35 Burst results for "Proton"
"proton" Discussed on This Week in Tech
"I came home and I had two kids, and I gave my daughter. You know, this iPod to use. And I gave my son the zoom. And did he say, why do you hate me, mom? He did you love? Do you love Laura Peter? You can have a zoom. We got him an iPod after that. A shuffle, by the way, that was the years of the iPod shuffle even smaller with more capacity. Yeah. Anyway. Yeah. How many iPods, I mean, we all have owned probably most of them. I even bought my sister, the U2, the black and red U2 iPod, was loaded with U2 albums. Come to think of it, there's been a long heritage of love between Apple and Bono for some reason. I'm not sure I really understand that. Well, it wasn't just. It wasn't just the YouTube iPod. It was the first time that Bono and U2 had licensed their music digitally. Right? Big deal. Unlike a lot of musicians. So that's why it was a big deal. That was a big deal, getting them to say, okay, you can sell it digitally. Remember, God, people moved so fast. You forget bands did not allow digital copies of their music. They were terrified by the whole thing. Nafta boy. My wife. Yeah. This was the other thing that I mean this was an early MP3 player. This was for a car obviously. But this has always had a laser disc was that a hard drive in it. This is a Rio. Exactly. And I had the little small portable Rio as well the diamond Rio that was predated the pod. But the thing that all of these did wrong, we even did many shows on the screensavers are about building your own, put a computer in your truck. MP3s on a hard drive. But the thing was hard about all these navigation. It was miserable, finding your music and playing it was miserable. And was it really a brilliant Tony Fidel came up with the designer of the iPod to have that click wheel? These actually are sold. They actually turn. But they held up. I click sound as one of the things you could just play you know. Well, dial up. You know, exactly. People know it. Yeah. A lot of Britney Spears on this one. I'm just going to say it must have been my daughters. Where she was the last one to have it. I'm going to defend myself. I'm going to defend the zoom. The first brown zune, not great. But at the end of the zune, the zune HD was actually a really good music device. And I was kind of sad that Microsoft having finally perfected that device gave up on. But I was going to say by the time it got good, they were already they had already lost. Yeah. I guess that's what it was. It was too much headwind. Yeah, it's funny. There's actually a huge following. If you go check out Reddit, there's a huge following people still love that device. The HD and HD. Yeah. I think that was in every it was kind of the Windows Phone of music players because it had a great interface at a big screen. It was kind of in every way superior to the competition. But it was too late. Just like the Windows Phone. It was over. You know? I was kind of sad about that. That was shortly after Microsoft gave up its music. You used to be able to buy music from Microsoft and all of that and they gave up all of that. Hard to believe 20 years ago and does your son still think you'll like your daughter better? No, he has bought him iPhone. So he's been redeemed. That's good. I'm glad to say we talked about this when it happened proton mail got a lot of heat for handing over information about one of its customers to the authorities as part of a French investigation that led to arrest of climate activists at the time the company said we had to comply with a Swiss court order. To provide data, of course, proton mail became famous for saying we will never do that. You encrypt your mail. No one can read it, and we do not keep track of you and they took that off the website when that case came out. But the good news is proton has appealed and they just won a Swiss court is upheld the appeal of proton, limiting its obligation to monitor traffic and retain data for surveillance purposes. So good for I want to give him credit because we bashed him a little bit when they handed that data over, understanding that, you know what, if you're in a country, you have to obey the laws of the country. I think I bashed him more for saying they didn't have to. And giving people a false impression that they didn't have to. But the good news is they have continued to fight. And they've got what end of the end, the CEO says was an important first step in their campaign to advance privacy and freedom. So to be fair, proton mail has fought and won too late for the French climate activists were never heard from again. But still, that's good news. I wanted to give him credit. Anybody watching the squid game? I watched it. What'd you think? I think it's a tale as old as time. Oh, oh. That's Beauty and the Beast, I think. I mean, you.
"proton" Discussed on Firewalls Don't Stop Dragons Podcast
"To do everything directly from the control panel but if you never set up your key-fobs to work with your original control unit. They can't give away any secrets that an attacker could use a subsequent replay attack. So i actually gos- over that part of the article or talked about the key. Fob owner billy but this is just you know bad security really bad security by design and worse yet. They company said yeah. No record fix that. So if you haven't avenue systems you've probably already registered with certain email address may be constructed to be another email address. That would be hard for someone to guess that's again not great security better than nothing and then for the other billy. Don't use a key fob now. I i'm guessing that you have to be within range. That key. fob. To sniff out the wireless stuff that's going on there so that would require a totally local attack as whereas the email attack would be from anywhere on the planet there also just goes to show that man just cause discuss these companies are security companies. Don't mean that they've got good security. So what does the consumer to do. I don't know. I mean. I wouldn't know what i mean. I could look at a company. I could try to dig into them a little bit and figure out how how good they may or may not be security but boy. It's it's a black box. it's as a consumer. It's almost impossible to tell which you know that might be a great reason for some sort of regulation and third party independent security tracking but for. now it's just barbed wire and subscribe to this podcast. When these things come up you can least maybe hear about him. All right next up proton mail is a great service. I really liked them are still recommend them even after what. I'm about to read you. But what this article is going to show you is that there are realities One of the being that email is just really hard to make secure private. It was just not built for that and second that comes with the best of intentions are still subject to local law so anyway let me let me read this article from wired this weekend and i think that's a week ago now for you guys this weekend. News that the anonymous email service proton male turned over a french climate activists. Ip address and browser fingerprint to swiss authorities. The move seemed to contradict the company's own privacy focused policies which as recently as last week stated quote by default. We do not keep any ip logs. Which can be linked to your anonymous email account unquote. After providing the activists meditate at useless swiss authorities proton male removed the section that had promised no ip large replacing it with one saying quote proton. Mail is an e mail that respects privacy and puts people not advertisers first unquote as usual the devil's in the details. Proton males original policy simply said that the service does not keep ip logs by default however as a swiss company proton mail was obliged to comply with a swiss courts demand that it begin logging ip address and browser fingerprint information for particular proton mail account..
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"I'm just glad this podcast boring at the meals for exactly Hope that it's a kneeled. Your understanding of the non boring nature. The brenta man. That was an extra verity pun. There i tried to put a little danish on it all right. Well i enjoy your bath there in the bathtub daniel. We'll talk to you next time. You hope you enjoyed that..
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"To try to unravel some of the other mysteries of particle physics. Gets the weird thing is that it likes one kind of matter and not another kind of matter. So what you're saying. Yeah it likes them. Both berlex one forty percent more and so. That's a pretty interesting mystery. But what does it all mean. What does that tell us about. What's inside of the pro time. Well it's interesting because the proton is we learned is mostly mostly this energy from the strong force. So if you want to understand what's inside the proton meaning what you and i are made out of. You really have to understand the strong force and this is something. We've been struggling with for decades since we discovered the strong force. It's very weird in very hard to understand. And one reason is because it's so strong and couples to itself right like luan. They feel the strong force themselves. So every time you create a glue on ukraine chances for more than glunz can create more and more lewan's the same is not true for photons. Photons do not feel electromagnetic forces ride because they do not have a charge. It's sort of like if the photon had plus one or minus one electric charge and created its own electromagnetic fields and crazy stuff like that. So the strong force in very difficult to deal with because anytime you do a calculation you instantly have to account for like infinity's infinity's of glue so we don't really know how to do Relations using the strong force. It's much harder than calculations for electromagnetism so we can't answer simple questions about what would happen. If you put together into a proton which means that we need to look into nature to see what actually happens in. Use that as a guy to say. Well how can we build our theory. What's going on with the strong force so to get a better understanding of the strong force. We can't just like think about inside our heads and do computers relations to actually go out into the universe and see what it's doing. I think you're saying that looking side of the proton discovering all these virtual particles in these glunz turning to other things as sort of our window into how these basic forces behave in kind of our in into understanding how they actually work. We are watching them at work because we don't understand how they work and so by watching them. Hopefully we can get ideas in glimmers for what's going on and how to describe these things. We have a mathematical tool for describing the strong force. But it doesn't work very well. We can't use it to make predictions in calculations sort of like impossible to us. It's like if somebody told you how to calculate something but there was like an infinite number of steps you say. Well that's not very useful. Can't use that to do any calculators and so if we want to understand these things right. We have to look at them in action. We have to watch them actually happened and hope to observe some trends ideas which can help us come up with a better model one. We can actually use to play with theoretically and understand how these things work. Well then. what's the on the horizon now. This experiment found an interesting mystery. But are there any other experiments that is looking into. What's inside of the pro time. Yes these guys found interesting mystery. And i love this experiment because there's sort of like scrappy. Bunch they don't have a lot of money. So they like repurpose stuff from other experiments. You know like they used old delays leftover from another lab and old particle detectors leftover from another experiment and iron slabs used from the fifties in columbia. And so this sort of like build this experiment from spare parts which is really cool. And they're doing it again. They're making a new experiment called spin. Quist spin quest is going to reuse most of the same. But it's gonna probe even deeper and try to understand another basic question about the proton which is why does the proton's spin have the value that it does. We can't understand the spin of the proton from the spin of the corks the same way. We can't understand the mass of the proton just from the mass of the corks. This the same kind of question about the proton's spin so doing experiment to try to understand where the spin of the proton comes from with the same people in the same reused parts ancient thing so like the spin up proton is like the sum of all of this of all the things inside of it which is a lot which is a big party. Yeah it's not just from the spins. The cork down corks those gloves and photons also contribute to the spin of the proton so if we can measure the spin of the proton really accurately we can try to get another handle for what the proton is made out of with these mystery cake that were all built out of how it was actually cooked right. What are all these exotic flavors. That's right i thought it was pretty vanilla. Turns out it's a lot of tiger flavors in there. And i like how you're like sitting on top of your lhc multibillion dollar experiment and looking at these other experimenters coupling together with spare parts in in calling him cute. You know this thing only costs a couple of tens of millions of bucks. What a fun little experiment. Just like a saturday project. All right well. I think the main takeaway though is that we are not as simple as we thought we were are even though we're only made out of quirks and electrons those corks that make up the proton There's a lot going on in there. It's not just quirks inside of our protons a neutrons. It's also all these crazy. Exotic particles virtual particles popping into natalie existent in influencing how much we weigh and how much mass we have and there's also a lot of anti-matter inside of us. Yeah so these exotic particles that we discovered cosmic rays and in collider's are not just intellectual curiosity. they're not just clues about the organization of the universe. They are also part of me and you. They're part of the definition of what it means to be a proton which is the basic building block of everybody and everything and every dinner you've ever had so exotic is the new normal. But you're saying that's right. we're all exotic. That's nothing exotic. Yeah well we all enjoyed eating anti-matter for example so i don't know that counts as exotic. I'll give an anti review. Don't give it an overview which is really an anti down review which is actually a good thing that if particle physician had built yelp there would be all these anti up pro down all of them. I'm down with that. If you're up for it yeah and you can give it a five to an infinite number stars. Fractional stars are i will. We have enjoyed that end. God you do think a little bit more about what were made out of what you're made out of wood that banana you're eating is made out of what the stars are made out of because it's a much more interesting story than we think it is and the story continues in this arc of understanding what we are made out of. We have discovered many surprises. Along the way and i'm sure there are many more to come..
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Happens. If we shoot particles at a proton. What does it bounced off of. And we know that mostly bounces off of up quirks because is to those in there and sometimes bounces off of the down core and when we say they're glue on top corks and cows and also stuff inside the proton. What we mean is that sometimes when you shoot a particle at a proton. It bounces off of top corker bounces off of tau and so this comes from a long line of really fascinating experiments beginning with ernest rutherford. Who did this kind of experiment in the early nineteen hundreds. He was the one that discovered that like the atom has something inside called the nucleus. He shot alpha particles and a sheet of gold and saw that occasionally. These things bound right back meaning that he found something hard inside the nucleus to bounce these particles off of and everything we've been doing in particle physics for the last hundred. Years is basically an extension of that one experiment but zoomed in a little bit so like in the nineteen sixties. We did these. Experiments called deep inelastic scattering where we shot electrons into the proton. And what we saw there was that there were sort of three hard nuggets. You could bounce off of and those with corks is how we know that there are quirks inside the proton if you shoot really high energy electrons inside them sort of bounce back from three specific points for real again you can take a picture of inside of proton kind of right you shoot. A bunch of particles electrons added. And you get an image on the other side. You saying that you can actually see these hard nuggets of the corks inside of it yet. It's sort of like taking an image. Unfortunately you can only shoot one particle an individual protons to really image. It the way you're describing you'd have to shoot a lot of particles at specific proton like hold it in place or something. We can't do that because once you shoot one electron and proton. It blows it up. You just get one measurement but statistically we can do it many many times over many protons and just count the number of electrons. That bounced back. You know the indicate they hit something hard versus the number of electrons that like went right through indicates that they sort of missed all the good stuff inside the proton and from all those calculations than we can calculate like how many hard points are there inside the proton. So that's the same basic thing that rougher is doing basically a hundred years ago but now we're just doing it with higher energy and we're doing it to the proton instead of doing it to the atom. It's sort of almost like an x ray of the proton but you have to do it in bulk You have to do it in bulk and what we can do our specific calculations for like what would happen if there were also a little bit of bottom core inside the proton. What would it look like if there was occasionally tau particles inside the proton because these particles are all different they all would give like a different reaction spectrum from the electrons using to shoot inside there. So that's one way we can get a sense for what's inside the proton like x. Ring with electrons as you said all right so that was in the sixties to what sort of the cutting edge right now in terms of looking inside of the proton so people really want to understand in detail. What's going on inside the proton in terms of how much anti-matter is there. It's really sort of exciting and cool thing that there is anti anti-matter inside of us and we want to understand how much anti-matter is there. And what kind is it specifically and most interesting people wanna know like. Is there more anti up quirks or anti down quirks inside the proton or they're the same number we figure like glue on has the same chance to turn into an anti up pair as it does to turn into a down anti-down pair so there should be the same amount of anti downs and anti ups inside the proton so those are the kind of questions people are asking now. And there's a new experiment been going for the last couple of decades. That's trying to understand. Exactly the anti-matter component of this sea of luanne stuff inside the proton. And so the experiment is called seaquest. It's a pretty cool name. Sounds like a tv show or nineties cartoon. It is the name of his tv show. And i don't know if the experiment or the tv show came first but this has nothing to do with the ocean of water right. It's like about the ocean. Unglue on's and so. This is a very different kind of see than like underwater science fiction adventure right although technically water is made out of protons with particles to really are seaquest. You're right we're all from the ocean originally and so he. This experiment is a little bit different from the ones they did in the sixties here. What they're doing is they're taking the proton itself and they're smashing into other stuff. One reason for that is that they're doing this experiment at fermilab and fermilab is a place. That's good ed. Accelerating protons we used to have the largest particle accelerator in the world. They're called the tevatron where the top was discovered in. Nineteen ninety five so they're very good at making protons accelerating them so they decided to sort of reuse that an smash protons into stuff to see sort of what they turned into. The original experiment was like x ray. The proton shooting electrons added here is like take the proton smashing into stuff and see what comes out and trying to reduce from what comes out. What's inside the proton right. And so what have they found. So they've been doing these experiments where they shoot protons at two different kinds of stuff. One is a target just of hydrogen which is basically pure protons and another is a target with deteriorate which is a combination of protons and neutrons and now neutrons have a dear friend. Mix of up corcoran down right. They have more down corks than up quirks whereas the proton has more ecorse down. Corks so by shooting at hydrogen. And then shooting in deteriorating. You can get a sense by looking at the ratios for like how much down quirks there are and how many of course there are smash protons into these different targets and sometimes a quirk in the proton in your beam interacts with an anti cork in the target. For example maybe an up court in the proton. You're shooting from your beam. Interact with an anti up cork inside the neutron or inside the proton. And when that happens you can tell because it creates a photon because they annihilate in there photons sometimes cre- like immu on anti on and that's what this experiment looks for. It looks for these pairs of nuance and anti milan's coming out of these collisions by looking at those muanza energies. They can get a sense for like. Oh did we hit an anti core or did we hidden anti-down quirk and so people expected to see the same amount of anti quirks and end up inside the proton. But what they found is that there's actually a lot more anti-down quirks than anti porks. There's like forty percent more anti-down corks than end up quirks inside every proton think. This is where it gets confusing. You're saying anti-abuse and i'm thinking anti up is just down but that's that's different than anti-down which is not up exactly. It's anti in a different way. That's the sort of confusing but also awesome thing about particle physics. Is that there are all these reflections. You're right that the up and down our reflections of each other but in a different direction than the anti particle way and visit other reflections right like the charm is like another reflection of the but in terms of particle flavors so this this multi-layer many-faceted symmetry and particle physics can be hard to keep track of right. But i think what you're saying. Is that this experiment sequences smashing protons and it's trying to determine the amount of antimatter inside of these protons. And the weird thing is that you're seeing a lot more anti matter of the kinda comes from down downcourt than from the anti matter. The comes from up quirks. And that's weird that's weird. It's not what we expected yet. We expect it sort of a balance there. Because you know where's the anti-matter come from comes from luanne photons flying around and inside the proton on the exists briefly and we think that those luanne should have the same chance to create down core type. Anti-matter as up core type anti-matter. Why would they prefer one to the other. That's really strange and it's a clue that something else might be going on something. We don't yet understand so it's a nice little like thread to pull on.
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"We're talking about what's inside the proton and daniel assume. It's not bananas an ice cream metaphor yet. He's kind of bananas an ice cream. I mean we've talked in the beginning of the podcast. About how yet mostly the proton is up quirks down quirks and that sort of conceptually true that is mostly that from an accounting point of view. It's mostly not most of the proton is this see. Most of the mass of the proton comes from the energy of these glue. On's so actually you can sort of like ignore the up than down corks and say that mostly proton is just like a seeding massive. Glue on's right right. Well this is kind of a difficult constant. Maybe for a lot of people who might be listening to this is a routine like the mass of the proton is mostly the energy that it tastes to bind them together. Then you're saying that this energy sort of exists as gloss that are kind of popping into and out of existence. Is that what you mean or is that massive just in the potential energy of holding these course together. Yeah that's sort of a deep philosophical question. People are divided about how to think about it in a one way to think about it is that you have the real objects the of course and the down corks and that these strong forces between them like strong with the capital like the strong nuclear force and those forces that can be represented in two different ways. One is as a field. He say like well. There's a lot of energy stored in the quantum field of the strong force inside the proton. So some people think of it as like particles and the energy is the fields and from that point of you could also think of the up course down. Corks just like part of the up cork down cork fields. So you think of it like. It's all fields right. The forces of field matters feels just energy stored in quantum fields is another way to think about it in terms of the particles. You say well. The particles are the real thing according down downcourt inside the protons particles and then what about the forces in between them we also think about those forces in terms of particles and so when we say like the energy is stored in the form of glue on what we mean. Is that the strong force which holds all these particles together exchanging lonzo. The energy of the strong force is used to make these virtual globes which whiz back and forth. It's just like another way to think about how to account for that energy. Is it in the fields. Is it in these virtual particles. Mathematically it's sort of equivalent philosophically makes you think about it conceptually differently because i imagine i mean they're not theoretical like they have a math to them. Great glunz have math. Glue on our do not have mass. But they are not theoretical. There are a real thing but here are massless. Just like the photon But they have energy to them right. They have energy to them. So they move. At the speed of light just like photons do and just like photons they have energy photons can have energy even though they have no mass right but math is energy so i'm sort of sort of well. It's especially the complicated. Because photons don't have internal energy right. Mass comes from internal stored energy in a photon doesn't have any internal stored energy like you. Look inside a photon. there's nothing they're all. It is is the motion so you don't get mass from having like energy of motion mass from having internal stored energy which is why you can weirdly. Have a photon energy. But no mass and also if you want to go there for those listeners. Really into the details of the full equation for e. equals mc squared has another term to eagles mc squared. The they refers to the rest mass of the particle is another term for adding momentum of the particle and photons of course have no rest mass. Because they can't ever be at rest 'til there's some fine print there. So then maybe can you give us an explanation of how these gloss or how this is kind of stored energy give something more mass like is it that if i try to push proton i also have to sit of i know free these glunz interacting between the course and that takes some energy. And so that's why it's harder to push the proton you know. I wish i could but it's not something that physics really understands it just something we sort of describe like we notice that if you have more energy stored inside something. It has more inertial mass. Like this is something we observe and describe we do experiments we see that if you add internal energy to something then it takes a larger force to accelerate it. So somehow is the property of internal stored energy. That it has inertia right. That energy takes a forced to move it around. And i wish we had like a deep fundamental understanding of why that is but it's just something we observe about our universe and described. It's a massive mess it is. You have intuitively sort of an understanding of why objects that have mass. Take a force to accelerate them right. Like if you wanna push on a really big rock and get it going to take the big force. It's sort of hard to wrap your mind around life. Why if you give that internal energy if you like. Make the rock hot. Why should it take a larger force to accelerate it right. But that's because you think of the rock in terms of like the stuff inside of it but really mass is not a measure of the stuff inside of it's sort of more like an indicator of how much energy there is inside. Something that's really. What mass is. It's like a dial that tells you. How much energy is stored inside this thing. Either in terms of the masses of the particles is made out of or the energy between them so then all this extra math. I've gained the summer. That's really just energy. But you're saying you could probably turn it into lots of energy for to go for a long long jog. Yeah all right well. So but you're saying one interpretation of this extra energy that's stored inside is a sea of particles meaning like there's a frothing kind of quantum as sort of volume where particles are popping into and out of existence every time to interact with each other. They're buried deep inside. These like bound states of the strong force every time they interact with each other. You can think of it like are passing glue on back and forth the same way you could imagine like what happens when two electrons repel each other is that they use a photon. Because a photon carries the electromagnetic force a glue on carries the strong force. And so when to cork's interact with each other. They're passing glue on back and forth. And so that means that the best picture was inside a proton are three tiny little dots and then a huge swarm of these luanne going back and forth between around all those quirks. Right then they're creating through on and then the glue on turning to other particles right. That's where this weird sea of particles comfort. That's right because glunz. Don't just hang out there very energetic and they fly through space and they are quantum objects and when they fly through space. They have a lot of options for what they can do. They can just stay glue on. Do nothing that's sort the most boring most likely thing but they can also turn into pairs of particles live the same way that a photon flying through space can momentarily turned into an electron and it's anti particle of luang can do that. Also a glue on can turn into a cork and anti cork. It can also turn into to glue on a glue on feel the strong force themselves as part of the reason. The strong force is so strong because glunz make more glue on which make more glue on's and so these glue on don't just fly through space simply create this flickering blob of virtual particles corks and anti quirks all the time. So then is the idea. Then the three quarters inside of proton they're constantly interacting with each other even though they're just sitting there they're constantly in a state of quantum mechanical virgil way is changing gloves. All the time and those are creating other particles so there's like a virtual party.
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Mystery for another day but i guess the basic takeaway is that inside of a pro time. The basics of a proton involves having three quarters inside of them to upwards and one down cork right. That's the basics and for most things it will do but as soon as you take a closer look you realize that can't be the whole story. There must be something else going on in the proton because just these corks by themselves can't explain the way the proton is really ain't that has them strange behavior. Well first of all look at the mass of the proton night the proton ways one giga electron. Volt it's like a billion electron-volts but it's made out of cork's who's masses are much much smaller than like a thousand times smaller. There are few million electron-volts volts. So how do you make something out of millions of electron bowls end up with a billion electron-volts. Right that's pretty weird. That's like taking a few million bucks and turning into a billion dollars right. There's some sort of a like stock market magic so the proton is much much more heavy than the things it's made out of. Which tells you something else must be going on. Sounds like a dot com boone. Where are we headed for like a universal crash here. that's right do in investing in my proton fund. It's not a bubble. I promise you it won't collapse the proton stable. Yeah but i think the basic mystery. Is that each cork ways a little bit but once you put them together into a proton suddenly the whole thing ways a lot and so the question. I guess the first mysteries like where does that. Extra mass comfort like imagining takes three lego pieces. And you put them together. And all of a sudden thing you've made is now like super-duper heavy ways the thousand pounds or something. You wonder like whoa what's going on and so already we know that there's something else in the proton something else. That's contributing a lot to the mass of the proton and the number one missing element. There of course is the thing holding those corks together those the glue ons and the photons are binding these corked together because remember that quirks are special than a really important way. They feel the strong nuclear force strong nuclear force being these strongest the most powerful and also the weirdest force in the universe and it's the source of like fusion vision and all those crazy sources of energy powers the stars it's the dominant force in the universe especially these very short distances and so to hold these course together into a stable particle how the proton you have to have a lot of energy and energies whizzing around inside the proton in the form of gloss. Right so it's all this extra energy inside holding the record together that gives the proton. It's extra mass. That's kind of how you explain how it has so much more than the three forks and you have to get away from the idea of mass as just being the mass of the stuff it's made out of when you calculate the massive an object it also gets mass from the energy inside it so these energy inside an object. You have to put energy into those legos to combine them together to make a proton and that energy also contributes to the mass of the object right e. equals mc squared so as you add energy to an object gains in mass and so the mass of the proton is not just the mass of the stuff that makes it up but also the energy of those objects and that energies represented in particle forum in terms of luang these massless but very energetic particles that are whizzing around between the quirks. Yeah so the is not just as simple like three building blocks stuck together at three four exits like it's got this weird of quantum mechanical the c. frothing of other particles also holding the whole thing together. And so let's get into what did see is made out of how exotic it is and how we know what's going on inside of the proton but first let's take a quick break. It's crazy how much we have to pay for outdated impersonal healthcare and even crazier that we all just accept it. It's time to face facts. Healthcare is backwards. Luckily there's forward a new approach to primary care that surprisingly personal and refreshingly straightforward forward never makes you feel like just another patient backed by top rated doctors and the latest tech forward gives you access to personalized care whenever you need it. 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"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"What's inside a proton daniel. Obviously i'm not gonna find tigers tiger's or bananas and granola in you might just actually. You might tigers and anti tigers own mine. But when i was a kid i always wondered like what were the particles themselves made out of like. I had this idea that a proton was like a scoop of particles stuff you know. It was like a tiny tiny. Little spinning ball made out of some particles stuff and really the question was then. What was that stuff. What is like the basic clay of the universe out of which you built these particles. Because that's more interesting than you know the fact you happen to take a scoop of it to make protons to me. That was always the more interesting deeper question. Well it's kinda interesting that you know we in high. We sorta learn about protons and electrons. And then you learned prudence corks and it feels like you call these things particles but really they're made out of smaller particles inside of. Yeah exactly everything is just shells within shells within shells until we get down to the smallest particles we know of which we think of as tiny little dots which contain all sorts of weird energy and interactions. So it's sort of like. We are made out of legos than those legos or made a smaller legos. And those lagos are made of smaller legos so the proton is a pretty basic particle. But i guess the question we're asking today's what's inside a proton and as we talked about most people think that she's forks inside of him but maybe there's more to them so we were wondering how many people out there thought about what is exactly inside of a proton whether or not it's just quirks or not so as usual. Daniel went out there into the internet to ask people what is inside a proton. So thank you to everybody out there in the internet who is willing to volunteer. In a view would like to participate for a few episodes. Please don't be shy or write to us. it's fun there's no pressure you'll have a good time and you'll hear your voice on the gas so please send us a note to questions at daniel dot com so think about a second. What do you think is inside a proton. Here's what people had to say. I think it was free cokes. Which ones isn't that to us. Quirks It's been a long time since. I read any of the stuff that a lot. But i think that's it. I know that there are sub atomic particles inside a proton. I think don't you break open and find isn't it kwok's inside i car remember is glue ones or something. There's something inside it on i. I'm just going to say in general quirks. I know that there's some up ones in some down in ones and some strange runs. And i don't know which one's the pertinent a particle and together we neutron and electron makeup the atom. That's i think. A proton being a subatomic particle is just a oscillation of the electro weak force. Or something like that. Well impart on. You have three quarks Can't remember if it's two up. Quarks down or two down. Quarks in an uproar but there are three of them and from reading recently. Read this really amazing book called. We have no idea. It's by these guys call daniel and oray. Maybe you've heard of them. I don't mean a namedrop. there's a lot of energy wrapped up in the bonds holding those works together. So i'm gonna go with three quirks and ton of energy in the bonds are eight. Some pretty consistent answers. I feel like everyone who maybe listen to this. Podcast is pretty basic idea that what's inside of a proton are basically three quirks and gloves. The mostly hands down people thought quirks if you glue on to stick them together. There's even a nice plug for a great sounding book in there called. We have no that tells everybody all about the mysteries of the universe. What does this book about two gentlemen. That wrote it. I was ghost written by us. But it looks like it was written by two handsome gentlemen. It's all about everything we don't know about the universe. All the big open questions as signs still has not figured out that scientists on the very forefront of knowledge are digging down into the minds of truth to try to understand. It's a fun book all about physics with hilarious cartoons drawn by and you check it out. It's called we have no idea. Yeah at least one of our listeners. Read it according to the sample of responses but most people seem to have this idea that protons army three quarters so maybe daniel is start with that. What are the basics of what we know about. What's inside a proton. That's right the first answer. Sort of best approximate answer to what's inside a proton is exactly what our listeners have said which is three quirks right. You take to up courts and one down quirk and you put them together and you make a proton and that's already sort of fascinating and weird because you know. The proton has charged plus one Opposite charge of the electron which is of course charge minus one. So how'd you get three quirks to add up to a charge of plus one. Well it means that the quirks themselves have weird fractional charges like the up. Quirk has an electric charge of plus two thirds and the dow cork has an electric charge of minus one third. So you take to up corks for a total charge of four thirds and then you added down core which had charge of mine is one third and boom. It adds up to one the charge of the proton and i always thought that was weird like how exotic particles with fractional charges. You know two-thirds mine is one third. How strange is that right. That's weird because like one third. It's not a even number they get to. It's an even fraction. But it's it's one of these sort of infinite numbers right. Yeah it is weird and you might think well you could have just defined the charges of the proton and the electron to be plus three and minus three right because then the of corkwood charge plus two in the down corporate have charged minus one. So in that sense you would avoid like any fractional charges. But the weird thing is that we don't see any other intermediate values like we don't see particles that have charge one in two thirds or minus four thirds. Or something like that. We only see integer charges sort of the macroscopic level the proton electron neutron charge zero. But they are made out of particles that have fractional charges so they just seem to always add up to these integer values which is kind of weird. Yeah we're also that it adds up to plus one exactly plus one which happens to be the opposite of the charge of the electron like exactly the same exactly because the electron is not made of cork's right. The electron is made out of the electron as far as we know is not made of anything smaller so the fact that the corks add up to exactly plus one which balances the electron. That's totally necessary for chemistry right for atom to form but according to our theory those are very different things. You're balancing completely different ingredients and happened to exactly balance in our theory. That's sort of an accident with a parameter in the standard model for the electric charge. And another one for the charge of the quirks and there's new reason they have to balance but they somehow do and that's a hint right. That's a clue that says that something is going on here that you haven't really figured out the some connection between the quirks and the leptons the electron that we don't understand but.
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"I am more handmade cartoonist. Creator of connex. Hi i'm daniel. I'm a particle physicist and made of the same particles that you are that i am defame like we share the same particle. I thought my particles were exclusive to me. Are we gonna break your electrons. Electrons are all just different wiggles on the same electron field man. Oh we're all connected dude. Yeah we're all just different fluctuations in the same quantum fields. Well this is me waving. I'd you with a against the wave function in the same field. Yeah you're not just waiting at me. You are a wave at me we are. We're all waves. We are all waves. Exactly the welcome to our podcast. Daniel and jorges explained the universe production of iheartradio in which we wave our way around the mysteries of the universe talking about the deepest biggest questions the nature of reality what everything is made out of how it all works. What signs has figured out about the tiniest little particles and the largest galaxies and everything in between shy away from the biggest deepest scariest most interesting questions that define the nature of human existence in the context of our lives. We dig right into them and explain all of them to you. That's right because it is an exotic and also cakes hottick universe full of interesting mysteries and questions and lots of interesting kinds of particles in celestial bodies to think about wonder about and for us to discover that's right it's a crazy beautiful universe out there with so many weird things and we would like to understand all of them not just like one or two of them or even ninety percent of them we to figure it all out because we want to have deep comprehensive understanding of the entire universe. We're greedy that way. Physicist are just basically poke on collectors right. gotta catch them all. You can leave any pokemon ball unturned. That's right and sometimes we want to evolve our particles from the lowest most boring articles to the weird exotic forms that we can use to defeat our neighbors. Yeah and this episode daniel stretching the maybe the length of these quantum fields because we are more far apart than usual does is an interesting international version of daniel maury playing the universe. That's right this is late night. Coast to coast with daniel in horry groovy jazz music in the background. Can we worked at in. But you're right. I'm coming to you. Live from copenhagen denmark where. I'm spending my summer on a a mini sabbatical doing research at the neal's bore institute neal's bore. He's a pretty big name in physics right. He discovered of the structure or initials fracture of the atom is right. He had a big role to play in the early derivation of quantum mechanics. Which is one reason why. It's called the copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and here at the neal's bore institute is sort of an old fashioned physics institute back in the day if you had an institute named after you you were also in residents there so some of the buildings here. The neal's borings are like his apartments and then later they all got turned into graduate student offices some of which have like his bathtub in them. That's where he yelled. Eureka ran down. Make it right is that the. Is that the famous bathtub thinking of another discover. No i think every science story in both the bathtub and somebody yelling eureka while naked could every single one. Because because why not. That's right because you need the drama. No an exciting place to be. If you've seen the play copenhagen that's all about neal's bore and burner heisenberg conversations about vision quantum mechanics during world war two. It takes place here. The neal's bore institute and the park right behind it. So the place that sorta steeped in history so yeah. It's a nice place to come and do some science So are you recording this. From neal's bores cloth or are you actually in his two. I'm in neil's podcast booth. Of course he was a famous. Podcast are back in the day that's up. He's left to talk. She invented everything. Quantum mechanics structure of the atom podcasting. Also he was the first instagram star. I heard for diktat dancer. He definitely was not boring. These many towns but anyways We are here to talk about the universe and try to explain it to you because it is pretty interesting universe and one of the biggest questions in this universe that we can ask is. What are we made out of like where humans what are dogs. What are watermelons. What's it all made out of and daniel. We've made a lot of progress. Not just in this podcast but as a human species trying to figure that out and we've broken down pretty well up to now. Yeah i am impressed with how far we have gotten several hundred years ago. We knew that things around us were made out of like you know about a hundred basic elements which is already huge progress. Right to describe all those things you mentioned in terms of just one hundred building. Blocks is a huge step right. It could have been an infinite number of building blocks that describe all the things around as it could have been that every kind of thing had its own particle. Watermelons could have been made out of little watermelon. He does for example. But in our universe weirdly everything can be built out of a smaller set of stuff so even being able to describe the universe around you in terms of like one hundred elements is a huge deal but we have made progress since then right we have shown that those elements are made a just a few smaller particles from which you can make lithium and technetium in uranium all with the same ingredients. So yeah we have made a lot of progress and as you say it's not just about the universe around us. It's a very personal question. We are asking what we are made out of. What is the recipe for me. And then i like thing that i made out of the right stuff i don't know about you or at least mostly writes the sometimes if you like. There's a bit of wrong stuff in there but the mostly mostly wrong right. It is a pretty interesting arc for Our journey as the human species to of think that there's all this stuff around the looks really different and looks very varied and wonderfully diverse but it turns out that as we dig down deeper and deeper. It's also out of the same stuff. I it's made out of the same elements and then then the same particles and so right now. We have a pretty good picture of where we stand in terms of what we're out of. We do have sort of a good picture. We've made a lot of progress as you say. We boil it down from one hundred elements to just the proton and neutron electron and now. Of course we know the proton and neutron or just made out of a couple of cork's so it sort of seems like wow we've really narrowed this down everything we are made out of has only three basic ingredients. But you know there's a twist to the story as be dig down deeper. We discover that the answer is not quite as simple as we thought. And that some of those other weird particles we see in collider's and in strange exotic cosmic rays from space might also be playing a role making us up. Yeah because i think as we talked about in this podcast lot and then people who've read our books we know that the the atoms and elements they're made out of protons and electrons and protons are made out of cork's but you're saying some more complicated picture net that's right it turns out the deeper. You dig the.
"proton" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
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Taking a Portfolio Approach to Immuno-Oncology
"Thanks for joining us. Hiiumaa very pleased to be here today and to share a little bit more information about my company protons biotech. We're gonna talk about poor taj. It's pipeline of immuno oncology therapies and its business model prior to portas. You're at bsn and involved in the development of some of the first immunotherapy is known as checkpoint inhibitors but hats. We can begin with this general approach. What happens in cancer. And how do these therapies work. Sure are so for many years you're familiarly. When we were treated cancer we would give people toxic chemicals. They would wreak havoc throughout the body with the hopes that you get small amounts to your cancer could slow the growth and some people often complain that the treatment is worse than the disease you know at the early days that be mass We had made the shift to try to boost the immune system to fight cancer. And the reason that. I don't have cancer today. Even though my body develops cancer cells every day is because my immune system Finds those cells. It sees them and then it clears them So the idea being what if we can get everyone's immune system to find the cancer cells and kill them so we started using some. I would say rather broad nonspecific approaches to boost immune system and when the immune system fires At the cancer and it can recognize a cancer cell of healthy. It can clear that cell and it can continue to do that. Typically remainder of people's lives
Pizza Hut Space Delivery
"What do you tip for pizza delivery to lower orbit. I don't know but i'll bet it's astronomical. The commercialization of space recently took a turn for the tasty windpipe giant. Pizza hut delivered a six inch. Salami pie to the international space station. We completed the first. The fastest and the farthest pizza delivery ever so far pizza hut leads in the commercialization of space race. Pizza is competitive and no one knows that more than pizza hut what can separate any product from its competitor is the marketing and in two thousand one. Pizza hut became the first restaurant chain to deliver to space. That's a pretty good flex if you're a pizza if you're in the highly competitive world of pizzaria ing to be able to say that you shot a pizza into space. Your mood papa. John's so it actually started with pizza hut advertising marketing things. Outside of the box the pizza was delivered via the zvezda service module and launch from biking or in kazakhstan on a proton k rocket and the second stage of the rocket displayed a pizza hut logo of course and was part of the company's dramatic throwing money at pizza hut to shake things up to be more competitive. Because also if you remember pizza hut from what i remember from the eighties can go to the restaurant. It was a experience it was like. Oh we're getting a pizza hut and as obviously delivery pizza was the delivery was pizza. Maybe other kinds of food chinese food might be delivered or or or you know sushi might be delivered but people were just getting more delivery and sometimes going out less or when he came to restaurants were like well. I don't really think of pizza. Hut is a restaurant. I think pizzas being delivered. Yeah as somebody who is a former pizza delivery driver and maker and worker You know how do we compete. And even within the other pizza chains out there. Because we're not the only game in town. Yeah let's throw a million dollars one million dollars twenty years ago. Wow into pizza delivery and space
What is the Metabolism?
"What is the metabolism. Because it isn't just what we in. How it goes out is it. No it's it's the utilization of the energy substrates so from food we break these weak chemical bonds down and we utilize these on an atomic level of the electrons and protons and neutrons and they facilitate the energy in the cell for basic function for reading the dna. For translating this transcribing nece from enzymatic reactions For making neurotransmitters for building the cell membrane for cholesterol for everything basically so visit huge demont and that is where metabolism is the utilization of energy and the import of that is aw basil. Metro rates is the basic principle of thermodynamics. And it's about instead of shifting. And i really encouraged with clients is basically shift the mindset of it's just energies entity in an energy out is more to it than that. It's like what happens with the energy that comes in. This is where i see health. This is where. I see where the magic really happens in. The is all in the mitochondria which is aka the powerhouse of the cell but it does a little bit more than that simple belief But this is where the magic happens. And the output of that is eighty and that facilitates all the ongoing things that sony's to do to repair to replenish to even sillier death. We need entity to drive this Sebastian
Rodón Dominates Through 7, White Sox Blank Astros 4-0
"The white Sox won for the seventh time in eight games is Carlos Roshan allowed one hit over seven innings of a four nothing shut out of the Astros Abraham Toro is thirty single was the only hit our proton and accounted for Houston's only baserunner they're very good team you know TV will probably stay in the playoffs yeah we talked about they're tough they're tough top to bottom and you know just builds confidence when you have start like that the one Moncada and Tim Anderson hit solo homers for the white Sox who took the last two games of the series after dropping their first five meetings with the Astros Danny mendicant Adam Engel added RBI singles as Chicago improved to an American League best fifty six and thirty six I'm Dave Ferrie
Astronomers Find 2 Black Holes Gulping City-Size Neutron Stars
"Eating another. For the first time ever. They've seen a black hole, gobbling a neutron star. NPR's Nell Greenfield Boys reports on how scientists were able to spy on this cosmic snack. Black holes are famous for their gravitational pull, which nothing not even light can escape. And then there's neutron stars. Neutron stars are very weird. Maya Fishback is an astronomer at Northwestern University. She says Neutron stars are made of protons and neutrons, the stuff you find inside atoms. But they're crushed together into a shockingly dense fear that's heavier than our sun and can comfortably fit within the city of Chicago. Now, scientists say they've caught a black hole, eating a neutron star in one giant gulp. And then 10. Days later, they saw another black hole. Do the same thing for these particular systems. The neutron star would have just plunged into the black hole without Admitting any light. If all this gnashing didn't put out detectable light, then how did researchers spotted by sensing gravitational waves? Those are the ripples in spacetime created by powerful violent events out in the universe. Gravitational waves were predicted to exist by Albert Einstein over a century ago, but not detected until 2015 Chase. Kimball is a graduate student at Northwestern, he says, the ability to register gravitational waves has been a game changer for astronomy. So it's like, you know, flipping the sound on on a silent movie or something like that. Where we previously just been watching the universe, and now we can listen to it through this gravitational waves. In this case, the black holes gobbling neutron stars generated gravitational waves that took about a billion years to reach Earth. In January of 2020. The waves triggered three giant
How the Sun Could Spoil NASA's Trip Back to the Moon
"Nasa is supposed to go back to the moon in twenty four as part of its program but recently seemed like they may need to push that deadline back a few years and while it's never good to rush something as serious as catapulting human beings into space. The mit technology review points out. There's one reason it might be better if they stuck to the original timeline. And it's the sons faults. According to a new study published today in the journal solar physics were going to be seen some extreme space weather. Roughly around twenty twenty six through twenty twenty-nine exactly when nasa might go to the moon if the current twenty twenty four time line is pushed back. Now what do they mean. By extreme space weather mostly solar storms quoting the mit tech review. The surface of the sun erupts with gas and plasma ejecting charged particles protons electrons and heavy ions into the rest of the solar system at millions of miles per hour. These particles can strike earth and the moon in just a matter of minutes. Earth's magnetic field protects us from them but the particles can still fry electronics in power grids on the surface and damage critical that manage. Gps until the communication services space weather could be extremely dangerous for any astronauts flying to the moon or trying to live and work on lunar outpost at the surface life support systems and power could shut down and solar activity could produce life-threatening levels of radiation between apollo sixteen and seventeen says matthew owens lead author of the study and a space physicist at the university of reading. There was a huge space weather event. That would have likely been fatal. If astronauts had been on the moon the time and quotes and this is something that i learned from that apple tv plus show for all mankind which showed a solar storm occurred that disrupted radio communication on earth and created a dire situation for the astronauts on the lunar base. But how do we know that this is going to be worse in the latter half of the decade as opposed to in twenty twenty four. Because that's when the sun will be ending. Its eleven year cycle cycle twenty five which began at the end of twenty nineteen.
What Is Antimatter?
"What is it? Not antifa, not Antigua. But anti matter That's right. These are own good anti jokes actually typed in anti into Google earlier to see what the completions were. And anti matter was like the sixth one. Yeah. Oh, no, no matter keep our case about her. Antigua and Antifa and another set of anti stuff. Yes. So what is it? Um, what does it have against regular matter and more important? Where is it? And what can I do for you? Yeah, besides blowing you up, So apparently, If you touch anti matter, you're going to explode in a ball of light. That's right, folks out there listening to this If you're sitting next to a blob of anti matter don't touch it. Run, label it safely for other people, and then run away really fast. We are very pro safety on this podcast. Yes. One explain the universe, explode the universe or kill everybody in the universe. All right, But before we begin talking about anti matter, we went out on the street. We asked people what do you know about anti matter? What is anti matter. Here's what they had to say. Guess matters matter. So no matter what, Okay. It's like the black home. I mean, I've heard it in relation like space, but I couldn't define it at all. It's like the opposite. It's like a Proton has more mass in electron, but it's the opposite charge. Electron has a positive charge, but it's like the letter. All right, so most people seem to have heard of the term anti matter that that said, That's pretty cool. Yeah, it's really cool that people have heard of anti matter though. Almost nobody seems to know what it is. Yeah. Everyone seems to have the idea that it's like regular matter but kind of like the opposite like that. It's like A weird kind of matter. Yeah,
Artists on the loose at the Large Hadron Collider
"At the beginning of the universe minutes after the big bang as temperature cooled the most fundamental particles of matter came into existence so neutrons protons photons electrons and others the basic building blocks of everything we know and see and much way died and to study these teeny tiny particles tucked inside every atom in the universe. invisibly are physicists. Nate this vast instrument one that occupies an entire vast landscape two hundred hectares of farmland. The contrast between big and small here cyber czar. We're about eighty eight meters underground. That the moment kilda. I'm jacob new-zealand. It's great we have people from all walks of life and all over provision who got physicists engineers computer scientists edmund people like me and they're all from different parts of the world i think from the star of the these filled like a mini country so i'm asking schroeder and i'm a experimental particle physicists. In i don't know somehow. When i leave sern i realized that i'm still honing in the normal world. I don't know some kind of refuge from everything else that is going on outside in the world and here science is what really matters. I feel like Since great that it's a kind of a political place you know. The relationship with russia never changed during the cold war with. We're about science purely about saying well not just science. I'm here for art to people as you'll hear science friction with natasha mitchell. Many meters underground this week and easter special from our archive inside the heart of soon. Just outside of geneva in switzerland home to the world's largest most powerful particle accelerator. The large hadron collider the hcc. Now this of course is the place where the elusive higgs. Boson particle was discovered. And where last week scientists hinted they just might have discovered a brand new force of nature or put it another way a violation in the standard model of
Prof. Cecilia Lunardini, Professor of Physics at Arizona State University. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis the most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations. Bit researchers leaders. Who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info. Yesterday's dini whose professional physics at amazon is taking versity. One of the primary of usage focus is new leaders. Welcome to see you thank you. Yeah thanks for doing this. So i know that you have done a lot of work on neutrinos. You have a few papers. That came out recently. And i want to talk to a twenty eighteen paper dalogue and my own neutrino signatures of primordial black holes. invite you say. These studied primordial black holes ph is as sources of massive neutrinos by hawking radiation under the hypothesis that black holes emit nuclear no bass item states be described quantitatively called the pbs evolution and lifetime is affected by the mass and flew munich dialect my own nature of neutrinos before we get the details celia I wanted to get some definitions of folks would know what black court saw a few episodes of black holes Here we're talking about. The pride won't imprac codes owes The these black holes are fall close to the big bang And then as caulking radiation Sort of The black hole evaporating So to speak and that That lady Imitating these particles called neutrinos. Right is that. Do i understand that correctly. Yes so so pry bhutia blackhaws before we get the neutrinos what is sort of the mechanism of formation their ho- exactly what they have formed sure We believe that Primordial hose could form in the early universe from density fluctuations so We know that any object could can possibly become a black hole if you compress it into a very very small volume so this same process could happen in the universe with Density fluctuations that could be a regional space where there is an over density compared to the surrounding and each of over the east coast past Then then it could get to the point of becoming a black hole This this The details of this process are beyond my expertise But this is fairly reasonable thing to expect and The diesel really small rate in the scheme of things. Yes so when i started to Learn about time or their black holes. I was amazed by how different in mass can be. They can be may be the massive wouldn't but they can also be The mass of Being or they can be Even even smaller so they can really be very very tiny. Yes oh so. That's really really small so this is sort of quantum fluctuations only universe Kind of getting Getting concentrated in vide- small areas But we believe those. Those primordial black holes emit nucleus. we Have to go back to stephen hawking for that stephen hawking wrote this seminal paper Which is about what we nowadays. Nowadays call hawking radiation so he demonstrated that any black hole regardless of what it is could be primordial black hole or a stellar. Nicole doesn't matter any black hole isn't really black because it meets radiations so radiation particles And the the process that we call evaporation so Because a black holes fundamentally gravity objects they would meet any particle that couples to raggedy including trees so It's the moment you have a black hole you do. Have hawking radiation and neutrinos are just that are expected. Part of hawking radiation. You're so caulking radiation so that that happens to every black hole even the even the supermassive ones right so i it said gentle phenomenon And so going to neutrinos now Don't typically thing neutrino site Caltrans and electrons are really well known. neutrinos are particles. Dad don't interact with The matter Espionage don't interact much with matters. We don't really see them. They don't really see them. And and so it's difficult to measure that's right and so so this could you give a. What does the history of neutrino vendor we. I understand such things existed. Let's see We go back to the twentieth century and the story goes That the father of neutrino sees Warfare he. He made the hypotheses of a new particle existing as a way to explain Some strange behavior of neutrinos produced by by nuclear decay so It's it's a long story but Let me just say that For a long time. Neutrinos who just the hypotheses and then around the mead of this twentieth century They would actually officer so we started to Know that this particles existed and But that was pretty much heat. So we didn't know much about the properties And one of these properties the mass which we still don't know i'm easy after all these decades but we still don't know if neutrinos have something like a magnetic went for example And something that we didn't learn until much later on is the fact. That neutrinos oscillate. That's that that sounds. That's something that we that were somehow established Turn of the sanctuary around the around the year. Two thousand really after after decades of of testing with the solar neutrino selling trainers. So there are still there are still a number of no on your trainers. One of them is the mass one and the other one is the The nature of the neutrinos being the iraq particles or miranda particles we She's kind of a fundamental cost. So there are that. That's that's that's related to the fundamental nature of the neutrino as particle break. So so they do. They have a mass but masses small. Do they have a chunk. Neutrinos don't have charge so they are electrically neutral and that's Comedy the biggest reason for for them to be a so allusive as you were mentioning earlier on especially in the in early. Nineteen hundreds all the particle detectors so basically a electro-magnetic detectors they were looking for charge or Magnetic behavioral some sort. So neutrinos don't have that and so they They only have the weak interaction At that that we know wolf and gravity of course and so that's why they They escape detection so so easily because their interaction is very weak. Yeah so so. That's sort of the beauty of neutrinos right so because they don't interact V can go back digits of years. Simple hats Perhaps become pickup one on earth and it would have travelled that distance through all sorts of things but would not have affected wider rate right. Yes and so so the other phenomenon of neutrino is that you mentioned that they also late so are they're failures of tinos they go back and forth. Yes it's It's actually a fairly Easy to this cried kwan to sonam on We know that In quantum mechanics there is this Particles described by these function which is called the wave function. And so the neutrinos could be on. Neutrino could be born as a say an extra and then it's quanta way function would evolve over time in a way that after sometime. The wave function is no longer a purely electron neutrino way function. But the has a little bit or even law actually of a different flavor. It could be a new one or tau. So what we observe in the actors. Is this change of flavor and perhaps the most striking demonstration of this phenomenon is solemn. Neutrinos because we know that the sun produces an extra treatments and It doesn't produce a new on and talion trainers so But here on earth we do Have evidence that the solar neutrino flags that we receive has some You wanna talion. Trina in it and that can only be explained by sedation and Actually after this other neutrino data showed this phenomenon. This was also confirmed by a saint men made experiments so it's a fairly established phenomenon it and so that the flavors are Electron new on tall. Yes that's right and so. Did you understand the vendor made in the sun for example there they are made as electron Neutrinos and by the time they reached the earth day the Immunes dot. Yes yes Impart young. that's that's what happens so ease. It always the case that they get a manufactured so to speak as as electoral neutrinos always. It depends on where they are born. There are places where neutrino sutter born in or flavors. A so it's it's it really varies with With the type of environment We are talking about okay. Okay and so in the people you say ph is this primordial black holes. We talked about radiates right. Handed and left handed dutra knows in equal amounts so anybody right-handed unless the cleaners. Okay let me see so Yes you say. Indicates of dirac neutrinos. pba Left neutrinos in equal amounts possibly increasing deceptive number noon pheno species nest. Yes is that explainable. Yes so right handed than left handed. Neutrinos that may take why to explain what that exactly means me. Just say that It's related to the neutrino mass. So if you're truly knows didn't have a mass which we know they do but if they didn't have a mouse They would only exist as left handed particles which means that basically their spin is Is anti aligned with the momentum and but if they have mass and the iraq particles There could be another type of neutrino which is right handed. Which where the This being ease aligned with a mentor other than anti line and so If you are iraq these these two different species could exist and so instead of having one species of neutrino emitted left-handed one Indicators of a massless trina if we have not suv nutrients than you would have to species and so. The black hole radiate war energy compared to The case when neutrinos don't amass so when we started working on this paper i was interested in this phenomenon that A lot of the literature having to do with a developer. Evaporation of primordial black couls. Consider the neutrinos as massless about. Now we know that they are massive. And so i thought well Sixty speaking at primordial black hole could radiate more energy than previously thought. So i found that aspect interesting and then sees you mention the possibility to increase the effective number of species. That's related to what it was talking about. So then you the black hole would ra- gate more neutrino States or more neutrino Species to spe pseudo speak and then Would increase the number of neutrinos per cubic centimeter Data we observe today so I'm kind of glossing over a lot of these days. But basically cosmology gives us a measurement of this and effective which is called the effective number two species. And if you have this right. Handed neutrinos coming from the primordial black holes. This number could be higher than than expected. And so that would be may be a i way to tell that maybe there are more black holes in the universe yet. So so the hawking radiation essentially creation coming out of black holes Expected defined Expected that over a long period of time. Black holes radiate away lap. Later ray out the mass or information that didn't do it And so this. Radiation is hockey. Radio station is it is a new park. Or is it. Fundamentally composed of neutrinos hawking radiation is made of every particle that no of so A black hole. A camera gate Pretty much everything. Photons neutrinos throngs You loans It said cetera but There is the catch here. The fact that a black hole has a temperature which is another Big achievement of stephen hawking to end and others To that the black hole is thermo dynamical object and so Basically the bigger the black hole the lower the temperature so if the temperature is really low The black hole wouldn't be able to immed- Very massive particles because they are thermal energy would be sufficient for that so because masses energy Mc squared right so because massey's energy If a black hole has too low of a temperature It wouldn't have its quantum energy It's it's Wouldn't be enough to produce the mass off a particular particle for example a proton may be too heavy to be produced by a really low tanto black home so so the beaker. The black called the lower the temperature. Yes ed so. So then can expect the bigger black holes to have more of a neutrino content in radiation. Yes because The bigger black holes would as i said be able to radiate the heavy particles and so they would only be able to radiate away the low mass particles and so there could be black holes that only emit photons gravitons and Neutrinos do a of sort of the distribution of this primordial black holes Isn't you know sort of everywhere. What is what do we know about you. Know some of the distribution of bbc's you mean spatial distribution like where they are now. I'm wondering just like the easy would do sort of look at the early universe will find them everywhere Probably at the beginning they would be a more or less uniformly distributed Bug in the universe. Today they would probably be Behaving like the dark matter. Does they would Be part of galactic halos In other words they would be they would class gravitationally on large structures like a like a galaxy placido galaxy so these call still around They would they would behave like like the dark matter down. So they would be in in halo. Galaxies would have by. Now have april would would they not have disappear because it far it depends on the mass That they have when they are born so their if their mass is less than a certain value that trying to remember Basically yes they would have to By now they would have completely evaporate did their masters larger than they will take longer to evaporate and they could still be around So they roughly speaking the dividing line between a black hole. Steve being around today or not. I think it's something like ten to fifteen grams fiery recall correctly into fifteen clams though So this paper. Eusebio obtained the diffuse flux of right hill. Neutrinos from his idea and so so. So so the nikkei actually act to build these neutrinos. They'd be flying here do pbs specifically In principle that's a possibility we Considered that for certain Masses of these black holes and certain density of this black holes the flux of neutrinos that they generate over time could be fairly large and so we could Detect these neutrinos If we had a very Power who attacked so Now life is never ideally in the sense that a real Ut detector have substantive issues like ground And so on. So at the end of the people we conclude that impact is giving given the limitations that current nutrient doctors have It may not really be possible to detect neutrinos trump mortgage black holes but people. That's a possibility and that alone is interesting. Yeah because they suggestion that this primordial black holes could be as as you mentioned could be part of the dark matter that yes to seeking. Is that still About us that has been. There has been a debate on these Kind of going back and forth in the scientific community The latest i heard is that Black whose could be part of the dark matter. Maybe even a large part but probably not they entire dark matter so a one hundred percent primordial Battery is a bit difficult to justify the day. experimental bowels that we already have constrained so various types but there could be scenarios where maybe a fraction of the dark matter. He's made of primordial black holes. I wanted to go into a ended up paper in twenty twenty supernova neutrinos directional sensitivity and prospects for dissertation here the export potential of current and future liquid cinta league neutrino detectors. I decade old town. Mass a localize a super a supernova neutrino signal into sky in douglas was feeding the core collapse nearby star tens to hundreds of english Coated and don't be constructed policy in the detector can be used to estimate a direction to the star so so this is now neutrinos from supernova and You so so we. We have Idea here that before this opened on what happens. If please open over a time period it is creating neutrinos that could pick up and and potentially get ready to see the super bowl. Yes that's what excites me The fact that Think about bitter jews. Beetlejuice is the most famous nearby star. That could go supernova anytime and we don't know when that's going to happen and If it wasn't for these neutrinos that our paper is about we will know until the style literally Collapses and and then soon after becomes superman but in this paper we we Show that before the star collapses which is the beginning of the supernova process We can detect these. These neutrinos That are used at that at that stage and so increase the pool we could know that You know tomorrow. These days beetlejuice exploding and that that would be quite exciting. Yeah it's beetlejuice is is red joy and reasonably close to was really big star. I can remember Cecilia there was some suggestion that It could go supernova within something one hundred fifty thousand years which is obliquely in cosmic time so it is getting ready to go to Supernova right yes. I am not you formed about exactly the number of years give or take but it's it's ready it's ready. It could be any time and any time any time for an astronomer muse anytime the next thousand soviet so we should. We should hold their breath. But it's ready could be tomorrow. It could be in a hundred years could supernova. I know that this is not part of the paper but could the beetlejuice supernova avenue adverse effect on north really know a supernova is very very spectacular event. it's it's a star that collapses so it implodes i and that explodes and then when he explodes It's very bright. In the case of bitter jews we could. We could see by naked-eye shore but in terms of A fact of each radiation and neutrinos in light on on us and on our daily activities. It wouldn't it. Wouldn't affect them in any way so it's a save Show to just enjoy without any worry. Great answer so you talking about supernova neutrinos so so can be actually detect neutrinos from supernova. What different from what we talked about in the previous people Different from pbs I'm not sure. Can you repeat yes. So the new teen emanating from a supernova different from the Neutrinos of expectancy from a primordial black hole. Yes the the different In many ways disney trails have higher energies. So it's much much easier to attack them and indicates will beat the jews. We would detect thousands or even more of dan millions. Probably of them Indiana so different in the way they are born because in our primordial black hole ordinary black hole The processes volcanoes the asian. Which which is a gravity phenomenon in a supernova. You're born out of the very hot and dense environment That the that that the star as after it has collapsed so star collapsing on its own way to become very dense and so In this very dense in hot environment nuclear processes take place that produce these nutrients. So i guess the main difference is that indicates supernova it's most nuclear phenomenon and in the call is really fundamentally a gravitational sonam. Okay you discover technique in this paper and you saved sin principle possible unique the identify the progenitor star so So the existing technology and ideas discussed in the paper viki see teacup a neutrino decode. Identify valid came from or what direction thing from embed you can go back and look at the in that direction if he find to supernova then you could say that the supernova that created in-principle Yes let me. Just say that There are situations and this is not one of them but there are situations where if you have one neutrino you can point to the pointing the sky. What came from in these case. It's a little more complicated. Because what really gives us. The information is the statistical distribution of these nutrients so we are talking about may be the tax in hundred a hundred Gable take from say be for example and What did detector really observe is not the neutrino is kind of a vector which is related to the products of these neutrinos so this neutrino sues interacts with the interact with the detector. And then out of this interaction you have a positive on the new thrown and those can be observed and you can you can create a factory using these two and then and then these rector will have a certain orientation but each each neutrino coming will give you a differently oriented vector but statistically if you look at the distribution of these factors you you can tell you can you can do for with a certain of course The direction of the neutrinos because these vectors are not uniformly distributed they are they have a non uniform distribution of the direction. And so using this information we can we can define a regional the sky where The new three could come from so we can. We cannot now down to a point but we can now down to maybe a cone of a few tens of degrees Width and then we look in that cone and see what stars that com and maybe be juicy one of them. Yeah so As you say you if you see a few Neutrinos Statistics bution of those will give us some some probability That it is in in some region of the sky. And then you say the paper You can then that if it is happening please open nola. You learnt other observational. Modalities multi messagero rations Invisible in radio and other other types of observations Do actually pick up more data so this is almost like a early alert system If it is in place right yes i would call it a very early I learned to because it's we're talking about maybe our worse or insert very fortunate cases. We are even talking about maybe day Before the assad goes supernova and. so that's enough time to plan for for it so a something that fascinated me When i heard about this from a from a an experimentalist is that there is a human factor which was not aware of but The factories so if you have come up with thirty minutes to plan for watching supernova this may not be enough because it just takes stein to make phone calls and get a hold of people and and decide what to do. Come to a consensus in that. I saw in addition to technical things. Like okay have to maybe turn your telescope Direction which takes time. But i i was really fascinated by the human factor. Those things that if you had style we'd be you can kind of gathered. Relevant people decide something but if you have thirty minutes or or or minutes maybe not so. Yeah yeah i wondered. If such a earlier system is in place Perhaps could be something programmatic. Crises is picking up And you have some you know. Maybe some ai techniques or something like that that identifies the region and it goes. Programmatic returned the telescopes look. Yes yes exactly so. There could be a protocol in place For that so e if a telescope was suitable for observing a nearby supernova which which is not always the case than than now that we showed that it's possible to know beforehand if a star is going to go supernova then there could be some sort of protocol in place already so that when the alert comes which is we can just activated the protocol and oriented telescope. maybe automatically will in some sort of Organized way yeah as you say if you remove humans from the process it becomes not better there is actually already working this direction It's called this new two point. Oh a network which has to do with Exactly these using neutrinos as alert for the astronomy community and That has to do with exactly a creating alerts and also creating protocols for how to react to an alert rate. I want to end the people that just came out. it concordant scenario for the observation of neutrino from the tidal disruption. Even eight hundred twenty nine hundred ninety s t You say be induced at phenomenology concordance canadia with the logistic jet of for the title disruption event Between ninety s jesmyn proposes a source of the astrophysical neutrino event. Ice cube So the title disruption even this is star getting cooler into a black hole getting Getting sucked in rate is that the is that even up to the match yes This is something that we We had about be in in popular science stalks What what happens if you get too close to black hole and It's kind of scary. So the answer is you would be ripped apart because your feet will be pulled in with a strong force than your head and these. This is what happens to two statehouse. Use the star gas to close than by guests Ripped the park. Which is what the tied is option means and so instead of a star Rotating around a black hole we just have a stellar stellar That dr intially. I created by the black hole and so This is something that The happy neighbor cops serve did so so we have. This does happen this particularly Eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s and Bequeath actually see a new cleaners from that particular even so tightness. Deduction events are fairly well established phenomenon in astronomy. We have many of them served They they are Fairly a common plays events But what's special about this particular one. Eighty two thousand nineteen years. G is that We could let's say It could have Produced on neutrino that was detected a ice cube so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s. She is the first either direction event. For which is coincident. Neutrinos detected a dice. Cube in queens. This coincidence is likely to be accidental. So on approachability estimate tells us that these coins. This is pretty causal not accident so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety. The g could be the parent of this neutrino. And that's that's that's a i. That's very interesting. Yes i skew. is a is a big ice cube in the in. The south is I'm not sure it's exactly cuba. But it's it's the biggest block of is which has been Eastern With values Small detectors So it's it's an array of swarner detectors but yeah it's basically a big block of ice which has been transformed into a detective and so so the idea that this high energy neutrinos from what they were System montemar even that happened Out there this high energy neutrinos passing through that ice q. believe some telltale signs All of that happening and yuxi picked up Then began back Just like you were talking about the previous creeper begin. Please back to a region so this is one of those cases where you can tell from a single neutrino of course the with with a narrower where you can tell the point in the sky where three neutrino kate from. It's doable with one single neutrino because this high energy neutrinos when they enter the is They produce ca a shower so they kind of illuminate. They you me nate. The is but the do it in a way which is very much Beat so and then and then the direction of the the direction of bigotry knows. We have a pretty good accuracy often. How often could be a pickup something like that. Do we have an estimate of how often that would happen. Meaning ice cube detects something like this. Every year ice cube the tax Of the order of ten high-energy neutrinos froth outside our galaxy. Tadesse the number for the entire crop of neutrinos that ice cube has It went we talk about tidal disruption events in the specific these are fairly rare phenomena and so they estimated that maybe a few times so percent of the entire neutrino flux the thais cubeys of serving could be from tidal disruption events. Not much more than that. So we are talking about less than half of the total flats being to tell this option events okay and so the tug disruption burned as as you mentioned It starts getting clipped applaud and pulled back into a into a a black hole but this ten percent. Do they have to be these braces as they call it. The things that have a jet that is sort of lying towards us. Is that it necessarily condition for these types of high energy neutrinos. It's it's a plausible scenario Let me just say that. There is an important difference between blazers in tidal disruption events. In the fact that the ablaze is something that has a jet. She's always on so the jets kinda kerman feature of of these particular galaxy but the title is adoption. Event is transient events. Saw dotcoms creates the accretion. This accretion of the star of the black hole produces flair is flair can last year or two but then it would just fade away so There could be jet and in fact in our paper we present where there is a jet so they partisans the user chat But if there is a jet in tiger disruption event. That's a transient suggested. That's born when This starts to create the stellar debris. And then it's on for months or years and then and then shuts off and it has two point in our direction as you as you mentioned because otherwise we would. We would see the trains your so this high energy neutrinos sillier how. How many orders of magnitude are we talking about coming to the one set you pick up. Let's say from the sun I'm not sure about the question. Can you maybe rephrase yet. So when you say this high energy neutrinos that is coming from let's say a tidal disruption events or something like that How much comedy orders of magnitude more energy Outdoors come to you. Know the ones that might be created the sun a lot menu of this magnitude so It is a big difference. So the sun produces new three meals. over a wide range of energies Higher energy neutrinos from the sun reach energies of the order of ten am pt and mega awards and for the ice cream. Neutrinos we are talking about one hundred of the older one hundred t. v. or even thousand teams. Which would be p so. Let's say maybe eighty tortoise magnitude finding the mass rife or okay and so this e. v. measure it is actually measuring the mass of the neutrino of newfield. Now these these neutrinos are have such a Such high energy that basically It's impossible to know their mass Because because as i said massey's energy so they talk energy of neutrino Detected is to be so high that that percentage view to its mass east so tiny that this practice mutual so i was wondering if we know the energy couldn't be sort of back computer to save the mass is or it doesn't follow The reasoning is a bit different and The way to sink about this is perhaps they let me see the formula for energy particle Which used the rest energy Applause the kinetic energy and So connecticut is so high that he thought the overwhelms direct energy. So it's it's and of course every time you measure the energy when three no. There is a narrow associated with the measurement so You we can't really we can't really tell what What led the boss of the detroit news but both roughtly this. This appears to be sort of an early warning system for many many things right topped the supernova the in the title disruption events producing heightened plano's So this could be sort of inundated with a monkey message. Observations protocols as you mentioned that gives us a higher success. Wait suspect. I would think certainly nominated be one right That's the power of multi messenger astronomy the integration of different signals coming from Photos tree knows navigation waves Causing me craze and Danger plays very powerful emmanuel cases and maybe supernova case is the most striking Xenos come first. But that's not always the case So in the indicates of tidal disruption events Did you know that was observed. Came about five months later than the initial dhammika looser version of the tidal disruption events so It's if it can go both ways. neutrinos can be early alert or they only alert could be for example a radio salvation or or an x-ray use ovation and then and then the neutrino attacked or could Focus a surge in that direction as see what they find which which has actually been done ice cube sometimes. Does these these archival. Search this on the basis of others from From for example x ray or gamma ray surveys interested. Exciting eighty that said a lot to be owned It seems It seems like these till don't know all the production mechanisms for neutrinos but if we have robust with to pick them up on than we can place them back and and talk asking questions What might be there definitely So yes so. People celia the next five years Wanted the aid is that you believe Be will make a significant crocus in this Innovative neutrinos then two different areas. That a very promising One is Broadly speaking Manmade nutrients so there is. There is a big push especially hitting the united states to build Create very powerful beams of trainings and then these beams are manmade. So we know that very well. We know that energy we know the composition and we can use them to learn about The properties of treatments and then That other men bead neutrino experiments where Scientists look for the between months so that's also very promising In something i really. I really excited about that. That may be a furious novel with noble the neutrino mass us from these very high position laboratory experience. Then there is the whole Topic of neutrinos as part of the mouth of mike messenger astronomy and in that area. I think what was was to look forward. To among other scenes is the interplay gravitational waves shock waves. You still Somehow a science of its own into a large extent but there are so many possible connections. We've neutrinos tidal disruption adoption events should produce reputation ways so baranov shoot us gradation ways So so there is. There is a a lot of potential there which is still unexplored in and that's where i see myself Working on in the next few years you adjust very quickly The do gravitational waves travel bid closest and new ashtrays and so if If they both are produced in In uneven they're expected to arrive on earth close to simultaneously. It depends on the timing of the production if the answer is yes the waves ending a knows are born at the same time which may not be exactly true because the physics that governs tation waves is different from the one that that governs neutrinos. So but the difference in timing would be the difference Accumulated that birth But but the two were were generated genetically the same time. They should arrive the same time. Just thinking this a systematic difference in the production time than guan lorries given early warning for the other. But that doesn't seem to do a case right. There could be cases where significant lag in the production of rotation way with respect to the production of the tree nose and one example is. We haven't touched on this before but let me just nation mergers so if we have if we have a merger for example we have maybe a merger of a neutron stars or black hole neutral star before the merger happens so when the two objects that kind of still approaching each other we should start observe serving ways and this is what this is what has been seen so Delight experiment observes these these nominal But if we have a merger After the merger has occurred and the two objects have become one than a. Dan could be the formation of of over an accretion disk and he secretion Trainers which we can which we can back so the neutrino We come After they initially asian waves and so relation as would be the alert for the neutrino. That does excellent. your this has been great as celia. thanks so much complaining pleasure. Okay thank you bye. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations with leading academics and researchers on variety of topics. If you like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to info. At scientific sense dot com.
Quantum Physics And Global Consciousness In Relation To Trauma
"Welcome everybody to the hill in place podcast. I'm your host terry while rocking very excited. Have with me today. Dr william t. Kenny and he is a radiologist but also author of the conscious whole which is an award winning book a novel. And we're going to dive into that and talk about What it's about and other wonderful subjects Quantum physics and the conscious whole global consciousness Yeah so welcome. Thank you very much for having me. I really appreciate it apso Summer radiologists the area. Tending william t. Kenny a real name is william t. randazzo and So as radiologist. What i'd do his i Some adopted to medical school and did six years of basically advanced training after medical school and will be radiologist lee read xrays. See ts. mri's ultrasounds we also do minimally invasive procedures with x ray guidance and training I learned about physics. Also had an interest in physics before pursuing radiology and when i was in medical school Learning about dna and the nucleotides in dna is they'll tie small molecules and with mike and of interest in physics. I was thinking about how physicists study. The small particles the the subatomic particles atoms in protons and electrons and the laws of physics. Those following Generally speaking kind of you know. Put those into the category of following quantum physics and a lot of people probably heard about quantum physics in. it's essentially the study and the science of the very small things in nature. So you're talking adams. Small molecules protons in the parts of those Adams as well in the laws of physics day obeyed are very strange when you put them in the context of our everyday lives and they don't really make sense and their couple reasons might not make sense. They might not make sense. Because we don't understand that world completely which is probably the most state and you can make. We don't really understand it. We don't know what it's doing but those particles do very strange things and so when i'm sitting my medical school class was than ten years ago learning about dna and they're talking about the nuclear tides. Dna is little tiny parts of dna that basically determined the code and that code determines what our bodies look like and how they function disease in health and everything that we kind of know about the body and describe the medicine as being permanent pieces of matter that inside of our dna in but when you read the quantum physics literature they described little tiny particles as being not fixed as being a potential and being things that could be both. They're not they're things can exist many states
Peloton CEO Says Child Died in Treadmill Accident
"Town after a child was killed in an accident involving the company's tread plus treadmill correspondent Diane King Hall. Saletan is urging users to keep Children away from its treadmills after AH child died in an accident. The company CEO says the death involved bulletins shred plus Proton told us it could not share additional information on what happened. Quote out of respect for the family. The company is reminding people to remove this safety key when not in use is the
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Jeff. i have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular mater. What is that. Yeah so a refresher for who don't remember regular matters abroad category for everything. So you're matter i'm matter. The studios matter the microphones. Yeah i get it matter and we matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter were all made of atoms. So you're bunch of adamson the shape of an emily corn. And i'm tabatha the shape of a jeff brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another jeffrey. Who knows a lot more. Physics denied to answer this one. His name is jeffrey hengst. And he's a researcher at our house university in denmark. And to i. I think of it as kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this muir to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now yet. I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact it was discovered that way by coming up with an equation that predicted his existence. Nobody was really looking for it. And i am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations of physics on this podcast. Because i don't really understand them But hank says the closest analogy. He's got for us mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very but there's a second solution negative to allocate right because negative negative to is four so the way you just went straight to two. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative said and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean. That's nonsense but it turned out there. Worthies negative particles. They did exist in. They're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly. Here's the thing it really is like opposite matter. Protons remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their negatively charged and their anti particles are positively charged. This is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part. It actually lives up to the sci-fi analogy so just go with your sifi brain and i get it emily. You're more of like colin firth. Pride and prejudice bbc. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't i've seen it probably more times than you have in my life. But what do you think happens when matter and antimatter Get together when they actually meet okay. If anti matters the evil twin the fight they do will. They do like in a jane austen novel. They do. Well you're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. And i have a tendency to cancel each other out a minute. Where's this under. Certain conditions when to identify articles of matter. Antimatter meet these. Are your experts. Jeff captain kirk and is that leonard nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation. Spock it is. That's right and you're right. That's star trek season. One episode twenty-seven original track the best track. But here's the thing eveline. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or pretty close so the universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles do disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. The science fiction stuff comes in these things really do annihilate each other if you get together okay. So i've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although i will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life it's really Just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point be an antimatter physicist it it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter and i don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's existing theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much antimatter matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard. To find and hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicists. Do see little bits of antimatter here. and there. In fact anti electrons for i discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually i've got another natural source of antimatter right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes this banana. What are you talking about this real episode. This is an episode about nothing and tomfoolery. Hold the banana to make sure it's real. I'll explain yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti matter. But here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope potassium into banana called potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring. isotope So some porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases an anti electron. So if we just hold this banana and wait for for. How long are we waiting. Okay we'd have to seventy five minutes. We're at ten minute podcast. Geoff just sit here for seventy five minute. What i'm hearing is seven part series on antimatter. Emily kwan and a meditation silence. That's right no so. On average this entire banana will spit out. One anti-electron every seventy five minutes. I think this really makes the point. Well right like antimatter exists. It's not some parallel universe but one tiny anti trump for trillions of banana adams is like even. That's a pretty rare thing to have. Happened and jeffrey wants a lot more than that. That's why he's at this giant particle accelerator cernan switzerland. Okay so tell me what. He's up to their well. Hanks wants lots of anti electrons. And in this is key anti protons. Hey so it turns out the anti electrons are kind of easy. You can find other radioactive sources Besides bananas that can make a lot more of them and then the elevator makes anti protons. And here's the thing so you have to very carefully hang us to bring the anti protons in the anti electrons together we call it s- merge it's a smooz merge merge but even after that merge they still end up with a lot of antimatter just disappearing. Thirty million anti protons. That's converted two hundred thousand or so trapped. Anti protons of those will get twenty or thirty that actually make anti hyphen that we can use well. Willow anti-hydrogen is that what i just heard. Jeff what is that. Anti-hydrogen is just one anti electron orbiting one anti protons and it's the antimatter. Equivalent of the lightest element on earth. So that's regular hydrogen willing to go to all this trouble just to get a few atoms of anti-hydrogen but why go through all the trouble you know of making andy hydrogen okay. So here's the thing. He's hoping to get some clues from anti-hydrogen about matter antimatter and the thinking goes like this. Hydrogen is the lightest element in the universe and hydrogen is probably the thing we know best. We've been studying it forever. We really understand it. So by looking very very carefully at anti-hydrogen. He's hoping that they can learn more about what's going on with antimatter. And that's basically what he's doing he's using lasers all kinds of stuff to probe this anti-hydrogen to see how it behaves. Well has shed any light on where the rest of the antimatter is. Not yet not yet. And so far. Anti-hydrogen is behaving exactly as predicted by all those fundamental physics equations. And so far with the places that we've looked and to the precision with which we've looked they're the same and that's kind of a problem because they also say there should be much matters antimatter unless they can find some sort of deviation it may not be possible to figure out you know where the antimatter went. So we don't have any clues but that's okay because he's just
"proton" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Is the intervention I don't think it works, but you know it's sort of all the stars of fruiting and some kind of viscous fluid type thing. Not necessarily because again it's it's With what we don't know what dark matter is but our best. Well, first of all, we know what's not. The we we know it's not made of. of ordinary matter the stuff. So you and I are fundamentally. Were made know we have molecules made of Adam's Adam's have your nuclei electrons spinning around the nuclei. Are Made of protons and neutrons protons neutrons are made of quirks. And and we know that the dark matter is not made of of anything like that. It's not made of Cork's it's not made of electrons because we we we know from other measurements, how many quirks or Adams there are in the universe and there just aren't enough. So we so we think. Our best guess is that the dark matter is some new kind of elementary, particle? but that simply doesn't interact very strongly with the particles that we know are made of So these are a sort of standard candidate for dark matter. Is What are called and -tracting massive particles or wimps. That's not the only candidate but that's a popular class of candidates to these particles that could be perhaps as heavy as the Proton perhaps tend to one hundred thousand times heavier or perhaps much lighter than a proton. But unlike the Proton or neutron or quirks, they don't interact with the particles that that we are made of or that are detectors are made of at least not not very strongly. Right, right and so I know that there were some other like primordial black holes ideas around us but but the status call today as we sort of know the distribution of this thing but we don't know what exactly, right? Yeah. We know where the dark matter is. We know how much of it there is in the universe about twenty five percents. We can measure quite accurately. Now it's distribution in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, but you're right. We don't have a clue of what it's made of it could be the Williamson, could.
"Framing a Different World" Week
"This week's theme comes to us from Liam Dodd and is called framing a different world. Here's why Liam chose this theme. He says. My Name's Leeann Dodd. Theme Cherries is framing a different world. A chose this theme because I think all of us can benefit for hearing from those of unique expertise or experience is able to provide a new ones new perspective on the way we drive society with each other or just very peaceful. And here are the episodes chosen by Liam for the team along with short descriptions of each episode. The first episode of the week comes to us from the Ezra Klein show and it's called Contra points on taking the trolls. Seriously it's eighty one minutes long. Here's the description. Youtube is weird. Tomorrow's politics are happening today. Next episode comes from it could happen here and is called the second American civil war. It's forty eight minutes long. Are you worried about the possibility of the second American civil war in episode one of it could happen here Robert Explains why 2016 was the first time he started to seriously worry about. The next episode comes to us from Length Uzi Azam and is called sounds. You can't hear babies, accents and phonemes. It's nine minutes long. Why does it always sound slightly off when someone tries to imitate your accent why do tiny children learning your second language already sound better than you even though you've been learning at longer than they've been alive what does it mean for there to be sounds you can't hear. The next episode comes to us from the dream podcast and his called magnets. How do they work? It's forty one minutes long. Here's the description. The road to wellness is paved with particles and protons. And the last episode of the week comes to us from Fox mulder is a maniac and his called synergy. It's forty nine minutes long. Oh boy it's the one where a cosmic planetary alignment turns agent moulder into a crazed sex offender. Don't miss this episode. Those are the episodes chosen by Liam. For this week's theme framing a different world.
Epic, Spotify Form Group to Push for App Store Changes
"It looks like an official rebel alliance is forming headed by epic and spotify. Alliance that is officially being called the. For APP fairness which claims quote apple taxes, consumers and crushes innovation and that this new coalition will advocate quote for freedom of choice and fair competition across the APP ecosystem and quote epic and spotify are the leaders as I said, but they're joined by match group. Base. camp. deesor prepare Proton Mail and tile among several others. So basically anyone who we've ever talked about having an official beef with apple is in there, but the coalition is not just. Going against apple of course, their guns are trained on the Google play store as well, and broadly just the group wants to push for new regulations around how APP stores in general are run quoting gadget. The coalition will allow those companies to pool resources and lobby as a group while giving clout to smaller developers who could never tackle giants like apple or Google alone it's open to companies of any size and any industry who are committed to protecting. Consumer choice fostering competition and creating a level playing field for all APP. An game developers locally according to the coalition. The group has proposed a code of conduct. It wants apple and other APP store owners to adopt it. Requests that developers should not pay quote unfair unreasonable or discriminatory fees that developers should have access to the platforms technical details and that they shouldn't be forced to use an exclusive. APP store quote including payment obligations and quote the gatekeeper. Platforms that these APP stores must not abuse the control they enjoy and must adhere to oversight to ensure their behaviors promote a competitive market and provide consumers with equitable choice. The self-funded group said in a statement, the basic freedoms of developers are under attack said Tim, Sweeney, chief, executive, and founder of epic. In a statement, we are an advocate for any company that's ready to reclaim its rights and challenge the anticompetitive behaviors that exist on APP store today and.
Light flare spotted in black hole merger
"Scientists using Celtics Vicky transient facility may have sputtered a light-flare it's associated with a black hole merger. Now, if confirmed, it will be most surprising is black holes and emerges and only dot to the electromagnetic spectrum. So where did the lively come from? One theory is that the system may be orbiting a supermassive black hole nearly form black Oh may have received a cake from the merger shooting off in a new direction and surging through a disc of guests surrounding the CBA massive black hole causing it to light up while it's unlikely that the Gw Nineteen Zero Five, twenty, one detection originated from the same event is the light flay researchers admit the possibility that it might have is intriguing. There are a number of different environments in which the system to black holes could formed and the disc of guests around supermassive black hole is one of them. The discovery of this mammoth black hole merger was only possible. Thanks to the work of gravitational wave laser interferometer observatories. They work by sending lasers into a beam splitter, which they en- shoots the beams along to perpendicular Mati kilometer-long tubes equipped with mirror test messes it the reins, the refracted laser lights the sent back to the detector where eventually they should theoretically recombine however gravitational wave generated by. something. Like a large moving masol to merging black holes for example, it causes the very fabric of space time stretch and compress emphasis slightly by just a fraction that I am a Proton and when the gravitational wave passes the Observatory Look space-time including the to bean lines and the text messages I stretched and compressed ever-so-slightly. So slightly leaving them out of phase the signature of the gravitational wave event. Using multiple gravitational wave detectors around the globe allow scientists to determine the direction of the gravitational wave source. Lago Lazy The from the Gravitational Wave Observatory comprises two identical detectors wanting in Livingston Louisiana and the Second Hanford Washington state. A third detector could virga was also used in this experiment it's located in the Northern Italy a fourth detected Japan's KAMIOKA gravitational wave detector. The first to be built underground is expected to come online. Later, this year and fifth gravitational wave detector originally offered to. Australia. But. Rejected by the Gillard, Labor government is now under construction in India.
Kendrick Perkins rips Joel Embiid over coronavirus concerns
"Joel embiid. That's where we started was. Addressing the media. This week and this is what he said about Cova and going into the bubble amount of big fan of the idea, but then again. You know going to my job. I'm not GonNa let the city down. Oh, I'm GONNA go on. A city. That's what I've always. my family. My teammates. So. He's gotTa The monster doesn't change on. ME. Doesn't matter the fact that I. Don't like that idea and I stood all the new the new bed. I don't think he's GonNa. Be Safer now because I know I'm GonNa do the white things on no I. Don't i. don't ever do anything I'll it to video games. I'm always all I don't do anything, but then again I don't trust. Does OUGHTA GOS-. Do to save saw but like I said I do my job. Yet for lot of these guys. Thank God for Video Games. they not everybody even goes out anymore. A lot of guys just stay in the room and play games so Kendrick Perkins. I think this was on the jump. Address, say say one more time I take I. Take on, I take. This is what he said about Joel. embiid look, do you. WanNa Hoop or not? I don't none of the other contenders complain. Lebron James Lineker Plane I. Don't hear Jason Tatum. Janas complaining and they. Is How they go to defending champion soup. I don't see them complain there by the way they got a tournament. That's going on right now. In Cleveland, Ohio and I'm pretty sure those guys are not gonna be the bubble or they in great situation. They not complaining. They don't know who I don't WanNa yell to me. This is just the do. Get knocked out. This is going to be excused because they're super. Saw was halfway in his mill, wasn't there? I don't know I don't like the ideal. Loop. Here, they're madison billion dollar. Ball. Beverly say. Unfair criticism I love Kendrick Perkins, but that's completely unfair printed. Criticism you're allowed to be. In and we're seeing this throughout sports. You're allowed to be tentative about what's going on, but we all are at this point right, but what's constructive about saying I, don't really WANNA play, but I'll do it. What type of message does that? Send to your teammates to your fans, but he's. Is he not concerned about safety? Isn't that what he's going for? Isn't that what he's talking about? I, don't know. What he said Yeah isn't everyone concerned about safety like him, saying that just kind of like a bad look I feel like. How do you think his teammates? But what should've stream that and what might crop set? Kendrick Perkins Point is if you feel strongly about it, then do it. Avery Bradley. Do what Dover's protons is doing. Do whatever reasons don't you think a lot of these guys are going to try it out? See how it goes, and if it's not going well, they're going to drop out. I don't know I think guys are gonNA drop out of the bubble potentially
"proton" Discussed on WJR 760
"Director of the McClaren, Proton therapy Center. Dr Romer Jr. MD. Radiation oncologist, also at the McClaren Proton Therapy Centre. If you have a question for the doctors, you can call us at 808 590957 again. That's 800 8590957 Welcome back. Listeners and doctors were so fortunate to have these physicians here. Dr Roman I'd like to ask you a question talking about Proton beam therapy and your specialty of radiation oncology. What do you do for the head and neck cancers? Certainly. So hadn't that cancer is one of those sites I was alluding to where Proton therapy would have Ah, significant benefit at our site in the Claire Claire in car models in Flint. Has mentioned it has a drastic benefit in being able to diminish side effects to certain structures decrease the amount of scattered those that goes to the surrounding structures and hadn't neck in particular. That's a very crowded area. When such a small space with a lot of structures up close and comfortable with each other so often times presents as a not so fun area to treat for. It's a complex area that does often times come with a lot of short term and long term complications. Unfortunately and inside Effects where Proton therapy would drastic will be able to benefit that if I may add a second point as well as, unfortunately in the situation where we have the recurrence or disease that returns in an area that was previously treated with external beam radiation therapy with X rays on DH, I've surgery is no longer on the table. And and certain patients who may have calm are better teaser and the elderly or otherwise. Radiation therapy with X Ray certainly is very difficult and can be very complicated in that situation. Where Proton therapy has hand to play heavily and being able to try to treat local disease and control it safely without giving or gardening to higher risk of complications to the surrounding structures. Doctor. I have a question for you with regard Tio brain cancers in particular. Acu differently. Proton beam from some of the other treatments that they have, like the cyber knife. What is what is the benefit? What is the difference? All the other treatments, including cyber knife, Gamma Knife, X Ray X knife. These are all extra machines. So basically, there's a lot of radiation those that goes. What Sybil Knife and gamma knife to the rest of the brain. And the brain is a very sensitive structure tow any those of radiation. Many eloquent centres like they're thinking the processing parts is very sensitive to even know our doses of radiation. So Proton therapy is an excellent way to deliver those So the target only spared the normal brain, unnecessary radiation, eloquent center's thinking places, multiple sensitive structures in the brain. Even 100 rads very low. Those of radiation come harm them. With Proton therapy can be zero to the rest of the brain. So that's the answer for anything that's going on in the brain. Proton therapy is probably the absolute best, absolutely even benign Diseases meningioma. Sometimes we have to treatment in Germany, where people lives for many years. The longer the patient lives after the treatment, the more advantage there is for using Proton therapy. Compared to conventional radiation because they have many years of quality of life is important. It also reduces the risk of second malignancies and other problems. And those problems are irreversible. What it happened from convention rage and Doctor Doctor guy you mentioned before? Because obviously you on the show before we've been very fortunate to have you come back again about the benefit for younger patients. Yes. Younger individuals, especially Children. Hands down. All Children with cancer should be treated with Proton therapy, not with four times its well known and all the centers. If they have it, it's the number one treatment. Why? Because when Children live, it's many years of life. The survivors are have the rest of their life to look for, and the quality of life is critical. Their performance schools better. These are data the studies showing that clearly At the performance of in school. The ability to compete toe Act normal life toe work and deliver in society is better when they have proton therapy compared to conventional This is a cautionary tale that all pediatricians need to listen to them. If they have younger, you know younger patients that were diagnosed with cancer. Even young adults like Hodgkin's disease. Non Hodgkin's lymphoma are tumors that happened in young people. And when those happens, you treating media Stein and you're treating the head and neck area. As Omar said many critical structures close by you need to protect them. And that's where the advantages So we're selective of whom will give Proton therapy to get those that need the treatment. The benefit. Okay, so obviously we get calls Banking up here. Who do you have? Yes. So we have Ron from Roosevelt around. What's your question? What I was wondering about is the cold did, uh, virus. If somebody has it and then get over it, Can they get it back again? Dr Collins. Well, thanks, run. Well right now. We were not really 100% sure that if you've had Cove it and you've developed antibodies, whether those and advise me that you have sustained immunity right now, the thought is that that's not going to happen that you can get covert again. But you should be. Ah, little reassured that you already survived covert once and that you have some underlying immunity and you'll survive it again. Recurrent exposure actually rebuild your immune status to have longer term ongoing immunity, But still we're all learning about covert as we go. So you can't right now The thought is, you can get it again. Okay, so even you have another question. Next we have Tom from Grosse Ile Tom. What's your question? Uh, yeah, I'm calling because I heard the doctor say something about being able to treat kidney cancer. And the situation I'm calling about. I'm calling about my sister who does have kidney cancer. And what complicates is Ah! She basically lost one. Kidney as a child due to a childhood disease started anything left one kid's day and she has cancer on her. Good, Jimmy. They've tried chemo and some other therapies like that. And she wasn't able to tolerate it. I was wondering if there was any chance something like this would be able to help you. And if possible, who do I contact And of course, it would. It would need to find out more details about everything. But they're definitely maybe some benefit to Proton beam therapy in the specific situation, as especially with one remaining kidney, you know, surgical option is really not necessarily on the on the table For something like this to you will take the only remaining kidney off and where you want to spare a cz much of that kidney as possible as much as that normal kidney tissue as possible, in addition to any surrounding organs in the abdomen. The proton beam therapy would ultimately be the best method to be ableto help out cigars to the treatment of this So the answer is that probably used have your sister call and get in touch with the proton beam people at McClaren and set an appointment or have our son appointment well again from a primary care doctors perspective, you know, I think you need to have All my patients who have cancer diagnosis need to be having an opinion from a radiation college center that is Proton being therapy because it changes the whole outlook. It changes your planet care. It changes your long term complication rates and Our ability to have a good outcome. So that's really the take home message is you just can't assume that you're taking the right course, without having this type of an opinion is party of care Team. Doctor. You wanted to talk a little bit about clinical research because I know we don't have a lot of time. So please tell us what you know about them. In very brief. We're about 11 12 clinical trials. Two of them are only for open for common diseases. These are international trials that are open in many Proton centers all over us. Now. There's about 30 centers, 31 Return centers in us. Wait, Let me just stop you there. 30 in the United States. We're talking about very happy that we have We have you here. Thank you. So we have clinical trials. Open it in our center in commander's Cancer Institute..
Finding New Antibiotics with Machine Learning
"Don't you break down for me? What the machine learning approach that they used here. And what kind of advanced does this represent took this machine learning model that they made and they traded on about twenty five hundred molecules and use that to train binary classification models to predict probability of whether it new compound would inhibit the growth of e coli or not and then turn to the truck library Library of six thousand compounds. That are ready in human clinical development for wide variety of indications and at this point the compared several different models and after narrowing down there's molecules and actually predicting toxicity using different neural networks. They've came up with this particular molecule and Howson and then thirdly lastly in the process they went on to apply machine learning motto after iteration and optimization too much broader set zinc fifteen data set with over a billion a half structures and under machine learning side. What's key here's the deep learning network that the US didn't really rely on any information about the chemical structures of molecules. It actually really built new representations called for years. A lot of people represented molecules with these fingerprint factors reflected things like presence or absence of functional. Groups are descriptors and comparable properties but relying on known fingerprints. Didn't really work that well. And that's why you know. A lot of the old antibiotic screening process gives you a lot of the same classes of molecules over and over again and what they did here they actually have these fingerprint descriptors that were built from. Scratch well you know. What you're describing is still a fingerprint. Right into dimensional vector to describe molecules. I think perhaps what's different is at deep learning approach. You can try to infer what the right descriptors should be. That's the hallmark of all of the deep. Learning approaches for drug design is at the end deep learning in general that recall even when we're just talking about conventional neural nets for image recognition the ideas that CNN's for image. Recognition versus classical computational vision. Is that in the classical approach? That person's defines what the right features are and so similarly. You know it's interesting that you can feed any representation of molecule into computer which parts of the interesting ones. You can have just like old school computer version. You could have a human being say all these in the important ones but a a beauty of DNA approach which is Ucla but also in many precursor works. That helps understand. What are the key aspects? And what are the interesting ones? And that is really. I think the big difference between what you can get in modern deep learning with machine learning versus classical machine learning with like random forest or something like that right so deep learning helps us figure out what we don't know versus focusing only on what we already know or what we think we know what makes Alison an attractive candidate for further research and development. What are some of the properties that they discovered without a doubt certainly a really potent inhibitor of e? Coli and you know. Further investigation showed that Halston has strong growth. Inhibitory effects on a wide following spectrum of pathogens. They tried it on. C. Money and which is one of the highest priority pathogens that is urgently required for in terms of antibiotics and then more. Interestingly it was even able to eradicate equal I persist yourselves that remained after episode and treatment so pretty strong efficacy and pretty low talked based on their screen. It also checks the box of something that is really structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics. And so certainly a very powerful new class of antibiotics that could potentially be strong candidate for further development. Yeah the fact that they found the antibiotic they showed it worked in vitro they showed. It worked in Vivo. And then they also did some experiments together this mechanism of action suggesting that Howson selectively disrupts the Ph potential across the bacterial membrane this saps the Proton motive force which is like the battery of the cell so all antibiotics. It's disrupting an essential cellular function but this appears to be a distinct and new function. That's being targeted super elegant work such a complete well rounded story. Yeah well I mean I think one of the things that really stands out here. Is that full stack of experiments. That they've done where it goes. All the way from looking at they might see in a dish to going through mice and one of the appealing things about studying antibiotics. And this often even pertain. Santa Viral that the animal models are pretty good with something like alzheimers. On the far extreme where animals are generally not very good. And so it's appealing that one could go. Do all of this. You know. Probably not requiring huge budget and therefore get something on the other side of that. Looks kind of intriguing beyond initial discovery? Can this kind of machine? Learning based approach be applied to other aspects of either earlier late stage drug development. Yeah it's it's brought Tommy with the fun thing about it. There's a reason why it's a broad topic because there's a broad range of things you can do. I mean you could talk about identifying targets and there's a lot of work to do there an extra shooting novel targets. It's really interesting. Time to go after novel targets. You could talk about identifying leads. Basically what's been done here that identification leads and then the testing of them. These compounds are leads but presumably. They're not drug like so they have to be optimized so there's these methods helping lead optimization and then along the way hopefully you'd want to also be screening for talks and so there's a ton of methods that are getting really surprisingly accurate basically the beautiful thing about a machine learning approach like this is at the approach for the most part is pretty agnostic to what you're predicting and that the processes you're building up can be useful one last thing and this is maybe the holy grail dream is that if you're predicting a lot of properties for a lot of different systems with a whole bunch of molecules in some multitask like framework where one model is predicting all of it. You can learn from all of it and that you develop even though you might not have a lot of data in any single project or any single area here. The sum of all this data now is huge and helps to regularise your predictions to make them less over fit and more
"proton" Discussed on 850 WFTL
"Proton to schedule a consultation no right now only at napa triple a members get a twenty percent discount so you can avoid getting stranded on the side of the road by picking up some quality parts like batteries brake pads and more meaning you can prevent the problem before it ever becomes a problem Bravo that's twenty percent off for triple a members quality parts helpful people that's not but no well the participating napa auto parts stores exclusions apply not be combined with other offers offer ends thirty thirty one twenty we at first sight I thought that was just movie will stuff until last Saturday because last Saturday it happened to me Aaron's delivered my brand new Samsung refrigerator she and icemaker affordable payments no credit hassles and now I know what love looks like instead of listening to that rent to own and of course for your happy place welcome back to sports view next topic is it really all about power makes me think of progressives name your price tool give you the power to find options based on your budget let's go to Chuck for in a relevant analogy may back in the day people and that's how many are registering the quake they just took the oranges they didn't say on a six seven twelve fifty whatever it was all Regis you get me we get your Jack in a word kids oranges into history with the progressive so if you're working name your from price home to all progressive you can casualty get sending insurance one of company seven affiliates nine pricing dot com coverage much on limited your by radio state law or on smart devices on all your phone your and favorite we start your songs day off of the sixty from Elton minute John commercial free workday kick off just before nine AM and consider this if there's no other workers around you you can play the radio as loud as you want and more all in one place the greatest hits of the seventies eighties and nineties feel good play on sunny windows seven nine most people and just three so here's some real news that I heard today and I know it has to be a fact your parents are fine your pets cannot carry or transmit the virus so don't worry about Houston on a we love the eighties weekend on Sunday when I was seven nine we're popping in it's all eighties weekend on sunny one of seven nine.
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Antimatter. I'm so excited to talk to you about antimatter and emily. I know exactly what you're thinking. Anti-matter pods are rigged to blow up the moment we star Trek Right. I mean antivirus. A huge part of Star Trek. All right I know. The Vulcan Salute. Live long and prosper. That's about the extent of my knowledge of Star Trek. But I get your point. Antimatter does kind of sound like science fiction. But it's Real. That's the cool thing. Yes antimatter particles. Are these strange mirror particles to the stuff we see all around us and scientists have made it using a giant particle accelerator in Europe. They're studying it because they hope it can answer some fundamental questions about the universe. Okay not entirely sure I get it but by the end of the episode I assume we all will so today on the show anti-battery what it is how it works and why one scientist has spent decades trying to trap it. Jeff. I have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular matter? What is that? Yeah so a Refresher Viseu. Don't remember regular matter. It's a broad category for everything. So you're madder I matter the studios matter the I I get it matter matter matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter. We're all made of atoms. So you're a bunch of Adamson the shape of an emily corn on the shape of a Jeff Brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another Jeffrey. Who knows a lot more physics? Naidoo answer this one. His name is Jeffrey Angst. And he's a researcher at our House University in Denmark and to Madeira. I think it is kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this mirror to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now. Yeah I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact was discovered that way. You know by coming up with a an equation that predicted existence. But nobody was really looking forward and I am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations physics on this podcast because I don't really understand them But Hank says the closest analogy. He's got for US mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very good? But there's a second solution negative to Aoki because negative negative to four so the way you just went straight to. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative side and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean? That's nonsense but it turned out there. Were these negative particles. They did exist and they're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly? Here's the thing. It really is opposite matters. So protons do you remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their charged and their anti particles are positively charged. Hey this is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part actually lives up to the SCIFI analogy. So just go with your vestigial Sifi brain and I get it emily. You're more of like Colin Firth. Pride and prejudice. Bbc D. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't I've seen it probably more times than you have in my life but what do you think happens when matter? Antimatter get when they actually meet okay. If antimatter is the evil twin they fight they dual. They do lake in Jane austen novel. They do well. You're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. My her Antimatter tendency to. Cancel each other out. Where's this under certain conditions when to identify articles of matter? Antimatter meet these experts. Jeff Captain Kirk and is that Leonard Nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation as stock. It is that's right and you're right that Star Trek season one episode twenty seven original track the best track. But here's the thing heavily. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or close. The Universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. That's where the science fiction stuff comes in. These things really do annihilate each other if you get them together okay. So I've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although I will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life. It's really just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make and that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point that's hard to be an antimatter physicist I it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter. I don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's exists in theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth like this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much anti matters. There's matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard to find and Hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicist. Ducey little. Bits of antimatter here and there. In fact anti electrons I discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually I've got another natural source of antimatter. Right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes. Data this banana. What are you talking about? Is this a real episode? This is an episode. About nothing and Tomfoolery. Mom Can I hold the banana to make sure it's real Alex Lane? Yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti. It's it's matter but here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of Potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope of potassium into banana. Call Potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring isotope So some Porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays eight usually releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases and anti-electron so if we just hold this banana
"proton" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"You'll find the bright yellow. He Stuck Capella. The Brightest Star in the Constellation Riga the Cherry a tear caterpillar. A pillar is the Latin term for a small female goat. The Stars Alternative name is CAPRA. which was more commonly used in classical times? Although it appears to be a single stat of the unaided I could pillar is actually system forced us into battery. His first pay comprises too bright yellow giant sties both of which around two and a half times the massive out son having exhausted their core hydrogen birth stars of colden expanded out become giants moving off the main sequence designated United Capella A and Cappella. Ab they're in a very tight. Circular Orbit Some Zero Point Seven six astronomical units Pat Albany each other every one hundred four earth stories caterpillar a is the cooler and more luminous of the two but some seventy eight times the luminosity and twelve times. The radius of our sun known as an aging red clump star Capella A is fusing helium into carbon and oxygen in its core Cappella Ray is slightly smaller and hotter sub giant about seventy three times as luminous almost nine times the radius of our Sun. It's now in the process of expanding out become a red giant. The Capella system is is one of the brightest sources of x rays in the sky thought the come primarily from the corner of the more massive giant the second pair of sizing Cappella allocated around ten thousand astronomical Michael Units from the first pay. They consist of two faint small and relatively cool spectral type M main sequence red dwarf stars designated Cappella Aging Cappella L. almost directly overhead this time of year. So that's your position on the scene. It we find canopus the second brightest star in the night sky after serious. It's located some three hundred thirteen light years away in the Constellation Carina the Keel Columbus looks incredibly bright. Because it's huge. It's a special type. A Bluestar booster with some ten times. The mass seventy one times that I am and ten thousand times the Sun can opus is a bright source of x rays in which are probably produced by. Its Corona magnetically hated to several million Kelvin. The temperatures lightly being stimulated by fast rotation combined with strong internal convection vixen current percolating through this outta layers no star closer than canopus is more luminous than it. In fact it's being the brightest iron or this night sky during three different epochs over the past. Four million years are the stars such a serious pay breida relatively temporary periods during which time they passing the solar system at match closer the distances thank can opus about ninety thousand years ago series. Moved close enough that it appears to be broader than CANOVA's and as I said earlier it will remain that case for at least another two hundred ten thousand years but in some foreign hundred eighty thousand years time canopus will once again become the brightest Arnott sky and will remain so for a period of at least another five hundred ten thousand years in Greek mythology canopus was the helmsmen a navigator for the fleet of Malays King of spider which was settling back from the battle of troy cannabis. He said to have died when the flight arrived at the port in Alexandria Egypt and so a star which become visible in the Reisen was named after him the notable themes understandable because. It's after all in the Constellation Carina which represents the Keel of the but ago east by Jason and the astronauts and the quest for the Golden Fleece and located knee by other vessels sales represented by the Constellation Villa and the roof of the birds re cabin. And it's the PIP. Dick which is represented by the Constellation. Constellation Papas can also forms part of the stellar associational. astrum nut as the faults cross which straddles the constellations Carina and via the sales. Take off confused with a real southern cross crux. This time of year. The southern cross his upside down and low down the southern skies during early evening in fact act four hours north of Brisbane. The seven cross will be hidden by trees and buildings on the Reisen must the evening but later on as the earth turns. The southern cross will rise above the horizon and the south-southeast northern listeners. And pay to be lying on the left hand side in fact most of the brighter stars visible in the night sky a visible during January renite series. The dog stars the brightest followed by notice. The Navigation Sta the third brightest office story one of the two point showing the way to the southern cross. Ross low in the south. The fourth and fifth brightest stars however actors Vega aunt visible in the southern hemisphere during January but the sixth brightest Capella is visible just just a fist with above the northern horizon. And the seventh. Rachel Marks Ryan's a next is pressure on the little dog in eighth place not as Adema echina- at the end of the River Eric Danis and finally builders better than most people. These days beetlejuice is a Ryan shoulder and the tenth brightest down the night sky. So that's eight of the ten brightest does not Scott.
"proton" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Two hundred thousand two hundred and fifty thousand. US dollars a seat. Russia's launched the new geostationary weather satellite into orbit the electro L. number three meteorological satellite was carried aloft aboard a Proton M rocket equipped with a zero three upstage from the back and cosmodrome the Central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. The electoral number three satellite was placed. It's the geostationary transfer orbit six thousand thirty seven minutes after launch and time. That attorney is to the skies and check out the celestial sphere for January on Sky Watch. January is the first month of the year in the Julian. Angering calendars is. The name originates in the Latin word for door because January is the door to the new year and an opening to new beginnings the month is conventionally thought of as being named after the mythical Roman God of beginnings and transitions but according to ancient Roman Farmers Almanac it was actually Juno who was the traditional God of January astronomers January Max Earth's closest position to the Sun perihelion which always occurs about two weeks after the December solstice now the recent we have perihelion and its opposite affiliation with Earth at its most distant opened position from the Sun Occurs Because Planet Stern orbit the sun in perfect circles but rather ever-changing elliptical orbits the shape of this orbit varies due to gravitational influences of other planetary objects and in Earth case that especially includes the Moon. ooh What is almost massive enough to be considered binary partner so over roughly one hundred thousand year cycle Earth's orbit changes in shape from almost circular too far more elliptical the difference is not fix Trysofi the next perihelion occurs on Sunday January the fifth twenty twenty at eighteen forty seven in the evening astray in eastern daylight a time when the Earth's center will be just one hundred forty seven million ninety one thousand one hundred and forty four kilometers from the center of the Sun. That's a to forty seven in the morning. US Eastern Standard added time and seven forty seven am Greenwich Meantime and as we said earlier just six months later about two weeks. After the June saucers Earth will be at its furthest the position from the Sun at Falin. Okay let's start as celestial turn the north face looking towards Orion the hunter. It's one of the most easily identified constellations in the night. Let's go this time of the year. And if you look near Orion you'll see Sirius. The Dog Star so called because it's the brightest star in the Constellation candice major at the Big Dog. The name serious means scorching or brilliant a clear reference to its spectacular brightness in the sky as well as being one of the nearest us to the sonnet. Just eight point. Seven ly is it's it's also intrinsically brought some twenty five times brighter than the sun and almost twice as bright is the second brightest star in the night sky can opus by the way a lie. That's about ten trillion kilometres. But isn't a photon can travel in a year. At around three hundred thousand kilometers per second the speed of light in vacuum and the ultimate speed limit of the universe. Serious is the fifth closest of the Sun Right now and it's gradually moving closer to our solar system so it will steadily increase in brightness over the next sixty thousand years after which time the star system will begin moving away again and it will gradually become fainter and fainter but it will still continue to be the brightest ironist night sky for at least the next two hundred ten thousand years serious is a binary star system comprising spectral type a main sequence. What stock called Serious A and small white DWARF COMPANION SERIOUS BAY which orbits between eight point two and thirty one point five astronomical units away from the Primary Star now astronomical unit is a distance of about one hundred and fifty million kilometres the average distance between the earth and the Sun? Or if you prefer you can think of it is eight point three light minutes and main sequence sequence stars of those undergoing hydrogen fusion into helium in they cause as well as being about twenty five times more luminous than the sun serious has at least twice. It's the mass and size of our Sun. The Sirius system is between two hundred and three hundred million years old and was originally composed of two bright white stars seriously seriously which was the more massive of the pair became a white dwarf about one hundred and twenty million years ago. We know that's the case. Because the bigger star is the quicker consumes the two resorces. Now what is the stellar corpse of sunlight star having used up all its fuel. Supply hydrogen to helium it expands into a Red China as it begins fusing helium into carbon and oxygen. The thing is some like stars aren't massive enough diffuse carbon and oxygen into heavier elements. And so they I turn off the Outta gas envelopes float away in space. Patacula objects called Planetary Nebula. And what's left behind is a super dense white-hot hot still a core about the size of the earth and object astronomers referred to as a white dwarf which will slowly cool down of the eons of time time serious has played an important part in Earth's human history five thousand years ago the ancient Egyptian so serious as the God nervous Lord of the underworld old who had the head of the Doug and invented embalming the funeral rites and guarded one from the underworld judgment where he attended the scales during the weighing of the heart. To determine one's fate in the afterlife later numerous was replaced as the lord of the underworld by Cyrus and serious came to represent the goddess Isis to ancient Egyptians options by carefully watching series movements across the sky the ancient Egyptians determined that it will be visible every night for two hundred ninety five and a quarter night followed by seventeen nineteen nights have absence and this observation allowed them to determine that the year was three hundred and sixty five and a quarter days long and they calculations were accurate accurate to within eleven minutes the helical rising of Sirius also mack the annual flooding of the River Nile in ancient Egypt and the hot sultry dog days of summer for the ancient Greeks by the way hill rising.
"proton" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Emitted as ultraviolet light. When the Maven team I observed these Proton Aurora? They thought they were a relatively unusual occurrence. But that's because they weren't looking at the right time and places however after a closer look. They found that Proton Aurora were occurring far more often in day site southern Summer Observations Association's than initially expected in fact the authors found Proton Aurora in some fourteen percent of their day side observations and that increases the more than eighty eight percent of the time when only day side southern summer observations considered now by comparison Megan detected so called the few sorority on Mars in just a few percentage incentive orbits with favorable geometry and the other type of Aurora those discreet Aurora. We talked about the rarest. Still in the data set the correlation with southern southern summer provided a clue as to why the Proton Aurora. So comment and how. They could be used to track water loss during the southern summer on Mars. The Red Planet is also the nearer the sun in its orbit at its time when huge dust storms can occur some warming and dust activity appeared a coors probe on Roy by forcing water vape behind the atmosphere then solar extreme ultraviolet light breaks the warden components hydrogen and oxygen and the light hydrogen is weakly bound to mass asked by gravity and enhances the solar corona around the Red Planet Increasing Hydrogen Lhasa. The space more hydrogen in this Karuna makes interactions with the solar wind. Protons more common making pro Aurora more frequent and brighter. You're listening to space time coming up next. It's all systems. Go for the maiden flight of Europe's new Vegas rocket and later. Moscow says Russian space tourism is back on its flight. Plan all that and more still to come on space time European Space Agency says it will fly New Vegas lightweight launch loan system on a maiden flight slated for March the go-ahead follow successful hot firing tests.
"proton" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Astronomers have discovered that a type of Moshen Aurora I identified by Nashes Maven even spacecraft in two thousand sixteen is actually the most common type of Aurora occurring on the Red Planet a report in the Journal. Geophysical Research Space Physics says this type type of event known as a Proton Aurora may be able to help scientists track water loss from the Martian atmosphere on Earth Aurora a commonly seen as colorful fool displays of light at night skies in the polar regions within known as the northern and southern lights the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis however the Proton Aurora on mass happened during the day and they give off an ultraviolet light which is invisible to the human eye but detectable by the imaging ultraviolet spectograph geographic instrument aboard. NASA's Maven spacecraft. Mavens mission is to investigate how the Red Planet lost so much of that is fair in water transforming it from a warm warm wet world with a thick atmosphere that could have supported life to the cold inhospitable freeze dried desert. It is today now. Since President Aurora A- generated indirectly by the hydrogen derived from Mash and water. That's in the process of being lost into space. These Aurora could be used to help track ongoing mosh and water loss. The study's lead author Andrew Hughes from the embry riddle `Aeronautics University in Daytona Beach says the Maven Day together of multiple years is found that periods of increased raced atmospheric escape corresponding increases in Proton Aurora occurrence and intensity different phenomena produced different kinds of Aurora. However Ole Arroyo on earth and Mars a powered by solar activity whether it be explosions of high speed particles in the solar storms eruptions of gas magnetic fields tonight it's coronal mass ejections all gusts of the solar wind a stream of electrically charged plasma that blows continuously space at around one point six million kilometers aspera for example northern and southern lights? Here on earth happened to in violence. Solar activity disrupts Earth's magnetosphere causing hype philosophy electrons slamming into gas particles not side upper atmosphere making them glow and similar processes generate the Red Planet's discreet and diffuse aurorae two types Kuraray that were previously observed on the Mash nightside however proton row right Cohen Solar Wind Protons hydrogen atoms stripped of their electrons by intense eight interact with the upper atmosphere on the day side of miles as they approach mass. The protons coming in with the solar wind transformed into neutral atoms by stealing Ling electrons from hydrogen atoms in the Outer Ridge of the Martian hydrogen corona a huge cloud of hydrogen surrounding the planet. And Win those high speeding coming at him. Sit the atmosphere that's fair. Some of their energy is emitted as ultraviolet light. When the Maven team I observed these Proton Aurora? They thought they were a relatively unusual occurrence. But that's because they weren't looking at the right time.