20 Episode results for "Professor Of Chemistry"
Lignin a possible basis for new bioplastics
"Now we return to the place Sancho visited last week. Warrick University where Tim bug is professor of chemistry and we're we're here to talk about Lignin and Mirage or wrong that table is made substantially Lignin. Well it is one of the components of of would so would probably has about thirty percent. Lignin it also contains cellulose about fifty percent and hemicellulose but all plant biomass has got licnen. Maybe twenty to thirty percent in what is listening in fact chemically polymer made up of units which are aromatic rings rings and then three carbons but then they're linked together in different ways most biological polymers irregular. They have very regular repeating unit. Lignin in is a bit irregular in the unit linked together in different ways but the linkages are either carbon oxygen ether bombs will carbon carbon the bonds which are very hard to breakdown so Lignin is very tough material. I mean it's evolved to be very tough to hold plants up but we're Vietnam trying to break it down which makes it very challenging and there's lots of around because where they weigh in big cities or even in the country is lots of waste succumbs from a wood from papers and God knows what else so your trying to make use of this fast supply yes there is lots of big didn't around and so there's agricultural waste so in the UK weet is are major crops are there's plenty of wheat. Straw around that could be used for bio transformation mation other countries have got other feedstocks rice sets at trove sugarcane but it's also a byproduct of certain industries the pulp and paper hyper industry for example in Scandinavia produces a lot of Lignin as a by product which currently burn for Energy Zabit Light Brown coal but if week converted into highly chemicals that would be sustainable and have a good thing to do one of the problems though surely if something is so enduring during is the amount of energy you have to put in to break it down to make useful makes it counter productive difficult so people have. I've been trying to break down like name for a number of years and hasn't translated yet into a commercial process energy input baby. We probably haven't quite got to that stage yet. We're still at the point of trying to get yields to wear. It might be industrially important. I think using biological fermentation probably the energy input would be not a serious problem. There are also people doing chemo catalysis on Lignin and might be more of an issue for them if you're doing fermentation. How long would it take. And how quickly could you get yield. Yes so our studies that we've published. We've shown they're using genetically commodified strains. We can generates vanillin and purdy cobbles lic acid which bioplastic precursors but that takes typically seven days to do so the Lignin degradation is rather slow so as well as the yield being modest. The feminisation time is quite slow so we would. We need to improve both of those two things and are more recent strains. Were facile that but we need to get down to between twenty four and forty eight hours but what's the payoff. I know you've got an awful lot of Lignin there to make you solve. Would it be useful on a scale. If you can solve this chemical the problems you mentioned yeah we think so one of the purchase that we're working on is trying to make more numbers to make new by plastics so I have a collaboration with Byron bioplastics small biotech company based in Southampton and they've shown that they can take those parodying die cubs acids and make a new by based plastic plastic from that which is used to make drinks bottles and also other con- DEPALMA's could be a lot of interest now in making you bioplastics uh-huh plastics. We should buy a bass come from a renewable source but they're also biodegradable compostable on. I think there is a big demand for new Paulhamus Almas with those characteristics and we believe that these new materials would meet those criteria but there are challenges ahead to get the yield up to what would be industry relevance to actually get it working at scale and then the marketing materials it's interesting that we had on on their the Sancho few years ago something from York and this was an approach of using the vast amount of orange peel waste in a similar sort of way. Are you in touch with your people in any way in that regard will i. I know other people at your probably not those particular people so there is a lot of food waste around and that is another possible resource any kind of lignocellulosic material contains Lignin but it's possible and certainly people for interested in that and the pay of could be enormous. Yes the moment people pay you to take the waste away. Timberg is professor of Chemistry Work University in the U._K.
Murder Mystery: An 1850s Whodunnit
"Hi, I'm Wendy's commend you're listening to science Bessis from Gimblett media on today's show, what taking you back to a gruesome murder that happened in eighteen forty nine. It shocked America and put the science of the day to the ultimate test. Yeah, science Fasces is going true crime. And if you've got innocent ease around, you might wanna skip this episode because it is indeed gruesome. The ant men had been opened. The intestines taken out college is on the rims, had been separated in the lungs, liver and heart removed, producer, rose room, learn. I went to Boston to investigate this crime, and we ended up pouring over the original documents from the murder, and we're in a library, which is why we have to whisper. I the thorax and left thigh. The corpse had been subjected to the action of fire as shown by the singed hair horned. The partially gross said state of the skin. You feel like we have better words than roasted subsiding. This medal went down in eighteen forty nine and it had the perfect setting the very prestigious Harvard University. Plus there was everything you could want in sorted crime story, a cost of characters that included one of the richest men in Boston, a suspicious genita- a noted professor and at the center of it all a mysterious mutilated corpse. So we have this like how roasted half dissolved but not quite what he could have done this some sick. And we're breaking open this case because to catch the killer and bring them to Justice. It took all the cutting edge science that the nineteenth century had to offer and a broke new ground. As Harvard scientists analyze the evidence to crack the case. So today we're following their footsteps we're putting on trenchcoats. We're getting out the magnifying glass to find out who done it. When it comes to podcasts, there's lots of true crime, but then this sick. Science versus how to solve a meta in eighteen forty. Nine is coming up to stop to the break. This episode of science is brought to you by wire frame and you branded podcast from Dobie Gimblett creative. Why of frames podcast about good design? Each episode looks at a different way. We shape design technology to feed into our lives like how poorly designed control board may have played an important role in the Three Mile Island accident and how the emoji Cape Cod has totally changed the way that people communicate. Why frames hosted by the principal design at a door be coy Wien the first two episodes out now subscribed to wire frame wherever you listen. This episode of science vest is is brought to you by made well made well is the denim brand. The believes good days stout with great jeans made well has options for every type of denim. Defoe t we're talking men's and women's styles, extended sizes, plenty of rise in insane options and more. You might have to make room in your closet for all those jeans and made well can help you do that. Bring any brand or style of old genes to a made well store, and you'll get twenty dollars off a new pair, made well works with blue jeans. Go green to turn your old genes into housing insulation for communities in Nate, stop by a maid well store or go to made well dot com to find your dream jeans. Welcome back. We start out story in Boston on Friday, November twenty. Third eighteen forty nine. The streets of full of horses and carriages. There's a chill in the New England dare would. This thanksgiving is right around the corner. One of Boston's richest men, the central character in this wretched tale is out collecting rent money. His name is Dr George pacman. Boston's Neum as a really, really, really rich landowner in Boston. This is Paul Collins, a professor at Portland state university, and he's written a book called blood and Ivy about out ghastly story today. And so he told us about this really, really, really rich man, George park man. He was known as being kind of a miser, and he would actually go around and collect the rents himself on foot because he did not want the expense of a horse. He was known as being really tough with his tenants and like you classic mister Scrooge. Yeah, I mean, there is there's something very Scrooge lack of him. I'm money grubbing Scrooge sounds like a guy with a lot of enemies. And Mr Powell C'mon was very recognizable, hit a jutting, lower jaw was very distinct and he tended to walk around with it up in the air. So he he's almost like the caricature that you would imagine of a somewhat stuffy snooty rich guy and this November Friday. Well, let's seem like a regular day for Mr. park men with these jutting jaw. He was out doing his rounds collecting money. He was licensed sane at a grocery store and told the man at the counter. I've got to go to Harvard Medical School. I'll be back in five minutes to pick up my things and he leaves behind a head. Of lettuce from hia. Mr. Pokemon is seen trotting off to the medical school. He's actually seen walking up to the medical school building, which is not an unusual thing. He he would often stop by there. But on this day, an unusual thing does happen Mr. Parchman walks up to the school and then he's gone. And there's like some scattered seeming sightings of him around the city after that, but they're hard to confirm. Nobody actually speaks to him after he's seen at the medical school when Mr. parliament doesn't return harm. His family isn't sure what happened. Maybe he'd go in for a wonder in the woods after several days, though he doesn't return and they think, well, he had a breakdown in the pasta and even talked about suicide. Perhaps he jumped off a bridge. Some suspected foul play. Mr. park man was carrying a lot of money with him at the time he disappeared. Perhaps he was murdered for the cash. The family plazas does the city with missing posters with a three thousand dollar reward that's worth roughly one hundred grand today and the town goes nuts. Searching for this man. They scour through parliament's properties vacant, lots railway stations. They sweep the medical school. They even drag the river for his body and nothing. Things are looking hopeless. After a week, a breakthrough. It comes from a nosy janitor who lives in the basement at Harvard Medical School, and this genita- seems to know everyone's comings and goings in the building. So he tips off police. He's like, or you missed something. And one of the labs at Harvard and the police don't miss around. So they break the door down and they tip over a teach us a large teach us, though, is in the lab and an entire human thorax basically falls out the four x was sort of hollowed out and had had like a Thia shoved into it in order to shove it all into this chest, what the what? What whoever did this did was ultimately cut the buddy up into various bits and then scooped out the innards of the toss are and then shoved thought by emit and put it in a case. Yeah, they just found all these these parts that have been kind of pulled apart in a very bizarre manner, pops of the Thia and thorax had also been soaked in some chemical and then bent. There was also a furnace in the lab and wind police raked through the ashes. They find the remains of a human skull, lower jaw gold fillings and some artificial teeth. Whoever had access to this lab is now looking very, very suspicious. And indeed the police learn that they is one man who has a k, a professor of chemistry who'd been at Harvard for twenty five years. This was his private lab and his name was John Webb stop. But he didn't seem like the obvious suspect for a murder. He was a family man married with four daughters. Stirs the sort of. Strange figure in a way because he seems to be a fairly competent professor. He's made some attempts at inventions that kinda don't go anywhere. He's just not all that great. He's like the rest of us media. So by all accounts, John Webster was a fairly average chemistry professor. But now he was a fairly average chemistry professor with a hollowed out thorax in a tea chest in his lab. The police look at all these body parts and immediately arrest the professor. They drag him back to the medical school to explain why a dismembered corpse is scattered around his lab and they lay out these parts that they've been finding in front of him and say, what is this? What is this doing in your lab? And he can't explain. And the only thing he says over and over again is that the janitor has has betrayed him that the janitor is somehow behind this. So the genita- emerges as suspect. Number two, the genitals name is Ephraim little field, and he was the person who led the police to the professor's laboratory. And the professor has now turned around and said, hey, I've been framed, it's the genitally you want, and I can tell you how he snuck into my lab Webster was telling his team. You guys have to go look at the door to my lab because you'll discover that you can pry it up in such a way that someone could break into the lab and plant something so that that's how the janitor got in. And even though this guy is a professional genita- we found dead on him. In fact, he doesn't look nealy a squeaky clean as the professor. He's often described as a swamp Yankee. He is find of a drinker or two, and he allegedly had been quietly running some. Card games at the medical school late at night. So when his downtime, he was a drinker and a gambler, but the real killer piece of evidence against him was what he did at work. Besides cleaning the premises. This genita- helped procure dead bodies. He literally new where where the bodies were buried. At the time at Harvard and not EMMY students would desperate for bodies to dissect and getting those corpses was a really dirty business. It often meant paying off buddy snatches who literally Doug corpses out of graveyards you're the janitor was really kind of the middleman. He's the guy that you get the money from the professors and then go, go talk with the body snatchers. So clearly the genita- didn't have a big issue with handling corpses for cash. And we know Mr. Parman had a lot of money on him when he disappeared. Plus, since there was a reward, if the janitor did this dirty deed, he would get paid out twice when he stole the cash. And again, when he led the police to the body with that kind of money, the genita- would have made a killing. So who's responsible for the chopped up body at Harvard, was that the professor in a laboratory with the chemicals. Well, the cops collecting genita- in the basement. Suddenly there's a twist in the case and evidence starts piling up against the professor. For one, he has a motive to the professor old, lots of money to the missing Mr. park man. And he was in fact flailing in quicksand of debt deeply disastrously in debt an in depth department. In particular, he owed him thousands of dollars hidden literally signed away every every book every piece of clothing, right down to the bed, linens in his house, just all his property. You see, this professor had a taste for the finer things in life. He had spent all of his inheritance on a stupidly fancy house that cost forty thousand dollars, and he's celery is a Harvard professor wasn't nearly enough to keep up with his lavish lifestyle. So the professor was in the red. Said to the Scrooge of Boston to the tune of thousands of dollars. It then emerges that this professor was no mild-mannered nerd newspapers report rumors that he had such a quick Tempa that he's nickname while he was a student was sky rocket, Jack. And finally, there's his suspicious job. The professors studies chemistry, but he's not cooking up new lifesaving medicines at the medical school. Oh, NAR. He studies what chemicals due to the human body chemicals like off Nick. The chunks of the body in the professor's lab and the fact that he owed the dead man, lots and lots of money. It looks bad for the professor bad enough for the prosecutors to take this case to trial. The professor would be charged with the murder of Mr. George park Mun. But after the break this case takes a shocking turn when it looks like a murderer might go free. Harvard scientists, throw everything they can at the case, but will it be enough? Can science save the day. This episode of science versus is brought to you by mate well, made well is the Denham brand that believes good days style. We've great jeans. Say you only with skinny jeans or maybe you consider yourself a classic straight leg kind of person made well has Pez for every type of denim diva team. And I mean every time made well off his men's women's styles, extended sizes, plenty of rise in insane options and so much more. In other words, you're probably going to need to make a little or a lot more room in your closet and made well can even help you do that. They'll take any kind of old genes that you have even that pair from nine hundred ninety eight with the bedazzled back pockets which work right as thank you made well, we'll give you twenty dollars off a brand new pair of jeans. And those old jeans will find a good harm made well works with blue jeans. Go green to turn those pre loved Pez. Into housing insulation for communities in Nate. So stop by a maid well store or go to made well dot com to find your dream. James. This episode of science is brought to you by the all new Honda inside own you inside is a sleek and sophisticated hybrid with a fifty five mile per gallon. EPA city writing and every inside is a quipped with Honda sensing, a suite of safety and driver assistive technologies. It's anything, but the world already has enough man. There's co host one ply toilet paper flood soda boiled potatoes and interesting. 'cause take some of the out of your life with the new hunter inside visit Insite dot Honda dot com to see a good looking hybrid that's inside dot Honda dot com. The all new Honda inside with absolutely no mile fifty. Five city forty-nine highway fifty. Two combined EPA mpg rating. The LX and e extremes used for comparison passes mileage will vary depending on conditions, driving maintenance and. Other factors. Welcome back to the biggest news in eighteen fifteen. We've just learned that a wealthy Scrooge type aka Mr.. George pacman has gone missing. And the last place he was saying was at Harvard Medical School. A mutilated corpse has been found in the lab of a chemistry professor who's now on trial for murder. And this case goes viral well viral eighteen fifty. New railroads were being built and brand new telegraph pole strung out allowing news of the pop in case to travel to Wisconsin, Texas and Florida. In fact, the story of Mr. park men's murder, even made it to a stray Ilya. And back in Boston, the locals couldn't get enough. He's professor poll Collins again, the real problem at the courthouse. People fighting each other punching each other in the face, trying to get in. It was pretty nuts. So many people wanted to witness the trial of the Harvard professor that officials had to rotate people through the courtroom by the end of the trial about sixty thousand spectators pass through the courthouse. Oh my gosh, sixty thousand. It's quivalent to almost half the population of the city in saying that everyone wants to sticky bake on the trial of the chemistry professor accused of killing one of the richest men in Boston, and you could understand why this was one of the hottest seats in town because the trial had a fancy professor a dodgy genita-, an missing rich man. It had all the trimmings of a Broadway show one that you'd kill to see. Now, with all the evidence lined up against the professor, you think that this case was a slam dunk, but things take a very curious turn. When the professors legal team comes up with these intriguing strategy to defend him, they basically say, look, you're accusing out client of killing Mr. George pock men, but you don't even know if the body you found in his lab us Mr. park, man, you've got a thorough without a head of a skull and tops of a leg acrobat just about anyone. They said, well, this, this could be anybody the whole building full of cadavers, the professors legal team point out that this was found in a medical school and their bodies all over this place. They're there for students to dissect. And Paul told us that this was a good argument because students at this school cut up so many bodies that they literally built the place to deal with the corpses. They had the STA setting room in effect over over the river or over an area that was very acceptable to the river, so they could just dump the stuff out. So, yeah, I mean, they literally designed the building with cadavers in mind, and there really were awed body parts found around Harvard, like leading up to the trial, some hands found in the river, neither medical school and police think ha- These Mr parliament's hands, but then a sheepish, medical professor. Comes forward and says, sharia mates. That one's Moines. I put it into the river to see how it decomposes. To Shay defense team seriously, though in eighteen fifty. How would you prove these body parts Mr. pock men. At the time. It was of course, no DNA evidence. In fact, scientists wouldn't even understand what DNA was for one hundred years and fingerprinting wouldn't be used in the courts for decades, not that matted. They didn't even have this corpses fingers. So to prove that the body in the professor's lab was in fact Mr. park Mun the prosecutors turn to some rather bizarre legal strategies. For example, one of the legs found was particularly Harry at, so they tried to identify him that way that was one of the weirder moments of the trial. So they talked to Perkins brother-in-law and they ask him, we'll were his legs Harry and his brother-in-law's a bit embarrassed about being asked about this. They says, well, there was this one time where he pulled up his pant lake for some reason. And yeah. Kinda Harry legs. But it's amazing to think about that in a trial today because we have DNA imagine that in order to identify someone as a legitimate pace of evidence, they like, hell, Harry. Yeah, the prosecutors are going to need a hair more proof, and so they find some evidence they can really sink their teeth into bits of dench's. Ajoy were found in the fairness of the professor's lab. And so the prosecution thinks that perhaps we can prove this is Mr. Parman by his tape, and they catch a lucky break shortly before his disappearance. Mr. park man had visited a dentist befitted for dentures, and that dentist had a cost of exactly what he's Joel looked like. So the prosecution calls the dentist at a stand and says, like, you recognize these bits and the moment, the dentist sold the Joel. He knew he broke down crying and said, quote, Dr park man is gone. We shall see him no more and court. The dentist could identify these jaw because it was so odd looking and when producer rose Rimmer, and I went to Boston to investigate this case. We actually got to see a cast of Poppins jaw because it still kept in the archives at Harvard. This is what we've come for. Currently looking at the costs, but the dentist made of Mr. Waddams chore. And so these became critical base of evidence to say the body in the professes laboratory that must have been missed wild men as he had these Joel. Kind of perturb Rindt, but it wasn't just that the jaw was a bit odd. We got to see a cost of the dench's to which were even Weeda because Mr. park men only had a few tape left. So his dentist made him Dench is that would feet around them such specific cost you would? Absolutely. I would identify someone based on this the. Yeah, there's like three clustered on one side one by itself. The other side, this scraggly remains of teeth. That would be pretty totally like a fingerprint almost. And you might think that this would have clinched the case. But at the time introducing this kind of evidence was a total gamble. It was the first time that dental evidence had been introduced into a murder trial in America, and just the idea of identifying a whole person based on pieces of a body. It was all pretty new, an untested science. On top of that, the defense had their own dental expert. He's poll. Again, the defense brings in another dentist and says, could you look at a tooth or a piece of jaw or a bit of a denture actually identified who it came from? And the guy says, no. So there's almost this battle of the dentists that basically happens in the courtroom and it goes on and on these definitely his teeth no way. You never know. Then finally, the dentist for the professor crumbles and admits well, might be Mr. park, man. What seemed like this wild and untested, new form of evidence suddenly becomes very, very powerful. Okay. So the prosecution has convinced people that this is indeed the body of Mr. park Mun. The ease one more hurdle, though the prosecution needs to explain why? If it was the professor who done it? Why did he leave this body in this way? Dismembered state after all, he's a professor in chemistry. If he committed this murder Scholley he would have done a better job of getting rid of the body. Well, he's a chemistry professor, widening just dissolve the body, an expert in chemicals takes the stand and he says, yeah, you can dissolve a body using strong chemicals, but here's the thing. You need a ton of them, particularly to dissolve an entire human body perk. Mun was not actually very heavy guy. He was maybe only one hundred and forty pounds, but just old chin, right? But I mean, that's that's like industrial quantities. He doesn't have anything like that. That he doesn't have any containers in his lab that are remotely big enough to do that. This chemical expert on the stand along with the drain team of a Harvard alumni had done eight cutting edge, chemical analysis of the dismembered copes. This really was CSI Boston eighteen hundreds and remarkably did show that some of parliament's body parts had been soaked in a chemical called poetess lie, but clearly there wasn't enough to disappear a body. So that would explain why the body hadn't been completely destroyed by chemicals. The professor simply didn't have enough, but pots of the corpse had been roasted by firearm, and there was a small furnace in the laboratory. So why won't the body pots completely burnt to ashes? Another learn. A doctor takes the stand one who has a lot of experience getting rid of bodies, and he says, well, yeah, I burn lots of. Adis and actually takes you need a good big Stowe. Ford need lots of kindling and you don't use the wrong kind of coal and you know, he goes over all these details. And basically what he points out is that the professor really doesn't have the right kind of stove or the right kind of fuel. Basically, the bras acution argues that this fairly average chemistry professor did a fairly average job of getting rid of a body, the crowd in the court gossiped. Also, we imagine after the professors taught it off, the stand, the jury had to work out what the Charles Dickens to do with oldest new fangled scientific evidence. The scientific testimony about the take the chemicals and the Phya. They seem to add up to the professor having done it. But at the same time, there were no witnesses who sold the professor kill anyone. No one heard a scream and this professor's never fallen foul of the law before he's pleading innocence in. Insisting that sketchy genita- has pulled one over on everyone. This no conclusive evidence of any kind just some toffee professes tuber jaw, a weird set of ditches, and curious, chemical analysis with the science be enough. At around eight pm. The jury retires to consider the verdict just two and a half hours later. They come back and declare him guilty. The professor was sentenced to death and the papers when wild excitement at this juncture was intent. His chair. Broken silence ensued, jury, as well as the prisoner trembled and grew faint. Oh goodness. Maciel y'all. Anyone who still had doubts about the professors guilt. The truth would soon be confirmed as professor John Webster sat in his cell awaiting his hanging. He actually confessed to his minister and the whole sordid tale was later published in the papers. He's what the professor said happened. Mr. pock men, aka the Scrooge of Boston came hassling him to repay his. He'd always the professor for money. But on that fateful day in November Mr. pock man took it one step further up and threatened to have the professor fired. By Webster's account. He picks up the nearest thing, which is basically a large sort of stick of wood and just hits them as hard as he can in the head park my drops, dead and Webster panics. And that's that's where everything then unravels and without the dental evidence, the chemical analysis and the scientists, the fancy professor might have gotten away with it. He might have been able to hide behind the reputation of such a precipitous college after all at first who could believe that family man and a respected professor could have done such a monstrous crime. But in the end, at least this time the science convinced them one out and convicted a murderer. I guess murder was on this opus, those David. Looks like the dentist took a bite out of crime. What about them maybe missed? Bachman shouldn't have been so mouthy. Who. All right, that science is how to sell the meta in eighteen forty nine. If you want more gory details about this trial, you have to check out poll Collins book. It's called blood and I the the eighteen forty nine murder the scandalized Harvard, and it's an absolutely ripping rain. And by the way, if you'll into true crime, what about untrue? Crime Gimblett has a new fiction podcast cold, the Harare of Dolores Roach. It's this Macab urban legend of love betrayal. We'd and cannibalism. We're going to play you a snippet from the show and if you like it, you can binge on all the episodes now. And this one is just for the adult. It's not for the kiddos. Okay. So here it is the Harare of Deloris Roach. And there's like. Me hanging upside down, but there's a face still on it, parts of his face just cartilage, no checks in the tub unto him. It's filled with ice and in the middle of the ice pieces of that Marci big piece in the ice on the little ledge, there's these two, all of like clear. Maybe silicone can fake too. And on the sink is a putsch shine perfectly clean, not a drop of blood anyway. That's the Harare of Dolores Roach. You can subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Episode was produced by Caitlyn Sewri help for me. Wendy's along with rose rimless marijuana, no deli Aruban where edited by Blyth Durell with help from Caitlyn Kenny back checking, Michelle Harris, mix and sound design by 'em among music written by 'em among and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to Jessica Murphy and the team at the Harvard University archives plus thanks to laws. Tremblay, Matthew Nelson, Frank Lopez, Joseph, Lavelle Wilson, and this family next week, whitt tackling dating Chem SCI. Save the dating game messages. Take your date to a room, full of electrical and say, you're going to electrically shocks. If you come, I'm Wendy's coming back to you next time. Hey, I'm Molly Fisher. And this is the cut on Tuesdays every week on this show. We'll bring you the stories we can't stop telling and the arguments we are still having. It's hard to describe how there was no feminist. Yeah, mcgahn what we had. This hasn't been drunk at a Walgreens most happy when miserable triggered fucking. Listen now to the cut on Tuesdays for free wherever you get your podcasts. We'll see you next Tuesday. Thanks to our sponsor made well, make well is the denim brand that believes good days. Start with great jeans. Bring any brand or style of all James to a made well store and you'll get twenty dollars off a new Pam made well works with blue jeans. Go green to tenure all Jane's into housing insulation, but communities in made. So stop by a maid. Well, stall go to made well dot com to find your dream jeans. Thanks to our sponsor, the stylish own new Hyundai inside the newest hybrid from Honda is nothing like call talks. It's anything, but myth does he what a good looking hybrid looks like visit Insite dot Honda dot com. That's inside dot Honda dot com. Be own new onto inside with absolutely no per mile.
Polluting petrochemical solvent replaced by green biochemical alternative
"Timberg is professor of chemistry at Work University in the UK and about that research in New York. I happen to mention just now somehow there was a development and when I heard about by coincidence at a party a distinguished lawyer called. Mark told me about it and he had called Smith follows it up almost a decade ago two chemists on opposite sides of the planet with both exploring ways to to give green waste a second life professor. James Clock is director of the Green Chemistry Center of Excellence at the University of York. His team looks for new ways as to use the green waste from crops timber cotton food and other industries green chemistry is a form of sustainability. It's trying to look at the whole chemical will differently differently. It's thinking about different products thinking about different feedstocks trying to get the mindset away from you know we get all our chemicals petroleum as we do today so Green Chemistry Green Chemistry we were doing was trying to embrace all of this and look for a very holistic approach to coming up with new green chemicals. Meanwhile in Austrailia took to war gravity was working as the chief scientist for small Australian company called Circa. He was searching for new ways to use cellulose the strong organic compound in plant cell walls instead of simply burning it throwing it away every kilogram food that we eat generates secure liquor for him off crop waste and then you can add on top of all of the wood chips and the sole mailing list so we'll wide they are literally elite billions of tons which is going to waste it will being blunt very inefficiently just to get rid of it so he began searching for ways to convert that cellulose close within green waste into a useful chemical having Cutler teases. We're in the Australian pulp and paper industry. We were always looking for something something more valuable than paper and cardboard that you could mike add of wood chips. We build a small pilot plant in a little factory in in the suburbs of Melbourne and we did find this one single compound in the pyrolysis products from trading cellulose with acid at high temperature and it turned out to be leaving L. Geo Short. Could you find a market by attending this waste paper and another cellulose products into L. G. O. Could you find somewhere to sell that product. No we couldn't my boss. Tony Dunkin struggled struggled for three years trying to find somebody who wanted to buy algae or even at a much reduced prices but nobody could see use for it and we looked at why is converting into other things that none of those came to fruition until I heard giants clock interviewed on the Salon Salon. Show yes Robin Williams had visited profess o'clock at the University of York to hear about his work converting green waste including orange peels into useful chemicals using microwaves. He is assured part of that story which I add in twenty eleven. What is the microwave technology. You're talking about this going to release these chemicals so familiar with microwaves and a cooking sense and we've discovered the microwaves if operated at low enough temperatures can actually give you controlled Rhode Chemistry and they're capable of activating the cellulose which is presented almost all plants including peel and then that activation triggers a series of chemical processes which allow allow you to extract the chemical value from the peel when Dr War gravity heard that broadcast he was still searching for uses. It's for this chemical extracted from wood waste L G. Oh I got Ravi and Professor James Clark together to talk about what happened next. James wasn't talking about cellulose at the time he was talking about waste Orange Peel and making some environmentally benign hydrocarbons but I knew because he I was interested in Green Chemistry and waste products that he would have a great interest in cellulose so I encouraged my boss to Mike contact with James. I am an explain what we were trying to do. In case he had an interesting helping. I got a contact from sercretary Duncan. When Teddy Duncan explain that this was something something they could make in a in a pretty green way from very green resource feedstock we start thinking about what could we do with it and at the time we were particularly interested arrested in the solvent world solvent saw what are the two or three largest volume products in the world used everywhere cleaning chemical processing polymer manufacturing pharmaceutical manufacturing a sovereign is just sort of liquid that the chemical reaction can take place within to convert something to somebody else yes or it could be of course cleaning fluid as well but certainly. Lee Solvency become part of the sort of standard to kick within a chemical process and as being this very cozy relationship between the big petrochemical companies. He's manufacturing the big volume chemicals that we have around today and the people that wanted to use those chemicals to make something of much higher value they could sell which could be a pharmaceutical geico could be a polymer and solvents have been sort of embedded into those processes since throughout really the last centuries and last hundred years of petrochemicals but we we also are very aware of the fact that they will recognize as being quite a few of them as being toxic could be environmentally harmful so there was a general recognition instead of the chemical industry history that we could do with better Stevenson. This molecule just looked to me as they have the potential for this but not as it was because it had chemical functionality that would make ticket to reactive basically not ideals solvent and so our idea was very simple support hydrogen nation very simple very green chemical staff to see if we could make something that was going to be more stable and hopefully would also have some interesting solvent properties which are sort of modeling suggested. It may well do John. I'm saying all right well. Di Hydro L. G. O. Simple to make and it might have the right solvent properties and it wasn't on anybody's list and it was James's expertise in being able to predict the properties of solvents that didn't exist time using computer science and saying look this could have really interesting properties to make life saving drugs. You have to use solvents with particular properties so they were literally. Charlie forced to use these toxic nitrogen containing compounds they can't recycle the solvents because they end up full of byproducts and so you have to burn them which generates nitrogen oxides which then have to be absorbed so that's expensive some of them are buried in disused mines finds deep in the ground and which Ed's enormously to the cost so to be able to produce molecule which is only go carbon hydrogen in an oxygen in it which could be burnt to produce simply. Co Two and water was a big breakthrough. The market for the toxic solvent citizen exists of one hundred say hasn't tons per annum so even if we captured of a fraction of that market that would put in a very good place and it was simply James. I'm Dana fixation of Di Hydro. LG which really lead us forward so then they began to explore this new chemicals uses in traditional chemical reactions that usually involved similar solvents that were made using petroleum or other fossil fuels sales and sure enough. We tried it out in the lab tested it and the rest is history as they say we learned that for example it was very good for some advanced material processes. It has a lot of attractive properties. Lack of toxicity makes it a lot safer both in use and also in subsequent handling end of life. It was combining. You are need for something new in Green. It'll change really in the last few years because of legislation because all of a sudden it wasn't just it would be nice to have agreed in a solvent it suddenly became we have to have agreed assault because legislation's forcing change the last step was to come up with a name for their new solvent. Dr Hydro. LG It doesn't really roll off the tongue. Let's give it an attractive name so it should start with a capital c because circuit developed it and York Orca has been really instrumental in highlighting this so the second lead has got to be why and I liked the sound of the name siring so that's what it's been cooled and that's the name that cigarettes trade might since it was put on the market siren has also been recognized by other independent sources for example it won the two thousand nineteen environmental leaders top product award and it was named the best bio based chemical innovation of the year yeah at the two thousand seventeen European bio-based innovation awards these are big accolades for a company based in Melbourne which has a workforce of lists than in a dozen people. I mean the exciting thing about it is we're discovering new applications all the time. We have four five different projects running in my lab at the moment involving siren one of them's on battery battery recycling. We have other projects working on new manufacturing routes including polymers advanced materials like graphing where siren has successfully replacing single tentative traditional more toxic softens so siren is for me. It is the most exciting green product we have we seen in a number reveres heavy scaled up since then what what our plans for the future we met with people from Norske Skog Australasia who have paper mills is in Aubrey and new Norfolk contest Mayanja. We're looking for an opportunity to add value to the plantation pine wood chips they prosise roses and so they've partnered with Sarin and with considerable help from the Tasmanian state government a plant which was dimed producing one town a week of sarin is now up and running in the town of New Norfolk Stat saw in Tasmania so siren is now being produced in hundred kilogram quantities every week and the big german-american Lafarge chemical supply apply company Merck Sigma Promoting Siren will academic institutes around the world as a new green solvent replaced the nitrogen containing solvents. What sort of value could we put on this industry. Well the value of the paper industry just to Australia and we're at tiny any part of the world paper industry. Is something like eight billion dollars per year. It's as big as beef. It's as big as wheat so if you just consider that the sugar industry for example could make more out of sorry I think once it's developed as a recognized material for us than they do we out of the sugar producing at the moment and they wouldn't have to give up the cane-sugar could use the gas to Mike siring but because circa it has limited resources we start off with Sawdust. Its existing iced product. We know how to process. We now know how to convert it in sarin. Sorry and hundreds of kilograms a week and we'll drive down that path before it launches off into the other cellular's raw materials other any downfalls to this process though is it expensive visit energy intensive now. It's really been designed from the outset to be lower. Oh capital cost and the yield of siring from a ton of wood is around about one hundred twenty kilograms now the risk risk of the wood half of it ends up as what's called a bio. Cha which is what you would find in the bottom of barbecue after you use a few you and the other half ends up as water which comes from the dehydration of the cellular so if we make roughly four hundred eight hundred five hundred kilograms of Char that chart contains eighty percent of the energy of the original would so you've got the value value the Sarin Goalie Energy and the child and of that energy the would that's reduced in the CIA you would only use half off of that in converting cellulose into the sarin so you got a considerable energy surplus which could be exported and professor James this clock. You must feel like all of those. meteoroid appearances suddenly paid off when you have an experience like this. It was wonderful benefit. I wasn't anticipating when I did the interview again. I think it's also being very inspirational for some young researchers. It's tremendously encouraging for them to carry on researching this area. Come up with the next round of Great Green Canister discoveries. The goal is many people believe the real goal is to do this across all of chemistry and we're talking here about an enormous industry so it's is going to be very. I was talking about the twentieth century the century of change moving from petrochemicals to buy a bass chemicals and what we have here. Is We have a real successful example off of doing this with a lot of good green credentials green criteria everything we've done with Cyrus terms of its properties in terms of its safety and so one looks good we are now defining the space which actually west sirens most effective and by definition identifying other spaces which still need new you green. Salvin said this is not the end of the story. It's the beginning Cosma through that encouraging the story yes we do have listeners who act on what they hear and make innovations that matter green chemistry across the world at the start of today assigned show. I mentioned a writer of note from New Zealand. Actually who said Nice things about the journal Nature well. Tim Radford is on the side show next week talking thing about his lovely book the consolations of physics he has a taste. I don't know about you but you probably noticed that this quite a lot of bullying being going on around the world today and certainly a lot of Greens nationalism and it just struck me the most amazing thing about all the physics that have reported is it on is that it's expensive it's demanding it involves huge international cooperation and nobody makes any money out of it tall and everyone's astoundingly glad to do it and that itself till she something rather nice about humans. Tim Radford who's on next week and and we also have the Nobel Prizes Production Today by David Fisher and Anne Marie bettencourt. I'm Robin Williams
Prof. James K. Bashkin, Dr. R. Fredrik Inglis, and Dr. Jeff Smith of the University of Missouri- St. Louis
"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods, leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical. Interest. Scientific Senses at UNSTRUCTURED, conversation? With. NO AGENDA OR PREPARATION Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas. Affect Society. And help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide edited content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense dot com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense dot. com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen Dot Info. If you haven't heard about anchor. It's the easiest way to make a podcast. Let me explain it's free their creation tools that allow you to record and edit your podcast right from your phone or computer. Incredible will distribute your podcast for you. So it can be heard on spotify apple podcasts and many more. You can make money from your podcast with no minimum listenership. It's everything you need to make a podcast in one place. Download the free inker APP or go to anchor. Dot. FM to get started. For listeners Jimmy of scientific sense called cast today's format is a bit different. Because three experts other than one guest. which has been the case for the last fifty nine episodes. Being also not discussing specific research papers. But other Kodjak cumulated this of researchers over the years. going to focus on pandemics in general and couvert more specifically. As you should be applied to keep the political but people look into the impacts of policy and discuss harvey could improve as we encounter future pandemics. Welcome Jeff's threat and Jim. Do a quick. Introduction inside Jim I, would you like to stock? Sure thanks Bill. My name is Jim Baskin. I'm a professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Missouri Saint. Louis. And my career spans both industry and academia. I spent twelve years at large chemical and pharmaceutical companies and the rest of my career in. Academics. Started my own. Coast started my own small on the soup company working on antiviral drug discovery developed. I am federick lists. I'm an assistant professor at the University of Missouri St Louis. Migration backgrounds in biology optical, interested in evolutionary biology that includes and evolving infectious diseases. I mostly work on bacteria but have some interested in viruses as well. Great Jeff. Hi. My name is Joe Smith. I'm a biologist I study the ecology evolution microorganisms and I'm about to started foot slab bursting series Angeles. Great. Yes. I want to start with something fundamental. So the SARS coronavirus to. Colgan it's out enable ibis There are differing opinions as to if an army based entity can be considered live. As they can make themselves is this really as semantic question or is that something more to it? So I've I've. Thought a lot about this it in my experience among the college that I've spoken with this. I have yet to meet a microbiologist to thinks viruses are live. They're made the same things that that other cellular organisms are proteins in click acids. They had the same kinds of jeans, a work, the same ways and. The evolve in this sequence away. So I don't think as biologist we have a whole lot to. Gain insight to gain by separating out from the rest of your bylaw biology biology. It's true that they do require cellular organisms to reproduce but all organisms are dependent on other organisms to reproduce except for maybe some photosynthetic microbes you so I, see that. Fact. They eat things from the inside and the outside is being fundamental. Any particular kind of. Okay. Okay. Yeah I knowing a lot about that, Jeff, you know I was thinking. often any any sort of analogous things that we see big lead, an alternate based entity and and Cancer Jim I, know that you have a lot of work in this area. and. They seem to replicate very fast and you know he is there any similarity there jim? Well. You know there there could be in You know they're. They're certainly can be mutations involved in. In there are mutations involved in. in cancers viruses can mutate rapidly. They don't all mutate graphically as as other as as each other some viruses mutate more rapidly than others but Some viruses cause cancer. So there's definitely a crossover, for example, human papillomavirus, but that's only one of the number of small DNA tumor viruses. And so there are definitely crossover properties between viruses and cancer. Some viruses integrate into human DNA. Including Rene viruses like HIV. And This can lead to cancers. Or a variety of of reasons having to do with the fact that Indian as disrupted as well as the fact that the immune system is completely disrupted or not completely with largely disrupted in the case of. AIDS. He so. There are definitely. Crossover properties. Similar similarities but. Exactly. But Areas of common behavior, perhaps, Cohen Behavior and New Orleans. So so Jeff, do you want to set the stage for? What we know about coup-bid and And you know that sort of progression a new tation. Multiple mutations that already fighting. Out Do, expect this to mutate out faster but the implication saw. What I can tell you what I know about look the hell arrived in human populations and what how we leave it's likely to evolve in occupations. So So choas the coronavirus in and a corona viruses in general, the diversity coronavirus is in. General Hosted by backs but other animals also pick croon viruses. Humans. Have had viruses in the past through SARS and two thousand three was the Middle Eastern Countries Syndrome awhile back and there are a couple KUNA vices already that caused you. Cost the Common Cohen. This fired. So this coronavirus is distinct from those but still part of the same family in general, they seem to get into human populations, not necessarily directly from bats bits often through intermedia animal like it like palm sits for SARS. I think it was in camels in the case of Moore's virus out. It's still unclear how the specifics of how Coded Nineteen Bites Stars could be two bicycles community. How that arrived in human populations there are similar viruses in horseshoe bats and pangolins, but so far none of them are Zach match. So it's That there is some other intermediate in there. while. immediate coast yet. Yes. Yes. So. You know if you look at infectious diseases more broadly. what what do we know? What current understanding of the evolution and emergence? OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES WORLDWIDE Yeah, I, think the kind of A big driving concepts from people think about how diseases evolve is Transmission Berlin trade off hypothesis. So this is an idea that. You want to maximize. Evolution is acting to maximize the spread of an infection age. That's good. If you're an infectious virus bacteria whatever you want to get to new hosts. And says, many things are important there. You don't WanNa, kill the host to quickly because you can kill a full the host then spread. But often to spread, it requires some kind of damage to the host diarrheal diseases. Diarrhea can have devastating effects. Via. Diseases require you to many of the spirit required to caught for sneeze to spread the virus. It's better if you kind of like lies up a bunch of lung tissue in people and coughing a lot. But if you kill too many people, you cut spreads I think a classic example it's very interesting one actually. Mix matosas. This is. The disease causing agent rabbits and it's really effective. In fact, it kills almost ninety nine percent rabbits it infects and so it was released. By, and farmers like in nineteen hundred. To kill off this kind of devastating plague rats. And at first tremendous killed off all these rabbits. But over time they discovered that actually mixed matosas evolved lower barely stopped killing as many rabbits because he couldn't spread. So these of hyper variant strains go extinct. That's interesting when you have these kind of jumps from combat's or some intermediate, a kind of humans is. The first stage is a bit dicey. We don't know what's GonNa Happen. It could be the violence could increase it could be the decreases. But used some kind of selection for transmission variables those. Two years something's happened so that that's that's interesting. So got to. Take a some kind of a radio. Could be conceptual, but some kind of ratio transmission over lands. You would see if you optimize that from the from the virus perspective, the Infectious entities perspective, you would see some sort of a inverted u-shaped curve right it wants to have sort of an optimum point between transmission at villains, So it just enough time to to jump to the next next host. And and so this is an evolutionary treat that's over time album random mutations they tend to get to the optimum point. What do we see what happens? Yeah. Absolutely. Many can be that. You're so virulent chico extinct. So you you see you know you might pop into the population you kill everybody you can't spread, and so then you go extinct population but if there's enough time then yeah, you wouldn't often. Often what we see. is you see very virulent pathogens become less friend over time I. think that's the easiest one to observe because they did kill a lot of whatever the host organised is Amiss and then they've stopped they reduced the amount of killing because this didn't high-performance strains have gone extinct but equally, one can expect the opposite if you transmit to new host and there is a lot of contact, you know this high population density. For example, your inner city and humans. Then in principle could increase see selection for increased So both both things can happen. It just depends on a lot of life history traits or how kind of infectious agent spreads though some of the most deadly diseases let me think of So he could still anthracis closer to think of anthrax. has a crazy life history. So what happens is it infects ungulates cows. Eminent usually kills them. It produces loads of sports. So tens of billions of sports inside the cow the cow dies they can live in the dirt topsoil for hundreds of years presumably until another comes and feeds on it and then they killed. And do it again. because. The way that they work. Their biology they can survive knitting 'cause very violent outbreaks of disease. I hate to be cynical about. So in this case, it seems like. You know the young relation core moving around have a symptomatic As symptomatic disease and order population who are protected not moving around. actually have CBS disease. So seems like the whitest has figured this out. Yeah maybe I mean It's possible right so it doesn't seem the health consequences in younger people don't seem to be as bad as an older people. That's probably true. Many diseases which to for influence, for example. Yeah. Yeah Yes it you know that the health consequences can be severe in young people. It's just not. It's just that they're not severe as frequently nearly as frequently in young people as they are older people. Yes. So one could just assume that that's how dare Jim is that. You know there's so many people having differing opinions even among scientists and professionals left alone politicians. The public cast great difficulty figuring out who to believe. How to go out it? What is your perspective on that? I mean. This is not just for cooled but more generally. be candle handle in the future. Well I think that. We need to have the national politics. And that national policy needs to be divorced from politics. It needs to be based on science and public health. Considerations alone. And other countries have managed to do this. Early successfully. for example, the countries in Europe. And And they've in relatively nimble. In reacting when they found that their policies are starting to fray. For example, Europe is just cancelled vacations. because they've seen that they open society up too much and the number of covid cases started to increase again. And so and and this has been enacted over a wide number of countries and of quarantines have been put in place and borders have been closed and And didn't take a lot of hand wringing or months. arguing back and forth. People think of the European Union as an unwieldy organization, but the individual countries acted on their own and What they needed to do to protect the population. I wonder though Jim is that a scale issue. So if you if you look at the three countries, want to clean terms of. let's argue probably badly handled from a policy perspective from a national policy perspective. That's the US Brazil and India. they are large countries with large populations. day have sort of autonomous regions within that country. and and so. You know. I wondered that the two issues there. One one of scale you know I it's easy for Denmark or Finland. To to to have a national policy and implemented effectively. But then you get to some some large number it becomes more difficult. And other acts as there is is sort of a structural issue which is awfully of these countries that seem to have done. Pour me. seemed to have autonomous regions within them. Well. Sure. But there's nothing small about China. And Yeah of course, China's autocratic. but it managed to do a far better job of handling the outbreak than the United States than. I certainly am not one who wants to praise. Many things about China but. Have to give credit words to do. And It's an enormous country. It has ton semi autonomous regions. And And yet they were able to bring The. Virus under control relatively rapidly. Through Pretty intense measures I must say. Measures that probably wouldn't have worked in the US but. But some kind of middle ground along the lines of what was used in Europe. would. Or might have worked in the US. But the point is we didn't do anything in the US. You know we still don't have a national. So. You know this just Neglect here. And You know and that's That's like negligent homicide. Yeah. So you know one baby again. So comeback, the policy question again. One one baby can get ahead of this is sort of predicting. evolution predicting plants mission. Jeff you know it tools now available for us to maybe get ahead of this in the future. Well. Well, we the best the best way to put it the futures by seeing what has been happening so far. So we know that. Happens do human populations and we know. We can see the happens consistently happens consistent ways. So for example, many of the zoonotic diseases that we've seen in the past couple of decades have come from wildlife that end from from the trade in Bush need and the exotic pet trade and other kinds of changes that deal with wildlife. Particularly with in. Context. Of Deforestation, deforestation. Increases, human contact, and contact human livestock with with with wild populations whatever that just diseases the how. So looking at. This stage IV came from the evil that comes from. So, we can target those populations for surveillance sooner to get ahead of these things in the future we can. Not, policies to make those Those traits less frequent if we can and. And Safer for the people who do. To do interact wildlife populations and that's that's the best best way for us to get a handle on it like. So for example, the ECHO health alliance was. Collaborating with the on surveillance of. Various. Populations China for coronavirus. They are finding that their operations that interact with wildlife had antibody exposure to various coon lives in the range of three percents. So. They were conducting this kinds of surveillance. So, we can get him where the the next pathogen. Going coming from. Yeah Yeah Fred it's sort of embattled thing to think about that of big date and artificial intelligence. that. We have been able to really. Do a good job around as you know I know that Johns Hopkins and others have collected a lot of data and putting it out there ending exercise but it'll just like be doing other industries this type of data's going to be quite powerful right for us to reach better policies. Yeah completely and I think. That is one of the ridiculous things about where I find frustrating as a researcher. That a lot of this data about positive cases case testing, this isn't available. This isn't done by the federal government. You know these are kind of news organizations like The New York Times or the Atlantic volunteers and hospitals who were like adding stuff and putting it in excel spreadsheets and sharing its yet. That I mean at a national level in the US in other countries, well, that should be something that should be already being done. We should be recording things on a much better, more precise scale them. After the fact, we can go back and analyze and I just you know make pointless Jeff's making. It's well, it's no surprise that this I think for scientists working on Corona viruses that this has happened I mean this if you read likes lot of the Literature I mean it's a case hindsight's twenty twenty but there's an awful lot of papers that say one of the next big Ronan viruses is gonna come from a bat populations probably GONNA be China. And it could be devastating I mean. So it's Half surprising for the public and people don't work in that specific sub sealed. But I think these kind of things have been known had been an area of concern for a long time. Yeah Yeah. Also. Yeah. So once you get the material that Jewish you I wonder is capping a national quick national rate to cab materials, meaning all the data that we can collect, and then you know be technologies. Now, that could be deployed on that data to create insights. For example, I'm still SORTA puzzle by if you look at the case fatality ratio. you know across the world. it ranges anywhere from you know upwards of ten percent. To less than one percent. And, that that's a that's a big range and so so if you if you ask why why it's different, you know one one difference could be that the opposition infected you have to control for age Yoda control for preexisting conditions. But even those attributes control for Houston see fair amount of BS there. I don't know if you have any insights as to why that is the case. A lot of things that can go into that. We've known for a long time that not only do you have to control for demographics like age exposure, but the the course of the epidemic will affect the number of the calculate. So deaths are typically delayed from positive cases by. Several weeks or even months you're takes Pete so as At the beginning of an epidemic as case numbers going up with can count the number of people that we've detected to the affected, but some of those people would later die. So that the number recalculate is all just five, this choose died and who's been affected so far we already know that's GonNa be an undercount win case numbers going up, and also we know that A. That that number can also be over counted with because depending on how How many individuals get infected but don't show symptoms and don't get get tested to be positive cases, and that is determined by lots of things like how strongly are retested for the virus what is our surveillance like what is reporting such like that can? Very, very strongly. Over time in an across countries across states in calories as well. And Jumping sitting also on a biological level, we don't know. So some people seek the infected. And the health is very bad. They get very sick right part of that I. Think. Things have improved time treatment plans have gotten better like doctors become working in emergency rooms around the country doing this. There are now better treatment plants in place. So can of survival rates have gone up marginally, but also we don't know why some individuals are so badly affected, and so it's presumably something do with their immune mean system and how their immune system response and immune system as it turns out is incredibly complicated. But there are kind of we do have I'm have a colleague here at University of St Louis Try climber. WHO Uses. kind of AI approaches advanced computing to look for patterns in. Immune reactions and how that might correspond to your health near CAF. Health outcome and you get infected Cova to see if we can try to make predictions about. What makes some people really sick and how come it doesn't affect others and presumably due to differences some kind of fundamental difference in our immune systems responding. Yeah. Yeah. Yes. puny at timing difference. You know we look at if you look at Italy Belgium Hungary's friends, they'll higher than ten percent case potato a fatality ratio. Might be that loaned hub, deplete these patients I think when you go on an adventure later at your chance of getting out of that is only about ten percent. So that was sort of the initial modality of care which I think we seem to move away from. but still significant difference. So what what would be interesting also think about like you say shredders. Are there other attributes that can think about in terms of other types of vaccinations people have gone through You know other flu attacks that corporations have have gotten that has some sort of coalition with their ability to a sisters. But I haven't seen anything. Yeah. I think there's this some work it's said the problem is a lot of the kind of. communicating new and developing science is tricky because things change very quickly and that's just part of the scientific process of some studies seem promising to begin with turn up to not be as promising as we get more data points but. There may be some evidence that if you've recently had an MR vaccine, there might be some cross reactivity to. covid nineteen stars Cope and to virus. But. It who knows I may or may not be true it maybe that will. So you might have some cross reactivity. So your immune system might have been primed because previous viruses you've been exposed to like corona virus infections may be. Better able to respond but that's speculative at best and maybe that's going to come out. But it is possible happens for other diseases where you have something similar. You can think of cowpox smallpox, for example, or Cowpox is different from smallpox, but it gets you a resistance to saltbox marks. There's also some evidence with the one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighteen flu that might suggest the. There's an effect in the opposite direction. So nineteen was especially harmful especially deadly to people within a certain with a certain age range of eighteen, thirty, five unusual. and. There are some evidence that that that harmful effects of their inching flu although those individuals. May have been because when the vote those people that age their first exposure to influenza was a different type of influence, the first type of food so you're exposed to us. As A. Child. Provides the most immunity but these were. Than being the H. in type of that was the nineteen eighteen flu slightly different one and maybe that having that initial experience with a different type of influence or prime them to have immune responses. Awareness weren't as. Good for I. Guess. Yeah. It's You know the one thing that we haven't even discussed and I don't know if they are even able to discuss this and that is an we talked about this a recent podcasts. Is long-term effects of people recovering from? Colbert for example, the ninety nine hundred, nineteen Spanish flu. you know the Sabin as about a million people could covered from that later ten years later or so got Parkinson's disease. And so if we see analogs here between Spanish food and Colbert. when you think about the disease burden incapacity, it's going to be substantially different from what people are currently computing in, which is like he got it. You got over it and and that's that if Menotti right and so you know the issue here also Fred as in a war that is sort of separated in my view that is a scientific world which is increasingly shrinking, and there is a non scientific world. And the question is, how do you communicate and percent inflammation and hypotheses and data Innova that that? Let's call that nonscientific world internalized and act on. I think it's incredibly difficult. Right I think. Perhaps. Traditionally, scientists have been seen working at some kind of ivory. Tower. And casually dispensing information that might help population at large I. think that format has to change I. think scientists you know it is really important to try to explain the scientific process how things work in any kind of medium format that you can. But I think a lot of it is also just increasing scientific literacy of the general population. Making people aware of how the scientific process works of uncertainty in idea that we don't always know but it doesn't mean. Just, because rents certain about some things doesn't mean that other things are. Starting. But in this case, I think it's also very difficult because you can see the same data and you can enact completely different completely different conclusions, right. So you can take example home country Sweden, where very early on the government decided. Okay this is terrible but we're going to not have imposed these kind of strict lockdowns. We're GONNA try to actually achieve herd immunity whereby insect enough of the population so that the virus can no longer spread And that's you know I think sensible scientists who are looking at the same day to make a very different policy choices must be it is confusing for people say, how can Sweden's doing it this way and some like the US has at Hook. Sometimes things get locked down something's Thomas. Think don't think this kind of difference in messaging different strategies even as a scientist makes it very confusing to know what's what's actually real and what's not real. Sweetie challenging in talking about uncertainty Jim I think that's law of optimism around vaccines and drugs and. Coming from Fleiss, both of us know what that looks like. you know. So there was a phase, one trial I won't I won't mention the company's name. forty fifty people typically male under forty go to phase one trial to look for safety for product at eight of them. eight of them developed antibodies, and it'll market vend up two hundred percent. All sorts of things broke lose. Backseat people you know setting up manufacturing processes to benefactor this thing. You know. From your perspective anything beyond in terms of accidents and. Well. You know we're in very early days and. Basically, until we have a drug that's been approved. We don't have a drug. You know we. Have Drugs that are in development, but most drugs fail in the development process they failed for safety reasons they failed because they don't meet the efficacy requirements of the FDA they failed for a lot of reasons and might fail because of the company can't make the drug pure enough. To meet the FDA requirement to send that can happen with biological. Agents. And so which these vaccines are. and so Having. Promising. Early. Results. Is Great because that's what you want, but it's not very meaningful in terms of actually reaching the market with an approved drug. Of course, it's the first step that you need but. Since most drugs failed between that first step and reaching the marketplace. it's nothing to get overly hopeful about. And One thing that you mentioned about The clinical trials mostly being done with men is also something that's very worrying trend that has been going on for far too long in the pharmaceutical industry. Women are are highly represented in many clinical trials and therefore side effects women are often not found until. A on the marketplace and that can be a severe problem. So. pharmaceutical companies need to. be better at recruiting women and minorities especially into clinical trials especially, in this case, because minorities are so hard hit by corona virus and are the biggest victims They're much over represented in the victim group of Corona virus. compared to their our percent population in the United States at least yet. So there are all kinds of things that can that can go wrong and whether it's a vaccine or drug that's being developed. So I don't WanNa, throw a wet blanket over everything I. Mean there are a lot of brilliant scientists who are working on developing drugs and vaccines and I certainly believe in the process overall. But to say that because these companies are currently at a certain stage means that we will have a drug or vaccine at a particular date is is just magical thinking you know. We won't have a drug until we have a drug that's been approved and nobody knows nobody knows how long that will take and when that will happen. Yeah in the in the case of vaccines him I, can't quite remember. So if you're doing a face, Creek Clyde in Iraq seen you you know you're doing if placebo controlled double blind mice trial. So you have sex you know one. You have to vaccinate one population, and essentially wait right to see. If it is effective unless you do some kind of a challenge trial at tempting PM sake people absolutely and most vaccines require or many vaccines require multiple injections over a period of perhaps a year. So for at least six months, but often a year. and. So You can't even begin to measure whether they're effective or not until the full complement of of injections has been given. And so You know we're a long way from. giving a years worth of injections to. A large number of volunteers now. Goes maybe won't take three injections over six months or a year for. covid nineteen vaccine. But. We'll we'll have to find out how many injections it'll. It'll. Take more than one. Right yeah. That is that is a that is sort of traveling. So just glean back the mutation question. I've let that. They were kind of two types of. one is s and the others L. Types. And one of the new -tations increase the number of Spike Coutinho on the surface, and if the S. and L. Farms are distinctly different. Of would that automatically imply we need people vaccines? No it wouldn't necessarily mean reading multiple. Vaccines tend to target specific regions on. Viruses at the the differences among these types of viruses may not have any effect on what the back what they to. I should also say that that some of that evidence about the different types of quarterbacks still. If he? viruses mutate all the time every every time they go around production. There's typically bt new mutations produced and what we're worried about. US. whether those mutations affect the severity of disease or affection status. So. It's a little bit early to tell whether those two different types Are Affecting those things they could have just been in the in the right place at the right time and they happen to be in a place where there's lots of transition. I think there is some evidence that there are better attaching human cells but how that translates that translates to infectiousness or spirit disease is it yet? So I wondered you know as I was saying before this transmission severity off. the big data context the picking up of data from all around the world are the techniques we can use that data to. Not. Not Perfectly. But you know to to to assign some probability homage different varieties it might be dealing with. It promise that that there's lots of different sequences of via sequences out there, and it's a very non trivial problem to figure out how those sequences affect the the the biology virus. Some of those mutations are basically had no effect. There are the genome that don't go for teens or or make a change in protein that is non consequential. So When I've stage where we can look at look at us, he couldn't say, okay, this is more infectious as less infectious. That's that's something people very much trying to do now but but we but predicting those phenotype, the Porton viral traits from sequences is still a long ways off. Yeah Yeah. And and Fred Eno. So. Back, to sort of how do we take this? One of the policy prescriptions obviously is that testing and tracing. Policy. Be Lot difficulties implementing it they were. Big, differences in quality of tests that that seemed to be getting better now. But. This testing and tracing intervention undo do it early in the episode it is almost impossible to really do it right. Yeah, that's one of the really difficult things and has to be like nation wide or you know conscious be again there was some early testing trace, but it was quite at hoc. And now, of course, the virus price a widely spread, it's difficult to. Do. But even then you know look there will be and there are recurring local outbreaks. So we've kind of moving past this kind of initial spread and well. Some extent answer we're GONNA see pockets of outbreaks. Matz and so actually testing trace could still be used because we might WanNa know Where it spreading most where these outbreaks are happening and to isolate people I think that's the other thing is well. I have friends of friends who've. Gotten Corona virus luckily, most been. Okay. But you know you call up your doctor this you know I ask should I get tested the doctors don't worry about it. Actually would be useful to. Have the coronavirus because that has consequences for how you might want to behave or the kind of decisions you WanNa make. So now now snow is if you have any kind of flu like symptoms you just have to. Assume it's corona virus and stay home and for many people. That's not feasible because you have to go into work, for example, Yes I it is. It is disappointing. had. This opportunity to do this and we haven't, and as you mentioned some of the kind of early testing. That's still. Yet the testing is getting better kicking the antibody testing, but a lot of these tests rely on our PR base we try. To amplify. Bits, the genetic information, the virus carries bits of DNA. So we try to see if it's there. And Get a false positive rates are still surprisingly high. You get application when there isn't stuff. You get bad. -CATION PCR although wonderful technology is still somewhat finicky and I'd be curious after a while I'd be curious to actually no, because I've been. been involved in helping some local facilities do some testing. Because I haven't huge issues with discount this fundamental techniques PCR. Issues and so. Yet, which makes the kind of underlying data quality somewhat suspect unfortunately. Yeah. It seems like you're getting better. There was something out of Yale or saliva direct that seems to if that got fast track approval. And I believe University of Illinois developed something and dead at testing all the students on campus or something like that. I don't know the details of head. Each variety and like how people are going about testing. So people say I'm getting tested. What's IT GONNA BE PR based test but even within the peace sharpest based test lots of different kits and Ways of people are doing this. So I you're right. is getting better but Taken an awful. I mean, how many months in army now and it's Only, recently, I feel like, I've been drastic improvements so I should say that. The technology may be getting better, but we're not we're not basically the demon. That we've been seeing. On case numbers were not getting ahead of the virus. So one of the ways that we can tell like how how well we're testing for the virus is by looking at what fraction of tests comeback as positive. So the so that if we're if we only have enough test to test the people who are most likely to be infected, we have a very high positive rates and put it for testing lots of people than that. Positive rate goes down where testing all the potential contacts and getting more and more people who are negative and so based on the information that we've been looking at in Illinois Missouri and elsewhere in the Nation A. Were our testing effort. Our testing efforts are actually falling behind the cases that the positivity rate. Well, the number of tasks per positive rate has been going down since it looks like Jude here. So. So it's there's still lots more to do on the testing if we were to try to implement a test. Strategy. Yeah, I have to say in the stadium here in New York area at the at the height of our sort of epidemic pandemic here. you know lack of personal protective equipment. And even simple simple things that medical professionals need care of patients with not available. You know it look very much like a developing country in Africa has to say I don't know I. Think we have got a lot better. Jim I know that you are involved in. The P P, it's not just a manufacturing of it, but also you know we use of the PBS swallow. Right there are a lot of things that you learned that thing in this episode. Right. So sterilization of leave for reuse something that. Can Be done by large hospitals that have very expensive hydrogen peroxide based machines, and A lot of entrepreneurial companies have developed other technologies for sterilizing PCP's ING UV light for example, and There are other approaches as well. that are out there that can be harnessed but. nothing I think is really been produced on a large enough scale to reach it to reach the level of every doctor's office and every ambience at every police station or police car and every first responder so that they can sterilize PP this frequently as they need to. And we're starting to see a shortage once again of of masks and other sorts of PP as hospitals, for example, in Texas and Arizona, and Florida are. Remain extremely full. And so and it's impossible for consumer to buy sterilizing wipes in the in the grocery store, and they're just completely sold out at least in this area. So That's a problem, but I think there's another area that. Is divorced from? Areas of. of the disease or or testing that is completely being ignored, and that could go along way toward stopping the spread of disease, and that is that are building infrastructure are simply inadequate and they could be fixed One of the main things that could be done is controlling the humidity in buildings. And there's a study. That is by. Stephanie Taylor who's in infection control consultant at Harvard Medical School. That shows that keeping humidity between forty and sixty percent. Actually makes a huge difference. In Blocking the spread of the disease and buildings. And there are a number of reasons for this. And one of the reasons is that Wendy heirs to dry a large droplets? Don't fall to the ground as quickly as they normally would and they become small droplets aerosols that flowed in the air longer. And so they can float to people and they can also go to surfaces that become contaminated. And also. apparently airborne viruses like corona virus artists infectious. When they float through moist air compared to dry air. And that process isn't well understood although there are theories to explain it and finally our own respiratory immune system works better in great. In greater humidity -At's been shown. Who Research on mice and one of the reasons is that are mucous layers are simply more protective in respiratory systems and they prevent viruses from attaching but there are a lot of other reasons as well that all add up to giving us. Immuno protection from viruses in higher humidity however wants but both air conditioning and central heat and dry out the air and leave us at the mercy of respiratory or airborne viruses. and. Nothing's being done in most. You know with a few exceptions perhaps I in the entire country to address this relatively straightforward problem. And it could be done in a room by room basis with humidifiers or building by building basis, and that's even ignoring the fact that half the filters could be used to filter out virus the airborne virus from building circular air circulation systems. Yes I, was. So there are specific engineering controls that could be put in place to make building safer where people work and And they you know I hope they're being put in place but I certainly know of no examples in places that. I'm familiar with where that's being got. A It's a one time investment, right? So you're not just talking about hospitals about office buildings pretty much any any building that A group of people are are living together sitting together. it's it's a one time investment that has lots of positive effects nor just for Kuban. But generally speaking, right absolutely in hospitals do have this type of maybe not for humidity but they they do have half of filters in place in their. In their air handling and so You know that that's a a very good thing and air airplanes have filters so although the air is recirculated, many many times in an airplane viruses are filtered out very effectively and and and that makes it. Relatively safe to travel in an airplane. But. Any other building that we're in is very unlikely to have those safety those safeguards in place. Yeah Yeah. So. So in conclusion. I have a question for all of you and that is You know watch Chevy load from this So if if this was happening again. Watt will be do that's question number one. What are the things that behavior focus on this question number one number two. US. To detect and manage something like this worldwide. it appears to me at least be missing something the unnaturally applying technology. To their to their highest level. So if we can identify something beginning to start. Then became a much higher. Chance of controlling it. So what can we do sort of a worldwide monitoring perspective? you know do something along those lines. So, Jim, do you want to go first? Well I think the first thing I would say is question is not if this happens again but when it happens. Because it will happen again. And And I think that many of these programs were put in place and were dismantled. So we need to get back to doing what we were doing and we need to ramp up even those efforts but I think one of the most obvious things is that if there is a test available for virus, then we need to use that test rather than trying to invent our own test in the United States and taking the time. That it takes to do that rather than simply implementing existing tasks and and wasting all of those many weeks that it takes to develop a home-grown test when something is available from the World Health, organization that's perfectly functional and could be implemented immediately. So that way you know. Contact, tracing and testing. Would be put in place right away and. Can, we might not have this problem that we have now people waiting seven days to nine days to get their test results, which is still happening as we speak. So rapid development of technology for testing I think South Korea deputy will. and essentially catching it early. is the key, but do you also see any sort of worldwide monitoring that that might be useful? Oh absolutely but I say it was going on and it was yeah now. Okay. So you know we need to go back to that and we need to be part of the World Health Organization, and we need to fund the groups that were. Monitoring emerging diseases in in China and in the Amazon and in other areas where deforestation is at, is causing human habitat to encroach on previously uninhabited areas where there are unusual Were there is unusual animal life that humans have come into contact with before, which are hot spots for disease developments in Africa as well. Get. Fred. Yes. So new, what can we learn from this? Like. It's one of the things positives. There's no lot of positives in this. Tragedy tragedy this unfolding. But some of the kind of epidemological modeling that's been done. Over the last few months is then just really like top notch and the kind of spread. The disease has been kind of accurately predicted and impose different types of kind of intervention measures at again. Once these things have been imposed, the models have done really well and being able to predict which I find surprising to hide leave accuracy how these things. In spreading which I think that's that's good. That's impressive. That's why we do this kind of basic science and I would argue that to continue to do this will need to. A big investment in basic science again across the board for that can be tempted monitoring but also you know some of the most promising vaccines were developed. By universities. AT UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD WITH A. Richly just looking at Bola, so kind of not very much money in this area, but you know basic science feeds into industry and investment in basic science is really important and during those kind of pandemics. Its highlights the need the urgent need for continued in sustained investment right? Because you never know whether solution to potential new infectious disease can come from and then finally I think we just need more scientific literacy amongst policymakers in the general public because even if we can identify with a pathogen is coming from how it's going to spread unless people act on that information, it doesn't matter and you know there's just a huge disconnect between people who make decisions and the kind of understanding even basic concepts in science, and so no matter how good the scientists are monitoring is if people don't respond in the appropriate way that it's really all for nothing. Yes. Yeah. It's sort of ironic spread some of the models that even started building in policy knobs on them bitches. He do a stupid policy this way this is a number. It's almost like he can't We can't get over it right Yeah it's hopefully hopefully, we learned from it. Jeff. Yet with the thing it's been most surprising for me about the way. The pendant speakers progress is not that it happened but how? Governments have responded and how people responded that people have been interested in preparing for. Situations exactly like this since since at least two thousand and three I stars pandemic media people who are if the people want you to models in the ecstasies videos, people probably and. I think it's been surprising to all of us like how? How. How We? We have even you? It's always hard to know exactly what to do, but we do have really good ideas about how emphases Wilson, how individuals work in even with the best science. Governments have cited to something else. That's what's been most icing to me is that we haven't been acting on the best sites. For one way or another. Some extent that's a policy. Issue a big policy percent but I, wonder we have organizations built with the Bilton certain kind of independence like the Federal Reserve is built insert way to be. Resistant to political inflates much about that. But. All I can think I wonder is there some way we can institutes Through through through laws. Where where we need to be acting on the science rather than have be at the whims of whoever happens to be charged at the moment to sort of dismissing people are hiring people based on how with how their opinions. Their own? Yet that's a great point. Jeff, you know CDC and FDA. To. Be entities like that. But but as you save, you don't have explicit laws. spent was serve. maybe that is that something you know it's something to consider. I also see sort of a clash between signs. And popular culture. And You know that that is not. That it's not something you can correct vity easily I. Think the latest number I saw was this a quarter off. The country US and that thing is generally to worldwide. people believing that the sun goes around the flat earth today. And it is a belief system that science cannot. Really. I don't know science can really do a lot about that and so you know. So there there's a kind of a systemic issue there. I also strongly believe that as spread was saying in a thing you're saying Jeff that. the policy questions have so complex now. Equal choirs experts do the due to make the policy decisions. you know just just getting a law degree or just getting a business degree might not be enough. To, make a complex decision in the eighty of population held. It okay. eighty lake that life sciences, for example, in general. and. So perhaps we need some sort of a competency test. for policy makers, they take jobs This this problem I think is going to get worse and worse as we go into the future things are only going to get more complex not simple. Thank think. It's frustrating as a scientist you want as a scientists are our ability to figure out how the natural world works right and. And we hope to provide information knowledge and experience so that we can. Act in ways that are most desirable for for for us and and. Having trusted information to some said means avoiding politics. It said, well, we went to. We don't want our political views to influence. the experience we all give, and so you know it's it's hard even as as an individual. You know how how involved should I be it? I don't want to I o went to contribute to people dismissing scientific evidence because scientists like everybody had political in yet at the same time. It's impossible to stay on your toes league independent of that, and that's something that that is difficult to navigate. Absolutely. Yeah. I think independence like you say I think it's going to be the key the systemic effects that going to be more difficult. Difficult to correct. hopefully hopefully in a better position next time you go through this. This has been great Jim Fred Jeff's thanks so much for spending time with me and good luck with everything that you that you're doing. Thanks it's been really interesting conversation. Thank you.
Turning carbon dioxide into plastic dashboards
"And so we end as we began with climate and c._o. Two here is professor. Geoffrey coates at cornell who's both making plastics from come dockside died and designing new and better batteries. I that recaptured c._o. Two so we've developed a catalyst catalyst is an agent that helps a chemical reaction. Take place and with another molecule. We've been able to make plastics directly from the carbon dioxide plastics like are they thin like a bag or are they solid so we can make a range of plastic season carbon dioxide. It depends on this other molecule that we add in one case he said up to fifty percent carbon dioxide and those materials are relatively soft at room temperature in fact their main uses to be used as a foam in a in in a urethane. Obviously you've done this labar trae but has it been developed practically so that it's working now somewhere with a one of my former students and a local businessperson burson we founded a company called novermber back about a decade ago and after many years of development we now have a commercial variety of this polymer which has now been licensed by large company called aramco. I'm what do you make these are materials that are called polyols and they're used in making things like foam mattresses. Who says maybe the soft material. The dashboard of your car can also be used in coatings and adhesives. Does it use much c._o. Two again it depends on the material. The two main classes material are either fifty percent carbon dioxide or about forty three percent carbon dioxide so it does use a lot of c._o. Into a lot of c._o. Two so if you look over the years the experiments you've done they develop she made you've taken a fair amount of c._o. Two out of the atmosphere. I mean obviously if we've commercialized that we've done this on on multi scale. The hope is that the material becomes commercially very successful and a great to be able to capture even more c._o. Two so so how many people are copying you well there. There's a few companies. Few companies were from the point of view of the world wants to have c._o. Two used up it would be encouraging if they had been people emulating example yeah as you can imagine we have a very strong patent portfolio that restricts the use of this only two companies license. It is their encouragement from say washington d._c. Or what you're doing is shaking his head. That's very interesting. I should add that the the u._s. Funding agencies have been incredibly generous. Both the national science foundation and the department of energy provided the funding that allow this work to happen one imagine men who is carbon so ubiquitous that there would be. This kind of effort made my turn you now to batteries this and i'll give you an example of the kind of work. That's been going on in australia this professor tom mash meyer who's professor of chemistry from the university of sydney developing epping a kind of jail. 'cause we think of batteries having liquids acid liquids which are hard to handle with a jail. You can build into <hes> houses. You can have in buildings so the fabric of the building is actually a giant battery. Is this sort of thing that you're trying to work towards so we work on a part of the battery. That's called the electrolyte and then as you just mentioned often this is made from a liquid that causes potential safety hazards if the battery artery ruptures and it's hot organic burst into flames and so what we're trying to do is instead of a gel. We're replacing it with a polymer. Given the polymers have no vapor for pressure there quite a bit safer and also can help in some of the fundamental operations of the battery and can you have scale as i mentioned you know in buildings so one of the big advantages of polymers the ways to process summer very well worked out and so to be able to make thin films of these as the electrolyte is actually pretty the easy on just imagine there being on tops of buildings and solar rays and the storage is built into the fabric of the building itself. Yeah that's certainly a very attractive possibility with asset we work in another way to store energy and this is called a fuel cell and so the fuel cells away to capture say say solar and create hydrogen and oxygen within later be converted back to water when the sun's not out what you're saying with both plastics and batteries emphasizes assizes yet again the variety of possibilities that there may be if only they give him a chance. Is that your experience yes. That's my experience signed ten years sean. What might we see if we're lucky you know things go well. In this energy revolution well in batteries are dream is to have a very cost effective perfectly safe battery artery that for example if used in a car could be charging them on time and takes you get a cup of coffee allows you to have a very long range which is obviously a current problem and can make it really so. You almost can't tell if you have a gas fuel car an electric car because you basically plugging and whether it's a nozzle gas tanker banker it's the edge of the chargers professor give coats cornell with yet to more of the options we can have detectable climate problems those with which we began the program today next week assign show special on the future of australia and space productions day because smith and and murray bitcoin <music> <music>.
How Beauty Sleep Boosts Beauty, Plants Talk to Worms for Self-Defense, and Fighting Deepfakes with Heart Rate
"Hi you're about to get smarter just a few minutes with curiosity daily from curiosity dot com. I'm cody golf and I'm actually Hamer today. You learn about why beauty sleep has real benefits for your skin. How plants learned the chemical language of pests to used for self defense and New Algorithm? That's fighting deep fakes. By looking at heart rate would satisfy some curiosity. Scientists just discovered why beauty sleep is a thing new research suggests that while you sleep your body refreshes its supply of Collagen so like beauty. Sleep IS REAL BEAUTY SLEEP ISRAEL. Tell the world so this contradicts the scientific consensus around Collagen. And I'll explain what that is in a second for a long time. Scientists believe that our supplies of the protein were fixed. We developed all the Collagen. We'd ever have by age seventeen and then it slowly deteriorated as we aged this sense on the surface our skin does get less supple as we get older however. Collagen isn't just the key to youthful skin. It actually makes up about a third of the average human's body weight and it plays a million different roles in our bodies. This protein cushions our joints and give structure to our bones including our teeth. It's also woven into our attendance. And our tendons can bounce back after hard workouts that swift recovery doesn't fit with the whole theory of Collagen being fixed resource so to get to the bottom of this conundrum. Researchers studied mice since their Collagen works in a similar way to ours. They used mass spectrometers and electron microscopes to check in on the animals. Collagen supplies six times a day and they found something interesting. There are not one but two types of Collagen. The original consensus was right in a way. Some of our Collagen cannot regenerate this collagen forms thicker fibers or rope like strands in our bodies and it slowly breaks down over the course of our lives. However it's interwoven with thinner temporary fibers which researchers call our sacrificial pool of Collagen. These breakdown during the day and regenerate at night you know when we sleep in other words beauty sleep is no joke. Get enough sleep and you'll help keep your body strong and youthful from your skin to your tendons teeth. Get ready for this next sentence. Plants talk to worms as a form of self defense. I know that was extraordinary. Facility unpack a little bit. Plants have been involving new ways to ward off harmful pests pathogens for a very very long time and now it turns out that some have learned to speak the chemical language of one such past which they're using send a pretty straightforward message. Go Away so nematodes are tiny worm LAKE INSECTS? That live pretty much everywhere. A handful of soil contains thousands of these microscopic creatures and they're constantly trying to infect the roots of plants in fact they cause more than one hundred billion dollars in agricultural damage every year but according to new research plants have evolved a powerful tool for keeping nematodes away the parasites communicate with each other by releasing incensing a group of chemicals called scare asides. Biologists have known for a few years. That PLANTS EAVESDROP ON NEMATODES and bolster. Their anti parasite defenses when they detect a scare sites in the soil. Now there is experimental evidence that the plants have also figured out how to talk back. The researchers took a few plant species and treated the soil within scarce I'd that nematodes commonly secrete later. They went back to see what the plant had done with the chemical and what they found was stunning. The plants had taken the original nematode compound from the soil and used their own chemical factories to convert it into three other compounds. Most of it had been turned into a particular scare side that repels nematodes. How well the researchers think the NEMATODE repelling compound is a signal that nematodes usually used to call dibs on a tasty route and prevent overcrowding when the plant releases this compound into the soil hungry nematodes interpreted as a message from other nematodes saying. Pay Nothing to see here. Keep on moving. Frank Schroeder a professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Cornell. He led the research and explained the findings this way quote. The plant learns a Foreign Language then broadcasts something in that language to spread propaganda that this is a bad place and quote even cooler. The discovery might help. Scientists develop new insights to help farmers protect their crops against the tiny parasites plants. They are much smarter than you think. Today's episode is sponsored by Purple Mattress. Here's a question. How did you sleep last night? Yeah did you get enough beauty sleep. Perhaps or did you toss it turn all night because if you didn't get enough beauty sleep to keep your skin a super beautiful unhealthy. Then you've got to try purple mattress. The purple mattress will probably feel different than anything you've ever experienced because it uses this brand new material that was developed by an actual rocket scientists. It's not like the memory foam. You're probably used to the purple material. Feels unique. Because it's both ferment. Soft at the same time so it keeps everything supported while still feeling really comfortable. Plus it's beautiful so it sleeps cool. You get one hundred nights risk-free trial and if you're not fully satisfied you can return your mattress for a full refund. It's backed by a ten year warranty and you also get free shipping and returns. You're going to love purple and right now. Our listeners will get a free purple pillow with the purchase of a mattress. That's in addition to the great free gifts. They're offering site-wide just text curious to eighty four eight. The only way to get this free pillow text curious to eighty four eight. That's Cu R. I o U S. Two eight four eight message and data rates may apply. It's now possible to create phony videos that look extremely realistic experts. Call these deep fakes and they threatened to make it even harder to tell the difference between what's real and what isn't online. Luckily to Italian researchers have found a clever way spot. The difference look for the heartbeat. The researchers were trying to solve straightforward problem. How can you tell the difference between a real video of someone talking and a photo realistic computer animation of someone talking? It sounds like a simple task but it isn't because deep fakes are good and they're only getting better. The best are indistinguishable from real footage and fraudsters are already using the technology to cause all kinds of mischief deep. Fakes are designed to trick. Human is so the researchers decided to capitalize on an aspect of the videos that humans can't see when your heart beats it pushes blood through your blood vessels in waves as the blood moves through your body. It reveals your pulse via small variations of the color of your skin. We'RE TALKING SUPER SUBTLE CHANGES. That are almost always invisible to the human eye but they aren't invisible to computers. The researchers algorithm can tell whether a video shows a real person by looking for evidence of their heartbeat. It identifies areas on the face. That should be changing color and analyzes the new miracle color values of individual pixels to determine the heart rate then it runs that data through statistical analysis to determine whether the video is real the researchers tested their creation by showing the algorithm one hundred and four video clips. They found on Youtube fifty. Two were real clips mostly excerpts from interviews and fifty two were clips from Computer Games with realistic graphics and presentations of Advanced Digital renderings. They did choose. Clips played to the algorithm strengths. But the results were impressive nonetheless. The Algorithm correctly identified the clip more than ninety six percent of the time. So watch out deep fakes. Engineers are fighting fire with fire. Well that was a whirlwind of an episode. Let's do a quick recap of what we learned today. So first off beauty sleep is a real thing. Your skin will be better if you get enough sleep. Who Knew I feel like my mother always told me this and have never it and now I can see that it's real you know you don't have to question it? Yeah you know I just feel like I look more like a Zombie when they haven't slept and this must be. Why no offense zombies Zombie. Who's listening Zombie listeners? Out there to all of our Zombie listeners. I WANNA say Ooh you know you know. What did you learn about plants? Well I learned that plants can actually send out like fake news to wrap. Yeah to nematodes to tell them. Hey I'm all full up nematodes. Keep on moving. No roots to eat here. If you're a journalist and a tree comes in for a job interview remember probably don't hire that Sri also for the plant story special shadow too at Miller lab and it's J. Multiple on twitter. I tweeted at them to ask how to pronounce a scare side. Nice literally one of the hardest birds of producing. This podcast is figuring out exactly how to pronounce a lot of these words. There is not a single source to just go to yeah frustrating. Yeah so there's that and algorithms can create deep fakes but other algorithms can measure the heart rate of the people in the deep fakes to see if they're really deep. Fix deep fake exception to the stories were written by. May Race and grants current and edited by Ashley Humor. Who's the managing editor for curiosity daily? Today's episode was produced and edited by. Cody Gov journos against tomorrow to learn something new in just a few minutes and until then stay curious.
New battery launched for life beyond lithium
"We start with batteries and buildings made from them your house as its own storage launched of university of Sydney where the vice chancellor, Dr Michael Spence notes, the long tradition of aboriginal education there and chemist Tom mash Meyer, father of July on the battery. Well, it is my great pleasure to congratulate the July and community on this quite remarkable occasion. And this is actually a good place to do it. Because not only is it been a place of teaching and learning for tens of thousands of years, but it's a place of vision. If you look behind me these other silly gothic buildings it's important to remember that they were built for just thirty five students at a time when the university was in what was regarded by the European settlers as the end of the world. In fact, when these buildings were opened it was impossible for people to come to the opening celebration because the road between here and Sydney were impossible. And yet what they said is we're going to cry. Create a university for the world and gave the university of Moscow that roughly translated means we can do it as well here as we can't anywhere. And we are now a university with students one hundred and forty countries around the world that's made significant contributions in every area of learning. But it's not just about excellence. It's not just about doing what we do phenomenally. Well, and being ranked in the top no point five percent of universities word and all of that kind of stuff. It's about doing it for a purpose. They would deeply committed that this should be an institution that would change the fortunes of New South Wales. And we are beyond that Australia in the world, we've really focused on answering the questions that the community is asking not just the questions, we're asking ourselves ending gauging with our partners across the community and across industry to identify the pressing issues of the future, of course, parole of this Thomas is quite literally a poster boy, this is great science really mind stretching science and yet science that has a purpose in making a difference for our community and damp planet. That's the university of sin. Bny added Sperry based? And so it is my very, great pleasure. On behalf of the university to congratulate the July and community on having got to this point. We're putting our money where mouth is we are making a what is for us, a very significant investment in this technology in a way that is unusual for the university in investing in mobile lighting towers for the safety of our students on campus that are going to be powered by July and batteries will also be using July and batteries as a part of our renewable energy network. This is technology. That's time grind. It's technology that we know works. It's technology that expresses the spirit of who we are. And we're very proud to be a small part of this incredible project. Thank you. Sydney device. Accouncement Michael Spence at the launch a few days ago of July on the firm and the battery jail I on get it. And he here's a hero. He was talking about professor of chemistry. Tom mash Meyer is it. Fair to say that what you're doing is having a Jill that's incorporated into buildings themselves to actress batteries. Well. The Joel is incorporated into the battery and the batteries we hope will be incorporated into buildings. The amazing thing about our technology is that it cannot catch fire. So therefore, it is safe to be incorporated into the structure of buildings much the capacity of it. Imagine the buildings around here at the university of Sydney, one of them with lots of your batteries could it operate as its own kind of major storage without any extra from outside. Yes. So capacity is one hundred twenty watt hours per kilogram. So if you think you can build a Bill out of lithium batteries, you can. Build a building out of our batteries, and it can be pretty big power station. And what stage has it reached? Have you have Jeep put it in a building yet? We haven't put it in the building yet. I commercial demonstration is tonight being revealed at Sydney University, and we have it in a solar light tower. We move on from that to residential units. And we are in deep discussions with a number of construction companies of how to put it into building into prefabricated walls as it's a jail. Why is that an advantage over the acid battery system? So the gel system for zinc bromine chemistry means I can locate the bromine extremely well. I can suppress zinc tend rights, which are problem, and I can add catalysts that handle any kind of hydrogen that might be involved and overall that means that our batteries very stable, and we can completely seal it another advantage is that the gel being somewhat liquid like self repes-. So if the some in homogeneity in the battery. On charging and discharging it resets to its original state. And where does the energy come from the energy is just tragedy that can be sourced from anywhere? It can be cheap electricity from conventional sources that can be renewable energy solar wind wave title and presumably it can be stored when the demand is less overnight. That's right. So one can do energy arbitrage if only is to do that or one can connected to solo PV, which is particular forte of us because our charging cycles over four hours and discharging four to eight hours, and that's a very good match for solo. Now, I seem to remember discussing what the batteries in the world today. Ordinarily would be able to do if we had to rely on them for the next hour. Just imagine everything all pal sessions systems closed down on you head to work on the batteries. Is it true that keep us going for any eleven minutes? Yes, that's right. And I took that number from Ellen fingers are chiefs. Scientists report into this matter has he heard about your system. Yes, he has and his very excited about it of asleep. Chief scientists economy seen to endorse any particular technology. But in the he's aware, and is wishing as well when you do incorporated into buildings and imagine it spreads across in say five, maybe ten years time. What could the difference be to living in cities? So our really low entry price means that the whole power infrastructure can be reimagined. We don't need to rely so much on centralized power systems. We can go for local generation we can go for this DVD networks, we can go full resilient networks. How principally renewable energy transmission? Losses will be minimal all really because a battery is flame proof will not catch fire and is very affordable. And is there any limit the amount you can build into the system in any particular building? Yes. The concept is that the prefabricated walls cow. Currently have got a cavity. And that cavity can be filled with all sorts of materials, depending what one wants to achieve. We can fill those prefabricated walls with batteries. Imagine that your aforementioned closure happens. And you're in a building that's been up there for ten years, and it's working. Well, how long can your battery keep L building going? That depends on how many batteries we have in the building, of course. But certainly it can do what diesel generators are doing right now. So it can easily do the four to eight hours depending on what's in the building. Of course, what about days? Well, it depends. How much power you draw depending on what's in those? If you have x-ray machines for hospital, which draw huge amounts of powers different to residential. But people just put on the kettle in worst telly are you hoping Tom this is in fact as a game changer. We believe very strongly this will be a game changer because of the photo ability. It means that we should be able to deliver it for the full system cost at around three cents. Per kilowatt hour that's about half or less than currently the case. And have you told Angus Taylor about this yet didn't have the opportunity yet to do? So the minister, of course, all yes. And when I have we delighted to one more question about something else. And that is we ran something in the science show query about light, plastics. And when we talked you said, the problem of hard, plastics, which people could not use to make roads and using bulk like that on a fantastic scale as they might do as they are doing infecting pilot schemes in north of Melvin and in Sutherland in Sydney, you have solved the problem of recycling hard, plastics you. Yes, we have resolved the problem of recycling any plastic. So when I separate plastics out of the the high value, plastics are easily separable ones, very pure milk bottles. Again, those ones I will just recycle in the normal way by melting them down and re-injecting. But everything else that's left over normally people either have to burn it. Go into landfill. Or use a technology called policies, which is quite a low yield technology. We have developed with Liselotte technology, which can take all of that plastic and may chemicals out of it can be oils lubricants, waxes fuels and also mama's back to new plastics. So we can close the material loop. We can have completely closed materials balance. Anyone doing it yet? Yes. We're building a plant in the UK twenty thousand tons a year. We are raising money for two more plants and for Woody waste. We are in the process of putting together a plant with full Canada's main forestry company that have the largest pulp and paper mill in the willed one million tonnes, and we're putting two hundred thousand time plant there. What is so amazingly special about the department of chemistry at the university of Sydney? Well, we have a very supportive university incredible spirit of collegiality and all of mentoring going on from all too young and young too old because the young people can teach us a lot as well. And just the excellent place to be. Thank you very much. Thank you. Professor, Tom mash, my at the launch of July on the battery, and yes, putting plastic in roads can be done on a vast scale. Once everyone gets on with it instead of s fault saving local councils millions of dollars.
The marijuana breathalyser
"The Sun show on your widget. Yokum Fourteen T. let's kick it. All right guys collaborate and listen Neil Guards back with the same tensions, chemistry grabs a hold of US tightly study with full heart, daily and nightly will ever Stop Joe. We don't know memorize the mechanisms annual. No back set attack and invert that Stereo chemistry in an essence, two or parkside openings Godley. Go now or Ever heard of a chemistry professor, so popular students actually write songs about him. Let's go see Neil Guard over at UCLA. If there a problem pumpkin chairs. That sounds so wonderfully formal, and yet I'm sitting in your office, which is an absolute delighted got bright. Wonderful pictures and it's going to bowl of chocolate in the middle of the table, and it's got all sorts of almost toys. When could say what makes you do that? Why I guess I'm a father of four children. So that's probably the explanation for most of that. Most of the big pictures are of your children. That's right. Yeah, four children, huge photos of them sixteen by twenty and I spent so much time in this office that after a few months I thought I need to make it a little bit more homey and I also felt it was important that because I have so many meetings here that the office also fell welcoming and so most of the time. There are meetings occurring here, sometimes they. Very, simple and pleasant, sometimes they're a little bit more challenging anything I can do to make it a little bit more comfortable for myself, and for whoever else is in the meeting I figure figures a good thing and how many people actually take a chocolate? I'd say about one out of three or four people will actually take a chocolate. I think even fewer. We'll take a coffee or a tea I. Think some people feel like they're burdening me by, but it's just you know even if people don't take it, they know it's there. You've got a coffee machine as well and this sort of in formality is what you bring to your teaching. What was the name of the national? Prize that. That you got for it? Thank you for asking. It's called the Robert Foster Cherry Award for teaching, and it's given every two years by Baylor, university it's a competition that's bans. All fields of academia for the English speaking world and chemistry professor wanted a quarter of a million dollars. That's right. Yeah, so hard to believe for me as well if it ever comes up in conversation. I always tell people. I feel like I've won the lottery. And it was just an amazing program to be a part of yes, and this in formality, this unusual approach you put into a coloring book on organic chemistry as for children, it's for children of all ages as we say so. Organic chemistry has had a bad reputation for a very long time, and we try to do quite a few things to try to improve that reputation. Reputation not just for our students here Ucla but around the world, and if Ross helps children, or perhaps the parents that look at the book and helping their children carring it, we think it's a good thing for science, and as you open this. The molecule of sugar sucrose is sweet, and you have a charming mouse in white coat, looking at benzene rings and other things like that. But there's a serious side apart from running a department teaching you also on chemical catch it's what is the catch it involved with cannabis. We been interested in developing fundamental technology toward a major societal problem, which is to develop marijuana breathalyzer. And in our view, the way a device like this would work is that you would have something that looks just like an alcohol breathalyzer. Somebody would breathe into it, and somehow we would give an indication the whether or not somebody has consumed THC containing products were smoke marijuana and the overall goal. This would be to improve safety on the roads. Is it difficult in cannabis or lots? Lots and lots of molecules. Is it hard to sort out the complexity of it? Absolutely there are plenty of different compounds contained in cannabis and THC however is the primary constituent so our effort so far entirely focused on thc and just developing the fundamental technology, or to detect it using electricity or electro chemistry, as we would say, tetrahydrocannabinol Tetra Hydro Cabinet. All is correct you got. The wick far it's going great I was encouraged to think about this, and in talking to somebody who has Aligarh, and he said with the legalization of marijuana in California and other states it's becoming a more and more severe problem to think about roadside safety, and how one would detect marijuana so i. just amazing group of researchers I came back. I posed this question to about twenty bright students and post docs here and one person got very excited about this. Dr Evan Darcy and we sat around and thought about different ways that we think about detecting thc and the more we thought about it the simplest way we should be able to do this as using electricity. And, so what we've done now is come up with a way to take thc and performing oxidation reaction, which is completely analogous. Our Breathalyzer works using Electro Chemistry and We've recently filed a provisional patent application on that, and we will soon publish those results, and it could be used all over the world. It could be used all over the world I. Think the way we view. This though is what we've discovered so far. Is ultimately the key chemical discovery, and that is I think a crucial step before we can then go forward and develop a real device now. Lots of people get tested not simply for alcohol, but also for other drugs. This is routine thing in many countries. Is that a different more straightforward test I? Think so I think I was reading earlier about a different tests that have been developed and for example in Australia. There's saliva tests that will test. Test for multiple different drugs, perhaps one of the key challenges, and all these tests is if they are specific, and if they give false positives, so I think that might be a challenge if you want a uniform tests that can for any type of drug that's out there. Technology were developing. We hope we'll be specific for THC if all continues to go well I think the ultimate goal is to one. Make it easier for a law enforcement. Officials to have accurate testing roadside, but also for anybody if somebody could buy one of these devices, if used very simple technology like electricity from in principle, one could have those at their home, and they could test themselves before they go out and and try to drive on the streets, which implies I imagine the machine would be cheap. That would be the ideal as technology keeps developed in one develops a portable device that anybody would be. Be Able to hopefully make affordable. Enough I can understand from what you say in your surroundings. Y you'll course at UCLA so popular. What is the secret of teaching? So as you're concerned, certainly say just connecting and understanding students and being passionate about the subject I will say though that when I started at Ucla I avoided undergraduate teaching. It was taught to me. That teaching is something that gets in the way of your research program. But the first time I taught undergraduate organic chemistry. Here it was for pre health students so students that wouldn't necessarily go into chemistry, a lot of pre medical students her, as they are incredibly bright in incredibly creative, and it just became very clear. If I teach one class and Students come out of that class, loving organic chemistry, even if they don't go into the field, that's a great thing for science and the trick was really to make sure they understand that they are learning skills and problem solving techniques that they can apply anything. Not just the Reagan comes class, but all of their coursework then everything in their life of them and I think that's. That's ultimately how I want students to feel when they leave the classes up. They've learned something that transcends the subject we're just using. The subject has vehicle to teach you know lifelong lessons lifelong skills. Congratulations, thank you. No, thank you very much. The secret of Neil Gog professor of chemistry at the University of California Los Angeles and that pot spotter has now just been published.
Ice Cream Science, Online Language. July 26, 2019, Part 2
"Science Friday is supported by I._B._M.. SMART is open open is smart i._B._M.. is combining their industry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat. Let's unlock the world's potential. Let's put smart smart to work learn more at I._B._M.. Dot Com slash red hat listener supported w N._Y._C. Studios. This is science Friday. I'm Ali Webster. IRA FLATO is way later in the hour. We'll be talking about how online communication has changed the way we right. It's the topic of a new book because Internet but first summer means. It's time for ice cream. Have you ever had one one favorite flavor. You keep ordering and then you thought to yourself. You know what I could probably make this. Admittedly I've never had that saw but if you were the person that had that thought you got home you mixed all the ingredients together and then you kind of got like a frozen vanilla ice cube job or a chocolate chunk that was just like junk of chocolate ice cream and all frozen desserts are not just delicious. They're very complicated chemically their mix of ice crystals and emulsifiers and a lot of air bubbles so my next guest are here to tell us about the science behind these frozen treats and to help you get the perfect homemade scoop each time so I would like to welcome to the table. Matt Harding's a professor of chemistry at American University City in Washington D._C.. He's a home ice cream maker and author of the Book Chemistry in your kitchen and Ben van Lewin co-founder Van Lewin iced co-founder Van leeuwen artisan ice cream based here in New York and and if you have had a frozen dessert fail we want to hear from you. What are your science questions about getting the perfect ice cream or frozen custard? You can give us a call. Our number is eight four four seven two four eight to five five. That's eight four four side Talk Hawk or tweet us at Sei fry so matt. I'm going to start with you down there in D._C.. You call ice cream a Mesh network something I've never heard described as before <hes> what do you mean by that. And what do you mean by that scientifically speaking right right well I think about <hes> just a sponge right and when when a sponges dry right it's sort of dry and and crumple but when you put it in water it soaks all that water up and it squishy and it has a completely different texture and and not only does the sponge change in texture but the water changes and texture to right you go from liquid water that sloshes around and now it stuck inside of that sponge and that's kind of what ice cream is as we KINDA WANNA stick that water into place and and keep it for moving around so much and it makes a really nice smooth rich taste on your tongue matt. At what point did you start thinking about ice cream scientifically well. It's one of the burdens of being a chemistry does I'm always thinking about the thing scientifically <hes> probably when I really started making my own ice cream <hes> when I wanted to start doing it better <hes> again I think things in terms of science and so when I started making ice cream and wanted to do better my immediate thing was to to start thinking a little bit more about what was happening and that helped me a lot <hes> so Ben <hes> what's the difference between this is my this is really my question is what is the difference between ice cream soft serve and frozen custard because when I go to the ice cream track it definitely doesn't taste like ice cream. I get out of my freezer so frozen custard and soft serve would be ice cream. <hes> soft serve tends to be lower and fat and highly stabilized meaning. There's a lot of gums and <hes> sometimes natural sometimes natural compounds that are used in the reason you need to do that with soft serve is because it's a sort of on demand frozen product. It's constantly constantly spinning around in this partially frozen barrel and if you don't have a lot of stabilisers in there the fat sexually going to churn out and you're gonNA get butter so the only way to really do soft serve well as if you have really high velocity if a lot of it's coming out in your selling a lot of it so we actually tried to do soft serve years ago but it didn't work because we weren't selling enough so it just sat in the barrel and overtured and frozen custard is defined defined at least by the New York State Department of Agriculture is having more than one point three percent egg yolks <hes> you so if you have more than that in your product you have to either call it frozen custard or French ice scream. Our ice cream depending on the flavor is five to eight percent organic egg yolks so we call it French ice cream and then ice cream is the definition of all of those things including you know people often asked me what the difference between Gerardo and ice cream team is and Gerardo means screaming Italian you can make it in all sorts of different way his matt. I think this is this has been controversial statement on your end something about ice cream and gelato are they different are the same the Italians being awesome. The Italians are awesome and July is awesome and I think there's a lot of bickering back and forth between people who make this but I think the biggest difference between ice cream and Gelato is the temperature that you serve at all right so jalad served at a higher temperature than ice cream is and so you can make it differently but I have seen recipes from Italian cookbooks that look just like ice cream recipes and I have seen recipes from non-italian cookbooks for ice cream that look just like Gelato so really the biggest difference is the temperature that you serve at and that temperature difference gives you a little leeway in what you can do with bringing out flavors and making something creamier smooth or whatever you're looking for and the only way you can serve it at a higher temperature is if it's pretty stabilized so if it has a lot of gums natural ones would be Dargham Carrageenan Lucas speed gum so the those sort of old fashioned water recipe or Italian Italian ice cream recipes or you can call them that Matt was referring to which is such a good point. They'll have more egg yolks than you know any recipe I've ever seen in a super high butterfat those served at a higher temperature when it work as well because they would they might collapse without the stabilization <hes> so much to know here so we've been collecting listener questions all week through our vox pop APP and here's one on crystallization from Ronnie in Pennsylvania why lightest ice cream sometimes crystallize pretty cut and dry band. You want to start with that. One sure so the crystallization you're tasting is usually going to be from water freezing and the bigger the the ice crystals are in the frozen water the more detectable they'll be on your palate the way you prevent that sort of ice crystals taste is by freezing the ice cream really really quickly so the example I always uses if it's snowing on a warm day the snowflakes are really big because it takes a long time to turn from water to solid to ice so the crystals sort of slowly built in become very large if they rapidly cool well in a freezing cold day the snowflakes are super small and the same thing happens with ice cream so in the production facility we use and it would be the same for home ice cream maker when you spin the ice cream from your mix. You're sort should've liquid base into a soft serve consistency after that you wanna do it's called hardening and you put it into a freezer and the faster you hard in it. The smaller the ice crystals are going to be but the crystallization you're tasting at home is usually eh happening with the failure in what's called a cold chain which is like a supply chain. That's cold so if you're ice creams being delivered to the local grocery store and the delivery trucks arrive and puts the pallet of ice cream onto the loading dock and it sits in ninety degree heat for <hes> even twenty minutes that might melt and then when it re freezes its gonNA freeze really slowly and you're going to get some ace Chris. You get that weird like film on the top. That's like ice christly yeah exactly que- Matt. What would you say to Ronnie Yeah? That's exactly right. I mean a lot of times you know when when again as a chemist I think of of molecules moving around all the time right and so the warmer things are the faster things move around and so those water molecules are still moving around in your ice cream when they warm up just a little bit and so those water molecules can go from liquid water and they move around a bunch and then they find an ice crystal to stick to just gets bigger and bigger and bigger and so you can stop that motion by by freezing it down really quickly. Is that like Ben when you're making ice cream. Is there like a magic frozen point that you're going for like a speed in which you wanNA freeze it by well. You want to freeze it as quickly as possible is seconds or minutes or ours hours <hes> so the theoretically the faster you do it the smoother it's GonNa be but there's sort of a point where the value you kind of like top out how much better it's GonNa taste so one example is some ice cream acres are using liquid nitrogen to freeze the ice cream and theoretically it makes it creamier but to me you're going to be able to achieve the same creamy honest with a really good had formula <hes> but exact time so we like to polar ice cream out of the ice cream making machine at around twenty one degrees which is fairly low and then we put it in what's called the hardening freezer in depending on the size of container. We're putting it in it takes anywhere from four hours to twenty four hours to harden <hes> because our ice cream is so high in fat where eighteen percent butterfat and super high in Gilkes we can take longer too hard in it and still get a really awesome texture. If we were a super low fat ice cream you would have to hard in it really really rapidly through. It's called the Hardening Tunnel Matt. I think you're actually one of those people that experiment with liquid nitrogen and I was Gonna ask you anyway <hes>. I don't know a ton about how all this stuff folds together. So what does an egg actually do an ice cream right so this gets back to that Mesh. I was talking about earlier right. When you make any kind of custard right whether it's criminal a they are ice cream or scrambled eggs <hes> you're taking the quilt proteins in that egg and as you heat them they sort of unravel and start to stick together and that's where they make this Mesh right the sort of network inside of your whatever liquidated is your cooking and so that's really what's going on with those eggs as you really want them to sort of set up into a custard and in effect that's what helps to slow the water molecules down as you're freezing it so that they can't find one another they have hard time finding one another because they keep running into these little these little pockets of of egg protein Ben? I think you're ice cream has a lot of eggs in it. It's something like five times. The usual amount talk about that so we you know is Matt. Just is described using tons of eggs combat's the potential Isis but when we formulated are a screaming we started twelve years ago we actually we had a basic understanding of that but the reason we used more eggs is because we'd like the taste more <hes> and so using a ton of egg yolks gives it this like amazing chuminess that we we've not been able to achieve without using a lot of egg yolks and we really really love that such a good flavor it really is. Eh that's great so we're here talking about ice cream <hes> after the break we'll be talking more about the science behind ice cream and taking your questions so call us stay with us. Science Friday is supported by I._B._M.. A._M.. Technology is becoming more open data more accessible and the world more innovative I._B._M.. is combining their industry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat to bring you more freedom more security security more flexibility. Let's unlock the world's potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at I._B._M.. Dot Com slash red hat great stories deserve a great platform aren't that's why podcasts delivers beautifully designed simple but powerful experience that offers more control. It's the premium APP for listening search and discovery down low pocket cast today a pocket cast dot com slash W._n._y._C. or find this in the apple APP in Google play stores. This is science Friday. I'm Molly Webster. We're talking this hour about the science of Ice Cream and other frozen desserts my guests I are Matt Harding's a Professor Chemistry at American University in Washington D._C.. And author the book chemistry in your kitchen and Ben van Lewin co-founder Van Lewin artisan ice cream here in New York and if you've had a frozen dessert fail and have questions we we wanna hear from you. Give us a call. Our number is eight four four seven two four eight to five five. That's eight four four side talk or tweet us at Sifi Matt before we went to the break <hes> we were talking about eggs using eggs in in <hes> in ice cream. Are there alternatives that we can use an ice cream yeah absolutely and Ben I was I was looking at all year <hes> recipes earlier before I came in and I'm curious at how how close in texture the <hes> you're you're Vegan options are there's lots of different options that you can use for for stabilisers. Many of them come from different plants. <hes> cornstarch is one of them. <hes> and I believe Ben Uses Locust Bean Gum <hes> but I'm there so you have a lot lot of options right. Gelatin is another one lots of different options that you can find in your regular grocery store for replacing egg so it's great that you actually brought up all the different types of flavors of Benz ice cream because we happen to have a box here in the studio and people <hes> I'm just GonNa Matt. I'm very sorry we couldn't ship any to you down in D._C.. We should have said the bring your own bowl should have been a requirement so I'm opening something now. <hes> it's beautiful. It's called Earl Grey. <hes> this is my first cooking demonstration ever. I'm tasting it and then Ben or you're gonNa tell me a little bit about how you make. Earl grey happened. Maybe you can say that while I'm eating it so the earl grey is dairy flavor so we start with milk cream team sugar and organic jokes and we heat that up in a big two hundred gallon kettle and then we use Mesh Nylon bags and fill them with an amazing organic black not with Bergeman citrus oil which is what makes it earl grey from Rishi tea and we steep that T- as we're cooking the custard and we pull the tea bags out we homogenize it we cool it and then we put it through the ice cream freeze so you actually cook it like you've steep the tea in them in the mass of the making it like in the middle of everything in the big custard making Caudron <hes> and earl grey I mean it's it is a very pungent flavor as a tea but you really do have too steep it for a long time like how do you get a subtle flavor like that to actually come through an ice cream and not get drowned in eggs <hes> so we slightly over steep it we don't over steep it to a point where you're getting like too many tenants but we steep it more and we use more per volume than if you're just making a cup of tea as as you pointed out there's you know eight percent jokes eighteen percent butterfat butterfat really muting a lot of the flavors Yeah Matt now that we're talking about flavors. Are there like <hes> I just wonder once you start mixing flavor into the chemistry. How that affects things earth? There are flavors that are really hard to do right so you know one of the things that you need to think about when you're making ice cream is that it's cold right. The ice cream is cold and and that low temperature really affects how you taste flavors right and so they don't they're not as strong when we when we taste them cold so one of the reasons why you know Ben can over steep is because those flavors don't come through a strong when we're when we're eating cold ice cream versus a hot tea and so sometimes you need to over flavor <hes> to really have something that that you're going to get on your palate. <hes> you know another thing is is it's fun to play with different flavor combinations right and and they're all sorts of things you can do all sorts of crazy things that you can try <hes> and I loved the idea of playing around with flavors and finding new things things at no one's ever thought of before so we're going to bring in a caller who has a flavor question. This is Debra from Ohio Debra from Ohio. Do you want to tell us what your question is. Yes my question is <hes> I make a custard with Eg and cream and all the good stuff Madagascar Vanilla Etcetera my problem. I like the fold and French fruit. I use old-fashioned ice cream freezer <hes> but my problem is when I'm hardening the ice ace craze. My chunks of free seem a harder than the ice cream around it so yeah a hundred percent and if you're using fresh fruit it's GONNA be impossible to avoid avoid that I mean Matt probably has even more data on the percentages but the fruit is going to get really icy because of the water and sort of lack of sugar in it so what you could do is you could lightly compote the fruit but really what works even better is sort of mass reading with a lot of sugar cooking it a little bit to get the water out <hes> and then you're GonNa get a sort of smooth texture on the fruit instead of a hard. Did I see texture what would you what would you say in driven I would echo what Ben said that is exactly what you WanNa. Do you WanNa pull some of the water out of the the fresh fruit and it said because you want that flavor of fresh fruit and and when you macerata you lose that a little bit but it's the playoff you have to take when you're when you're trying to make ice cream would I would do on that is do the vanilla ice cream and just put the fresh fruit on top yeah so then you're getting the perfect texture on the fresh fruit the perfect vanilla. I feel like this is a good segue for me to have more ice cream. which is <hes> the cookie crumbles strawberry jam? We were talking about fruit so it felt appropriate. <hes> while I'm sampling this is Ben. You said that strawberry might have been one of your hardest flavors to make good strawberry was a really hard flavor to master <hes> we were adding strawberries which is increasing the overall of volume of the mix but you're adding no fat so the fat drops <hes> and I'm not sure why it took US along to get to this point but five years in we said we shouldn't be using any milk in this product in order to get enough you know is much strawberry taste as we wanted. We had to add so many strawberries that the butterfat would come down so now we use only cream strawberries and sugar in the lady who just called in from Ohio. If you want to do a fruit flavored ice cream better to incorporate the fruit Foley and then you have sort of complete control over your fat and sugar level of the entire mix because it's uniform so you can get the fruit flavor and for us because we're not using stabilisers we always always stay above sixteen percent butterfat and around twelve percent sugar and this strawberry ice cream. I just eight is Vegan. Yes so tell us about how challenging and has to make Vegan ice cream or not. I mean for us. It's it's pretty easy Z.. <hes> we started making Vegan ice cream seven years ago which was five years into a business in the goal was to make delicious ice cream that happened to be vegan knock delicious vegan ice cream <hes> so we tried to match the solids fat in sugar levels to our classic ice cream all of the ingredients behave differently so we had to tweak it but we're making the Vegan ice cream with cashew milk coconut milk raw cocoa butter which is the fat from chocolate organic coconut oil and and a little bit of Lucas being gum or call Carib gum which is an organic stabiliser and we use that not as a way to make it creamier but away to sort of give it more body because we're not using eggs in the Vegan. We're going to take a call from Jordan in Phoenix Arizona Jordan. What's your question? Is it possible to overturn sorbet in this. So how can you do it. No if it's a fat free Sorbet it's impossible <hes> no sorbets. I've ever seen have dairy in them so yeah impossible matt for for someone who cooks at home. I know that you do this. <hes> talk to me about getting hitting recipes or getting ingredients from stores like are you just looking at the ingredients you're throwing into the bowl or <hes>. Are you paying attention to what's in those ingredients right so that's a great question and Ben alluded to this just a minute ago when when he started talking about making can Vegan ice cream right so I have a little thing up online with science Friday talking about how I look at changing ice cream recipes and and you just try you want to try to get your your your fats the same and your protein your thickener is the same your sugar amounts the same name and so really paying attention to what's on the nutritional labels is is a great way to start with understanding how to change recipe <hes> interesting okay one more call Dustin from Salt Lake City in what's your call hi. I have a question about <hes> sugar and corn Syrup. I I've made ice creams from recipes in America's test kitchen cookbooks and they suggest suggest using part to make it smoother and I want to know how the chemistry works behind that Matt. Do you WANNA lead yeah so <hes> Corn Syrup has a lot of fructose or invert sear invert sugar in it and so that doesn't crystallize as much in terms of the sugar crystallizing out but it also prevents the in general the ice cream from crystallizing as well and so you can dampen that a little bit <hes> I haven't used that just because I the recipes that I I use <hes> I I don't I don't see much crystallization from the regular sugar but that is definitely one way to <hes> to try to get it smoothness than any final thoughts notting <hes>. I don't think it's necessary for home. I'm use <hes> if you're going through temperature shock that can help but when you're making a few pints of ice cream at home I would. I don't think it's necessary to use the corn syrup because it's harder to find and he asks her in the harder undefined inorganic version of to all right. Thank you so much I would like to thank my guests and <hes> thank everyone for the ice cream. It was awesome as we have Ben Van Lewin co-founder of Van Lewin artisan ice cream based here in New York <hes> and Matt Harding's. Harding's is a professor of chemistry at American University and author of the book chemistry in your kitchen. <hes> and Matt wrote up an article about chemistry tips per protect perfecting your ice cream. You can read it on our website at science Friday dot Com <hes> slash ice cream for the rest of the hour. How online communication has been changing the way we write informally so when did you I get online was a way back in the early early days of the Computer Bulletin Board or during A._O._l.? I think I signed online for A._O._l.. Instant Messenger <hes> and then you gradually have to pick up the Lingo L._l.. Meant someone was laughing didn't mean lots of love and then there's writing in all all caps kinda discover that might have been a bad thing unless you really were shouting or maybe you're just a person who has grown up online. You've always had text. You've always had emails you understand the INS and outs of snapchat and you know what Emoji to drop into a message message to convey your meaning so Gretchen McCulloch is an internet linguist. You may have seen her articles in wired. She Co host the podcast Ling th Uzi Azam and she's the author of the new book because Internet understanding the new rules of language welcome back to the program Gretchen Hello. It's fun to be here again. It is so fun to have you. I felt like when I was reading this book that I was essentially just re you were had been listening in on my day to day conversations with people and then we're like okay. Let me analyze for you molly. I'm sorry I've actually had you bugged molly. I hate to break it to you on radio but I feel like so many people reading this book with think wh I mean like what made you ah. I think it's one thing to observe thing. What made you think oh I I can analyze this? We can dig in here about what's happening with language because of the Internet I find as a linguist. I have a hard time turning that linguist part of my brain off off and maybe I don't want to so if you go out with Palmer something and you say something I might pause you and say wait a second. Can you say that vowel again. Oh I'm just kind of that type of person and so I spent a lot of time on the Internet as many of us do and when I see stuff going on online I just want to analyze it. It's very exciting for me <hes> and so. What did you start? I mean what made you focus on the Internet. You're obviously noticing something there the genesis four thinking okay. There's actually a maybe a book here. There's some sort of longer thing here came from an article that I wrote for the now sadly departed website the toast <hes> back in twenty fourteen. I missed the toasts still <hes> and I wrote an article for them. Analyzing the linguistics of the DOJ meam was with the Shiba Inu a few years ago and I got to the second last paragraph of the DOJ name Article Nicole and I found myself thinking <hes> there's something interesting here I was comparing DOJ with the earlier generation of your kind of classic low cat memes and thinking there's an additional layer of irony in internet writing now. There's this level of double all meaning that we use now that you didn't see in the early days of the Internet and that it seems like the time is right to try to expand on that again so I was feeling like there was more there and that was actually the first time that a literary agent in contact with me from reading that article and so the timing worked out really well. That's great so I'm Molly Webster and this is science Friday from W._N._y._C. Studios. I'm here with Gretchen McCulloch an Internet linguists and you're telling us all about the things that we do every day but don't even realize we're doing them so I often think about <hes> linguistics as something that spoken like I don't think of it necessarily with writing but you've brought the two together here like how has the the Internet and writing helped you understand the way we speak better yeah. Exactly a lot of linguistics is still focused on the spoken word because it's seen as you know that's the bit that hasn't been filtered hasn't gone through an editor. It hasn't hasn't been altered by someone else to just comes out and and that's what you say that can kind of help us understand how the human mind creates language. If you go in its least filtered form but of course that's only true of some kinds of right of writing that it gets through it editor her and the informal kind of writing the kind that happens online in our Texan are tweets every day that doesn't go through an editor that does give us access to water people doing you know with their first Russia intuition and it gives us access to some of the very same interesting things about how use language so what when you're looking at the Internet what were some of the like key. I don't know grammatical rules or linguistic rules that you see playing out online one thing that I'm really fascinated about how is the use of punctuation and other typographical resources to convey tone of voice <hes> so you know you can use a question mark indicate something's question that's kind of the boring us but you can use a question mark to indicate a rise in intonation at at the end of a sentence when it's not necessarily a question but it indicates that rise and then on the flip side you can say something that is syntactical question like what could possibly go wrong but not put a question mark there and that indicates awry or a deadpan or an ironic rhetorical question and so these this kind of four step possibility. Do you use the question mark or not is it's tactically a question and not gives rise to a whole bunch of layers of possible meanings interpretations. That's like I I feel like I use exclamation. Points not really 'cause. I'm excited <hes> but because I'm trying to be sincere and like a show the way things are done so before we keep talking. I'm going to say we need to take a break. We'll be back with more internet linguistics in a moment science Friday is supported by I._B._M.. Technology is becoming more open data more accessible and the world more innovative I._B._M.. is combining their industry ostry expertise with the open source leadership of Red Hat to bring you more freedom more security more flexibility. Let's unlock the world's potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at I._B._M.. Dot Com slash slash red hat. This is science Friday and I'm molly webster sitting in for IRA flato. I'm talking with Internet Linguists Gretchen McCulloch. She's the author of the new book because Internet understanding the new rules of language so Gretchen when we left we were talking about punctuation identifying tone and I wanna go to one of our callers <hes>. He has a very interesting question about a lip sees nate from Dayton Ohio. I'm Ali I was wondering if you could explain the use of ABC's on the Internet. It seems very from generation to generation Gretchen. Yes there is absolutely a generational different agencies and it's one of my favorite things that I figured out when I was writing because Internet so the brief nutshell version of what's going on and we'll get into why in a Sec <hes> the brief nutshell version of what's going on. Is You have a predominantly older people <hes> who use ellipses as a generic separation character so between any sort of utterance or phrase you might say hey dot dot dot. How's it going dot dot dot jeff time to chat soon dot dot dot and this is used as a way of separating <hes> remarks they might be full sentences? They might be phrases. The younger generation also separates <hes> their sentences and phrases <hes> with a generic mark and this is generally for them the line break or the message break so you send them each as a as a new line. Hey new line. What how's it going new line? <hes> just want to know if you had some time to chat <hes> that is what my messages look like. I just want to sit when I got this from your phone. I did not the end you have some older. People who also use the the hyphen or the dash as the generic <unk> as well <hes> the Alexis is common. Sometimes you see like a string of commas as well which is kind of an even older thing to do but you have a couple different types of generic separation characters <hes> and four so everybody she has their generic separation character depends on the different generations. The thing is is that because the younger generations don't use the ellipses as a generic separation character because they're using line breaks they instead have a different meeting for the Alexis and gnat is indicating something left unsaid so kind of drilling on meaningfully and that thing can be a lot of different things sometimes. It's an actually a little bit annoyed or I have some reservations. You're like okay dot dot dot like I guess I can come pick you up dot. I just got uncomfortable. Sometimes it could be flirtatious. It could be like Oh you know it could be kind of insincere. It could be passive aggressive aggressive. There's a bunch of different things but what it does it hints at something left unsaid deliberately hints at that kind of thing the problem comes when these two sets of norms clash into each other because if you're using ellipses as your your Derek Separation Asian character as long as you're communicating with someone else who also does that you're doing totally fine but if you're using ellipses as your something left unsaid character and you're talking with someone who uses it as generic separation character you think they're being incredibly passive super aggressive when they're just think they're being normal that well this is funny because one of the things people talk about is at tone is so hard to express through text. Is that something you would agree with or or do you just think that's just because of clashing lashing we all have tones. It's just when they clashed. That's the problem I think we're developing ways of expressing tone through text and it really depends on what Internet generation you belong to and wear you who you're thinking of as your imaginary ordinary authority when you're composing a text message so I see the biggest divide here between people who are thinking what is the other person Gona assume about my tone which tends to be younger but as an exclusively and people who are thinking what is the correct thing that I could be doing what is the imaginary standard you know the imaginary English teacher or the imaginary copy editor in your head so if you're writing to an imaginary English teacher if you're writing to imaginary copy editor you're not thinking about how your tone is interpreted. You're thinking about an external external list of standards and the big clash comes from people who have one system communicating people who have a different system because the the kind of imagined audience that you have is different and you're writing differently because of that and do those systems those different systems come just because of age are they there because of geography or are somehow something else is causing different systems to come into play. This is where I liked talking about. What you're formative? Internet social experience was like okay so you can have somebody right now who say forty or fifty who joined the Internet before there was even technically the world wide web like joined back in like the the B._B._S. bulletin board system dial up you know pre dialup today's or was on us net or was on chat rooms these kinds of old systems and they've been using Internet mediated tone of voice for thirty years and that forty or fifty something is going to be very different from forty or fifty something who joined. And say around nearly two thousand or who just was dragged kicking and screaming onto the Internet two years ago you know especially in that older group. It's really hard to tell from someone's age what their Internet social experience was because there's a big divide between in early adopters in mid adopters lead adopters in those demographics within the younger groups. I think it's a lot more homogeneous but in the older groups there are huge differences and you can't always assume that just because someone's on the older side means they don't have this facility with Internet media to tone of voice so you're aligning more with experience on the Internet then with age and especially not just experience on the Internet in general because if you use the Internet for his like booking flights and looking up the weather that's not a social internet. It's totally reasonable to look at the weather I look at the weather every day but that doesn't make the Internet social for you so if you make friends of the of the Internet if you have relationships in your life that you keep up via the Internet and via the text base medium of the Internet that and you then you think of the Internet as possible way to like be a full person and have communicate tone of voice and communicate important ideas for you then you're on an Internet that you you figure out a way to communicate a sense of tone of voice even if it's not exactly the same as everyone else so the question is the social potential of the Internet for Yeah Yeah so like so we talked about a little bit about tone and how things can vary <hes> in different pockets of the world. If I think about speech I think about the fact that people have have accents while they talk it does that show up in informal Internet communication at this point. There are some really interesting studies using GEO tagged tweets to look at how people tweet differently in particular areas <hes> so you can you can find some things that map up with the sort of traditional sort of dialect maps that were made by doing telephone surveys or by sending people around in quote unquote word wagons to do these surveys <hes> and you can <hes> so for example you can find <hes> on twitter that people in the American south or moral could use y'all people in the north and more likely to say you guys <hes> like Pittsburgh has yin's its own little pocket and you can you can map on some of these things we've found in traditional dialect back matt findings findings onto what people are saying social media as well so I want to bring in a caller. We have Tom from Ames Iowa. Tom What's your question. Thomas left us well. Let's try <hes> where oh I like this one. Let's try Jordan from Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Since we're talking about Yin's vice anything wrong about wins and I'll find out Jordan. What's your question? <hes> I love the fact that you used Yen's by the way a question gene about the use of images in text messages so I know that Info graphics or really great way to express information really quickly on since we're more of a pictographic culture these days <hes> what is the way that <hes> pictures play into text messages like means or so on yeah absolutely <hes> I I love how the analogy that I really like using for images whether that's gifts or memes or <hes> Emoji even emoticons kind of making pictures out of out of punctuation characters. Is there a lot like a digital version of gesture so you can send someone like good job with thumbs thumbs up you could put a physical thumbs up or you could send a thumbs up Emoji or gift or something and that reinforces. Your message is pretty positive but if you say to someone good job with the middle finger you're now really changing the interpretation one of the exact same words yeah yeah. You're being like really friendly so really maybe really ironic so you're you're doing this sort of additional layer of interpretation tation on top of what's being said and you can do that with with physical gestures <hes> and the most popular Emoji are the hand and face and hard emoji which are also very gesture all the most popular gifts have people or like humanoid animals in them like you do a gift that's just tumbleweed rolling by but it's not as popular as something with face yeah well so in your book you talk about memes and I acquaint memes with the very you know <hes> two thousand teens kind. I never liked the ends of the ends of audits but you say memes have actually been around for a while just like in different ways yeah it's really interesting the continued evolution of the meam which which which one do people think of as prototypical typical memes says a lot of where you were on the Internet at Various Times <hes> and more where you were with us back to the culture so the earliest example <hes> that we have you know the cart term was coined by Richard Dawkins but it was a social science at the time the example that we have it from <hes> in the Internet sense from the first time comes from Mike Godwin who is better known as the guy they came up with Godwin's law one of these laws kind of like rule thirty four or something that was on <hes> one of the early Internet things was on in the nineties <hes> and Godwin's law says <hes> the longer a discussion thread continues the probability of gratuitous Hitler or Holocaust or Nazis interpretation converges urges to one in other words like everything becomes a a Hitler analogy along the conversation. You'll eventually get to Hitler eventually to and Godwin came up with this as an experiment in social engineering because he was annoyed this tendency he felt that it trivialized the actual horrors of the Holocaust and he wanted to get people to stop and so he decided to make it a mean so that people could call each other out on doing it'd be like Oh here's Godwin's law again <hes> to be like this is a bad argument and we should be taking very seriously when we do and do not make this comparison now that you can never make this comparison but we shouldn't be doing it about like how bad the pizza was right right right right. That's that seems fair yeah and so he seated this on a bunch of using it forms back in the day and a few years later he wrote an article about in wired <hes> talking about this experiment that he'd had and the fact that this mean was now replicating on his own other people were citing Godwin's. It wasn't just him. That's so interesting. <hes> that's so interesting and the Meta article kind of introduced the term meam to an Internet audience unlinked okay. This was a Mimi came up with. We need to be careful kind of what we're propagating in with the means. It's really interesting 'cause like my Godwin's still around. This wasn't that long ago he has a twitter account and a couple of years ago he tweeted <hes> that you know just to be clear. My this law that came up with only applies to gratuitous comparisons and you know by all means if someone is actually doing is actually being a Nazi definitely call them that <hes> so it's really interesting. That's so great Gretchen so I'm Molly Webster and this is science Friday from W._N._y._C. A._C.. Studios I'm here in studio with Gretchen McCulloch and she's telling us about the Internet and linguistics <hes> Gretchen one of the things that came up in your book is that the role that tools like spell check and autocorrect have in helping us evolve language because I find at this point personally very I actually found them very annoying. I'm concentrating to turn them off. Yeah absolutely it's fascinating because on the one hand you have the Internet Ashley Changing Language Faster because you can be exposed to more new words you can learn them from people but on the other hand you have all these tools that are aiming to help us with language but the way they do that is by predicting stuff that they've already seen <hes> and and we know that languages fluid and dynamic and changes it's part of a living culture it's part of living people it doesn't never standstill in one spot but so far what we have with the tools is only the ability to predict stuff that they've already seen before for and that kind of leads to a certain conservatism like if they're only going to predict words that are in the dictionary if they're only going to suggest <hes> phrases that they've seen before that's pushing us in a direction of stuff people have already said and we know that the human bringing is incredibly generative like creates new words all the time you can create <hes> a new sentence that no one's ever said before and it's not even hard like you can look at your last like text messages. <hes> take a lost one that had more than like fifteen words. It is a search for that phrase in quotation marks and it's probably no one has ever said this on the Internet before the odds are really high like the last sentence you wrote that wasn't just like a stock phrase like hey. How's it going but like pick the last phrase that you wrote doesn't have to be like funny original or witty the last like ten fifteen word sentence you wrote an email or text message just like search it in quotation marks on like probably know inside it before why like this idea of coming up with like original language in a way we're all writers and that makes me want to bring in a caller caller from Reno Nevada Katie? You have a question about or thought really about <hes> how the Internet effects are speech yeah especially when the <hes> like with with young people you know teams and stuff how how the changes in language online are afflicted came from. I was hanging out with a bunch of cousins and like I can understand what everything kept. referencing news me like Oh. It's like this. I have no idea so that is sort of like that so gretchen. We're looking back at how what is now happening. Online actually is affecting us in real life talking to each other yeah absolutely there's some really interesting research by the linguist Sylvia Sierra who looks at how people make <hes> meam and video game and pop cultural references in conversation men she <hes> her the study group is on kind of like late late colonial Gen-x X. Group <hes> and she's studying to she finds for example people use like Oregon trail the game references in conversation like you have you have died of dysentery etc and so but I think applies applies to other groups as well and what she notices that people use these as ways of bonding within a group so you make me make reference of people can understand because it promotes that sort of <hes> social social bonding thing and you can also so used to defuse tension so if you're bringing up something that stressful like you know money problems or illness or something like this you can use that pop culture references way of diffusing that but pop culture references are older than just means right. It's it's a question of are you gonNa make references from movies. Are you gonNa make references from songs. Are you gonNa make references from you know various types of literature or like popular popular culture and it's just that the domain for where those pop culture references has come from is shifting from not just mass produced media but also user-generated media and like it's a different set of pop culture references just like your parents. I'd be referring to movies that you've never seen before. You're younger cousins. I've referring to means. You've also never foreseen Gretchen. This is wonderful. I could talk to you all day. We've run out of time so I just WanNa thank you so much for joining us. Gretchen McCulloch is an internet linguist and she's the author of the new book because Internet understanding the new rules of language <hes> thank you for talking today retrogression then he's having a gun a quick program note a few weeks ago in our degrees of change segment. We asked you to tell us on the Sifi Vox pop APP. If you've changed what you've eaten in response to climate change. We're gathering wondering your opinions and ideas on all kinds of topics for upcoming shows. All you have to do is download the science Friday vox pop up wherever you get your APPS Iras back next week in New York. I'm Molly Webster. Science Friday is supported by I._B._M..
Covid-19: why is hand washing so effective?
"The The Guardian. Welcome back to science weekly while we're following the corona virus break and answering your questions you've sent in Lodz say many in fact that we're bringing you three episodes this week and we want to keep hearing from so head over to the form we've set up at the Guardian Dot Com forward slash caveat nineteen questions. That's one what in today's episode. We'll be looking difference between soap and hand sanitizer and exploring why they're so effective at stopping transmission with some important caveats. If you miss faults it doesn't matter how good your show pitch when a good means a hot. You will trace you miss. The spot on the widest might still highway there. That's the key owner about the type of show a what about the temperature and spent the time washing your hands. That's what he should be focusing. I'm Nichole Davis Science and health reporter for the Guardian. Welcome signs weekly. Okay so I'm just to start with can you introduce yourself with your name your title and your affiliation say that we have that correct professor pokes By one on a professor of chemistry school chemistry at the University of New South Wales Australia. Say Palley you started tweeting about. Why Safe Mortiz? So important in tackling the coronavirus. Why do you think it's important that we understand how that works? I think it's important because people liked to know why told to shut and sings at this. Particular case may not seem very office to people why you can use something simplest show to kilowatt-hours whereas we're also told that the same time there's no drug even if you had a big election this note that could save you from the Happy is your own body can fight it off and when we talk about safe killing a virus. Let's talk about what we actually mean NASA. What's happening when we're using safe mortar? Before answer a question we need to go back. Abolishes another life so in actually changing? We'll just making them inactive sensually Nano someplace all proteins lipids so these three types of chemicals come together and they what we call a sample of the day and then you get this. Lipid colds or agree. She feel molecules around now that turns out to be the weakest link in the structure. So once if you have on your hands sticks to the greasy but if you have show people turn the soap molecules actually tracked with a disrupt Greasy Lipid island around the wires and they start to tear it apart. And why do that Couldn't member fell off the connections each week what we call Interactions between the potential show stock to call a pot hole. Just basically false pop like a house will cost and becomes inactive so palliate. Sounds to me like what you're saying is not the substances that make up the soap basically interact with this virus kind of package and make it fall apart and once it's fallen apart that virus can no longer in fact yourself. Is that correct? Yes that's correct. The soap molecules. They have a Shimano to the motorcycles and make greasy layer of the waters. And that's actually the key that's why they interact so sunway they disrupt the membrane once they done out of stuff to fall apart and there's no way it can show us back into an active political vouchers can always sell the subject together. Insides out shells. It's actually quite humid conditions air. I want she told the. Gop Walter the bits and pieces that made up the violence will just throw away and we don't have about it again is completely gone. So when we're talking about the soap hit that people might be using. Is this any bar of saying anything? I've got knocking around in the bathroom or does it have to be a particular kind of pretty much. Every show should emphasize that this actually been studied scientifically great details but given the soap muscles associated to the lipids and Chope is designed to dissolve grease and dirt and grease third is made out of philosophies saint sort of fats and proteins viruses. Show that has been designed to show that the shoulder bonuses and it doesn't even matter whether it's what we call synthetic show these long children. Those are people organic. Choke the chemicals in those soaps label old. Do the job. Even though it's like a difference. There's no reason to saint. Ben will be very different in terms of interacting with good membrane when we're watching the wider and what's about the temperature of the water. Does it matter if you're using hot water cold water? Should people go for the hottest water they can handle? What's the advice on Mount? Well that's a good question. Because from a sort of chemical intuition points of view you might seem hot. Water might be better. But I've seen several people who are experts on infection control argue that studies indicate a dozen actually motor and I think that comes to a different point which is just like your question previously. Welcome so it's really not about. How can we say active? So patients Trace it how you apply it on your hands if you apply bell on your hands. This is the twenty advise. You will not Miss Mrs Spots. It doesn't matter how good your so pace when good means how hot you will trace you missed a spot on the watch might still waiting. That's the key on about the type of show a what about the temperature and spent the time washing your hands. That's what he should be focusing on and just to reiterate. I think the advice the moment is that we should be singing. Happy Birthday twice when we're washing hands or do you have an attentive sowing the perfect. I will be stuck to find a song not do happy. But they'll find something for rich against a machine or whatever. Yeah just making long enough so I wanted to get back to something you just said. Which is that. There hasn't been an awful lot research. In how cleaning products basically deactivate these viruses. Why why did you think that is and what you think needs to happen? Well infection control in. General has been balloted neglected and we are paying the price for that really big time now. We Thankfully Day type. Some studies especially focusing influence that did show that how rush show is efficient in getting rid of emphasizes a better sheet. Miller in types of ability to show and alcohol. But we haven't studied these things in details. You know doesn't really matter I again. I don't seek. It should batteries Temperature but these things have been studied on simply because the scientific and medical communities have neglected to last degree infectious diseases including viruses and Russia today. Unfortunately let's move on to the question of hand sanitizers. So we've been told that if you can't wash your hands with sacred water using a hand sanitizer will also help in the fight against the current virus hand sanitizer works slightly differently. Can you explain how that house deactivate declaring virus? Yes what happens with alcohol and pro changing particular that the very nature of interaction on hold the protein structure together and hold their rightful changes. When he changed from Wiltshire to alcohol. Togo's instructional become waved and much weaker and essentially the prochains on the surface of the virus. And probably an elite violence sell just crumbles down and that's how I'll call bass pro. Probably mainly deactivates viruses and they are very very active wrongs to how the right concentration and needs to be on the sixty seven percents and again the only downside is you need to make sure it don't mission Happed lastly keeping our hands clean is one thing but something. A lot of our listeners have been contacting us about is objects listeners. Simon Mark for example asked about things in a supermarket and another listener. Vob was wondering whether he could become infected with the corona virus through handling his daily Guardian newspaper. What's your advice here with treatments or surfaces. The general advice for heart surface is like stealing. Along is any kind of antibacterial cleaning products that contain breach are quoting or adding proxy. We'll do the job if he comp USA will come find him in this particular case show probably should do us. Observer detergents as long as you Dwelling newspapers you. Don't WANNA clean up with so bleach by the. Thanks a little bit unlikely that the virus would hang around blog on social services one thing about objects that sit outside and what they up probably saved for general viruses to survive. Long enough sunlight's possibly our so the newspaper wishing a newspaper. Stanton who was lying on the pavement and should be fine if the cups plus the coaching wash heads before raping also hunts again US Russia. Holly thanks so much for joining us. It's been great having you on the show thank you. It's my pleasure. Thanks to professor Paul Thoresen for joining me this week. We would love to keep having for me so please continue to send your questions. The form at the GUARDIAN DOT COM forward slash covert nineteen questions. That's one what. And if you're worried about symptoms you might have wanted to find out more about the outbreak please. Head over to one one one dot. Nhs DOT UK coffeehouse. And we'll see for Mowbray podcast from the Guardian. Just go to the GUARDIAN DOT COM slash podcast.
SYSK Distraction Playlist: The Amazing History of Soda
"Hey have you guys heard about the new show? Little Fires Everywhere Well Academy, award, winner Reese, Witherspoon Golden Globe nominee, Kerry, Washington both star in and executive produced this eight episode. Limited series is only available on Hulu. The series follows the intertwined fates of the picture, perfect Richardson family and an enigmatic mother daughter duo who move into town and up in their lives with devastating consequences. Yup, it's now streaming on Hulu. You can check out new episodes every Wednesday only on Hulu. Hey. I'm Joe Levy and on the latest episode of inside the studio, I sat down with one of the all-time great singer Songwriters James Taylor. We talked about his new album. Where is music comes from and how telling his life story through his songs has helped him. Music saved my life, but I was lucky also to survive I did some very stupid some some years at were. Just really high risk unnecessarily, so a lot of people around us died. So. Join me Joe. Editor large billboard for this and other in-depth conversations with the biggest artists in music with an on the iheartradio, APP, apple, podcasts or wherever you get cast. This episode of stuff you should know is brought to you by squarespace. You need a landing page, a beautiful gallery, professional blog or an online store. It's all possible with a squarespace website and right now listeners to stuff. You should know can start a free trial today. Just go to squarespace DOT COM and enter the offer code S. T. U. F. F., and you'll get ten percent off your first purchase squarespace. Set your website apart. Welcome to step. You should know from how stuff works. DOT, com Hey and welcome to the podcast I'm Josh Clark with. Charles, W, chuck, Bryant and there's Jerry and this is w should know. You're GONNA love it. I think I said this is remarkably interesting. Right before we hit record while you're right. because. What are you? GonNa call this thing. How so phones? He trailed off. It's the best title. Well the well that's. Been Gone to before. Sure, It's really the history of Soda. Kind of you know? It's interesting I. Never Really Thought about it. I didn't either and this is chuck to me. One of those great examples of how. You can take anything in. Really tease out all these different parts to it sure. And that just about everything is more interesting than it appears on the surface. Yeah, because soda as we will learn. affected. America in the world and continues yeah. Basically all American dominance from the mid nineteenth century on is because of Soda. But you are from Ohio so. Do you say pop used to yeah you? D popped. I don't even know I'm saying soda now I say Coke Yeah, do, too. You even say you sprite. In the south, I wanNA greenock coke. You say can I have a coke? What kinds pry yeah? WELL WE'RE IN ATLANTA. You know this is the birthplace of coke. It is which we'll. We'll talk about. We'll talk about But the the initial. Thread that we took into this topic with Soda. Fountains right correct and when you think about a Soda, Fountain is a good example of what I was saying. We Think About a Soda Fountain you think about like. Bobby socks teenagers. Right, they'll Haley in the comments. Yeah, the fond sure hair perfectly in place yet. The FONZ drunk penny. Did. He get drunk now the. The joke like happy days is so squeaky clean that it really. The fines hammered. Motorcycle. Just tried to avoid them, yeah. Break The jukebox again he. Yeah. That would be great. Did you know that that's W- LAVERNE and Shirley spun off yeah. I'm Workin Mindy. Yeah that's just bizarre. That more committee and Joanie loves Chachi well sure. But more committee was set in the Seventies. Yeah, very own eighties. I thought it was seven seventy based on the down vest. It was the seventies. Pretty sure all right so regardless when you think is sort of found to think of the fifties. Yes, at the seventies right in happy days wasn't in the fifties that came out in the seventy S. Yeah, man, a big revival fifties culture, seventies Shaina. There are crease they're always as. You know people tend to reflect back. Twenty years or so all yeah within stature. There's a great think t things were so much better back then there's great podcast episode one of the funniest things I've ever heard my life from the Great Andy. Daily. The Senate around Shana. And they got into can't remember who he did it with, but it was. Might Have Been Matt Besser now. I can't remember, but they did these characters. absolve. China for Sean on drinking creams and being a professional water skier was very very funny. They're just making it up. Yeah, I mean I'm not doing it justice, but just just seek it out just type in Andy, daily Shawna and just sit back and get ready. For an hour. I thought small Dairy Deli. I'll check it. Out. But yeah. Fifties purity bobby socks. Toda found good clean fun. Here's the thing you're totally wrong. If that's your conception, soda founds, it's right. By the time the fifties rolled around Soda fountains were already so far on their way out. Yeah, that basically by the fifties. What HAPP- what would happen to bars in the seventies? Thanks to the FERN BAR has already happened Soda Fountains by the Forties and fifties. He's right. What was once handcrafted drinks made from freshly prepared ingredients that were mixed there on the premises by jerk right have been replaced by pre mixed stuff and canned ingredients that were put together by people who didn't give a darn about you or your family, right? the forties and fifties were not the heyday of the sort of found. It's actually much older than that. Yeah boy. That's a set up from the old days. Let's get in the way back machine and went back to Europe. When everyone was like you know what these mineral waters. We've been drinking stuff for hundreds of years and even before that the Romans Bayden Yeah. It's great for you. You drink it. You bathe in it. You splash it on your sister. Her to be well delivered, right? It'll cure everything the cure all back in the days where they thought like drink this one thing it'll cure up your s td and your headache your hangover at one, although one time when really all it did was curing upset stomach. That's right. The, dirty, little secret, but the No they didn't. They didn't for centuries as fan. Yeah, but the idea that you could drink Naturally carbonated mineral water. And that it could cure your health, or at the very least it was delightful. People wanted to figure out how to get that if you didn't live near a naturally carbonated spring. That's right which by the way I was researching this. Pellegrino is not naturally carbonated. Had I. Don't know anything about Pellegrino well. It's a natural mineral water, but they carbonated there. I didn't realize it wasn't carbonated. Yeah, that doesn't surprise me surprised me. Are you boycotting no I love the stuff. No I was just surprised. Immunise anything these days naturally carbonated and bottled. Dude. Now that you say that you just give me a great opening to mention this book. I just read called the dorito affect. Half to read it good. It's about the food we eat today. uh-huh, and just how? Incredibly manufactured. It is yeah, but the really refreshing thing about it is that anybody can read this book it's. Basically a political. It doesn't lay this at anybody's feet. It doesn't blame anybody. Who Does justice anything nefarious going on? It's just like here's here's with. Here's our food right now. Well, it's really interesting I'll check it out really approachable interesting book. They don't even blame big thereto. Now I mean. They basically traced the origin of our current food standards back to the invention the Dorito, hence the name, but it's A. It's a really great book definitely. Worth reading. I'll check that out and people ask us for Book Rex all the time, so that's one pay attention you get that for me and I read it in like two days. Wish read it. She isn't ready I grabbed it I I got you yeah, so she bought it for the family. Okay sure. I thought it was a gift like i. read this and now I'm going to give it to you know she read about it. Gotcha thought about me. Mine fought it and house. All right. So mineral water was very appealing. And? Human being said you know what would be great if we could. Bottle this junk ourselves right? Even though bottling isn't really thing yet, or at least you know not anything that worked. Water Stoneware in a cork. Does not. so a seventeen sixty seven is when Joseph Priestley. We've talked about before and to yeah more than once. British chemist said you know what I figured this out affirmative, some yeast mash and. Put it in this water get. You pretty messed up. Yeah, and look at it bubble. It's delightful nervous like Whoa. That's a decent approximation to semi carbonated water. Yeah, not a bad first step though going priestly so six thirteen years later, there was a Swiss scientists name Johann Yaacob, Shep. yeah, sound familiar. he said you know what I'd actually built a device. This hand crank compression pump. And I can make this stuff and I'm going to found a company called Schweppes. Because that's my name. Right and you're going to be hearing it for centuries, yeah! And he actually he was definitely something what? Out was not just this invention that he made, but he also realized that the carbonate water. which let's talk about carbonated water. Shall we sure artificially carbonated? Guys say to carbonate. There's some conditions that are most conducive to carbonated water, because Co, two molecules and H.. Two O. Molecules do not like to get together. Yeah, you don't just throw it in there and they're like start hugging it out right and say great now drink me. Yeah, as a matter of fact, they're. They're bond angles I believe are totally different. Yeah, and they're. They're such a such an angle that they just do not go together very well, but. Yaakob swept as said. You know what I wonder. If you use really really cold temperatures near freezing water that would help. He was correct correct. And also if you put it under pressure, maybe a seven atmospheres. Yeah, it would. It would help. He was correct with that, too. That's right, and that's what you need. Cold and pressure, and if you get that going then that gas dissolves into the liquid, and those molecules start to party and hug it out. and. You know it's pretty amazing that someone figured that outweigh back then, but it's even more mazing that it wasn't like he's like. I'll just take the CO two canister in this cold water. Put it together under pressure. To make his own co two sure so he he used the old ser- few sulfuric acid in powdered marble combination that'll trick right, which is, we'll talk about kind of dangerous to put together, but this so to create carbonated water schweppes head to first create carbon dioxide, so he had a lot of stuff going on, and he he was the first guy to come up with a mechanized version of creating carbonated water pretty amazing. Yeah, but it took many many many more years before it became even close to perfected process. Yeah, I mean as you'll see it happened. Many people chipped in over the course of a lot of time. Namely Mr Charles Plant. In eighteen thirteen, he invented the, or I don't know if he invented. I think he might have invented early. He perfected the soda. Siphon which if you've ever seen an episode of the three stooges. We've got one. You don't have those. Now I. Don't have one you get one I gotTa sodastream. I'm all good, okay? Yeah, you don't even. Eighteen thirteen and that means he could either sport someone in the face. And have a comedy routine right or he could Some carbonated liquid which is great, but you had to keep refilling that thing the source. Yeah is the problem and especially I. Mean like if you're if you're having to make your own co two one thing this use as little chargers today. Yeah, it's not much of a problem, but if you have to make your own co two first before you create this syphon. You're yeah, that's that's a big processor so again like these guys are kind of like poking away at the edges of the problem of coming up with mass produced carbonated water, a big big problem. Right in. They're contributing and adding to to this nutcracker no-one's. Cracked the nut yet. It would be eighteen thirty two. When a a man named John Matthews Yeah. He's American born in England. Best of both worlds. He developed a chamber. A lead lined chamber where he could actually. Mix He could actually generate that co two right so schweppes. It already generated the before. Yeah, Gotcha. Yeah I. Thought Matthews was the first to do that. No Okay Schweppes actually was creating co two Gotcha he. He didn't have this. Self contained apparatus that that Matthews came up with that was his his huge innovation. Who Matthews? Yeah, yeah, I mean. He mix it together without water and he created carbonated water, and you could bottle it, but. Bottling wasn't like a big. You couldn't mass bottle it, and no, no. He came up with this invention that he came up with was. It was big enough to serve a decent sized clientele. Yeah, going from you know like the Schweppes Air invention where you could make. Twenty of these a day, twenty carbonated drinks a day. You're all of a sudden with Massey's invention. You can make like a hundreds, yeah! But it was, it was immobile, so it was either good for bottling. which at the time bottling sucked in America? The glass wasn't good enough to to bottle stuff under pressure. or You could make carbonated drinks there on site, and that's what it led to was directly the creation of the Soda Fountain. Yeah the place where you would go get a soda. WHO Rate for him. So we'll take a little break and we'll come back with one final gentleman. WHO Although he failed. He had a big impact on the Soda Fountain Industry Yeah. You know how when you get something done with just the click of a mouse and you get to put it off your to do list wants him for all. It feel so good. Yeah, buddy, that's the feeling of stamps dot com. Chuck I like that kind of simple action. My friend you can get your mailing and shipping done without leaving your desk. THANKS TO STAMPS DOT COM, because it turns your PC or Mac into your own personal post office that never closes. Yeah, right there on your own personal post office that never closes. You can buy imprint official US postage for any letter or any package using your own computer and printer. Printer then you just handed off to your friendly mail carrier or drop it in the mailbox. You'll never have to go to the post office again. That's right and we have a pretty sweet deal right now. If you sign up for stamps, DOT, com I have to do is use offer code stuff, and you get the following special offer a four week trial plus one hundred ten dollar bonus offer, including postage and Dandy digital scale YEP, so don't wait go to stamps. Dot Com before you do anything else. Click on the microphone at the top of the homepage type in S.. T., U. F. F., let stamps. Dot Com enter stuff. All Right Benjamin. Silliman! Believe. It's probably how he preferred. Have it pronounced? Don't you think it was very serious probably was. He said you know what? I may be a failure in my businesses, but I'm going to go down in history is maybe the guy who had the most to do with the creation of Soda. Mass ubiquitous ubiquitous way right. He was a professor of chemistry at Yale. Go Jeez. What is Hoyas? Her bulldogs poises Georgetown so I. Think it's the bulldogs. Gotcha. The Yale Hodgman's. Lesser Mascot. Yeah, he's. He went to Yale. Don't say yeah. So, he because he was a chemistry professor at Yale, did make money WanNa make a little little on the side and his whole jam was. Kind of going back to the old days. This stuff is medicinal. I'm really going to move all my chips in on the Medicine Angle Right which turned out to not be the best move. No and it wasn't necessarily that he just focused on the. Medicinal aspect of it, it was apparently he didn't know how to create like a fun time establishment. Yale chemistry professor, so he he created to. Two of the first. Basically Soda Fountains in New, York City based on Matthews design, which again was led chamber where you put the calcium, carbonate and sulfuric acid together created co two, it bubbled up through water to purify it, and then that purified co two entered a very cold spring, water chamber, and bubbled up in creating carbonated water. Right, that's making me thirsty so silly man created two of these houses, and he he he set them up at two very leap places in New York. Yeah the City Hotel. And the teen coffeehouse right there on Wall Street right. And he started serving this stuff, but again he was serving as medicine and the impression I have is that it was kind of like. Please give me your money great. Here's your medicine. Drink it. Please get out. There is no fraternizing. There's no talking. Some other people notice this and said this a really great idea. Costs to finally come down enough to where I can get some investors and we can open our own Pump House or own Soda Fountain Yes, but we're. GonNa. Throw in some books. We're going to promote people talking, and maybe they'll stick around in order a second one right. Yeah, I don't see. That's weird. Though because the taunting coffeehouse was like a very social place where people hung out well, then he did something wrong. The other people didn't do that did better. Maybe they were just drinking coffee because he went under the whole thing like competitive. Yeah Soda Fountains. Like buried him, but he was the guy who came up with the idea, so he created the legacy. He just wasn't very good business. That's right hats off to you. Silly man heads off all right, so these other gentlemen opened up more successful shops than they start popping up of course once it happens in New, York. The next place is going to be philly. A Baltimore, yeah and it was. It was a legit business. It was a thing, but it was tied to pharmacies as well. Yeah, which seems weird, but not when you think about it, no one of the big reasons why it was tied to pharmacies is because it took tremendous skill to properly create carbon dioxide. Blew Up. Yes, yeah, yeah, like you could die at a soda. Fountain hanging out, they blew up. Sulfuric acid could leach into the finished product, and you could be served a couple of sulfuric acid, not very good There were a lot of things that could go wrong in mixing this so. This is tech technical expertise that pharmacists already had so. It made sense for them to say we got this. Which is why it does become less Weird to Associated Soda Fountain with the Pharmacy which would very soon. Become basically like like hand in hand with yeah. I grew up in Stone Mountain. In the old village of Stone Mountain had pharmacy. Straight out of happy days and I was. Like the seventies and eighties, and it sounds like the fifties, but I would like. Walk down there and get a coke float in like they were put it on my parents tab. Yeah, yeah, and this was i. mean it seems like. Like. Literally Happy Times sure, but it was eighty five. Eighty five. Yeah, I was like twelve or thirteen. That's a pretty great walking down to the pharmacy. People in about how cool David Hasselhoff is! Actually I didn't watch rider so. I wasn't on the Hasselhoff train. Big Fan of his music, but not nightrider. But yeah, they would just jerk Minnesota and. I. Don't even think we said why. They were called Soda Jerks because. That's the motion that would make you jerk the TAP handle yeah! Or so to jerkers of seen them call that as well or so to throwers I saw to. That the reason they were called soda throws because It took a lot of skill. The mixed these drinks very like on the level of the bartenders that working at the time, and as a matter of fact, some bartenders especially during prohibition became Soda Jerk. Involved right kind of like a cool job to have. But. We haven't reached that point yet. We're at about the mid nineteenth century when it's really starting to get popular spreading through through the major cities of the US, correct so they're in pharmacies like you said because. They had skill doing this, and it just made sense, and it had all the old medicinal tie-in. Right like here. Drink this tonic that have made for you this Ginger Ale or root beer, and apparently by this time everybody knew that carbonated water didn't have any real medicinal properties well. Yeah, that was kind of the. Joke right. The joke joke was on them, but the so the pharmacists would say well I'll put some real drugs in here. Then let's see what happens. Yeah like it didn't have to have minerals at this point. But people love the fizz right. They were crazy for the FIZZ. Still do right. And putting. Like herbs and drugs and stuff into a drink was not an American mid nineteenth century invention, right, it goes back really really far. This is folk medicine and actually in Europe. There was all sorts of stuff that we brought over like the idea of root beer. Wear. Charles Hart hires invention. It goes back to native America. Indigenous, European groups just basically anybody who ever put routes embark and Yeah boil that the reason they were making this stuff was because the the water supply was questionable at the time, so you were basically purifying water by fermenting it by brewing it. Yeah, and making an alcoholic drink, and it would be called. Small Beer in small beer was beer. was a drink like that like the original root beer, the original ginger beer these were small beers, and they were used to basically drink instead of water and kids would drink it. Everybody would drink. Yeah, usually have pretty low amounts to alcohol in it, but. I taking those that same idea of using things like Sassafras Sir. Parrilla Ginger, yeah, or whatever and putting together with the spark these this new sparkling water that you could get from tap at a Soda, Fountain. That was the big innovation remarkable. Yeah, and pharmacists at the time. They were adding some boos like not. Negligible amounts like. Alcoholics would. If they were broke. They might go to the pharmacy to get you know what amounts to like a shot of Whiskey, and their little elixir. Because it wasn't taxed like alcohol was yeah, so they can get a cheaper drink and I guess it was more socially acceptable to because you're going for medicine resident. Go into the bar for leisure. Let me get my medicine right. Exactly what else what else drugs like not just alcohol like. Drugs Drugs. Drugs. Just, go ahead and say it. Drugs heroin. Heroin Morphine opium. Cannabis strychnine. Yeah, and this is pre food and drug act of nineteen thousand six. This is going on so if you wanted to pick me up you. Try Down to the store in the morning to the. Right, and you get your cocaine drink, yeah! Again the heroin wasn't a pick-me-up. That was take me down. Take me down. That at the end of the day. Yeah you remember in the bars episode. We talk about bidders in cocktails. Those were originally medicinal supposedly. People still swear by that stuff. For like Tummy Ache right I guess I could see bidders giving you a tummy ache. If you had too much, but yeah, yeah, you'd be the one to know you like your bidders. Right I like bidders. and. Don't drink a lot of that stuff, but just the name itself turns me off, so I came across. Something in here. Phosphates right on my. What is the phosphate is a type of drink that you could get around this time mid to late nineteenth century, and even up into into the twentieth century, it was very famous type of Soda Fountain drink like. have an ice cold phosphate. Yeah, exactly right and phosphate usually with some sort of sweetener. Some kind of usually a fruit, maybe like cherry, syrup or something like that and. Carbonated water and stuff called acid, phosphate and acid phosphate. Is this compound that gives. A brings out like the sour notes in whatever drink, it's in. It gives you a little bit of a Tingle, a little bit of a kick. Weird and I looked at Mike. Is this stuff still around Shirley enough? It is so I am going to get some and try to figure out what to do with it. It's going to be awesome, but phosphate. That was another thing you would put into. Originally. Phosphates were thought secure things like hypertension, so like all these things really just kinda came to form a taste of flavor, a mouth. Feel of a what we now see is a soft drink. Originally started out as medicine booze. Or drugs. All of them would be put together and you'll go drink in the morning. They skins medicine. Well and this is a time of course like. This article points out. Where did you get this? By the way? This is really good. This is actually we give it a shout already. This is the collectors weekly Article Yeah. Through our own Hunter Open Stanford who. has written some pretty interesting stuff. Yes, electric's weekly. It's really bizarre that they put out. Some of the finest articles on the Internet. was that bizarre. Just because you would think it'd be so neat, though like they they it just be too narrow, but they're actually really good at taking in the expansiveness of whatever they're talking about the history of stuff. This is a time They point out in the article in the late eighteen hundreds when. The quote here is cocaine was a wonder drug when it was first discovered was marvellous medicine. That could do you no harm. The early days of cocaine when was like? This stuff just makes you feel great. What's the problem. Yeah, it's great. It's a Brezler yeah, which was the what people fought all the way up until like nine hundred ninety s. what I thought was funny, was the the. The person who is talking about. How much cocaine was usually found. Yeah, in a drink a-. Hundreds of Graham and then the person goes on to say about a tenth of a line of cocaine. Yeah and they say or a bump right not that I would know. They also said I'm joking about the bump part, but they did say a tenth of a lie. That's what he's czar measurement. It depends on the line. I guess to make sure it's weird thing to quantify right, but I've seen you know you know I mean like. normalized. Like a hog. Respectable Little Rail. A YEAH! I thought that was an odd quote from that guy too. and. Here's the thing as far as cocaine being. We'll talk about Coca Cola coming up to. I found a lot of varying amounts from negligible to significant I found one thing that said it took. Thirty glasses to produce an actual dose of the drug, but have also seen. This guy says it's like a bump so. I I. Don't know who to believe and I think the secrets probably died with the people that. that. Had these recipes back then right? I don't know if we can know for sure. How much cocaine! Coca Cola still officially says that there was no cocaine. No, do they? I think that's their their official stance now? Everybody else says there was definitely cocaine and you WanNa take a break then and talk about coca-cola all right. Josh whether you're wearing suits, sweatpants or a Canadian Tuxedo. You're going to spend twenty four hours a day. Just about in your underwear. That's right. So, if you're going to spend so much time in your underwear, you might as well make it excellent underwear, which means you might as well make me undies. That's right every pair of me on these underwears made from sustainably source doll to fabric that is twice as softest cotton and boy. Does it feel good? And Me Undies is so sure that you're gonNA. Think they're the world's most comfortable underwear. If you don't love your first pair of me on their free, no questions asked yeah, and not only do they feel great. They look cool. They have dozens of styles lots of a limited edition prints. They're gonNA. Help you make a statement with your underwear and shipping is free in the. The US and Canada plus you can save up to eight dollars a pair with the miandi subscription plan. You can get that subscription plan or even just a single payer either way you'll get twenty percents off your first order. When you go to meet undies dot com slash stuff. That's right. That's M e UNDIES. Dot Com slash STF for twenty percent off your first order. So Chuck, we were talking about how you could find everything from heroin to cannabis. To Well cocaine and drinks and most famously. You found cocaine as far as everybody apparently, but coca-cola says in Coca Cola. Yeah and if you work at coke or something like that. Please write in and explained to us. How everyone else in the world says that there was cocaine in it and apparently owners recipes for Coca Cola. Involved cocaine, but how is it not in COCA COLA ONE L if That is straight unless they've changed their stance, but this thing I found that says. Their, official stances that it did not okay, so we'll see all right, so it's eight, hundred, eighty, six late eighteen hundreds, and there's a former colonel in the confederate army civil war vet named. Doc pemberton. Call Them Doc. His parents named dot human onto be a pharmacist. John Pemberton and he's trying to find solution for civil war. Soldiers who were addicted to? Narcotics painkillers right because they did. Pretty Lousy battlefield treatment sure. They did the best. Could yeah well I get enough? Medicine wasn't for a long back then, right? And, so he concocted this thing. Called coca-cola that was the original Coca Cola is the true. Do you have in there that it was originally made with stillwater, and that no one liked it, and then he tried it with carbonated water. This seems senseless. Water was all array. Yes, say they make any sense. I could see that though amidst up perhaps maybe. and. It was I sold at Jacob's pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia for nickel. Where's that? That was downtown okay? That was otherwise of Atlanta back. Then sure like inman. Park was a suburb. Considered a suburb, and for those of you don't know him in park now is a neighborhood right off of downtown. In the suburbs are forty miles outside. Like every. Four hour car. Sadat Pemberton makes sells at Jacob's pharmacy. His partner Frank Robinson was a bookkeeper partner. He's one actually named it coca-cola. He designed that script that they still use today. He came up with the I. Guess slogan, which was the pause that refreshes. And they started giving coupons for the stuff for a free coca-cola. each got its name because it contained. Elements from the coca plant and Kola nuts. Right from from Nigeria believe. A very on the nose and Colin, coal plants have like tons of caffeine in them. Yeah so cocaine and lots of caffeine, right? So is doing the job, basically, yeah. And in one, thousand, nine, hundred sixteen. They develop that DISTINCTIVE CONTOUR bottle. which took a lot longer to get that patented I think like the seventies or something? That was really surprising, but I think. They said the idea was. They wanted you to be able to tell it like in the dark yeah? Groping around, yeah, he had a coke bottle in your hand, so coke wasn't the only one putting drugs. Drink. No of course not. Like we said, there are plenty of other drugs seven up very famously had a lithium citrate in. Until the I think the fifties or sixties. Even maybe lithium of course is the very famous mood stabiliser. Used to treat things like bipolar disorder and depression, and all sorts of stuff. Interests so you could. Drink seven up. Up. So we jumped ahead a little bit going back again to the early eighteen hundreds, when by these flavored sodas, really I kind of came on the scene and they started. A lot of citrus drinks. In the theory was that like people were used to lemonade being refreshing thing well, plus also again. This was a medicine citrus was used to treat scurvy. Yeah, and you get those citric. Oils pretty easily right. So yeah, there was a lot of like orange and lemony flavored things early on. What Else Cherry Vanilla. Some early flavors winner green with Big One I. Don't know about that. I wouldn't want. Winner, Green Soda I. Don't Think Grape. Nutmeg pomegranate, cheery I used to love the grape drink when I was a kid. Like? Fan Or knee high grades Scher Fago. FAGO was up in Ohio. We didn't have a lot of FAGO. Remember Fago Great, but. FAGO had a pineapple drink. Was Good. It was so good, and then they're red pop was really good, too. Yeah I never got into the reds either I was kind of an still orange guy. I'LL DRINK A. Fan of orange like. Ten of a year, and it's just such a treat is delicious like all ten at once a year. I do I. Get so sick. You like. Again my dad man, he would drink the knee high pitch like it was going out of style Oh. Yeah, we're having one of those I'm not ended the peach that much. We just got back from Japan. They got peach down. Pat Over there. What do you mean growing the trees? No, the the the flavor in candy, or whatever like yeah, because it is, it's very delicate. Punching you in the face it's almost like your tongue is chasing after the taste because it wants a little more out, really getting. and. That should be their motto. For, whatever all of it right? They were using generally simple syrups very sugary, simple syrups. And like you said they would mix them up right there. They had cool names. WHO's this guy? defoe sacks. Had A book called Sachs's new guide or Hence to Soda Water Dispensers like all the books back then was an aura in the title. He would serve you an opera bouquet or an almond sponge. Or swizzle phys that again on sound delicious, so his office. It's amazing how this relates to our bartending episode well. Okay, so I'm glad you brought that up because if you walked into a really great hotel bar, said like the Waldorf Astoria in the eighteen eighties or nineties, you would just be like whole. Mike cats places amazing, even still the day. They're pretty great, but they were like brand. New Marble brand new polished would yeah. Grass Mir's and Onyx and sort of just beautiful stuff right? Yes, Gordon, if you if you looked a little further along the bar. You would say all you'd have to do is put in a row of carbonation taps, and you'd have yourself a Soda Fountain because they were. The same type of establishment it was just one served alcoholic drinks, and the other served. What are considered soft drinks right as they got further and further away from medicine especially after the nineteen six act. The. The Food and Drug Purity Act. They they took drugs out and replaced with sugar, and this was the big American innovation yeah, but at the time. The Bars and the Soda Fountains competed with one another and the best ones looked very similar to one another, and they would have equally capable bartenders or Soda Jerks Right? Who could mix up some amazing stuff? That would knock your socks off, yeah? And then that made it ready made to be the champion of the temperance movement Milia so win. The temperance movement came along in the late nineteenth century, and really started to get some traction all the way up until nineteen, nineteen. The year before prohibition, those things twenty right the last year. People were people were like Soda Fountains or the place to be? Yeah, there's a there's a lady that There's this woman that wrote a book called Soda Shop Salvation. Named Ray Catherine. I may or I may and. Should kind of makes a case for. The the good that came out of prohibition, which was pre prohibition there were. Was Bar and saloon culture where the men went and drank and left their families at home and let their kids at home, and she argues it because of prohibition the Soda Shops One out or at least for a while, and there was a big boom, all of a sudden women and children were going out to eat more as families. With their with their DADS and A. More dining out. There was a big rise in sugar as a whole like this one ice cream really started boom right maybe part and parcel to the to the floats. Like Soda Floats with Ice Cream Right, but. Yeah she said. You know some good things. Came Out of prohibition. She said the USA needed. A reset was how she put it. On drinking just period like the sort of the cultures that came around because of prohibition was. We we were heading down a dark road. She thinks I see with the Saloon Bar Culture and leaving families out of it so Yeah, I those pretty interesting take. Yeah! I remember from bars episode to Yeah that after prohibition, because the speakeasy didn't have any rules to follow, it was like a new thing. Bright Women started showing up. Yeah, they've been going to bars ever since, but before that it was strictly like yeah, yeah, interesting, and so even before, but during and including after. Chuck the Soda Fountain was Just Immense Luggage. I think in. I can't remember somewhere. In the nineteenth century, the mid nineteenth century New York City had like six Hundred Something Soda Fountains in Just New York City right there thousands and thousands of them around the United States in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thousand nine. There was something like sixty thousand pharmacies in the United States. Seventy five percent of them had a Soda Fountain Amazing. There was one in new. York called Pennsylvania Drug Company was at Penn Station. They sold the name says it all. They sold on a good day. They would sell drinks to nine thousand customers how they made two hundred fifty grand a year selling soda soft drinks. which is like three and a half million dollars in sales in two thousand fifteen money, and then all of a sudden starts to dry up. Yeah, like we said by the forties or fifties. They've become quaint. by the seventies they were down to I. Think a third of pharmacies had a soda. Fountain still now today. I mean good luck finding them. There's just a handful around going to CVS expert a jerk Minnesota they'll throw you out of there. Kind of revival going on now. But Just virtually disappeared. Yeah, What's interesting is they've actually tracked what Killed The Soda, Fountain and there's a few a few factors that were pretty interesting. Yeah, one of them. We talked about car, culture, and then culture of the. Expressways and highways in the suburbs and how America Group right? Shunning public transportation in favor of cars and highways breath, and that was one of the big things you know people. The little downtown Stone Mountain. Pharmacy wasn't as popular because people didn't live anywhere near there anymore. Right I mean some people did of course. People were flying the coop. Basically. Yeah, spending time out on the Open Road Yep. You didn't really have them. You didn't want to spend as much time like hanging around a Soda Fountain. Maybe he just wanted some refreshment to go right the drive through culture yeah. And then. Probably the bottle cap was the thing that Really Killed The Soda Fountain. Yeah, because I could enjoy at home. Or you can buy it on the road and just take it with you. Yeah that the bottle cap probably more than anything. Killed The Soda Fountain I read a thing to that, said Coca Cola invented the six pack. Is that right? Yeah, at one point. They started telling them. And six packs became like the number. That's really surprising. Yeah, or they? At least they like to claim they take credit for that. No cocaine came up with this I. Don't know what the truth is anymore. You ever been to the world of COQ. AU sure I haven't been to the new one though I haven't been at all. You've never been to the world coke now. It's one of those things in your hometown. You ignore. Have you been to the. Center I. Human Rights Civil. The Human Rights Museum. Where the NRA center. No No, this is newer okay, just a couple of years old, but it's down. It's like the aquarium world coke the human. Rights Museum now I haven't seen that. You got to check it out. It's a it's a downer, but in all the yet, but I'm not going to the world of Coke Yeah. It's like New Yorkers. They don't go to the Guggenheimer Central Park. Just one of those down things you ignore. Kidding of course. So. You anything. I got nothing else. If you want to know more about Soda Fountains and Soda, pop and all that kind of stuff. You can search the Internet for you can type those words into how stuff works dot com on the search bar, and also we want give a shout out to again collectors weekly the art of drink and today I found out all three of which we used as some source material to yeah along with their own House Article, Soda, Fountains Work so thanks to you all for making great stuff. They said that time for Listener Mail. I'M GONNA. Call this week changed the life. want to say thanks for all the great shows. let you know the at a big impact on my life. Ago! Listener feedback. I'm sorry facebook Cuna. Young Listener, asked advice on career pass and he said that you should do what they love. Trust me, not like. The, most innovative advice. But that's what we said the time I was. Being made redundant from a career and buying. but knew it wasn't what I loved. Took your advice. Got Some experience volunteering. It's school. Having always learned to love and share ideas and that start a whole new career path. now just finished my teaching qualification. which was really tough, eight mature student raising my own kids next week start my first job as a class teacher at why six primary Nice, I think this is the end of elementary school for you guys. ages ten to eleven. Kids. I hope. I can engage inspire children in my class of what you do with your listeners. Wanted to say cheers, you can use in the classroom. That's one good way now. and. That is from Catherine Aka Mrs, Young. Thanks a lot. Mrs Young is very awesome. Congratulations way to go. Yeah, and she was gutted to not see us in the UK. We got we got it a lot of. Brits Yeah. I think it's hilarious mafia term. They all said the same thing they were good. Interesting. Poll thanks Vince Young again nicely done If you WANNA, get in touch with us. You can tweet to us that S. why escaped podcast or Josh Clark? You can hang out with us on facebook at Charles W Chuck Bryant or FACEBOOK DOT COM slash. You know you can hang out with the Senate instagram and you can send us an email to stuff podcast. That house works dot Com and has always join us sort of the web stuff. You should know dot com. For more on this and thousands of other topics visit how stuff works dot com. I'm Richard Blaze and I'm a chef restaurants who are who is judged or competed nearly every cooking show, and now I've found a way to judge on a podcast on my new podcast food court with Richard Blaze. Amazing guests bring their food arguments to my court, and settle them once and for all you think ranch is better than blue cheese proven. You Hate Pineapple on pizza. Convinced me the first season of Newport. Court with Richard. Blaze is up and you can subscribe on the iheartradio APP. Apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcast. These. Guys it's bobby bones host the bobby bones show and pretty much obviously because I wake up at three o'clock in the morning a couple hours later I, get all my friends together, and we get into a room and we do a radio show with share our lives. We tell our stories. We try to find as much good in the world. Possibly can, and we look through the news of the day that you'll care about also your favorite country artists are always stopping by the hang out and share their lives and music, too. So wake up with a bunch of my friends on ninety eight point seven. W M Z Q in Washington DC or wherever the rotates you on the iheartradio APP.
Babbage: The element-hunters
"The same poster hangs almost every science classroom in almost every school on earth. It might be a little dog eared. But it is a key to understanding all matter in the known universe. The periodic table of elements. You're listening to baggage on a communist radio, I'm Kenneth kooky. One hundred and fifty years in Russian chemists name Dmitri of had a revelation all those elements, those fundamental substances from which everything is made could be put into an order, and that order might reveal something about their properties. So I've gone back to the classroom to understand one of the most important scientific discoveries in history Putney high school in south London because besides the usual Postel colored posters. They have a periodic table. That's rather special. It shows every element put into context with like everyday life. So hey, you have a oxygen, and you have a pulse. Amita and Allen minium fused, full Livia men. Cool. I think my favorite element is carbon. 'cause I think is really cool. How it's like made in like starts by like helium burning. If you take out like the water like a human body about fifty three percent of it if carbon I like Hobo because it's blue. I'm please, my favorite color all say is. Being used in radiotherapy. Coming up. We'll hear how this simple grid has shaped our understanding of the world and our place in it. We'll visit a lab in Russia on the hunt for the next element element. One nineteen and ask what's left to discover or has the periodic table served its purpose? But first the elements existed before there was a table to put them in their properties are constants. So what was meant to lay of breakthrough one hundred and fifty years ago? Jeff car is the economists science editor. Hello, jeff. Hello. So what did mentally of discover will mend live discovered older the history of the mountain century in one sentence. A history of the discover the elements and by the time mental if came up with the idea of the table, which was eighteen sixty nine hundred and fifty years ago, there were sixty also elements nine and previous scientists had seen little inklings of passion. But Mendel was able to form what we now regard as the ultimate patterns elements of table. And how did he do that? Well, the story is and it's reasonably well attested that he did it over a weekend getting tired and Todd and eventually he had a dream which. The elements in into place BART's are on the way to that. He plays. What was necessary in patients with himself? He apparently was a regular player of patients. Now, he wrote the names of the chemical elements and their properties, and there are Tomic weights in particular as pieces of card and twiddled with them as you would with cards against patients with properties like the different seats in the pack and the atomic numbers like the numbers of the cards. And he found a passion, which is the basis of the imperial table whereby the elements organized in rows, according to that atomic weight and the rose also correspondent coming his. But he left some holes in it threat. He realized that the elephants have been discovered and that it was reasonable to leave holes. And he used the information he had to predict the properties of the elements in this house. There were two in particular gallium and germanium which she predicted. They not the main and they were subsequently discovered. I'm not really was the evidence. The table was correct. Why do you think that the others missed it, partly because it was enough elements before in the case of the person closest who is a man who was an Englishman published about five years before when the laugh he tried to impose a very rigid structure Mendel played around New Orleans was willing to have gaps Mendel f- walls and new Lund's failed to recognize a group elements that we now call the transition metals Mendel table elite doesn't give them the name sort of bursts out of the underlying passion, align the transition metals that place and that allows him to keep the underlying pattern. Elsewhere, Jeff, you've dedicated the entire science section of the March second issue of the paper to the history of the periodic table. Just how important was this discovery measured against other game changing breakthroughs like gravity electric city and someone well it was a way of organizing our understanding of how much works the the things that you mentioned are single phenomena, the cage. Important phenomena. But this this is an organizing principle. It's also I think a very good example of how science works. How it starts with gathering data. Even though you don't necessarily know what the data mean it involves looking for patterns involved going down blind alleys involves the occasional blinding flash of insight, which is won't happen to mend each involves. Then building on the inside in creating something which initially is not quite right and gradually as refined. And then having discovers on the way because until radio activity was discovered. Everybody really did believe atoms were indivisible and work by law. Rutherford Ernest Rutherford as he was at the time in the early twentieth. Century took the atom to pieces and put it back together a game and Rutherford's model of the atom was the starting point for modern understanding what the atom is none of that would have been possible at the periodic table. I like to imagine that bit like a map cer- Martin paalea cough is a professor of chemistry at the university of Nottingham an honorary professor at Moscow state and Beijing chemical technology universities on his suggestion. The United Nations declared thousand nineteen the international year of the periodic table just like in London, depending particular facets of of London you want to illustrate whether it's the underground connections. Whether it's even the house prices in the different areas. So you can use different versions of the mat to the straight your point and the power of the periodic table is that you can have different versions illustrate also different properties of the elements melting points, whether they metals gases and say one an each person will be slightly different. In the appearance, but the relative positions of all the elements to thank. Thanks. There's aluminum selenium and hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen nickel neodymium neptunium germanium and iron Ruthenian uranium. Table has even been immortalized in music by the American satirical, song writer and mathematician, Tom Lehrer, but as layer noted for most of the time since its discovery, the most interesting thing about Mendel table has been it's unknown. These are the only ones which the news has come to Harvard, and then maybe many others, but they haven't been discovered. Seventeen element discovered since I got my first periodic table school and in nineteen sixty one. So that's about one every four years since I started studying chemistry. It's really quite exciting that it is. Living organisms you like, and I hope for soon that the team led by urea Guinness Dubna will discover new element hundred nineteen hundred twenty and that would really be quite a theoretical breakthrough. Because it would show that we had broken into a new hairier of the periodic table in theory. It's actually pretty easy thing. All you have to do is take to lighter nuclei and fused together to make every relevant. That's Jacqueline gates. She leads the heavy element nuclear and radio chemistry group at Berkeley lives in California. Researchers there have been credited with discovering sixteen elements over the last century, including the aptly named California and Berkeley in practice since a little bit more complicated than that nuclei are very small in still trying to smash to atoms together. Most of. The time you're going to miss with two nuclear. So what we do Berkeley lab is we celebrate beams usually of things like calcium or Tataviam, and we bombard targets that are Imerese him with Tony on something like that. And hope that in this embark -ment two nuclei fuse together, and that we can create a new element or a heavy element that we can study, and how long do these single out of superheavy elements exist for inside the particle accelerator. Not very long, the heavier, you go the shorter is in general have you're making something that's kind of easy to make like element one. Oh, two Nobel it lasts for fifty five seconds on average. If you're trying to make something a little bit harder say wants seventeen or eighteen then you only have a few milliseconds or tens of milliseconds to study before disappears. But if the new elementary Lou. For a moment wide, scientists keep searching for them in creating them. There's multiple reasons. So one is just the quest for figuring out where the pair table ends. What elements exist out there? What are their properties? There are theories that say that as you go heavier, and heavier you should actually be able to break the periodicity of the social down given column you will no longer. See the same chemistry for the heavier isotopes as for their lighter HAMAs part of it is to understand how elements formed stars. We think that these super heavy elements may form in Nova or neutron star mergers something like that. And this is what the hunt for new element sounds like after the discovery of element one eighteen organise on the international. Consensus was that current methods had been exhausted bigger better accelerators were needed. If scientists were to hope to extend the table to its eighth period. The eighth wrote down from the top our correspondent, Noah Sneider visited flea rob labs into not just outside Moscow. Where researchers hope they've created the means to push the table beyond its current limits from northern. This isn't any old particle accelerator. This is flare of superheavy element factory. A brand new sixty million dollar research facility built to test the borders of the periodic table of elements. It's a futuristic room size structure, anchored around a massive Magni that bans accelerates particles and central chamber at full speeds, new accelerator ought to produce beams ten to twenty times more intense than previous models. Nineteen years will help be happy. Produced one atoms. Was still okay. What will happen is one week at one hundred was produced one month's creating today. Superheavy element factory. We make not one day. But. The urea going John is lead. Scientists of the fear of lab now in his eighties. He's been working here since nineteen fifty six if his name sounds familiar to should gonna is the only living person to have had an element named after him element one eighteen one nineteen would be next in this crucial. But the just the hand the new one Moylan does keep you. Super formation. You know, we actually made the one night way would be to the capital. Because for both of you believe me of existence seems to us firms Diori that will very closely today when around one eighteen I took in the world one twenty three or twenty four connote close from your perspective in the laboratory, do you feel the connections, Mandalay of his work to fill yourself, a part of the same historical continuum? Today. Steal alive. Programme to to get the answer to this question would reserve in. The the homemade element in experiment. The next generation may find that on. For Jacqueline gates at Berkeley labs. Whether researchers choose to continue pursuing the next elementary not his more financial decision than philosophical one. Oftentimes, if you look at the impact that a given experiment has on your funding sources on the greater community as a whole you'll find out that you tend to get a large increase of funding in funding if you can put your name on an element and doing some really close science on letter things are into Navarre had been discovered doesn't always lead to the same increase in funding or even the same exposure in the scientific community and in the greater community as a whole so yes, a lot of times when people are searching for the next new element it so that they can put their name on something. The pyrrhic table is much better. Understood than say the charter nuclides, which is what visits us says much easier. Two point to a given. I made this for water from the real world opera -cations from finding some of these elements up in moment. None unless you believe conspiracy theories. There is a conspiracy theory that the spacecraft that crashed in Roswell was powered by element one fifteen but outside of that there are no known locations for the heaviest elements that doesn't mean that we can't are that we shouldn't study them. Because oftentimes when you're trying to search for something new you're not doing it for specific applications in ten or fifteen or twenty years down the road, applications begin to show Emerson when that was discovered nobody knew what practical applications it would have and for probably thirty or forty years after discovery it was in every smoke detector never house with unstuck, infirm, Yam, again, nobody knew practical applications, they would have discovered will. Now, they're used in cancer treatments. Or to help develop drugs for potential cancer treatments in. So I think looking for applications is not always the best thing that you should do science oftentimes just pursuit of expanding. Our knowledge could lead to applications further down the road. You don't foresee at this point in time. What is the periodic table to you nets initiation question? I actually haven't thought about the quite a while because I tend to look more at the nuclides, which is the more physics way of looking at the in residents inside tend to think about the parent. They will kind of in the very simplistic way that anyone does with the basic chemistry understanding that the parent table tells you what you should expect from the chemistry of element. I don't forsee a discovering new omen in Berkeley. Because I do think that studying the omens we know now. Will lead to greater scientific understanding of the heaviest. So we are not pursuing a new elements. On the hundred fiftieth anniversary of men of discovery. Jeff car are signs editor has been pondering. The same question has the periodic table had its day the lost Russia. Interesting stuff about the period. Table happened. In the nineteen forties was will can university of California Berkeley, which discovered quite a few heavy elements one of which was please tiny the main ingredient of nuclear bombs. They've now got to element one hundred eighteen which conveniently completes the seventh thriller, I think of the periodic table, so that's a good place to stop the question about the the intellectual discipline of chemistry chemistry is very important science practically it started as a practical science, and it's still an enormously important practical sense, but it's an intellectual discipline with completion of the periodic table, and the related phenomenon of understanding had trickle bones work, which is how the Atra Electra. Of atoms combine to hold atoms together in molecules that was also out in the nineteen forties and fifties, and this is very unpopular position with chemists, and I have actually been berated for it. But I think that as an intellectual discipline chemistry's more or less over if you like a sign of this is that when the Nobel prizes announced every year, they're charts process visits chemistry and physiology. And it's very often the case, not always. But very often the case that the chemistry prize could equally will be in for physics of villager. Of course, the periodic table only maps out matter that we can perceive what about dark matter. Well, we didn't know what that is. That's the whole problem. It is interesting. The actions of which the universe is made of which we are made actually about five percent of the total stuff in the universe on this to other different sorts of stuff. One is called matter because we know what she's but in it interested, gravity, and so we can be. Fell short because we can say it's a fact on stars galaxies and things like that. The is cool donc energy. And that was any hostage recently. Which is actually a thing that's pushing the universe apart causing it's causing -ly expansion. The to celebrate we really that is there are fears about what dot mashed and those theories seem that it's made of particles in the ways that matter vaccinate. But no people people search harder. Have I for natural thought matter the search for all to show dot modern particle accelerators found any. Jeff, this is a great mystery shows that there's gonna be a future lead. Guess it'll keep scientists busy. Jeff. Thank you very much. That's all for this week's elementary edition of Babich. I'm Kenneth cookie. And in London. This is the economist. You know, there's so many elements here so inspiring lemme ask the question name has been as you can right now. Go can actually a song getting of hydrogen and helium lithium beryllium foreign carbon everywhere nitrogen through the oxygen. So you can read them for thirty me onto the sign study of magnesium aluminium silicon false.
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 3: Russian Operas
"Hello I'm Naomi Lewin. Welcome to classics for kids. The flight of the Bumblebee has become much more famous than the opera for which Nikolai Ski Korsakov routed today. Bits of other Russian operas that have become better known in the concert hall then on the Opera Stage they call Me Kyle. Glinka the father of Russian classical music you hardly ever see Glinka opera Muslim and Ludmilla but you hear the overture. All the time well at least loosely. Ludmila has been performed. That's more than you can say for some operas. Lada flopped twice the first time a Russian theatre asked four different composers to collaborate writing combination. Opera Ballet. That Malaysia was never performed. Then rimsky-korsakov who was one of the four composers recycled the music he'd written into a melodic of own. That Lotte lasted all of six performances. Malaga is a funny title. Sergei PROKOFIEV program called the love for three oranges. The love for three oranges is about a prince who finds the princess? He loves inside. An orange one of three oranges. Love is a big problem for the title character in an opera by Tchaikovsky. Called Eugene on Yagan. A girl named Tatyana falls in love with gene on Yagan. But he doesn't fall in love with her until it's too late and she's married to someone else. The two of them always seemed to be meeting up at a ball. So Tchaikovsky put plenty of dance music including this waltz into his office part of Modesto Missouri Skis Opera. Boris good enough takes place in a Polish court where they do a Polish Vance the pullen his another Russian opera with famous dances in it is by Alexander Barra. Dean. Borodino was a professor of chemistry. Who only got to write music in his spare time. His only opera was prince eager in which the prince eager gets captured. While fighting the pile-up Ziems the best known. Part of the opera is when the Pelosi enslaves entertain prints e core by singing. Dancing Borodino died before he could finish prince eager but two of his friends who knew how he wanted it to sound finished it for him. One of those friends was Nikolai. Rimsky-korsakov whose flight of the Bumblebee is far more famous than the tale of our Sultan. The opera for which he wrote it You can definitely hear a flying insect in the flight of the Bumblebee Next Week. On classics for kids other musical things with wings. I'm Naomi Lewin. I write classics for kids and produce it with Tim. Lander WG UC Cincinnati. Please join me again next. Time for classics for kids.
Bricks Can Be Turned Into Batteries
"Does your little one loves paw patrol about dinosaurs well, perfect because the new season a patrol is here and guess what? It's a dino rescue. I can't wait for my kid to watch each episode ten times nights on the plus side all your holiday and birthday gift shopping is pretty much done because of course, there are a whole new batch of Dino rescue toys to you, and for a limited time at target get fifteen percent off the new patrol dino rescue toys with Code Pau fifteen patrol dino rescue, check it out. It's going to be possum. This is scientific American sixty seconds science I'm Shave Afar on. Bricks are one of the oldest known building materials dating back thousands of years, but researchers at Washington University in. Saint, Louis have found a new use for bricks as. Storage units a team of engineers and chemists have found a way to transform an ordinary house brick into a pseudo battery, allowing it to conduct and store electricity. The bricks are powerful enough to illuminate and led light bulb and cost only about three dollars to make I love. The idea of adding value to things that are inexpensive things that are affordable things that we kind of take for granted Julio, Darcy is an assistant professor of chemistry at Washington University and one of the researchers on the project. The brick battery relies on the reddish pigment known as. Side or rust. The gives red bricks, their color, the scientists pumped. The bricks was several gases that react with iron oxide to produce a network of plastic fibres. These microscopic fibers, coat the empty spaces inside the bricks and conduct electricity or we're trying to do is we're trying to make specialized. That are only used in the Nanna scale where we use very little plastic on we can actually embed that plastic inside construction materials that can store energy. This study is in the Journal. Nature Communications in the future Darcy says. Could. Potentially serve a dual purpose providing structural support and storing electricity generated from renewable energy sources like solar panels. The technology is still at least a few years away from being ready for the commercial market right now, the energy storage capacity of the bricks. Low about one percent of a lithium ion battery. The team is now testing ways to improve brick performance because it looks like you can teach an old brick new tricks. For Scientific American. Sixty seconds science I'm Sheila Larsen.
Soft plastic used in new road surface
"Next roads made of plastic and waste glass. The stuff you throw away the stuff. China went except anymore. There are experiments with factory-made modular stretches of roadway in Holland as you'll see in the economist magazine of September, the twenty first, but there are also trials being done in Sydney and Melbourne. This is civil engineer Dante CRA Mascow from down roads division, the starring Craig what is the trial. That's going on there at the moment. So back on world environment. I we constructed about three hundred beta section of road using recycled asphalt glass Tirona and soft plastics the price involved removing the existing surface. And then relying it with this new stall of asphalt that actually performs better than your traditional stuff. Why is it soft plastic soft, plastics, the scrunch double red, Rabah typical? Wrappings that you'd get on prepackaged foods. It's also used in a lot of industrial purposes. Lock wrapping pallets the soft plastics. We knew would be something that we could quickly get to the bottom of and replicate the performance characteristics. That we see in our valley 'bitumen that we use to construct to add to asphalt. So we'd been looking at all different types of plastics. And we were having some troubles to get the performance characteristics era, traditional PET's, and and hotter. Plastics and said, we knew that they soft plastics didn't really have much of an outlet, and we're being collected in a clean source through the supermarket collection schemes, and so we thought we got a very ready source that seems to be not doing a lot and we work with some of our existing partners to come up with reconnaissance cues much in president trial. Knicks we look at it from a point of view of number of bags, and I think the numbers around a couple of hundred thousand bags that we. A used in this trial. And interestingly, the that's responsible with you. Now business actually start measuring. Just how much plastic of the top that collected as a family and a couple of other people at work jumped on board and pretty quickly worked out that the amount of plastic that we used in a traditional frontier of a house something suburbia, we could take care of up to ten years worth of what they produced from soft plastic perspective on their road frontage. So from a few good perspective. We can look at it and say, you know, what you know, you sort of closing the loop with what you using in front of your house, and at the moment to we find a way to stop using these types of plastics or outlaw them. And that's a really good way to enhance the properties of the roadways at the people using everyday with some of the white products from just leaving. And when you say you're in trial. What are you trialing, and what are the tests and has against far? So we're calling it a trawl ultimately would strongly confident about what the properties are. Grabble to replicate these properties in laboratory situations, it's a trawl Miami. Because with any change your customer in this case, the council's the really want to see how it behaves ever appeared a time pretty quickly. I'd say once we get through a six to twelve months of visual representation. We'll go back, and do some all instituting and verify that stewing the job that we thought it would do as well. Well, you know in the article in the economist, which was the celebrate one hundred seventy fifth edition so page and a half talking about the international scene, and they say that in fact, you'll getting far more resilient roads. They last longer and making them is cheaper is at the moment. It's an economy of scalping. Obviously the the troll that we did. And we've done another one in Sydney through southern Shaw. So right now on say, we'll give him what we've come up with in the fact that we can manufacture these product nationally throughout fleet of asphalt plants across. Krylya? We also need customers to demand the says they standard product that they specify in the future. And once that happens, then yes, I think question of cost will be answered and movie Al to manufacture pretty close if not a should be slightly cheaper than a virgin product. But those processes are also influenced by volatility in petrochemical process right now, we're seeing at the bows fuel process, scar rocket. That's the same impact on asphalt soft plastics, actually display speech, even in the mix and means that you can use less Beechman. So the cost is really it's an interesting relationship that we've all these councils around Estrella being lumbered with plastic. They didn't think they would have because it will all be going off to China. Now, they would surely pay higher price just to solve their problem. I think you're think we'll get to that point. They will want to see outcomes of the vary. Trials that we've put in place, and we're getting a lot of traffic a lot of fun caused a lot of enquiries and people are interested in you can see it's not just Dan of its doing this. There are many other companies in the same spice looking to pioneered these techniques, and that's great. I think that's a really great solution because the world absolutely around the world with seeing lots of people, and and the true spirit of innovation that mankind is really jumping on the bandwagon here, and I think we'll get there. And it's just a question of taking a little bit of time. Can you tell us when you're ready to guy? Can you just might show it all works? And then we'll jump on board as well. Now, I've got a naive idea of a road is a road is what is what outside my house and the highway and it's pretty much the same. Is it the same year? That's a good point all rides on the Simon. I mean roads a Bill to veering construction tolerances and specifications, depending on the top of light that they need to carry. So traditionally as state route. Authorities of which Vic roads and Aramis for example. They usually charged with mine tighening, the high volume arterial riots that industry and the communities really rely on to move huge amounts of vehicles and fright from point to point from there. You've get aria rides at branch off in their secondary rides right down to you suburban straight. Now. It also depends on you population density, as well because you get to some of the outer parts of astrology that asphalt. Simply just don't have enough volume, and you need a different type of sealing compounds. You got everything from a granular quarry material covered with a little bit of bitumen, spicy ill to full depth asphalt pavement, in some cases. They'll even use concrete, which is a super rigid pavement that you might want to run them very very heavy material Iver Iver for many years. So all roads are constructed differently. We see application for reconnaissance certainly across most of the things that we do. But remember that? A lot of these higher volume rights already specify a higher grade of 'bitumen with polymers. And so what we've fictive doing is creating those Palmas on a lower traffic application for similar costs to a virgin Bonda. So what will also see as we go forward in time is that the state route authorities will start looking at the sustainability of what they specifying if that can see a lesser cost product that has a high percentage of for sokoll that performs consistently and throws up the two numbers that they looking at from longevity perspective. The we'll start seeing those clients dot the specify these types of products as well because they want to get more done. They want to cover more they network and ensure that they might not budget stretch further and further what about the harder plastic because they can sometimes make into furniture. They melt it down into finisher. Is there anything theoretically against your being able to have a process that gives you access to the hottest plastics as well wrought? Now, one of the. Mine. Focuses of the business was to ensure perpetual, recyclable pavements that we create and one of the things we just couldn't get out are the people to replicate was what happens in the Knicks Sauckel once they hot a plastics get reused inside ten or twenty years, Tom when that ride needs to come up and be recycled so right now with focusing on the soft plastics, the ones that we know that melt at a certain temperature that we aren't going to get Margaret plastic. So the the beads that are rolling off. And importantly that when it comes to recycle that product. We have one hundred percent certainty that it'll just be treated as any other beat of road. And we're not going to create any legacies down the path. So we'll get that sorted will prove a product's and how they work and get that stampede of orders to get the prostate cancer the rod amount Rovan, but from there, we might stop to any aids to other issues that we talked to get on top of as well. The executive general manager of downloads, bro division. Dante Kamensko using waste plastic and roads. And Esfahan plastics Thomas Meyer, who's professor of chemistry at the university of Sydney tells me this week that they can now recycle older hard, plastics to make them entirely reusable. Just think all that waste plastic going into making cheaper better roads and new products the sun show on r n.
Nov 18, 2019
"Hello and welcome to the first official episode of sort and scaled daily. I'm your host Ryan Williams. It's Monday November. Eighteenth Eighteenth and this is your daily true crime reporter. Wow we finally made it to our official release. This is crazy. I WanNa take a moment to thank my day and and the rest of the incongruity team for making this idea a reality and a special thank you to the fans and listeners reached out with feedback and suggestions. They've been heard and are very much appreciated. Now onto the show coming up on sort scale daily an indefinite stay of execution for Rodney Reed. Who currently he sits on a Texas death row in New Mexico? Jake Paterson Man convicted of Kidnapping Jamie cloth and murdering her parents gets into a fight in prison in southern California the LAPD arrested and charged a suspect in to cold case homicide that took place in nineteen eighty one in nineteen eighty-six to Arkansas Chemistry. Professors are accused of manufacturing methamphetamine at Henderson State University. Finally Police gleason Pennsylvania charge a Maryland. Man With kidnapping is disabled girlfriend. Who was last seen with two left on a trip to Nevada authorities in Nevada have recovered body matching the victims description and formal identifications is underway? All this and more coming up on sort and scale daily on Friday November fifteenth. Rodney Reed was granted an indefinite stay of execution by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals feels read was convicted in nineteen ninety eight for the murder of Stacey Steitz. The body of nineteen year olds site was discovered on April twenty second nineteen ninety six expire the side of a rural Rhode she'd been beaten and strangled and the medical examiner believed. She was also sexually assaulted because semen was found at the scene DNA from the semen found matched. That of Rodney Reed and this became the main piece of evidence in his trial for Steitz murder however the murder weapon a belt was not tested for DNA read has maintained his innocence and explain. The presence of his semen was the fact that he states were having an affair. The innocence project took over his legal representation and discovered an eyewitness who could cooperate. Reed's account of having an affair with states. Recently three additional witnesses came forward the cast aspersions on a different suspect. Jimmy Fennell a former COP who at the time of the murder was Steitz. Fiance in two thousand eight. Jimmy Fennell pleaded guilty to kidnapping kidnapping a woman. He met while on duty. The woman also accused him of raping her fennell spent ten years in prison for the crime. Arthur snow a former. Remember of the Aryan Brotherhood's serve time with Fennell. Snow said that fennel while trying to curry favor with the Brotherhood the gain their protection bragged that he had killed his woman because she had cheated on him with a black man. Other witnesses attest to the fact that Fennell new state was having an affair and that during her funeral fennell pointed at her body and said had you got what you deserved. Rodney Reed whose story was featured on sword and scale episodes forty two and forty three was due to be executed this week on November Twentieth Af. His appeal for Justice had garnered much support from many celebrities including Kim Kardashian who was with read on Friday morning when he received the news prosecutors from the original trial as well as many others throughout the United States. Still believe that Rod as guilty of the crimes for which he's been convicted. Texas is carried eight out seven execution so far in two thousand nineteen. Our next story brings us to New Mexico on Thursday November fourteenth. The new New Mexico Department of Corrections released video showing Jake Patterson who kidnapped Jamie kloss taking part in a prison fight in October of two thousand eighteen and paterson kidnapped then thirteen year. Old Jamie claws from her home in Wisconsin. After shooting and killing both of her parents. He kept her captive under his bed in a secluded cabin for almost three months before Jamie managed to escape in March of this year. Paterson pleaded guilty to two counts of first degree intentional homicide and and one count of kidnapping in May he was sentenced to consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole and an additional forty years. It was being held in Wisconsin but in July it was announced that he moved to an undisclosed correctional facility in New Mexico. The video released last week is from late. August and shows Patterson initiating a fight with another prisoner by throwing a few punches before attempting to put the other inmate into a headlock punches. Were seen being thrown back and forth as a guard. Attempted to break up the fight by shooting beanbags at the men. The altercation apparently occurred due to inmates in Jake's pod telling him he needed to to leave because of his quote case involving a fourteen year old girl as correctional officers began heading towards the two men. Jake raised his arms and lowered himself to the ground. This wasn't Patterson's first time getting into an altercation since being incarcerated he was also cited for punching another prisoner while he was still in Wisconsin. And if you'd like to hear about this case in more detail head on over to sword and scale and listen episode one fifty. Our next story comes to you from Southern California on Friday sixty four year old horse van volts. A resident of Bakersfield California was arrested and charged with nineteen eighty-one sexual assault and strangulation of Selena. Ena keough and the one thousand nine hundred eighty six sexual assault and murder of Mary Dugan Burbank. Police discovered the body of twenty two year old Mary Dugan in the trunk of her Mustang around twelve forty. AM on June ninth nineteen eighty six. She'd been covered by newspapers. She had been sexually assaulted in its fixated by a tissue that had been pushed down her throat in the mid to thousands. DNA evidence linked the same perpetrator to another murder victim. Twenty year. Old Mother of one slink. He'll whose body was discovered under an overpass ass in Montclair Los Angeles on July Sixteenth Nineteen eighty-one q.. Had Been Sexually assaulted and strangled in two thousand nineteen horse than Balts was identified defined as a potential suspect using genealogy and was put under surveillance until his DNA could be procured and tested on Friday. He was arrested in Inglewood during a traffic stop. This is the first criminal prosecution on the basis of genealogy and Los Angeles County then volt is charged with two counts of murder with special circumstances this the special circumstances involving the case are lying in wait murder during the commission of rape and sodomy and multiple murders burbank police department detective Aaron Key told NBC. Los Angeles the Van Bolt has a history of committing crimes consistent with this one the La Times reported that there have been multiple accusations -tations of domestic abuse against Horace over the years. The suspect is moved around California during his life and has ties to Texas law enforcement in. La is working with other jurisdictions to see a fan vaults connected to additional cold cases. He is due to be arraigned today after the break Q.. Professors at Henderson in State University have been arrested for manufacturing methamphetamine and from Pennsylvania a Maryland man took his disabled ex girlfriend on a trip to Vegas and then murdered her in the Nevada desert now for our final stories coming to you from the Bare State A K A TV ABC news seven reports that forty five year old Terry Bateman and forty year old Bradley Roland. Both professors at Henderson State University were arrested on Friday. November fifteenth enter charged with manufacturing methamphetamine and possession of drug paraphernalia both been on administrative leave since October. Eleventh following following an incident at the Reynolds Science Center on campus on October eighth and employees reported a strong chemical smell and the building was evacuated tests found the presence of Benzyl benzyl chloride a colorless liquid which in reaction with water steam or say human mucous membranes yields hydrochloric acid a chemical weapon benzyl chloride is used in the manufacturing of many chemicals including perfumes artificial flavors and lotions it is also used for making methamphetamine for this reason the DA monitors the cell of Benzyl chloride in the US. benzyl chloride is classified as an extremely hazardous substance and the Reynolds. Science Center was given the all all clear to reopen three weeks later on October. Twenty nine th from the DA. Terry Bateman has been at Henderson University since two thousand nine according to the university's website site. He's an assistant professor of chemistry and the Director of undergraduate research. Bateman is an organic chemist specializing in the synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs six. He created the Henderson University student and Drug Synthesis Group. Bradley Roland earned his doctorate at the University of Texas Austin and has a master's degree in Financial Angel Engineering. His field of study is theoretical physics and quantum theory. He joined the facility at Henderson in two thousand fourteen and gave an introductory interview to the the student newspaper the Oracle in the interview. He explained his scientific. Aspiration is to develop quantum financial method. I WANNA find a way to provide additional information to a day trader. He wouldn't have through other methods. The article goes on to say that Roland a Texas native enjoys cultivating tropical plants and watching Ching TV Roland especially enjoys the TV. Show breaking bad and gives it a glowing review quote. I thought it was a great show. It was spot on accurate when it came to the science and it has gotten a younger generation interested in chemistry. I feel like it's a great recruiting tool. The oracle article is titled Henderson's. Heisenberg in retrospect perhaps an unfortunate choice. Our final story of the day takes us to the state of Pennsylvania. WBZ EXI- channel eleven news reports that Bethel Park. Police took John Chapman into custody. This Friday in relation with the disappearance and possible homicide of Jamie feed-in police say that thirty thirty nine year old Chapman has confessed murdering thirty-three-year-old feed-in with whom he was in an on off relationship with Jamie feeding lived alone in a townhouse in Bethel Park Pennsylvania Selena. She was last seen at her house. On September Fifteenth Family and friends knew Jamie was on a trip John and received facebook messages and text from her while she was away. Police now say that Chapman had sent the messages pretending to be Jamie in spite of these. Communications mayors became concerned when they had not seen feeding and three month's yet John Chapman continued. Come in and out of her house. The couple's known to sometimes argued loudly relatives reported Jamie feed-in missing on Thursday November fourteenth. When police visited her house they found feed and cell phone on a kitchen counter and in another room they found a backpack containing a roll of duct tape and plastic zip ties? According to the criminal complaint against the alleged suspect chairman told police that he invited feed into drive to Las Vegas with him for a vacation nation and maybe to look for a house to buy. They arrived in Vegas on September. Twenty third in two days later Chapman feed into drive into the desert to Take S. and M. Tamed Photographs. Once there he told police he tied feed into a signpost secured her arms and legs with zip ties and then put duct tape over her mouth and nose does which suffocated her. According to the complaint Chapman later feed down from the signpost took off the bindings tape stripped naked and left there lying lying by the signpost Shabbes family told channel eleven news that John and Jamie had known each other for years and had met either high school or at a college for students with special needs. They were aware of pass relationship but assume the two were now just friends. He had told his family. He was in Nevada on a work trip. He told his wife Maureen the same story Marine and John Chapman have been married for a year and she had no knowledge of the affair or the alleged murder until Friday morning when her her husband called her from the police station. She told Channel Eleven News that during this phone call. Her husband confessed to murdering woman as of now Chapman has only well even charged with kidnapping and not homicide. This is because a body has not yet been found but law enforcement is optimistic one will be recovered and are waiting and tell them to charge Chapman and because the supposed killing took place in Nevada the criminal prosecution for the killing will likely take place in Nevada Bethel. Park Police Department has been in touch touch with authorities in Nevada. Who on October fifth recovered a body matching feedings description? Four feet tall at around seventy five pounds. Identification Unification of the discovered body is still in progress. Thank you again for coming out and listening to the first episode of sword and scale daily we. We are so excited to bring you the show. Remember if you have any feedback or suggestions or you just want to send a story. Our way use the email address daily at sword and scale DOT COM com. That's it for today. We'll see tomorrow and until then stay safe. The sword and scale daily is an incongruity media production. Your host was Ryan Williams Research and writing by Hagar Barack executive producer new. Sir Mike Do day if you like to show subscribe and leave us a review. If you'd like to write us with feedback or suggestions use the email address daily at Sword Gordon Scale Dot Com.
June 11th 2019
"The. Fehlinger. Mauresmo heedful, yo, Ilan daily, this choose day June of Levin. That's right. Let's to Norway show. We knew away Gordon to Soroti has now fifty thousand plus Tesla's on the roads. That's pretty cool. Right. They mostly S's an Xs but model three is catching up very fast. In fact, in Norway, did you know this I bet you didn't the zero emission vehicles? Now make up thirty five percent of that auto market thirty five percent. And did you know a bit you didn't? Maybe you did that ice cows abandon away starting in twenty twenty I Sherman that sales of ice cows in two thousand twenty five now, I have lots of incentives the way they do this. But it shows that you can do this on a country wide scale if you put a little tiny minds to it so impressive Norway impressive. Now, remember, it's the country, money five point three million people, and in California, for example, we have forty million. People and only three percent of the cause issue right now. But it feels like when you drive around that every other cow is a tesla. But we have a long way to go to catch up to the way, that is nor and join coal. You wanna do some electrical generation. Let's talk like trista generation here in the United States. So we've got this guy in what is, and he loves Cole. He hugs coal. He's bringing back coal, coal, cO, call good. Well, it turns out that first time trysofi generation for new Ables pus Cole the first time in April. So a couple of months ago with two hundred and fifty seven gigawatts or twenty one point five percent of total energy production. So just a lead a bit more than coal and wind is about to pass hydro as the largest renewable so hydros being the big boy for a long time. But win catching person solar doing is catching up as well. Now, the federal energy regulation commission noted that in three. Three years, the gap between coal and renewables will be, according to them, vast that's right, vast, I would call it. Ju- d- large now natural guests. Unfortunately, still the leader at forty four percent of generation but wind and soul cheaper cheaper than everything. And they are expected to take a significant chunk at of natural gas in the next few years. So this is all good news. Hopefully, we'll get some people in government here soon that will help this along speed this up because we got to do that. We got to speed it up continue. I've had the tesla Powell's a couple of months now and I've basically been one hundred percent powered by the note is the perfect time of the year is very sunny. It's just to heat up now but it's being very sunny. Not that hot now setting that he'd but keeping ahead of the game. If you do a little bit of self management guy plugged, the cows in during the day, when it's nice and sunny and try to tune everything off and be really good about that run around the has the lights on toad that up to. I'm doing really well. In fact, I'm generating significant amount more energy than, I'm using. But I wish one day soon that there would be a way to store all of this excess energy in the summa that I could use in the winter. The only way I could see that happening. Realistically, even though I am not a physicist, nor am I electric engineer would be to do something like it as hydrogen. And I was all excited about this was the guy was Daniel know Sierra, that's him. He was professor of chemistry at MIT and he was going to revolutionize the world. And who's getting this new catalyst to break water into hydrogen oxygen and said distributed energy, and you'll have it at your house, and you'll store, the hydrogen house. And then when you need it, you'll just turn back into electrically and it's going to be great and formed the company and it turned out that they could never get it, commercially viable. So it's unfortunate that people that's not have been out to get us that hydrogen, but you need something that has a lot of energy density, and, and hydrogen has a lot of energy density, much energy is. A gallon of gas. It's about during quote me exactly. Thirty five kilowatt hours and one liter of hydrogen gas. And I'm not sure how compressed has about the same. So that's a lot of energy. You could just imagine having a couple of buried forty four gallon drums of Hudgens out in the backyard, and wouldn't it be cool till blew up because I don't have talked about this before on this show, but I have until contests or at least at some point, just think about how efficient your say model SO threes. So in the model three, you can say go three hundred miles, and let's say you had a guess cow that gets about thirty miles to the gallon. So your model three basically has the equivalent of a three gallon tank. Yeah. It's one hundred mile equivalents per gallon. It's unbelievable efficient those electric Motors and that carriers. I mean that is my thing. So I guess it shows two things your model three is sued Purdue per efficient. And also at the same time lithium doesn't really store, a lot of energy. Gee, imagine if you have the energy density of gasoline. But in a clean form. That was highly renewable. Oh, that'd be delicious. It'll be delectable. It would be delivery. And that's what the promise of hydrogen was about. But it just hasn't turned out so far has it and I've been reading a bit nukes, China, understand some of the stuff, you know, I'm no physicist that people really sort of excited about Thorin because no read this from what's his from full, so thorium is sort of up there on the periodic table, new uranium, but it's not as fissionable. And so it's much this likely to melt down, it produces more energy put-on, and there's more of it in the world. So it's more of it. It's safer and it's better and you can run at apparently all the way through so at Boone's till up, so there's no crept throw away. So it sounds kind of perfect. Right. Let me just clip in here from somebody who's really working on this commercial group that China bring this to reality. Entities, really essential for the type of lifestyle, we have, and when people say we should just make one hundred hundred wind and solar, they have to be realistic and say, is there anyone in the world who can pay for that? And I think they completely miss the point, they're, they're not willing to go down and figure out what it's gonna take to actually do this. And with entity I think, if you start to study it, you realize that it can actually be done. And when I first read about it on the internet. I thought this bollocks this can't be true, so I'm gonna Thomas. Dan peterson. I'm one of the founders of coping atomics. I read an article on the incident where it said it bald is size, made out of forum comply all the energy, I need for my entire life. Not only the electricity. I need. But also all the need to produce all the products need all the need for flying airplanes drying cars, producing those cars producing all the products, the clothes, and all the buildings and roads. I need mine Tyler, that's a lot of energy to shoot out of any and all that energy could belived delivered from this little bold of form. I thought that's amazing. A thought it can't be true. But I'm an engineer. So I have to go home and calculate, if it's true. It might be true. But I don't believe it. So when home and did the calculation, and it turned out, it was not actually not very difficult to calculate. And when I sat down and realize fifteen minutes later, it is true. It was really. Groundbreaking minute, for me because I realized this bollocks this is really true. There's all this energy, and I knew already than that there's lots of foam in the world. There's enough for him to supply, the entire humanity for thousands of years, it would cost around one hundred dollars for all the size, and that means that you entire energy need for an for one year would cost less than one dollar, and that's amazing. And then I'm on my Chris really start to find out. Why are we not using this, and if we were going to use it, how could we use it in an efficient way that we all know that we need to take care of this planet? We need to stop using fossil fuels, and some people say, okay, we can just use less energy. But even the people who say that won't useless. So I mean, who's going to start using this, because energy is really what drives prosperity in our society? So who wants to say, yeah. I'm going down to half for spare if what I have to. Nobody wants to do that. So what are we gonna do? We gotta find some other solutions. Shoeshine is one of them. But they are always saying twenty years from now, but they've done that for fifty years now. So it might happen. Yeah. Okay, let's hope for that. But in the meantime, all of us, who doesn't work on fusion. Let's work and something else. The world really need a solution for entity. And if you have parts Aleutian, I think you are responsible for stepping forward and supplying you apart. And then hopefully other people do the same. You can use a number of different ways. But the only way I'm talking about here is if you use it in a confrontation in what we call the mold Saul react, sometimes it's also called a lifter it safe is low cost no soup to it's easy to basically, you burn all the fuel. Whereas in the old type of nuclear reactors you only burn one percent of the fuel, you put into them. So already there you have one hundred times better efficiency than all type from clear actors at the same time in old nuclear reactors. You have to have a lot of pressure and that means that you have to build shoes buildings and that become really, really expensive. But with this lifter type reactor design you can build it small, and you can build an unemployed line, just like we built cars and airplanes. So the cost of building every power plant is foster different. We are small team or ten people working on this. And if you wanted to build a car from scratch, you would need to build a breaks and make sure that works you need to build the ups, and make sure that works. And that's what we're doing right now. We're building all these sub components and testing and testing to make sure they work and make sure that they're ready for when we get a real investment to build a real power. The next big step is to build prototype, reactor, like the first reactor and can turn it on and show people that it's, it's working, it's producing energy and that will take, I don't know, maybe five years in the long term, I would really like to see is that, that we could make energy non issue for the global population of humanity. Again. I really don't know about this stuff. I'm just trying of Luna bet it just for fun. But it turns out that it's not so simple. You've got to go get the story. We've gotta clean it up. You've go to sort of extracted. You've got to stop the fishing process because it doesn't really like to start by itself. So this is a very simple thing. Mrs note, like we should just do this, but it is interesting. And I think we'll hear more about, especially because people are gates, quite interested in these technology. So maybe, maybe they'll be a breakthrough in the next few years for us to discuss maybe you'll get that model size. And I didn't say that, that bowl of Thorin, he's talking men is the size of a mob. Maybe we'll be running lives on model. Thorin models.
Feathered Dino, Clinical Trials, Coffee Extraction. Jan 24, 2020, Part 2
"This is science Friday. I might replace a bit later in the hour. What an investigation of the website clinical trials dot Gov uncovered about drug trial reporting reporting? But I I'd like to introduce you to the dancing dragon. It has vicious talons feathered wings and a whip like twin feather tail tail and no it is not a creature from game of thrones but a newly found dinosaur a bird like beast packed with feathers and claws and just about the size. A house. Cat here to tell us more is Ashley. POW stay researcher at the San Diego Natural History Museum in California. Welcome to science Friday path. Thank you it's really a pleasure to be here doesn't have an official name it does actually So Wulan Bojaya NCIS. The genus name really is along. which is the Chinese words words for dancing and Dragon And we really got to that because of the pose of this animal severi small active dinosaur We wanted something that Kinda reflected that did you. Did you find it. A fossil antics certain pose. Yes so this is the type of dinosaur fossil that's preserved relatively intact act which is a really sort of amazing thing really real pleasure to get to work on But the consequence of that is that they are twisted into these positions. What SUMED when they died or perhaps while they were they were be composing and so this one has its head thrown back over its shoulders and a classic dinosaur death pose and its arms folded out in front of it almost like a Russian dancer and it reminded us of the dragon and lion dances from the Chinese New Year? which actually is just started? Now I said this thing is about the size of a house cat with a long tail L. But unlike a house cat had long talented could do a lot of damage. Yes actually the house. Cat Comparisons pretty great So House cats. Have these retractable. The clause right you know that from Ruin having your couch get ruined but These dinosaurs have really long talents on their feet. And actually unlike Mike Birds they also have pretty big clause in their hand. So this is definitely a predatory. Dinosaurs is reflected in his point. A little teeth and It's close relatives have even been found with Different kinds of animals in their stomachs. Oh Wow now it also had feathered wings the at think it could fly that so that's been a topic of a lot of debate In the community community of late We think that they're definitely able to use these wings to generate some amount of Of Lift so they're they're able to use the wings in a in a way able whether they're doing that to be more nimble to allow them to be able to maneuver over ground substrate or up into trees whether they're actually flying thing or whether they're gliding or flapping their falling. There's just an ongoing discussion about that. And hopefully we'll long as a kind of specimen that may be can slot into that debate and help others out but there other things you can use your wings for right absolutely and so This is where this idea that you mentioned in the beginning about Perhaps it's using it for part of its hunting Living Raptors Often especially hawks and Some askins will mantle their prey to hide it from other predators so that they won't try to you know steal it which is a really common thing among living birds and the also can use the The the pressure of their wings to sort of create more downward force and pin their prey more effectively to the ground. which would then of course dovetail very nicely with you use of their claws so this is an idea that was first proposed back in two thousand nine by a friend of mine Denver Fowler and a group of researchers at Montana State University where I was student at the time and they were looking at? Why would you still have feathers if you get big like the close relatives avalon dynamic velociraptor which people might be more familiar with when you get big? You're definitely not flying white. Why keep the feathers And so they thought maybe this might be a way understanding the origin of these feathered wings. Well let's let's talk about that. It'd be more. So how do you go from having the feathered wings like that and not flying and maybe using it to hold down your your prey to you know to a flying animal. Yeah that's a really intensely interesting to a lot of us. I think this transition from dinosaurs to birds. Words has been such a focus of a lot of people's research not only because he's incredible fossils out of China really allow us to drill into that. That's data just never had before but also because these big inclusionary transitions are such an incredible place to query to get at our evolution actually works and how you might see the origin of incredible things Such as the flight in birds So how you get from a an a winglike arm to a to a real wing that's being used for active flapping flight has been a big discussion Shen and so that we think the early steps are That you have to evolve feathers because the bird like wings dependent on having these integrity structures that grow out of the skin enlarge and form the major surface of the wing. And then from that. You have to have the both the skeletal muscular ability to move the wing in the right way and then as well the The the wing of a right size to create enough lift so several things people have determined as we kind of investigate. This is that dinosaurs have this huge Shrinking that went on as they reached the common ancestor of dinosaur. Like we'll long living bird And they also had a pretty interesting change set of changes in their brain as they approached the origin of of flight. So people are really coming out discussion from a lot of different interesting angles. Speaking of interesting I understand. There's a very interesting the story behind how you came to study this fossil you. You're lettuce stray. By one of the issues. I think Around the world these days but particularly in China where these incredible dinosaurs are being found. Is that there's somewhat of a trade in fossils people wanna buy these things and of course my position as a scientist is that the the important fossils deserve to be studied and brought out to the public on like we're trying to do with our new dinosaur But a lot of times people will actually alter fossils in order to to make them more appealing on the market and so the first fossil that I given I had a great introduction at Dalian Natural History museums big museum in northeastern China They were really really welcoming and they said here's the coolest fossil we'd love for you to study this. I've been introduced there by my advisor. MONTANA STATE DIV Req- who is also a CO author on this paper and so we sat down with his fossil. And we're looking at it and I was so intrigued because this was a slab that had not only dinosaur on it but another dinosaur and a bird and so this we were thinking this is going to be the biggest news. The more we looked at where we realize. This is a bunch of different pieces of things that have been stuck together and it didn't belong at all So that was sort of heartbreaking just identified that's fake that's fake that's glued together and so that really made me gun shy to work on a lot of these fossils so we took a lot of care are in working with Wu Long Once introduced to it they they were They said Oh darn and then they took us back to look at their incredible collection of actual actual unaltered fossils That they were very thankful. Turn out to be to be real this community you. You found it by accident in the back of the collection somewhere. Yeah so so. There's this concept. I think that the scientists don't know we have in our collections and true and untrue. So I think that there's definitely room for discovery not just out in the field. Where UH hopefully many of us will get the chance to look for more fossils but also in museum collections? But that doesn't mean that people have no idea so that the scientists in Dalian are pretty smart and they they definitely knew these three or four. Fossils might be something interesting but they even. They didn't know that it was going to be a new species so that was a really interesting moment when we finally looked at it convinced ourselves that it wasn't faking anyway and then realized it was a new tax on now I understand. You have a another fossil in your sights right now There's a couple different things going on so I was like tell people that this is actually the golden age for for finding in describing dinosaurs. And there's a lot of things behind that new technologies the the increase in in digital databases museums. Allow us to find these fossils that are still hidden back in our archives and then the biggest thing I think is international cooperation and the ability to work with scientists around the world like we did with scientists in Dalian so my old adviser Dave Radio and now co worker We actually have a specimen that we just got accepted to a paper and I can only say so much. But it's going to tell us a lot about dinosaur reproduction and so this is a dinosaur. That's actually really closely associated with eggs and working on this with scientists at Ah Jong Natural History Museum in southern China so I understand there are actually eggs inside this fossil. That's correct and We present on the spot on the past. We've done a lot more work on it actually able to sample the eggs and cells and determine where that came from and it was really neat conclusions and so that's a really rare cheap but it highlights how well the The the preservation of many of these fossils is in China and the value of of working with people from around the world. You say we're in the golden age of dinosaur discovery. Why is that is have anything thing to do with younger? Scientists coming into the field so I definitely think it does not just younger scientists but also scientists of not just one gender and not just one nationality unholiday and not just one language and so I think this opening up of science in general has started to make it into paleontology. I think that's only good on. Not only is it a joy to work with a broader group of people people but it opens up new ideas and new places to search So I think that in and of itself would mean it's gold nation paleontology. So Ah this is a time when we're discovering more than we ever have before and I think those things are linked so of I always say the last five years of dinosaur discoveries have yielded more new species than any other five year period in history. So what who's paying for all of this you know. I always preach follow the money. If you're finding more things they might be more people who want to find more so that's a good question and appealing. Tally is not well known for being the world's best talking about particle physics here. So I mean if you WANNA use your platform performed helpless farmer dinosaurs. Return appreciate it I think there's been more funding in other countries. I think that the National Science Foundation and other things are really responsible responsible for a lot of this and you see that. I hope reflected in a lot. More Open publishing in scientists. Be really willing to show their work as widely as we can always possible but when it is I I think that's a really positive development of new books coming out. Steve Rusada great book few years ago. Books Excellent Yeah. Everybody should check that out. And and and there's always you know there's there's always interested in Interest in dinosaurs and always i. I know parenthetically that you also studied Wales job that that's it does seem like a bit of a jump well partly I think. I hope I know that people love dinosaurs. I loved dinosaurs. They also don't exactly But for me whales take a lot of the same boxes and people might say how there's whales their lives now but for me the dinosaurs these incredible monsters but they were real. Oh and and I think because you can see one and you can see a video of one you might not realize it but we are definitely real monsters. And that doesn't mean that they're bad. I don't mean monster in that sense I mean their monstrous. They are different from what we expect their huge In the dinosaur we described is tiny but of course dinosaurs also include the largest things that ever walked on on land but they're outsiders even by the blue whale that we have alive today. These are animals that have grown the single largest bone that has ever existed on earth. And that's the the bottom was single jawbone of a blue All right now in San Diego we have some of the best collections of fossils anywhere in the world and so it's really a cheap to get to work on on that and ask some of these same questions so if you're interested in how it comes a bird I think it's really cool to think about. How a walking hoofed carnivorous deer like animal becomes a whale? Oh and that those transitions just saying we're going to have you back actually to talk about that more than love because that's great stuff. Actually is a post doctoral researcher at the San Andy Ego Natural History Museum. Thank you for taking time to be with us today when we come back Y Drug researchers are flouting federal law that requires them to publicly luckily report results. Coming up after the break. Stay with us. This is science Friday I am I replied. Oh it takes a long time before a drug doug can make its way into your medicine cabinet. And there's a good reason for that researches have to recruit human subjects for clinical trial. Then collect all all the data and analyze the results and all of that can take years to complete but the end result could be a drug candidate that treats a rare disease or improves. The patient's lives with fewer side effects or could result in a drug that doesn't have any effect on a disease or makes patient works worse or is an absolute allude failure. Currently there are over a hundred thousand of these clinical drug trials happening in the US that can be found listed on a on a website. Clinical clinical trials dot Gov a public facing website where researchers are required by law to register all clinical trials and report the results else this ensures that either way if a drug candidate fails or becomes the next big thing that public is kept informed. Accept two recent investigations of clinical trials that gove reporting practices show that many researchers aren't posting. They are not posting the results on the site. In fact up up to twenty five percent of the studies never seemed to have their results reported anywhere even worse government agencies are not enforcing the law in ways. They've promised with heavy fines. Threats to withhold funding from institutions that do not comply. What does this mean for? Safety of drug trials riles. And why has the government done nothing to crack down on researchers breaking the law joining me to talk about. This is Charles Pillar a journalist who conducted one of the investigations of the Clinical Trial Dot Gov for Science magazine. He joins us by skype. Welcome to science Friday. Thanks very much. I regret beer. Nice to have you doctor Dr. Dr Deborah Zarin is part of the Multi Regional Clinical Trial Center at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. Welcome to science Friday. Thank you happy to be here. Nice to have you Charles you've investigated this for Science magazine. Give us give us a picture of what you uncovered well. The picture is not very a pretty This is a law that requires the registration and reporting of drug and device trial results and and it's critical to evidence based medicine and for a variety of other reasons including honoring the contributions of volunteers who at some personal risk agree to be test subjects for these trials and what I found was that although there has been some improvement by some organizations particularly as it happens. Large Pharma companies over the last few years in reporting the results of their trials and it's been a terrible deficit opposite in that reporting by some of the leading academic organizations some of the most eminent medical centers in the country and one I'll just note note in particular is MD Anderson Cancer Center so this is obviously one of the most important research organizations in the country. Well known for its work on immunotherapy and other kinds of cancer trials and the former one of the former executives at Md.. Anderson who was heading up their program is now FDA. Can Knit Commissioner that Stephen on and they had a terrible terrible records for reporting worse than than many of the most important academic medical centers in the country. So I I know from your reporting according to about a third thirty one point. Six percent of completed trials have not had the results posted. That's right and I WanNa make it clear that This is a very conservative. Look we did at clinical trials dot Gov reporting When I say conservative what I mean is that there are hundreds of thousands of trials that are registered on the site but because of variety of legal and regulatory changes over the years? There's really just just a small percentage of those that are right now according to the government and when I said the government I mean FDA and the National Institutes of health according those two very important agencies that regulate the system only a tiny fraction of those studies are legally reported to provide the results by about now and where we took a look. At this data this was back in September It was about forty seven hundred clinical trials that were really needed to report the results by that time and as you say of those almost a third had not given any data and eaten worst part of the picture is that that even among the ones that reported many of them reported late far after the deadline so this innocence delaying the time when doctors patients nations and other researchers get keen access to that information doctors. Aaron can you give us a history of this law wide. That why did we need this law. How how come you know? Took two thousand seven to get it on the books. Sure and let me make sure your listeners know that You mentioned my current earn position but I was the director of clinical trials dug up from two thousand and five to two thousand thirteen to two thousand eighteen. So I was living this experience It used is to be that investigators whether from a drug company or an academia would do a clinical trial. They could decide whether when and how to report the results of those trials us so they would the way to report them was in the published literature but nobody was looking to make sure that they were published and we now know that many weren't published for example will drug companies might have done you know nine or ten studies of particular drug and only published the one that came out to their liking. Another story is that a company or an academic might conduct a trial and publish it but distort what the original protocol said or how they conveyed. What was done in the trial and even those in the peer reviewed literature the Journal Editors had no way to know that this wasn't true because there was no other record about what the trial was or that it existed Academic researchers we now know only published about half of the trials that they conducted for whatever reasons they just didn't publish the trials and the thing is that it used to be that people like Charles Pillar couldn't have done the public audit that he's done because there was no list of trials so if they didn't publish didn't even know they existed so congress passed the law that's fondly known as da the Food and Drug Administration's act to correct defy this problem for drug and device studies. And I just want to say even though I agree with Charles. That compliance is nowhere near what we wanted to to be. It's had a huge impact so Trials are in general being registered. which is again why these kinds of public audits can be done because we have have a pretty good list of all the trials that are initiated and over forty thousand sets of trial results are in clinical trials dot Gov and about half of those results that aren't in the published literature so there would be no other way of knowing those results without without clinical trials dot gov but that being said it's completely liane ethical to do a trial not report the results because the only reason that society lets us? Let's researchers experiment on their human on their fellow-humans is that the results are made available for the medical community to use those results to inform either medical or scientific decisions. If those results are made available there was no justification for including people in that trial. And that's an unethical Situation Well let me. Let's talk about the watchdog Supposedly the government's supposed to be a watchdog on publishing these things and supposed to have a fines and things for the people who don't publish them. Doctors Aaron why have we not seen a rash of justice. Come down on this. That's that's a really tough question and again I'm not the one in charge of enforcement. I suppose if I was it would picture would look quite different So I there was a long wait until the final rule or the regulations were enacted it and those took effect in two thousand seventeen because the regulations clarified all sorts of details about this very complicated law And at that time as Charles Charles mentioned in the article that he published Leaders of those organizations it was Dr Calif at the FDA Dr Collins at Nih. Dr Collins is still that and I made very strong statements that they were going to enforce and it's very disappointing to me that they haven't done any enforcement I think there are. There are probably many reasons for that but I find it. You know unacceptable pillar of what. What reasons do you think there are for that? Thank you for that elevating my standards. I've been but yes. There are many reasons for it. According into both and I H Nafta they believe in quote unquote voluntary compliance. They want to use moral suasion. They want to urge urge trial. Investigators to do the right thing. Unfortunately what we've seen is that over the last five years that that method while it has some limited effectiveness is really not what moves the needle in getting people to do the right thing and report their results. And I say this advisedly in part because I've been writing investigations about this topic since two thousand fifteen and the first one I did was with stat the medical and Biomedical Research News website. And what we found was that the situation was even worse back then back in two thousand fifteen that There was horrific record of travel reporting by all kinds of sponsors both corporate and academic and what we did for the first time and Is Name names to talk about the institutions that were the worst lawbreakers the ones who seemed to show the least care about about Presenting the data associated with these important trials. And what we found was that that did indeed have an impact There was improvement in trial reporting was obviously not exclusively due to that sort of reporting. Nih his efforts have been heroic in trying to educate researchers on how to do this better. And I credit them as well but I think what we know from experience as that naming and shaming the scofflaws often has the most serious impact on this in the absence of enforcement. So why isn't there enforcement and it's really perplexing question because the comments. It's coming as as Deborah mentioned that comments coming from the heads of FDA IN NIH in two thousand sixteen when they announced this so-called final rule associated with this law was meant to just put people notice deep. Got Years to prepare for this year's to ensure that your studies these are now being reported effectively and so now years later we take a look and they're not being reported in an H.. FDA are essentially doing nothing to enforce the the law but some academic medical centers have stepped up right to be in line with the law. Indeed indeed and that's very encouraging now. I don't want to paint too bleak picture picture. Let's talk on the positive side for a moment Institutions like some of the major Pharma companies are following the letter of the law in other words for the most part. They're reporting the results within the legal deadlines some leading academic medical centers such as memorial. Sloan Kettering during Duke University Johns Hopkins. who were poor performers? When I last took a look at this issue couple years ago they are now doing much better and for the most part are complying with requirements the law and the ethical requirements of reporting results. But I think it just a caution Russian listeners for one moment about what it means in particular for the drug companies that seem to have a kind of perfect record in following the law There are many loopholes in the law that allow entities that are working towards approval. FDA approval to put a drug on the market to withhold Trial information from the public. And those are Meant generally to protect proprietary information seek trade that secrecy to prevent competitors from getting a leg up on them and it's understandable that that would be protected for some time but it's been found in other studies that that a lot of times the drug companies never report the results of those trials to clinical trials dot Gov so the only way to even learn what happened is to dig deep into the FDA struck approval packages. which are really well? Beyond the capacity or ability of ninety nine point nine percent of doctors let alone patients nations in general public. I mean just break in and say I am I replied. Oh this is science Friday from WNYC studios so even while they're reporting that you have to really dig again there to To find him as you mentioned these drugs. I and you singled out MD Anderson Very well-known cancer percenter and Houston are you naming shaming them today. Well indeed and in the article Some of the institutions that we think of has being the most prominent in the country the most important progenitor of clinical research in the country including MD Anderson a mass general. Tayo Clinic and others Have had really mixed terrible records in reporting the results. In one of the reasons I single some of those outlook outlook just take. MD Anderson as an example they have the highest number of clinical trials due for reporting under the new find in so-called final rule that we looked at for this story More than any other institution and I looked at their performance years ago and I found that they actually did worse now than they did years ago in reporting the results of their trial so that that's a pretty doubling grueling data by me let me let me break in and and has doctors Aaron how she would think how you would incentivize academic medical centers to be more compliance alliance. Well that's a really good question and of course I've thought a lot about it You know what you'd like is leadership to understand that reporting your results of your. Your trials is both a scientific and an ethical imperative and We don't see much of that. Sometimes at academic medical centers at least from their public statements meant what you see is not wanting to be on the wall of shame. So you see them saying it's a law you have to do it which works but isn't as good as saying saying not only? Do you have to do it. But there's a really important reason that you have to do it. I like to compare it to the regulations that require that we get informed consent from every trial participant. Can't imagine if there was an academic medical center that had eighty percent compliance with that particular requirement Would they be proud of that. Would Society Stand Dan for the fact that twenty percent of their trial. Participants didn't even give informed consent and yet being in a trial that has no chance of advancing medical. Science is is to me equally as unethical as not giving informed consent to be in a trial. So it's important to think about that so without the leadership of your academic medical center our Caring about whether you do this other than whether you're going to get caught and shamed or worse yet actually enforced I think there needs to be both enforcement forcement by our government agencies. FT NIH and we need people at Charles Pillar to keep holding people accountable. I think public accountability. which again is possible possible? Because in general people are registering their trials. You can you can get that. List of trials from clinical trials of public. Accountability is probably where we have to ago and really make it very uncomfortable for institutions to be out of compliance. We've given you a little Platform to allow the public to know what's going on and it I don't think this is something. They were very much aware of how much it impacts research Thank you Dr. Aaron Deborah Zarin part of the Multi Regional Goal Regional Clinical Center at Brigham Bigham and Y Y Women's Hospital in Boston and who was also part of the clinical trials Dot Gov Organization Charles Pillar Investigative Journalists for Science magazine Kazini. Thank you both for taking time to be with today. Thank you so much thanks. You're welcome after the break. We're GONNA talk about how chemistry might be the key ingredient here. Perfect Cup of coffee coffee. We'll be talking about coffee. Science got a question. Do you have a question who doesn't about coffee. Science eight four four seven two four eight two five five is our number. Are you can also tweet us at Scifi. We'll be right back after this break. This is science Friday. Ira Plato is making your Morning Cup of coffee. Offi like a sacred ritual carefully grinding. The beans just a certain way depending on if you're having an expresso or a drip next you boil oil the water to the exact temperature not too hot and finally you brew. Are you going to steep it. Pour it over or leave it up to the coffeemaker UPI Magar. There's a lot of details that go into coffee. But what is the science going on behind those steps because as we know what dose of science can make most things things better and your coffee more consistent team. Researchers used math models to figure out the optimal grind size to get the most out of your Expresso poll results published in the Journal matter. Christopher Hinton is one of the authors on that study and Assistant Professor of chemistry at the University of Oregon in an Eugene. He's here to talk about these results and to talk coffee science because we know the best part of waking up is having chemistry in your cup welcome welcome to science Friday Hira. Thanks for having me. I know you spend a live. Read all these papers you've written you spend a lot of time on coffee chemistry don't you. That's right You no I like to think of it as one of my more sophisticated scientific outreach programs so I know you're working on building new kinds of materials right. What what does that have to do with coffee? Well a lot of the chemical principles that I use in my day to day lab with my graduate students and undergraduates here at the University of Oregon are based on this or are an application. The same principles that we're using in the coffee science What I studied here at Yoyo is related to energy materials and more often than not in energy? There is transfer of mass moving from one place in space to another and you can actually think of that. Problem is the same problem. When you're modeling or thinking about how you extract coffee interesting? I want to get into the chemistry chemistry of coffee so I'm going to give out the phone number. Eight four four seven two four eight to five you can also tweet us at Sei fry Let's get into into the grind. Your study looked at getting a consistent. Shot out of your espresso. Poll and Espresso is right usually brewed with a very fine fine grind size. But you found something different right so the currently the average way of producing espresso is to grind very very fine and use something like twenty grams. If you're in the United States Australia Germany etc and move about forty to fifty milliliters of water through this twenty grand puck of coffee on average are going to extract something like about twenty percent of the mass so eighty percent of the mass is going to be wasteful and that twenty percent of the mass is ended up solvent in the cup and hopefully taste good to you as the end user when we were examining Building a model we thought well. Okay the extraction must is be related to the surface area available from grinding the coffee and so as we developed armada we realized that as you grind finer you expose more surface area and so one would expect for the same same amount of coffee and the same amount of water that you should be able to extract more real proportional to the surface area but in reality we found that actually grinders produce very small particles and very Relatively large ones as well and these two particle sizes coexist and when you produce a critical the number of these small particulates. They tend to clump now at certain grind settings sufficiently fine. You'll find that the clumping actually causes the water to percolate through that bed in an in homogeneous or uneven way and it is at these grind settings that we also happen defined are widely used in the production of Espresso and so the conclusion from the or or at least when examining the status quo is that conventional espresso today is used with an uneven exposure of the coffee to water resulting folding in variation in flavors that are not attributed to the human but rather attributed to the method in which we produce espresso right. Now let's say I want to make my own espresso or I just want to do it in the coffeemaker had why decide what's the best grind for me because I can go to the department the the supermarket and grind it to different consistencies hats. Right what can I do at home to make sure I'm getting the best grind and had were experiment with that. That's right so so This is sort of touching on on a flavor perception problem as well so typically we would advise to start with coarsely ground coffee and now by large I mean course here. I don't mean French Press Course I still oh meaning espresso grind. It's still quite fine to the human eye. You start grinding with that dose. And you're GonNa Bruce them coffee and if it tastes a little thin and a little weak can perhaps a little too acidic a non enough chocolate than you wanNA grind a little finer and now you're gonNA progress doing this to a point but at some point you're going to notice that the concentration of the coffee in other words the strength is beginning to decrease and the flavor intensity is beginning to increase in a negative way. And at this point. You know you've gone over over the hill and you're no longer evenly extracting from your coffee. You're in the side of uneven or in homogeneous extraction and you need to back off from there once you're at that point that's where the real fun begins. Wow that's great. I can experiment with that. Because I'm a geek and I can become a coffee Geek. I think one thing I've I've heard controversy really over over the years. We've talked coffee for almost thirty years. Science Friday is people have different opinions about how to best store their coffee right in the freezer in the refrigerator. Raider in on the counter. What have you found so actually in two thousand sixteen I actually studied this and we published an open access journal One of the key. The things with coffee is that it begins its life as a seed from plant so it has about eleven and a half percent moisture contained within once you roast it. You're going to drive off almost all of that water if not entirely all of it make it completely anhydrous and so obviously this material is going to be much more dry than the atmosphere that surrounded by and so it's going to want to condense water within so the first and most important thing is to make sure that you keep the coffee Air Free but only because you're trying to keep away water or moisture However were we're then put in a bit of a pickle because the arrhenius equation tells me that if I cool things down most rates of reactions go slower so if I wanNA preserve coffee for a long time I want to keep that is cool as possible? Perhaps in the freezer but the problem with a freezer of course is it's pretty wet so you're stuck in this Sort of in the middle here a push poll and so we actually end up. Recommending people do is to to keep it in the freezer but in a vacuum sealed tight vessel You see this occurring more and more and at the moment we don't have a polymer the the type of plastic bag perhaps that you would be able to reuse so it's somewhat wasteful at the moment And so therefore you only see this in very special cases where you're trying to preserve very high value Types of why couldn't I put it in a jar but the LID Ontai that works perfectly fine but if you open up the jar while the coffee is still cold. In Room in the atmosphere atmosphere then you're going to condense water from the atmosphere onto the surface and inside those beans and so the more times you do that you know progressively you're gonNA have more and more water being condensed within that vessel so so you're free indeed. It is freezer burn. Yeah why your coffee smell like fish sticks. That's that's true now when I take the coffee out to grind it though I grinded frozen I wanted to grind. It throws in that way. So we've actually found that temperature does directly affect the size of the smallest particles in the grind. And it's it happens to be favorable so actually the as you cool down cracks. Propagate through materials more quickly and and result in more unified particle sizes. And so these small particulates formed are very reproducible. When we cool this coffee or cool any material cereal for that matter and so we do recommend actually grinding it frozen and then once you once you expose the frozen grounds to hot water? They very quickly the equilibrium temperature of the water in brewing. His as per normal. All right let me get to the water. Because I found something amazing in your research and that is We should not not be using. Distilled waters are reverse osmosis. Whatever we should be using hard water when making? Yeah so so. It's this language of soft and hard is complicated because It's very easy to define soft. You know water. That doesn't have very many minerals. Dissolved within but hard water is simply defined as water that contains lots of minerals but it depends on their identity so instead of talking about calcium magnesium and they are important the main mineral were trying to avoid using is by carbonate Because bicarbonate creates a buffer to try and stabilize. The and coffee itself is acidic in fact we like acids and coffee even if we don't proceed them necessarily as you know the peel of lemon or whatever. We still enjoy the acid because they taste like sweetness acidity so so we simply don't WanNA use water that contains high levels of bicarbonate but if we could have other minerals there that did not buffer acids would be ideal. Doesn't water softener have bicarbonate in it so typically a water softener actually exchanging out calcium and putting in sodium and so why it softening the water or is it's preventing calcium and carbonate to coexist forming limescale. But it's not actually killing the bicarbonate it's simply actually removing the thing that we actually want for coffee extraction which is calcium. Wow had just you know I always thought the pure of the water so well let me go. Go back to that does. Does that mean you know we talk. We here in New York we talk about. We take our coffee seriously. We take our eagles seriously. I mean could that be the same kind of watery thing going nine and what makes a Bagel better than what makes one coffee better. Interestingly there is a company that has reaped created the chemistry of New York water for making bagels. So people have caught on to this idea. Already the reason that we were talking and you first mentioned the idea of using software distilled water as being a positive thing for coffee is not because it's somehow You know that's what's taught it's not because it's somehow better or worse it's because it doesn't have bicarbonate that's just it's guarantees so you're at least you know you're going to get some of the positive flavors but if when you're looking at New York tap water or municipal water provided wherever in the state of New York work you're right it does impart some sort of terroir. Some chemistry related to New York's specific water and that has enabled the production of things like bagels. An exceptional coffee in the city. So you've just justified what we like to say here in New York. Thank you for that You're welcome. Okay let's go back to brewing methods. Now I'M GONNA move off through because a lot of interesting things. There's a trend now. At coffee shops we can choose your brew method right. You're poor over your steeping. How do these methods extract? The coffee molecules out differently. And how do you choose which one is right. Yeah that's an extremely complicated. So shops that offer a wide variety of brew methods are really really working. Hard to present that as an option for the customer More often than not. You'll find maybe one or two choices for a given coffee typically Barista's custos shopowners roasters. Home enthusiasts are making decisions about How they're going to extract the coffee based on primarily three things first of all is the roast degree so it is typical in the coffee industry to find darker roasted coffee being used in Espresso and the reason is is that you? You're going to sort of moderate some of the acids that exist in the green bean gene. So that you're not going to get something that's extremely acidic and and it very hard to enjoy and so you find the dark. Roasted coffee are more prevalent and that's pretty much summarizes the Seattle Seattle coffee scene Places like Italy and so forth the next thing that practitioners typically want to consider is the concentration in which they wanna consume the coffee so if he make a filter coffee you're going to use twenty grams of coffee. Say but you might then pour over two hundred and fifty milliliters of water on it and that makes them much more dilute everage than if you were to use was twenty grams of coffee and use only forty milliliters in an espresso machine and so indeed it is coffee specific as to whether you wanNA taste the concentrate or the the stretched out version. Let me just remind everybody. While we're having our next cup of coffee I am. I replied Oh this is science Friday from WNYC studios talking with Christopher insistent professor of chemistry at the University of Oregon in Eugene Would you be a coffee Geek. Would that be the correct classification or ICS. Yes Sir I think I think now. I'm a Coffee Researcher Oh okay yeah I do you. Do you have your favorite method of brewing brewing methods. They cheese yes. Oh my in my office. When we have academic visitors? I love to present them a coffee. That has unusual flavors and so forth but typically find the most reproducible way for me to do that in my hands as a pour over method. Something like a V. Sixty or Khalil wave or something like this but if I were to go Out and enjoy a coffee by far. My favorite format is to try the coffee both as an espresso and with espresso with a little bit of milk and I call that a one and one where you have the same shot split in half that way you know you're getting the same espresso but you can see how the flavors translate when you add milk. Isn't that called Cafe Ole in France. The cafe. Paola is indeed. Yeah you're right. It's coffee milk but Probably a bit bigger than the old Uh Espresso and Cortott Combo talking about how I remember growing up with a percolator later. Oh yeah how wha what. How does that work differently than the way we brew coffee now? So it's interestingly it's becoming more popular once again. There's been a resurgence no kidding tailing basement. Yeah well yeah. He's probably worth a lot of money and the The inventor actually recently passed away and there was a there was a big ceremony in Italy for this. It was you know it was a it was essentially a party because indeed the percolator was sort of one of the earliest embodiments of the portable espresso machine in the sense that you start with water at the bottom you boil it. You create a critical pressure of steam and that steam pressure that has then forced through the puck of coffee. That gives you an extraction and that is only enabled by having that addition of pressure. And then you can get a very concentrated beverage out of it and so actually a percolator is is essentially a portable espresso machine without all the bells and whistles. Yeah but it also recycles the coffee over and over again. Doesn't it goes back up again. Yeah there is a little so it depends on the design China. Of course there's ones that look like a fractional distillation column where wants the water is sufficiently boiled and steamed passes through the puck then goes through the sort of cap and can no longer we circulate so it depends on the embodiment but But you're you could. That's the van run. Is it that the big bowl on the top and the pot on the bottom goes up. So I think the one I'm referring to specifically sometimes we're called the Moka Pot and The percolator coffee is does have this. It's more or less a Moka Pot with a recycling feature but you know the either of them are are having resurgence because of its portability so really is so. It's it's it's not the machine we think it is something a little more complex complex. That's right and you know this just for someone who grew up with a percolator as a teenager is something also it helps you buy you feel good when a big pot of coffee comes over. You know the the experience that you don't get from a little poor over and a cone. Yeah so so in in in the percolator later sense. You're thinking you're in this referring to like like mister coffee type product big pots. They find it the I see so when I think of the percolator I I was referring more than Moka Pot. I'm sorry no no no. I'm talking about the percolator that you know is the stainless steel thing. You plug into the wall you know we are referring to. Yeah yes so you're right. There is something that still resonates with me as well and I go into a diner for example and I see this big pot of coffee sitting on top of the brewer and you know it. It means it's it's going that'd be a good day I know I I'm GonNa end it because that's my cup of coffee. Also that's the complicating and a coffee. I like thank you. Thank you very much for my pleasure. Absolutely absolutely Enlightening us about coffee and everything we needed to know. Christopher hinton assistant professor of chemistry at the embracement of Oregon and Eugene just a quick note not a science Friday vox pop up. We'd like you to go there for our next degree of degrees of change series. We're looking at how climate change is affecting native American communities one of these if you are a tribal member we wanna hear what adaptations you and your community are making and Please go there And tell us what how it's affecting affecting your tribal community and Lee Messaging you. Maybe we'll play you back on science Friday Next next time we do. Our degrees have changed series. Also we're on. We're we're you know we're on social media all week long and Sale it was there and hope you enjoyed the show today. Hope you're able to listen to it by You know how you were able to listen to it. Were you able to list to live on on the live feed. We'd like to know that. Have a great weekend on my Reflejo in New York.
July 8, 2019: Captain Cook's Legacy; Canadian Market's Plastic Bags
"This message comes from here and now sponsor indeed if you're hiring with indeed you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions then zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started at indeed dot com slash npr podcast from npr and wb you are i'm jeremy hobson i'm robin young it's here and now this morning in manhattan federal court charge billionaire jeffrey epstein with sex trafficking underage girls president trump was a friend of epsteins he wants commented on how epstein liked younger girls and trump's current labor secretary alexander acosta help negotiates what we've seen as a soft deals were epstein on similar sex trafficking charges back in two thousand eight so epstein is making his way into are politics look ahead which also includes the president's promised that ice agents could raise undocumented immigrants homes fairly soon and news at the department of justice has swapped out the legal team that argued for the inclusion of a citizenship question on the twenty twenty census npr senior washington editor and correspondent ron elving is here i ron hard wedding and start with epstein a former president clinton also knew him flew on his private jets but the focus is on current secretary of labor alex the cost of because in two thousand eight he was he was attorney in miami he struck that deal with epstein that allowed him to avoid federal charges of paying underage low income girls for sex that would have been life in prison epstein did months in jail but acosta arranged for him to leave everyday how may this shakeout so the trump administration there has been unhappiness about that entire arrangements from a decade ago ever since within the justice department and certainly in florida it came up during a costa's confirmation hearings when a president trump made him secretary of labor but acosta was confirmed an earlier this year at the urging of one republican senator ben sasse of nebraska the justice department reopened or opened a new investigation into all of that and certainly to a costa's role in it taking essentially the feds out of it letting the state charges prevail letting epstein ultimately plead out and have that very very generous work release program a all of that is going to come back into discussion at this point and there's gonna be a lot of pressure on the secretary of labor costs okay so a lot of eyes on this courtroom in manhattan meanwhile the president mass deportation roundups are coming fairly soon and he said this before but here's department of homeland security official conclusion nellie speaking to fox news sunday this is just what isis supposed to do the fact that we fall under the point point where we were talking about it like it's news tells you how far that we have fallen enforcement side i mean there it is the most violated federal court order in america and then at the end on tell us about you know the court order what he's talking about and you know on sunday this took place as there was a scathing new york times i'll paso times report about a detention center and so the border issues flared up what's going on here what's going on here is that a number of people who have entered the country seeking asylum an entered the country because the courts can handle them at the moment that they come across the border and such great numbers they go into the united states they're assigned a court date they are notified that court date is coming if they don't show up there's a federal court order for deportation motion those people probably never see that order that is not necessarily possible friday order to be served on their whereabouts may not be immediately clear but it is in federal court order end so if you want to enforce force it ice can go out and start deporting them now this isn't the first time the president has done as you say and the last time he said the raids were about to begin they didn't end there's no way of knowing whether the president or the people at homeland security or ice a really serious about it this time but we've seen seen the president used these threats of mass deportation as a tool in another themselves much as he's used say the threat of a new tariffs on one country or another one region or another in this case the threats also serve as you suggest to draw attention away from what's happening at the border on the conditions at the detention centers especially fraternity at kick up in the comments we have the reporting that the deal jay is changing its legal team that handled the citizenship question the supreme court decided that the administration could not include a question about citizenship for now on the twenty twenty census so what would the changing of the team the team that's been handling this for months has been telling several different federal judges a particular story about the administration and why it wants this question of what his intentions are all of that led to a dead end when the supreme court said no that's contrived and these lawyers announced last week the administration was hence forward throwing in the towel the supreme court said no but then on tuesday last the president's tweets saying we're gonna proceeding were gonna find a way around on this and that's what he has ordered his justice department to do and that's understandably difficult for that same set of boyer's the suddenly go back to the same judges say forget everything we said before now we've got a new story to tell you that's beyond being a credibility problem it would be easier for energy i you're right i mean for them to go in and say remember when we said it was about enforcing the voting rights act what we meant was a okay ron elving npr senior washington editor and correspondent just real quick maureen dowd had that interview is a nancy pelosi over the weekend nancy pelosi said at the left doesn't think left enough in her own party so be it a reaction to that real quick in san francisco you hear these kinds of complaints about her all the time from activist now we have some seemingly active is people in the house but in the end nancy pelosi manages to embrace in personify more of the democratic party than anyone else and she's very good at being in charge ron thank you thank you robin and when virginia this week state lawmakers will hold a special legislative session to respond to these virginia beach mass shooting that happened on may thirty first that left twelve people dead governor ralph northam is urging action on several measures restricting guns and some local officials are hoping the general assembly will pass a bill allowing them to ban weapons in municipal buildings w c v ease roberto role dan reports richmond city councilman michael jones tried twice last year to pass resolutions on confederate monuments after the deadly march in charlottesville virginia he wanted the city to take action but the dialogue wasn't all civil talking about you know bricks and mortar in i'm getting you know threats about hanging you know me in my children up by the neck jones who is african american since he became more concerned when confederate monuments supporters came to city council open carrying we got people walking in with guns you know and i've just received threats are any of those people in in this audience today then that's something i think about experiences like that were top of mind for jones after the mass shooting in virginia beach immediately called for better security at richmond city hall an late last month he joined mayor lavar stony introducing an ordinance banning guns and municipal buildings in public parks while weapons were banned in state offices courtrooms in federal buildings virginia walk currently prohibits localities from restricting firearms arms in any way it's called the preemption law in virginia is one of forty five states with that kind of statute on the books senator john edwards of roanoke has introduced bills that would allow localities to ban guns at local government meetings the bill has failed every year and the general assembly but edwards is planning to reintroduce it at the special session you gotta do something i mean to people who are demanding action this brought it to our attention even more once and then are i endorse democrat edwards took up this fight against the preemption law because of pressure from local officials including in his hometown of roanoke december seventy two year old robert rapidly walked up to the podium during public comments at a city council meeting could after no to the city council until the citizens gravelly gave a rambling speech in about a minute in he made a violent threat the council in roanoke near sherman lee were just feet away is a that out take you out i'll shoot you i'll do this you can't just that pass the mayor culture recess gravelly left he was eventual each charged with disorderly conduct like other localities roanoke is reexamining it security policies following the mass shooting in virginia beach in may but without the ability a banned weapons merely is concerned that it won't be enough now we can take precaution in terms of what dog will go out of wood doors lock but nothing stopping with a loaded weapon they've got a gun in a pot and they legally they can do that even with the virginia beach shooting local leaders know that it'll be a long shot gun control bills passed in the republican controlled general assembly in are in virginia says it'll oppose any location specific gun bans unless it's a secure facility like an airport an array spokesperson christopher co packie says allowing localities to regulate guns would defeat the purpose of the preemption long they didn't want it patchwork of laws and each jurisdiction and he's locality so if you were crossover from hanover county in ten right account into the city of richmond that there were potentially three sets of different laws just a few days after twelve people were shot and killed in virginia beach municipal center mayor buddy dyer spoke with msnbc he questioned whether it was time to discuss gusts gun reform this is a very recent thing and i think we just have the you just gotta be careful that we just don't have a knee jerk reaction when you believe city councilwoman sabrina wouldn't disagrees she says she doesn't think that it's a political conversation people people are saying timmy done visuals are ceremonies thank you for having that but what are you going to do on june eighteenth wooten councilman guy tyler introduced a resolution that would declare the city support for banning guns and you know supple buildings residents who spoke at the virginia beach city council meeting were deeply divided in council members voted each to to table the resolution newton says she's not surprised by the lack of consensus virginia beach on is representative it have you know diversity group a liberal conservative end you know this is also an election year upcoming special session democratic lawmakers are expected to file bills restricting the sale of certain firearms in instituting universal background checks republicans will likely oppose those measures focusing instead on mandatory minimums for violent criminals in november all members of virginia legislature are up for reelection making any compromise doubtful here and now i'm roberta roseanne enrichment support for here and now and the following message come from ember wave the revolutionary new personal thermostats that's designed to help you find thermal wellness in any situation amber waves can put you in control of comfort in places like you're freezing office uncomfortable airplanes in restaurants theaters after a workout at home and more learn more at amber waves dot com and use code npr save fifty dollars at checkout amber waves bonior temperature furniture two hundred and fifty years ago today in the south pacific captain james cook was about to leave the island of tahiti in search of lost continent noticed tara astrologers cook had been sent to the region by the british admiralty first to observe the transitive venus and then to find the story continent this was the first of three voyages all lasting for years the cook took when all of a sudden done he was dead on a beach in hawaii but he lives memory is one of the great explorers in human history were going to dive deep into his life and legacy over the next two days with cliff thornton a member of the captain cook society who knows more about captain cook than almost anybody cliff welcome to here now thank you jeremy so when you think of the explorers of the world where does captain cook rank he's not far off the top in terms of what he achieved and how much he completed the map of of the world considering what was it's available to him in in the late nineteenth century and tell us about the places that he discovered and i say discovered in quotes because there were already native peoples living in all of the places that he hit but tell us about some of the places that he discovered for the europeans peons some of the places being previously visited such as he went to haiti to take some astronomers do the transit of venus that had previously been visited by another english captain he also went to new zealand but that'd being visited by abel tasman some sixty is previously he did visit hawaii but some say the spanish should be now before you lose track of them there's so many of them when he started out the the pacific ocean was really a a blank canvas and visit by the time he finished that they were island see them everywhere that he'd he'd mapped an austin drawn detailed chops fill them and it took a long time in those days to get from the british isles out to the south pacific there was no panama canal to go through there was no panama canal and he was sailing in what was called the north sea kolia it'd been building up to the navy it'd been built so the comb trade it was a snow knows thing you will look if you could get knocked out of it and so how long did it take to get from the uk how to let's say new zealand well let's take the hate you not first voyage would be about six months in one go they stopped on route at various places but at the same time was easily six months and when you say they stopped on route and especially when they stopped in some of these islands like dt like tongo like other places in the south pacific they encountered people they're so how do they interact touted captain cook and his men interact with people on the islands well the first place she went to wash the haiti and he was fortunate that because the polynesian priest came to him and said look i really liked the travel with do i know all this area i couldn't tell you whether you islands i can help you navigate that and i can help translate he's name was to pyre and he really he was he's waiting go i don't think could achieve what he did with if it hadn't been for true pie whenever he got to win you island he would league coca show he would say sit on this end take a tough i'm just gonna make the speech and to pie made the speech to the local cheap and establish peaceful relations and it went from there so he used to pie as his translator yeah on the funny thing was when cook went back to new zealand on the second voyage the people said west to pioneer fortunately he he died when he kota a disease of tom you're on the home now captain cooks a team also brought to these islands food animals plants an a as the lake tony horwitz points out in his book in many cases venereal disease is well yes cook ships were off in a a bit like a noise out there were so many animals on them some some of them they took a long for let's say feeding the crew but primarily they were presenting to the chiefs of the islands where they visited just say look i have these animals and they will breathe if you look after them right and because they were the chief no one else suddenly island would interfere with them and whenever he stopped he would try and find a little piece of ground that he could till unplanned some seeds to see if european species would grow the so the if he was coming back another year who knows they might be a crop waiting for some of these animals he had so many chickens he let if you lose a let's say in queens shallow sound a new zealand and he hoped they would breathe in in the bush i i'm not sure whether they supply but certainly the goat study released certainly exist today in fact the new zealand government of said i don't care that being that two hundred and fifty is there an alien species she's we we won't let me read a kid what impact did he have overall on wildlife in some of these places i don't think he died directly would have had any impact on wildlife i mean the netflix jumbled wanted some so they might showed a few buds called a few fish some fish would have been cool to feed the crew but i don't think he really had an impact on on the wildlife it was those who came after him it was the settlers who wanted to take a few animals from home a you look at hawaii pool road hawaii suffering tremendously from the number of alien species that one of which is is the little spiral from england somebody must've taken it out because they wanted a spiral that there's probably more spyros on hawaii why isn't there are in england declined over here and then you've got somebody like him vancouver who traveled with cook on the third voyage he went back to hawaii in seventeen ninety three and presented the king with a couple of bottles and cows and said let them breathe and you'll have a good head in by eighteen thirty there were hundreds of head the problem was they being just left to rome about lee on the hillside mona law the volcano and they decimated the wildlife taking them many of the species that are no longer that well how did captain cook reflect on his role as an outsider are colonizer it's it seems like he was a little hesitant about the impact that the european pm perspective would have on some of these cultures i wouldn't call in mcallen so he he was a vegetarian and he was a regular visitor of some of the places like new zealand he he was there for every one of his three voyages and the benefit of that was he could see how the people changed from his first visit in seventeen sixty nine seventeen seventy three i think and then seventeen seventy seven and eight wasn't a good change and then if there was one impact it had on all of the people it was they discovered that the british had hyun there's no natural source of vying in any of the pacific islands it was almost a stone age existence if you went to the cut something you used the shopping stone or used and edge of a shell and so to actually say look here's this mentally you could shop and you can get a blade on 'em i'm so by these last visit cook actually requoted in journal that the people had become more greedy for the fundamental they wanted it so much they would prosecute their wives all they do is just get some metal off the sailors and they were saving from each other stuff that never existed it'd be full so cook sold out then and he he was disappointed what he thought he would bring his benefit to be island is what's actually leading to a deterioration and the same when he took mine hatch from the second boyd she'd scene they had on how it's made of stone so he took some i in hatchets out here while that she said you construct the trees down with these when he went back on the third voyage they were using those same hatchets attacking each other that's not what he wanted well the reason we know all of this about him is because he kept these meticulous notes along his journey every single day right him in his journal what you have thoughts did he did he write down about what he was thinking he wrote down the day today events and then whenever he had finished a visit to an island due to a people's he would summarize quite a quite length thee the description of the people's how they trashed what they spoke a glossary they would sometimes and the description of the land whether it was rookie whether the soil is good whether it would support crops and then he wrote down about the demeanor of the people and he as he went around the pacific he met people pulling in in vastly different stages of what she would say civilized nation for want of a better word until he to you had a social hierarchy but the people lifting pretty plain hops in a pretty simple lifestyle when he got to new zealand there was a far more structured 'em social positions they they lift in a lodge houses with these highly decorated facials to them and so they were far more advanced competitive titi will then he came to austrailia i'm found they aborigines lee leading almost a new manic existence surviving under piece is a buck the shelter and at first he let me reid what what he wrote because it's hard to believe that that he wrote this this is about average in australia the natives appear to be the most wretched people upon us but in reality their family happy then we europeans it's being holy and acquainted not only with the soup of louis but the necessary conveniences so much so after in europe yeah happy in not knowing the use of them they living tranquility t which is not dish to buy inequality of condition they said no value upon anything we gave them a no would they ever talk with anything of their own this is a forty two year old saying that he speaks like a sociologist right well he certainly seen enough people at this point in his life to have that background mm sort of empathy coming across in there as well i he he comes across is very much a humanitarian any any hurts me so much when a load of the indigenous peoples today are throwing sticks and stones the elliott cook will hear more about that tomorrow when we continue our conversation with lift or ten author of the book captain cook in cleveland he's so member of society you could see a map of cook voyages and learn more at here now dot org deutsche bank is laying off a fifth of its global workforce about eighteen thousand people the bank announced the move yesterday it has struggled for years to recover from the financial crisis antic clean up its reputation amid numerous high profile money laundering cases promote let's bring in jill schlesinger cbs news business analyst and host of jilan money hi jill so first of all why is deutsche bank making these big cuts eighteen thousand jobs as you said this is been a bank that's been struggling since the financial crisis in fact a lot of people think that the some of the big european banking companies really were slow to eradicate some of the bad loans from their balance sheets share price of deutsche bank has been you're record's low for the month end in fact in their own chief financial officer said that it's a vicious circle of declining revenue high running costs of falling credit rating andy increasing cost of funding not good so what is the bank could be doing to change the situation in change the trajectory well as you said in addition to cutting all these jobs eighteen thousand jobs what they are looking to do is wind find down there large u s investment banking division they're gonna get out of equity and bond trading and what they say they really wanna do is go back to focusing on german and european clients and try to really servicemen this is quite a turnaround from accompany the just twenty years ago but eight huge usa investment bank in order to try to compete with the likes of goldman sachs and morgan stanley n j p morgan chase will suicide question here joe why would a bank have trouble with stock trading in the midst of the biggest boom stock market i have to say that's the trading divisions of these big companies have actually starting to shrink because as we see more of an algorithm ick trading be actual money you can make on stock and bond transactions a pretty small these days okay so let's get into the other part of this story which is the georgia bank has been at the center of a lot of investigations into money laundering including one right now in which georgia bank allegedly helped transfer hundreds of billions of dollars in specific suspicious transactions out of russia v a dentist a danish bank how how much of these cases heard deutsche bank oh this is been weighing on this company specifically specifically for quite some time and you could imagine if you're in the middle of these huge investigation it's also very difficult to attract talent so i spoke to some folks who were head hunters who said they couldn't fleece people at deutsche bank simply because of all these problems that still exist now as part of this announcement yesterday doing bank said that it is now struck in agreement with the us some regulators throughout the world to get a little bit of breathing room on some of it's a common equity cure one ratio basically a getting a little breathing room on complying with some of the global changes in the regulatory regime but these are very big problems that are going away immediately and we should also note that a judgment is currently being subpoenaed by house democrats as well as new york's attorney general for president trump's financial trick yes you might recall that this was right after the michael cohen testimony on where cohen allege that president trump before he was president had inflated the value of assets to secure loans wiz deutsche bank and so what these investigations are seeking his information on loan applications and lines of credit dessert in connection with lots of different deals including that failed attempt that trump did try to buy the buffalo bills so this will be ongoing i think the deutsche to bank sort of saying we call it quits is actually the way it could potentially survive by the way one month away from its one hundred fiftieth anniversary in business just licensure sex much take care b and and it is good to discourage you so single use plastic bags that we know wells washing ashore stuffed with pounds of plastic mostly bags are underscoring bags due to the environment kenya has banned them anyone caught making are selling plastic bags could be jailed up to four years california hawaii have also ban single use plastic bags many towns have either ban them or charge for them canada is trying to eliminate them by twenty twenty one so a market in vancouver british columbia decided to get an early start well the heart within the right place david quinn is he owner of east west market there and vancouver david what you try to do is reduce the use of plastic bags and in fact your plastic bags became must have items explain we try to do with the plastic bags well a what the box a way we've been trying for both of you to reduce consumption so we figure we have to bring attention to it a figure to be better if we do it in a humorous way so that's why those bugs came about what you did you print did things on the bags they use thought would make people be embarrassed to carry them yes what are some of the phrases that you put on the bags 'em adult did your car don't don't video emporium so somebody would that bag of a look as if they just watch him adult video from the from the triplex video store and then there's a walk or a doctor toes ward whiteman wholesale l you had printed on another bag so people would think somebody had words on another bag you haven't wrinkle to colin care co op you thought nobody would be caught dead with these bags instead they've been flocking to get them yes then we find that humorous a which is good for us because we actually going to be trying misprint these images on canvas bugs they underlining tang is it it rich conversation and that's what we actually wanted to get across to the general public well so it actually you you feel it didn't work out for you because at the end that people were paying five cents for these bags that you thought were gonna ward them off but now you're seeing you're you're i i think there's a little bit of lemonade being made here lemons that okay well we got your attention now gonna transfer these slogans to canvas bags do you feel that you've gotten their attention on a deeper level yeah about not carrying plastic bag you know robyn a lot of people care about the environment adjusts has been brought to the attention of being taken contact the stall ever on me up to say about ninety six percent of our customers using their own usable bags which is great if you talk to people in a in a nice humorous way i think the lesson and all they understand why we have beach wales why when he gets in fishermen tumors and all these things they just have to be brought to the attention that we actually have a problem before i don't think the problem is start great well and i'm i'm understanding that you were born in trinidad and tobago and a lot of these island nations are really suffering from plastics in the ocean so maybe you're a little more aware of it you know well well question for you a we only you only have a couple of hundred of the original one thousand plastic bags you're printed up but as you said a you're gonna be transferring the canvas bags yes can those of us who are fortunate enough to be in vancouver it's beautiful there can we get some of those bags and support you online off course it was spread the word is a pause richer so if i wanna get a bag that says the colon care or the weird adult video emporium but there was another a saying on your plastic bags a in smaller print avoid the shame bring a reusable bag will you transfer that is well yes that is a message we want to get across okay so just a small print the actual message blind date i just wanna say one thing there's no shame in calling care either yes you do that too yeah well you know it's like everything when you're bringing awareness to it there's there's really no show now there's really no show david quinn owner the east west market in vancouver british columbia david thank you so much thanks rob yup good when the baseball world turns its case tomorrow to cleveland city all star game there won't be any trace of chief waffled on the field the controversial indians logos drop from team uniforms less fault but the familiar character with the red face in the big tooth grin is still for sale at the ballpark david see burnett a w cpn ideas stream explains there are legal reasons for that before recent game shanties thomas said andro son umbrella across the street from progressive field in downtown cleveland i want but selling even better than water on a hot summer's day that people say they can't get it anymore a block away chase singleton confirms why who is his biggest seller a lotta people like a stock up on the chief wahoo before he goes away for the cleveland is taking them out people wanna just be able to have it just so they can remember from their childhood and all that stuff in recent years native american protests calling the logo racist challenge a long tradition in january of twenty eighteen mlb commissioner rob manfred announced that cleveland team had agreed to remove chief wahoo who from all uniforms and banners in and around progressive field the ball club wouldn't comment for this story be on owner paul dolan's prior statement that she for who would be gone from the plainfield at the start of the twenty nineteen season but the grinning caricature hasn't vanished from the stadium entirely the teen gift shop still maintains a selection of while merchandise everything from bobbleheads and t shirts to children's caps and big foam hands to continue the half trademark rights over a logo ori word mark you must continue to use it intellectual property rights attorney mark ab sec says by maintaining while who's presence in the store they're keeping it out of the hands of manufacturers who could flood the market every kind of trotsky imaginable nobody should believe that chief while who would simply go away at the cleveland indians stop using it just down the street from the ballpark mike in laura kaminsky are selling cleveland oriented t shirts top selling their cleveland clothing company sells a variety of heroin gift items in six brick and mortar stores across the northeast ohio since they are mlb sanctioned their merchandise steer clear of certain words and images cried is ashley trademarked while his trademark among some other things but what if the indians would lift their while who writes laps that could be a major moneymaker mike kaminski shakes his head i think it's kind of a hot topic if you will and it's not really heavy avenue we go down to be creative on her own in anticipation of the all star game which is also eight trademark phrase the cleveland clothing company has just unveiled a new shirt that proclaims cleveland learn as an all star city back at progressive field bob keenness from defiance ohio walks out of the team shop with a bag of merchandise addicted chief wahoo path and so for for over seven decades indians fans keenest have grown up with chief wahoo so he feels torn about the change and he wishes there were more options than the letter c and the front of the players caps you know i like the black sea most teams will have a couple in addition to the the letter or letters of their city typically there's something else as well so i think it would be nice if the indians ultimately come up with something like that much for the time being people in this all star city and elsewhere will still see indians fans wearing a pair all featuring a familiar face with a lot of baggage for here and now i'm david see burnett in cleveland there's a growing trend in the world of coffee it's called nitra cold brew it is cold brew coffee infused with nitrogen and dispensed from aced out tap like you'd find and at a bar it started a few years ago with roasters in austin portland oregon has since flowed into mainstream chains like starbucks joining us now is matt harding zinn associate professor of chemistry at american university in washington dc welcome to now thank you could be here so first of all just explain to us how nitra cold brew is made it looks kind of like a guinness accepted obviously tastes like coffee it does look like a guinness right and really take get that sort of falling cascade of bubbles that makes guinness so you know iconic and what nitra cold brew starting to be you really just put a lot of nitrogen pressure around the coffee itself and you can take all that nitrogen from the air and you just bubble it right through you're coffee and did we just figured this out as a species that you can put nitrogen and it makes it so much worse move we had been playing lots of games with their food lately it's always fun to play with their food i teach chemistry of cooking at american university i tell all my students play with their food 'em so you know there are a couple of roasters in a couple of coffee places that kind of figured it out at the same time probably about six or seven years ago that you could put nitrogen into your coffee end it changes the the texture of the coffee and it changes the flavor a little bit to really what what is it do the taste you think so just starting with the coffee beans if you smell you're coffee beans those aromas are no longer in your coffee and so doing cold brew and itself is one way to preserve some the flavors that might escape really quickly when we do regular hot brew coffee nitrogen bruce does something else it's all these flavor compounds that make coffee what it is a they start reacting with the oxygen in the air as soon as you brew it and they decompose when they react with oxygen and so when you bubble nitrogen through you get rid of any oxygen in your coffee and so you preserve all these flavors that might not be there otherwise so why do you think this has become so popular so fast is it that different do think than regular cold brew i think there's a lot of it that is a big marketing ploy or just you know we go into a coffee shop and you see someone pulling a tap and and you think oh i gotta have that yeah right so there is some you know psychological thing that's hitting the biggest difference i think is in the texture of the night tro cold brew coffee and so if you put any sort of creamer on your coffee it changes the mouth feel of makes it a little little little remit that's right when you add bubbles it has the same effect ice cream makers do the same thing right there's the the double churn ice cream those ice cream makers put more bubbles into their ice cream to make it taste creamier even though there's less less cream in the end that ice cream and so you can give a illiquid extra mouth feel right so extra texture different texture just by putting lots of nitrogen bubbles into it so one of the things that i noticed when i had nitra trickled brew for the first time not too long ago i walked into a coffee shop i think you're probably right i saw somebody else get it they pulled the tap i just thought oh that looks kinda cool i'm gonna do that and i got it and i and i really liked it but i also noticed that i got more of caffeine kick then i feel like i do with just an ordinary coffee is that something that is happening with metro kober the that it's more caffeinated then even regular cold brew so it depends it depends on how they make it with any cold brew because you're steeping the grounds longer you have the potential to get more caffeine out of your coffee then you would otherwise so if i use a really course grind instead of a medium grinder a fine grind that course grind i'm gonna pull more caffeine out of that a in comparison to a hot brew coffee if he's the same course grind so it is definitely reasonable that you're gonna get more of a caffeine kick from any cold brew coffee it's just a matter of how they make it now we're talking to you about nitra colder today what is occupying most of your time as somebody who works in food chemistry right now is natural cold brew one of the hot topics right now so speak or is it something else a well we were getting in the summer and so i'm thinking more about ice cream right now and i'm also thinking about flavor combinations how you put weird ingredients together and make them taste taste really good so there's this great book called the flavor matrix by michael braschi any end some of the the flavor combinations he used his in their include 'em salon tro in strawberry that's really weird one i just saw recently in his book as as a potential pairing are beats and rum so new flavor combinations that can really excite are pallets in in different ways that is not hurting susan associate professor of chemistry at american university in washington dc thanks so much for joining us thank you jeremy well let us know what you think about metro cold brew if you have had it at here now dot org i kinda like it i know you're not asking me what it's expensive i know you don't drink coffee it is expensive it's like five dollars for one night tro who has that we're now is a production of npr wb you are in association with the bbc world service i'm jeremy hobson rounding young it's here now in the in the in the middle of the numbers monday monday and then then then then then then then then
Nobel Prizes, PayPal Investments, and Max Delays
"Thanks to Grammar Lee for supporting mark fully grimly is a communication tool that helps people improve their writing to be mistake free clear and effective start writing confidently by going to grammar dot com slash fool to get twenty percents off a grammar Lee premium account today thanks for listening and we will see tomorrow a trades below where it did five years ago and when you compare that to United Delta southwest all up over the past five years so going forward did you have a favorite airline's stock well I definitely have a favorite airline and if anybody knows me they know I love Budget Airlines so before I talk about spirit again Eriksson has pulled the Boeing seven thirty-seven Max from its schedule until mid January now emily the seven thirty seven Max has been it has some business implications I don't WanNa give it away but we're GONNA WE'RE GONNA be talking Nobel Prize but let's begin with the Airlines and American Airlines and news I'm not sure we've ever talked about the Nobel Prize on at least a market full Roy I've hosted we should we should and and we we are GONNA and expansion so it goes back to let him in the sense that American wants to be in growing markets in Latin America I think eight out of every ten flights heads to countries you seven Max well this means for American Airlines that they're going to be having to cancel about one hundred forty flights a day on average so it's definitely financially impacting the company Hilla where American Airlines previously had a partnership with Latin for those areas so it's kind of one setback after another for American Airlines right now are lines it's the largest Latin American Airlines I'm giving them a twenty percent stake in the business and highly coveted spot in these growing countries like Brazil Argentina Alta didn't have a single Boeing seven thirty-seven Max and their fleet when this happened so Delta has been picking up a lot of slack from these airlines while they've been canceling all these lights like the United States and North America so that's a huge market and if they learnt start to lose where they did previously have a little bit of an advantage to companies like Delta and has been removed from all airline schedules has not been allowed to fly since mid March so that part is at news the news is that it's going to be until mid-january Americans problems go well beyond the seventy seven Max it sounds like it does and we're talking not just about management cultural issues 737 Peraza talking about their International for American South West won't be buying the seven thirty seven Max until January fifth united until December nineteenth so what do you make them the American news in the seven hundred Jim just made a look at that I'm not wizz air is a real airline never heard it is I think it's Hungarian but it's a budget European airline on that it's really going to start hurting their bottom line okay let's talk about that as we close let's talk about the stock shares of American down over the past five years now the talks been incredibly volatile but it's and it's kind of adding a little bit of salt to the wound here because just a couple of days ago Delta actually close on its two billion dollar deal with a lot M great and airline metrics which is the cost per available seat mile which I guess for Wiz is more like the cost per available seat kilometer either way that's really acton great well good well we've got lots to talk about we're and talk some pay pal and Uber and we're also going to go to the fool labs to talk Nobel Prize winners which I will be flying later this year and head back home for a wedding I think what they favorite airline stocks is actually wizz air. I did also fly this around this time last year and this is kind of par for the course as you've been seeing right now but American Airlines really can't afford this type of setback its biggest competitor right now actually seems to be Delta in the fact that Whoa for the industry and so they're doing a great job just keeping up their efficiencies being a budget airline frequent traveler myself I love airlines I can do that on a budget now you mentioned if I flew wow and then wiz so one of those companies is no longer in business it's not whiz but was really interesting one I think you know they have they track really veered talk talk to me about never mentioned spirit on this show back never I have never flown spirit but I just have this vision that I'm going to get charged to go to the bathroom the companies that make a lot of their revenue from these additional sales right so they charged per drinks charged for bags they charged for early check in seat selection but if you're somebody who's conscious of that well you're young okay I don't know how much you've flown but I'm I'm not as young as you are and I am willing to that it saves hundreds of dollars on your plane ticket if you're willing to give up those little luxuries as someone like myself you know I'll give up those little luxuries for a few hundred dollars in my previous job flying all over the country and Canada and even down to Puerto Rico a couple of times and I've come to cherish first class investment that pay pal made right before uber went public in May and if you haven't been following the Uber Story the whole public company thing not I have a favorite stock or favorite airline for Flying First Class but coin and to pay for those extra benefits I don't have to worry about being nickeled and time to death and if the if the airline makes extra money on it so bad I traveled so much in code using them to get to the islands where my wife's family is all right well let's move on to pay pal pay POW is writing down a two hundred and twenty eight million dollar investment in Uber in is basically marking to market their investment in Uber and by that I mean they they bought Shares Uber at the IPO press forty five dollars and invested a five hundred million dollars they've got about eleven point one million eleven point one million shares on that and as of last night's though shares were now worth eighty dollars and forty seven cents or about three hundred and forty million dollars and so they have to adjust their balance sheet by a one hundred sixty one but it's still lower than the net income that paypal expects to report on the other hand if uber shares ever decide to go up then in true false do they do they basically charge you for everything false for right now but by the time this airs Walsh I like a lot of flasks because the million dollar drop and that's gonNA show up an earnings well below its non-operating earnings other stuff company into itself and then they realize they made a mistake and have to write down the value of that that purchase that's a permanent loss with mark to market loss the now Uber and lift has been competing on price for so long giving so many writer incentives that they're both unprofitable at some point they're going to raise prices for consumers and Consumer Hey Paula be allowed to write up this investment which is not the same as if they were making an impairment on an asset or like a purchase bought a company and incorporated entire doing so well shares trading well below their IPO price so jim what does it mean for investors what is pay pals right down me talk about Uber and just a moment but pal is doing mm substantially oh a lot of people's would and I would say the market in general would so I think these companies actually have a lot more pricing power than they realize right now that'd be I don't think regulars would allow that to happen because they need they need the competition because otherwise the present power just goes through the roof and they'll just raise prices once the sixty seven million dollar loss in its investment in Macabre so as those two companies shares go up and down the value of the investment carried on the books we'll also go up and down and can right they can move it back up if shares ever go back up okay so it sounds bad but it it may not turn out to be that bad if uber shares come back right and this is the happen every quarter with with both Uber and were there other public investment mocatta libra Part of this two hundred twenty million dollars comes from about a gyms right this is kind of short-term market movements and it kind of goes back to the idea of okay and pay pal invested I think it was five hundred million dollars at the IPO price for Uber it's down significantly from there pulling in grammar plus it looks out for Vance Punctuation Structure Style within context vocabulary suggestions conciseness and readability oh competition are they are they going to end up they're gonNA end up consolidating this feels like a Sirius Xm that at some point Uber and Lyft they've got a combined whatever I agree with that actually maybe so it's it's going to be a thing for a pay pal going forward any analyst is GonNa know enough to back out those kinds of shifts to look to see what the what pay pallets how do you feel about looking and sounding smarter I need all the help I can get I already looksmart well you can use grammer Lee to improve your communication so is it a bad investment and we don't judge our investments based off such a short time horizon so why would we judge a company's investments base such a short time horizon and a lot of ways uber and so I've I've made a pledge that I don't fly nearly as often that can save up the money I'll pay up for just for the comfort and convenience and GMC school at work and almost anywhere Gramley helps people show their best self through writing it's available across platforms including online browser extent helps people improve their writing to be mistake free clear and effective grammar Lee as a writing assistant that makes you look and sound smarter Emily and Jim all multiple platforms like android windows and Mac Graham release free product reviews critical spelling and grammar and grammar premium looks out for Chins desktop editors and mobile keyboard checkers and grammar isn't available for multiple browsers that include chrome firefox safari edge and it's available close more deals and Polish that resume accomplish your goals with help from Gramley go to grandma dot com slash fool to get twenty percents off your grammar in unprofitable company if passes what David likes to call David Gardner likes to call the snap task which is if you snapped your fingers right now in that company were to disappear would your life change headed after the fact I'm like oops well with grandma you don't have to do that 'cause Gramley allows me to clean that email up before it's too late so stop making email typos and so what these three gentlemen did over the years starting off with Winningham and Exxon of all places was developed a battery that is it doesn't do that very much and it's rechargeable hundreds and hundreds of times over his lifetime these are used They replaced the original rechargeable batteries. Now Jim Mueller you have PhD in Molecular Biology and biochemistry that's one degree degree more than me and or one phd a premium account today that's grimly dot com slash fool for twenty percent off your grandma Ollie premium account and we close with a major award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded on Wednesday to John Goodenough M Stanley Wittingham and Kira Yoshino for their work on the development of Lithium Ion batteries on nickel-cadmium you you and I might remember those and they they had a hard thereby basically good enough for me chair and well let me expand a little bit on my no that's because I would use lift instead let within raise their prices disappear tomorrow is has a high energy density has requires low maintenance and does not discharge on its own what's called self self discharge we're not to pay up for their Uber Trips and ultimately I think they're going to realize that the value that Uber and lift providing society today have been undervalued underpaid for by those people who are using right the electric tools that handles the drills screwdrivers those are all Lithium Ion batteries and pacemakers They have a nice long lifetime of five to ten years computers here in the studio without without plugs comp- a portable electronics of all kinds electric vehicles cars and trucks even nickel-cadmium Chemistry. So if I if I have a cell phone if I have an iphone then I I have these gentlemen if you have a cell phone if you have a computer that introductory battery but the lithium ion far as it and following Sony's commercialization of the first one in Nineteen ninety-one lithium ion as well as we placed a get rid of all the taxi companies. Yeah okay well before we talk about our next story I want to say thanks to Graham release for supporting market full right Grammar Lee is a communication tool that that can discharge too quickly and you can overcharge them and in both cases too much current comes out or put into quickly and the batteries offer different occasions how awesome is that now I love grammar because I tend to rush through my emails I notice that I missed fire I sent an email and then and let's see a Samsung Nokia Motorola Kyocera they all manufacture batteries of free their vehicles or for a smartphone business implications but I want to bring it back to the Nobel Prize I'm awarding you a Nobel Prize and it can be for anything or do you want what you want that Lithium and cobalt one of the chemicals used in the the battery are in kind of tight supply and getting tighter apple for instance I believe chargeable pacemakers where they're using the heart's pumping action to recharge the battery see don't ever have to replace that's pretty cool I think that is very cool and I know and I want to let you share living in and this is a story about science but it's also a story that has huge business implications not only business but just lifestyle invocation sore for drills and panels and things like that okay so as we wrap up here because obviously this story and research and the development of lithium batteries just huge catch on fire and you may remember the galaxy note seven bar in people's pockets no less very dangerous and even the Boeing had the OUGHTA cobalt mine in Africa a couple years ago so that they can have a steady supply of the one of the ingredients in these batteries and many of these batteries I love that I love that and but when we talk lithium batteries there are positives and negatives yes so the positive are manufactured in China Panasonic is a big one their Japanese firm they're the firm that provides tesla with its batteries BYOD win the Nobel Prize for you know ideally I'd want to win a Noble Prize for Great Stock Picking but realistically what I think could win a Nobel prize for is weird body condition it up and then can catch on fire and we've seen that not only not only with the small fires on the the galaxy note seven but also some big fires from Tesla's battery fires on some of their seven eighty seven's when they first came out because the hand just because of the issues with the batteries so one of the issues the positives yeah okay that one flew right by I okay so yeah good for you good for you Mac here's the kind of using pacemakers and and they need to be replaced but I just a quick aside there's a they're exploring it can hold its charge probably the better for me as a consumer I think the battery industry general's probably been really overdue for a recall that's a plus so one of the things the not as Nerdy as as the lineas professors quote but still pretty good but they require some safeguards to make sure they don't need teachers to educate the youth of the world not just here in America and Europe and Asia and Africa all all around the world so because there's a great quote about the Nobel Prize win and I want to give you an opportunity to share the gentleman a professor of chemistry from okay so for weird body contortion okay then that price I like it Jim I think there there should be a Nobel for cars on so there there there's issues yeah well I don't have a PhD but I do know that anytime you put battery my pocket the less it can catch fire and the the anytime you have to use the sentence I haven't choked yet you're probably doing something you shouldn't be doing probably wow okay let's go bowling American Airlines pay pal into Uber paypal an instant wow didn't even hit offers to and this is just another great way for people who are you bearish on Uber two point two Hou four as an investment you have nobody doing the same from our Kado Libra Christie Olaf from Strom said this is a highly charged story with tremendous potential and as a science neared I just love that because it's too puns in the for the prices education for educators I'd like to win it I love teaching people how to what's going on and and like and so on but there's so many great teachers science and which is what a lot of the Nobel prizes are for but also the advancement of human potentially should require should have Nobel prize I like that so as we wrap up the desert island questions a little tricky this week so I'm going to give you a few stocks and safe you're on a desert island for the next five years which one you're going with Austrailia forgotten strategists Ari guys change my answer so there there will be really cool not only for the advancements of us and I can I can not seriously seriously I can do stuff like swallow my tongue too it's a new category it's weird right I can turn both my feet people pay each other Moving away as Jason Moser likes to do the war on cash and I think it's has a great potential gives them a really strong competitive position I like Boeing that would be my number two choice over the other two choose pay pal because we're revolutionizing the way day October ninth welcome to market foolery I'm Matt Greer and I am joined in studio by Motley fool analysts emily flipping and Jim Mueller how are we doing today in front of it will as always people on the program may have interest in the stocks they talk about and the Motley fool may have formal recommendations for against so don't buy or sell stocks based solely on I think I'd like to win mind for fun just like a Nobel all your tongues not fun so we could actually have some competition we could share that tape pay thousand great company but you know what I think I'm gonNA actually go with Boeing I these these are serious issues for Boeing right now but they are in an all gobbly with Airbus and I think that it isn't that dangerous it's it has been choked yet so we're filming today right so is no longer just a radio it's not pretty yes I like that it's it's good but you know you gotta you gotTa kind of bring your own fun in life or pull away from my serious okay what you hear Emily and Jim Thanks for joining me today thank you. That's it for this edition of