to ensure survivors of child sexual abuse of access to the Justice system. Rachel denhellender. The former gymnasts spoke at a Vermont conference on preventing child sexual abuse, then Hollander, the lawyer told her story and the obstacles that she and other survivors of faced Nassar is now serving effective life sentences for child porn possession and molesting young women and girls a new study out from the university of Michigan warns the grade school absenteeism is on the rise. Statewide w j Zach Clark with the latest one in six Michigan children are chronically absent that means they miss at least ten percent of the school year. Now, the main culprit is homelessness. That's according to Michigan senior research, associate Jennifer herb downward when you think about a child not knowing where they're going to be staying from one nights the next, and then that family also trying to plan how do they get their child to school and creates a number of various for the students. The impact can be. Disastrous for ten percent of the school year has been shown to negatively impact almost all educational outcomes. Now, you can look at Clark for w w j NewsRadio nine fifty well with so many strains of marijuana out there these days, which one would work best for you. A well-known pot advocate has her recommendations MIR with the story is WWE as Charlie liked it for Fox News anchor and cornet Jameson is marijuana advocate, and she's happy that people will now be able to enjoy marijuana so cute. You have any recommendations. Strawberry, cough is a great uplifting strain. It has a little bit of law, which is a Turpin. So it's a little more sedating. Now, if you wanted to maybe relax I love Northern Lights. I think it's a very nice strain. It gives you a little bit of the gig lease, but it won't consortium knock you out. If you're tired, or maybe you're dealing with insomnia. Granddaddy purple is one that I tend to like for insomnia anything with purple purple Ercole granddaddy purple her dispensary botanic in cork down. Can only sell medical marijuana for now. Charlie Langton, WJ NewsRadio nine fifty WSB. News time one thirty seven. We'll head out to the roads update, traffic and weather together. Now when it comes to taking

Marijuana Dr Larry Nassar Charlie Langton Michigan Zach Clark Michigan State University University Of Michigan Dave Martin KC Cough Rachel Denhellender WWE Jennifer Herb Cornet Jameson Fox News Hollander Vermont Strawberry Ten Percent
"research associate" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA

Newsradio 970 WFLA

01:35 min | 2 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA

"Tidal wave one word dot net. Right. All right. And you answer your Email. I take it. Yes. You know, I can't guarantee I keep up if I have if I get inundated, but I do my best. Well, you're going to be inundated. Believe me what projects in the remaining moments here. What projects have you all taken on after the military? I take it you're leaving the national security stuff behind. Now, you probably had enough of that sinking ship. Yes. Or maybe you, I don't know. But but so what are you doing? Now. This is Joe I'm a research associate still with the cognitive sciences lab that was the original Abacus awry, and then later at SAIC, and we're currently working on some very interesting contracts for some major corporations that have tasks us with doing some research and doing and we hope to continue pursuing the mechanisms behind remote viewing. Can you talk about it at all? I mean, I for example, our own CIA which wants spent all its time with national security work. You know, congress and oversight committees have been talking about which ones spent all its time with national security work. You know, congress and oversight committees have been talking about changing the direction of the CIA to industrial espionage..

CIA congress SAIC research associate Joe I
"research associate" Discussed on Warm Regards

Warm Regards

03:24 min | 2 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on Warm Regards

"Welcome to warm regards conversations from the frontlines. Climate change. I'm Jacqueline Gill, assistant professor at the university of Mainz. Joining me this week is our brand new co host Dr. Sarah, Mary. You may remember Sarah from a show. We did last fall on the metoo movement in climate science, Sarah, I'm really excited to have you join us as a regular, and I think our listeners would love to know especially those who didn't hear that at the sewed with you. Who are you and what do you do. Well, thank you for having me as one of the new co hosts, it's really great. So I'm a research associate at the university of Washington where I studied Palio paleo climate, science. And I do a lot of other things besides just basic science. I'm a grassroots organizer on with five hundred women scientists. Yeah, I do a lot of work talking about how institutions can do better. So doing a lot of work integrating framework of social Justice and intersectional feminism into public life and public leadership. But see, I'm a, I'm also a mom and I'm a cat Mon. That's my jam. That's awesome. And so your line of research in terms of paleo is is very similar to what I do, but you tend to cover the oceans where I tend to stick more on land. And you were just telling me about this new study that you were reading that is a little bit on the scary side. Can you tell me a little bit about that? Yeah. So there's a study published on. Called constrain the evolution of Neo gene ocean carbonate chemistry using the Baronne isotope proxy. So it's the payload graphic study to constrain and understand the variability of the carbon system in the global ocean through time. And so one of the things that they found which was really important to see that and because you know, of course, the past is the key to the future, right? We wanna used past or system very ability to understand the kinds of changes that we predict and project in the future. What this study showed is that. If we continue on emission trajectories by. The year twenty one hundred. The global ocean will be essentially we haven't seen peach levels in fourteen million years. That we will see one hundred years. So the it just I'm not explaining this very well. How you doing, but it's it really what the study shows is that we are exiting these geochemical envelopes that are so fundamental for the way that life functions on the planet. And it shows us that there's all this work that we need to do to understand what will happen to marine ecosystems from the on the on calcified in microorganisms always up to the the large organisms in the food chain on from these very large chemical consequences of carbon emissions into the global atmosphere..

Dr. Sarah Jacqueline Gill university of Mainz assistant professor university of Washington research associate fourteen million years one hundred years
"research associate" Discussed on Under the Skin with Russell Brand

Under the Skin with Russell Brand

02:11 min | 2 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on Under the Skin with Russell Brand

"Like nobody cares about men who are failures they are like off the bloody radar so and there's no sympathy for men who were failures so men stack up at the top and the bottom and and we don't have a discussion about that we don't have a discussion about the fact that women are radically underrepresented in dangerous jobs although they are or in or in or in in trades that require like brutal physical labor women are radically underrepresented or in or in jobs outside women radically under represented so the complaint is always well if you look at the top one percent it's there are more men than there should be you know by pierre sex division it's like well yeah but if you look at the bottom the reverse is true so if we're going to have the discussion which are and i don't really necessarily think which have that discussion but if we're going to have the discussion then we should look across the entire economic spectrum i wonder how much of this debate is being governed by unconscious forces i wonder how much of what we're experiencing a manifestation of as of on we're toll goofy has not yet been think the lord of it what are you thinking about any particular part of it why feel like is the the reason that i imagine that you are arguments based on research associate excess full is because people are expressing feelings as opposed to cudgeon and researched arguments need feels like varies a powerful dominant patriarchy and no one can deny i mean that there is power they such thing as power and they're all people that benefit from structures being as they are horse of class appoint of those structures being by one of the things i've observed is the whenever changes disgust you know and my tendency has always been to be sympathetic towards movements that are about change or the element of what might be termed disadvantaged groups.

research associate one percent
"research associate" Discussed on Now What? with Arian Foster

Now What? with Arian Foster

01:46 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on Now What? with Arian Foster

"Go to my nine to five is under water that's pretty good to me she pretty yeah yeah so i just i took a liking to it after graduation dr higher beyond fulltime and i like the research associate in the lab can overseeing you know our students and interns and then i manage our rescue reprogram which is the outreach education in the citizen science expeditions we so how do you get funding for something like this all over the place that's one of the reasons are live is kinda unique is that typically in academia you know you're applying for federal funding or private funding through grants things like that and that's pretty much how you live know year to year basis but so so when you hear all of these political talks in you guys kind of have to keep an about what's going on with that because they cut government funding for programs like this for sure add it to our you know small military budget and it affects you guys whose livelihood exactly i mean sciences like under attack right now i mean you saw the march for science was a way kind of trying to stand up against that but it's troubling for sure because we know that there's going to be cuts and drawbacks and we just have to do our best but the one cool thing is that it's kind of energized another population that want to continue support and what we're doing so we've had a lot of people that will actually just donate out of their pocket we want you guys to keep doing what you're doing because they see the goodness and so contribute that way we get a lot of own tears so part of the way our programs designed as we allow the public to dive with us and actually help replant since you're interested in one time we just scared of the water it's all right real scared of what it's shallow you can look up and see the boats don't care.

research associate
"research associate" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

01:55 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on KQED Radio

"With now more on one of the contentious issues in the tax reform debate that is going on among senate republicans how much tax should be paid on passed through income what is pass through income and wise it's such a big deal that it threatens to blow up the gop tax bill over joe rosenberg who is senior research associate at the urban brookings tax policy center hi welcome to the program i robert and a spear individual need vigilance corporations bay corporate taxes what's up passed through entity in what kind of tax do which owners pay right so paso entities are obtained says ah that pay corporate income tax or any entity level tax but rather the profits are passed through to the owners of the business and then the owners report that income on their individual tax returns and pay tax on it along with the rest of their normal income now most businesses are small businesses and most businesses that pay taxes this way are small but they're not all small so that's one of the common meant misconceptions while the majority of a pass through entities are quite small there are a number of our pass through entities that are quite large and report the vast majority of of the total income what an example of a big kind of bisnews that they'd wouldn't pay a typical corporate income tax in a typical corporate tax there are a lot pass uh for example law firms or accounting terms that are structured as partnerships and the owners of the firm would tax at the individual level so let's say you mentioned a law firm that say it the partners in the term do pay taxes as as though to pegged through entity what rate would they typically pay in and what would these republican tax proposals due to change that rate sakau nibiru income his taxes ordinary income so the top individual income tax.

joe rosenberg senior research associate tax returns corporate tax law firms law firm income tax senate gop tax policy robert corporate income
"research associate" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

02:07 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"With kelley now more on one of the contentious issues in the tax reform debate that is going on among senate republicans how much tax should be paid on pass through income what is pass through income and is it such a big deal that it threatens to blow up the gop tax bill we're going to ask joe rosenberg who is senior research associate at the irs urban brookings tax policy saw hi welcome to the program i rather than a severe individuals by individual income tax corporations bay corporate taxes what's up passed through entity in what kind of tax do which owners pay right so pass through entities or or businesses ah that don't pay a corporate income tax or any entity level tax but rather the profits are passed through to the owners of the business and then the owners report that income on their individual tax returns and pay tax on it along with the rest of their normal income now most businesses are small businesses and most businesses that pay taxes this ray or small but they're not all small knows one of the common misconceptions while the majority of a pass through entities are quite small there are a number of pass through entities that are quite large and report the vast majority of of the total income what an example of a big kind of business that that wouldn't pay a typical corporate income tax and a a tip it corporate tax there are a lot of pass rues for example law firms or accounting firms that are structured as partnerships and the owners of the firm would pay tax at the individual level so let's say you mentioned a law firm that said the partners in the firm do pay taxes as as as though it to pass through entity what rate would they typically pay and and what would these republican tax proposals due to change that rate so currently income his taxes ordinary income so the top individual income tax rate is currently about forty percent did two bills uh moving now would take us a different approach the house bill which has already passed the house of representatives would cap the tax.

kelley joe rosenberg senior research associate tax policy tax returns corporate tax law firms law firm the house senate gop irs income tax corporate income forty percent
"research associate" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

01:35 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

"Uh yeah the the representation of a juicy steak out of some parts of india could be a difficult job assignment on that side of the world julie i pray i really appreciate your call monte steve wondering ron hero in here professor public policy at howard university he's also a research associate with economic policy institute author of outsourcing america and the forthcoming engineering globalization reassuring in near shoring uh run here thanks very much for being with us today thanks for having me on we've heard so much for so many years about a huge volume of american jobs going abroad being outsourced offshore now the here's this i don't know what you call it river trickle stream of jobs coming back this way how do you characterize this run is this a new day or the jobs coming home are we making too much of it what's the balance the bub online you well i think it's probably a combination of both i think there's it's right now it's kind of a niche market um did because customer um a demand has changed the nature of software development has changed many of the factors that have been discussed um but i i think also there's a huge potential here if we have some smarter policies if we highlight these kinds of things more um there's opportunities uh to date really when we've been talking about outsourcing and restoring it's been mostly focused at least the policy world in washington on manufacturing and we forgotten about all of these it jobs and it's not just i jobs to counting jobs many bet back office whitecollar jobs where there's.

india research associate software development washington ron professor howard university economic policy institute america back office
"research associate" Discussed on Green Connections Radio -  Insights on Innovation, Sustainability, Clean Energy, Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Careers w Top Leaders, Women

Green Connections Radio - Insights on Innovation, Sustainability, Clean Energy, Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Careers w Top Leaders, Women

01:31 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on Green Connections Radio - Insights on Innovation, Sustainability, Clean Energy, Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Careers w Top Leaders, Women

"Uh that would get a list of all those technologies in that area well i would imagine if you're trying to bring technologies to market than the people who would be licensing those technologies are buying them outright and we can talk about that uh are not scientists they are their business people absolutely in some cases there would be scientists i i believe you could have a chief scientist um from a company or research associate at a company that made look through this so that they can add to their technology portfolio or grow their business um but yeah you're right it doesn't necessarily have to be a scientists and this is why it's so important that we righted in a way that uh is understandable by the by most people um so we do have a lot of enterpreneurs that come to that sei we have venture capitalist that could visit that site or small companies entrepreneurs as i mentioned well aware edge big companies like uh the conference that you and i were at siemens was there and some other big companies that are always looking to patent new to license new technologies or to invest in 'upandcoming patents that are being developed the energy space absolutely for instance i know we are on growing our relationship with the g e they are very interest obviously in an energy and so they are looking and again a number of companies uh large companies that we work with absolutely.

research associate venture capitalist siemens scientist
"research associate" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

01:39 min | 3 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"There's a was the ledger the first question does this was the quincy patriot ledger we don't call it i know that once in the matter novak caller was not but now actually what happened was i was a research associate at a brandeis think tank which was marvellous job researching writing about racial violence and at little a lot of emphasis on the media and when the center closed i had to figure out what i want to do and i found myself chang you know i'm fascinated by television so i was very lucky to get a job at channel five with the original good day shown as an associate produces the early 1970s that's exactly right it's nineteen seventy three i stay there for for three years and then i thought lot of on off air people say you know i can do that it's really very easy and look at the big bucks the talent is getting so i then went to wjr um i in providence in providence is it still and julie station channel chant i have no clue but it's still there are other are indeed a it used to be located in a department store believed dramatic the outlets store but anywhere save their for year i got fifty dollars a week and then i realized that dean on camera was not a satisfying to me as writing about television as opposed to being in or on television and i was very fortunate i knew someone who is familiar with my my research at a brand ice and he helped get me my first job was actually at the miami herald size of tv writer there and then emigrated became.

research associate providence dean writer novak brandeis julie station miami herald fifty dollars three years
"research associate" Discussed on WWL

WWL

02:21 min | 4 years ago

"research associate" Discussed on WWL

"Harm be able to or is he interested in outline abortion joining us to think about it right now is melanie israel research associate for the devos center of religion and civil society at the heritage foundation good morning mounted good morning thank you for having me we're so glad you're here first of all let's start out with your position on abortion this get that out of the way sure sure and i in one of the millions of american to think that from the nominate complexion every single human being and it i've been here at worth indignity and how the right alive and so that's why we push for a culture that think that every human could be protected a lot and welcome good my alright so i'm line you are pro lies and you would love to see abortion outlawed in the united states i think that may be instead of framing it as outline up or shane the better way of talking about it would be we want eight culture of life that lead you know for for most people when i think about it make a portion unthinkable because of what it guy to a gift in the making there were pure abortions last year in the united states and you're in the we see and then any years since the roll the way decision was passed you must see that s some whatever victory that you're at least making progress towards that culture of life you discuss sure sure and then you know creating a culture of why it looks like a lot of different being hit it more than and three having legislation because if you have to change heart and ryan and you know off a over not just talking about ensuring that people don't have a portion for all the wanting to protect the health and well being of fathers and that's why a lot of the in the it's all their lonnie and helping winning who are experiencing a crisis pregnant the making sure that they are receiving third fifth and education apply now playing compassionate off and but not a portion why do you think abortions or their lowest level since they were legalized in the united states under robey weighed in the nineteen seventies you know it's it's a little bit.

devos center heritage foundation united states melanie israel research associate shane ryan robey