7 Burst results for "Professor Andrew Jackson"

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Business Wars Daily

Business Wars Daily

03:44 min | 5 months ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Business Wars Daily

"From wondering. I'm david brown. And this is business wars daily on this thursday april twenty second. Well here's a headline for you. A nine year old monkey named pager is causing quite the stir in the tech world. That's because he's the star of a new video released by elon musk's company neuralink. The video is simply titled monkey. Mind pong and yes. It's a short clip of pager playing that classic arcade game pong without using his hands. See pager as musk explains in the video has had two small chips which must call neuralink's inserted into his brain and the chips essentially memorize the monkey's hand movements when he uses an actual joystick to play the game so when the joystick is unplugged the chips remember those movements and let pager play pong just by thinking about moving his hands. Here's musk pager. Is the second animal to show the public. Just what the neuralink chip may be able to do last fall. A pig named gertrude demonstrated how it worked during a widely hyped livestream. Her brain signals were converted to audible beeps which grew louder as she sniffed around her pen and enjoy treats according to scientific american. I have to say in this video. Pager is remarkably good at pong and wallets a startling to watch a monkey dominated video game just by using his brain neuralink does have an important application to the real world at least according to musk. Musk tweeted that. Neuralink's first product that microchip will let people with paralysis use smartphones quote faster than someone using thumbs unquote and he says later. Versions of the chips will eventually allow people with paralysis to walk. That's a huge claim and one that neuroscientists say we shouldn't expect to see anytime soon. See musk is leaning. On decades technology researchers were able to get a monkey to move a computer cursor with his mind way back in two thousand and two professor andrew jackson of the university of newcastle. Put it plainly. Quote brain control of computer cursors by monkeys is nothing new. He told insider so even though pagers getting a whole lot of attention right now musk's goal of getting people with paralysis to walk is quite away off. just ask any number of other startups. Who were just as intent to create. Something that effortlessly. Mel's mind and machine. California based startup colonel rolled out to so-called brain machine interfaces which monitor brain activity last year. The company says they hope to use the machines which were about the size of bike helmets to help people with paralysis communicate. We should note. Neither machine requires brain surgery to work. Colonel to fifty three million dollar funding round last july and swiss company maize is hard at work developing what it calls a cognate chip which is designed to mimic the way a brain receives input from multiple sensors. According to wired the chip may not sound as cool as neuralink's but mine may see yo tej taty says that's okay with him quote. It's time to get a little more aware of what is realistically possible versus. What is still fantasy. He told wired. So sorry mr. Musk may have pager playing pong but is letting people with paralysis walk again really going to happen with the chip in the brain. That is the question that will undoubtedly keep him and many others working on similar projects up all night from wondering this business worse daily. I'm your host. David brown written and produced by jessica edited by emma quarterly. Our executive producers are jenny bauer.

David brown andrew jackson jenny bauer jessica Musk California last year second animal last july two first product nine year old david brown fifty three million dollar two thousand university of newcastle emma two small chips american thursday april twenty second
"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Future Tense

Future Tense

02:07 min | 7 months ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Future Tense

"We'll get to that point. So that an interface could be put in my brain would recognize. My thoughts and similar league could could recognize your thoughts but at the moment the system for doing that would have to be. I would have to sit down and think all of the thoughts. I might possibly want to communicate through the interface and a scientist or an algorithm would have to match up those thoughts with those brain signals. And now i think at the moment is a fundamental limitation for how these interfaces could work that calibration process works for movements in a small number of directions but when you start thinking about the totality of memories that you could have will or ideas that you could hold in your brain. We're gonna have to come up with some better way of calibrating. The system and that to me is a scientific question. And we don't currently know the answer so it may be the science that we discover in feature will allow interfaces to somehow generalize and not require this very time consuming calibration stage. But we haven't got back the moment now. I think it's a fascinating question to ask there. Lots of people doing really great research in this area. And i also think that the neuralink device can be great tool in helping research along. But it's not necessarily certain. The trajectory of brain machine interfaces will follow that same trajectory that speech recognition has followed where it's gone from being a very experimental thing in a in a few decades to being really kind of commonplace technology professor. Andrew jackson bringing our program on machine interface technology to a close. We also heard from dr nicole vincent. Sa- girl samuel nathan copland and assistant professor jennifer challenger. My thanks to co-producer current savannah and also edwina start. I'm antony fennell until next time cheese. You've been listening to an abc podcast. Discover more great. Abc podcasts live radio and exclusives on the abc listen up..

Andrew jackson jennifer samuel nathan copland Abc antony fennell abc savannah edwina start nicole vincent dr
"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on This Week In Google

This Week In Google

07:43 min | 1 year ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on This Week In Google

"Fultz. Kind that should be on my tombstone. He wouldn't on facebook but he would let alone must drill his brain. I thought I thought it was going to be are you knocking fats but? I think that might be on to both of those either one of those. So Stacey I'm glad we got you back because I. Think you probably of all of us. Have the best understanding of the brain machine interface. Well, Stacey is going to turn herself into an Iot no no. So I would never do this although. I don't think the risk versus the reward here is compelling and I say that because the ability to access information is going to become less valuable over time and that's basically what this is at giving you. Now, we all have you know we all take a moment and keep our brain on Google like how many times have you talked about that, right? So or how you know? You're talking to somebody and you're like Oh. What was the name of that? Okay. That's not where the value is going to come in. So that's one. So I think risk versus reward I do think. The process is interesting because deep neural stimulation is becoming such an interesting area in the medical world for things like Parkinson's treatment and Migraine, treatment actually there's some potential there but. Really don't come from Elon Musk. So those are the things that what I saw this almost like this could be really compelling especially as a mechanism for. Real healthcare into the brain. By there already and by the way. Quickly it was pointed out that neural link is not doing anything that a number of other research institutions are doing and in many cases doing better and a more advanced way, and that is exactly one of the benefits they talk about a tetraplegic began type forty words a minute just by thinking and it's that kind of empowering technology. That would be amazing. Not. So much me thinking on the beach and Portofino. because I have a thing in my head. You saw the guy who lost his arm and unplugged A. Bigger Raspberry Pi into the socket and music. Brain that's nice. You can do that. So the BBC asked a number of scientists the UK's Science Media Centre. they put out a press release quoting professor Andrew Jackson no relation from he's a professor of neural interfaces at Newcastle University. I don't think there was anything revolutionary in the presentation he said, but they are working through engineering challenges placing multiple electrodes into the brain. In terms of that technology one, thousand, twenty four channels is not that impressive these days but the electronics raise them ray relay them wirelessly is state of the art and the robotic implantation is nice. The biggest. That's what I said. Just like stacy. I just don't have a British accident degree. This is solid engineering but mediocre neuro science some said. Elon Musk's. When asked? Why isn't this peer reviewed said well. Well. We have time. It's silicon. Valley. People. We had a control I have no no his answer. was I have no peer. I have no peer who would review it. I'm the third richest man on earth how the hell did that happen isn't that amazing isn't that amazing? Scott Galloway's laughing. The Big Dog Elon. Musk responded with a tweet of course. It's unfortunate like common for many in academia to overweight the value of ideas and underweight bringing them to fruition. Good Point for example, is the idea of going to the moon. The idea is trivial but going to the moon is hard. So, I, don't know he also some with them on that I got to give him credit for that because a that's. A fancy way saying there's a whole lot of talkers and not a lot of do worse yeah yeah. So. Ilan's doing some look I, think I do hope. Always wanted. Something like this at some point and you're right Stacey I simply for accessibility for empowering technology this would be amazing. Imagine Stephen Hawking instead of having to. Type into. Some sort of interface being able to call you played the hocking card. Okay. All right. Right. And I think it'd be nice to be able to you know go to the beach in my head but and I do think this happen eventually. So these are the first steps. You know we would've we would've mocked a lot of the first steps in. You know personal computing. I to say Elon off often over cells things. But you know that's that's gone. I. Think he's. I know he's a great huckster. But he's also done some really good stuff. Is the third richest man in the world how that Al that happen? Stock Splits my friends stock splits. Money it is. It's just it isn't paper gained. And you know to credit he took all the money made in pay pal, which is initial fortune. Sunken into wrist a crazy idea to do electric vehicles So and you know he deserves whatever he gets I think deserve their. Yeah. He's worth more than than Zuckerberg? which is. Wow. That's big money hundred eleven, billion dollars. But that's still almost just half what jeff basis is worth. So Jeff bezos delivers a lot more than us. Yeah. The Central Avenue Tesla literally I had a tesla. Yeah you're right. It is literal F Jeff Bezos does literally deliver. All right actually. Now normally this time of the show we would do the change log but now we're going to do the immoral panic log. Because I'm excited about some of the things on the line. Are we still going to do? Yes. Of course we are okay. He's making a bad joke jeff has provided. With five fabulous stories on moral panic. Just, for you stacey the, we'll we'll covered quick. Instead of the horns, that's what we need. We Need Jeff's doing his what what Jeff. What go what what? What? What what? Hell I need. What? Stacey. ooh Ooh Jeffco's what what what echoes Jeff. At PRUITT and I'm here to say the time to come Tyco go where's May drink. My Booze. Just, go. Government public information advertising has been a staple of British life for many years. We didn't do the moral panic. This is it oh, the moral panic over misinformation. Are you just. My only supposed to read the headline..

Jeff bezos Stacey Elon Musk facebook Google Elon Stephen Hawking professor Migraine hocking card BBC Parkinson underweight UK stacy Scott Galloway Newcastle University PRUITT Ilan
"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on The Economist: Babbage

The Economist: Babbage

07:28 min | 1 year ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on The Economist: Babbage

"Next up pandemic or no twenty twenty has been a bumper year, for Elon, musk inmate space x became the first private company ever to send humans into orbit. While over the past eight months, Tesla's market capitalization has more than quadrupled making it the most. Valuable car company on the planet. Last Friday another musk venture, the Niro technology company neural link which connect to computer into the human brain notched up what seems to be another win with public demonstration of its technology at use in. Aches. Aren't welcome to the product. Emma. Of Real excited we've got I think it's going to. Blow your mind. Shoot a form, the demo captured the public imagination, and trended wildly online. But as a computer enhanced human brain, really within reach the near link team is working on what's called the brain machine interface, and that involves electrodes of very spoil wise placed into the brain to record the electrical activity from brain cells. Andrew Jackson is a professor of neural interfaces at Newcastle University and what they demonstrated the other night was a device that they've built that can record. From one thousand and twenty four of these little wives about a thousand brain cells and the activity is processed by an implant that sits inside the skull, and then realize that activity wirelessly out to a receiver and the case of New Orleans pig Gertrude. I. Think her name was what activities specifically was being detected and relaid in the pig that we saw the electrodes were placed in. A sensory part of the brain related to the Peace Now. So. You're hearing are real time signals from the link in Grocery had. So this year link and says what? Was the activity of sensory neurons that were relying information about the the paycheck sniffing at various objects. They also showed a video I think they had recorded from brain cells in the motor area of the brain. When we have. Of our picks on a treadmill. Funny concept really in that video, they were suggesting that they were able to infer the movement of the pigs. On a treadmill from listening to these brain signals. In classical style this has been very snazzy presented and Garner a lot of attention but from your perspective someone who's been a lot in this field as an academic, is there anything particularly new or innovative about what neural incas done with this technology thing what they've done a nice job on is. A lot of the engineering of the device itself. So to some extent, I think they've made a lot of progress in the areas that perhaps you might expect a tech company well resourced to make make progress on. So so previously, lot of the work that has been done in animals and also some work has been using these techniques in humans has tended to use a cables connecting the electrodes in the brain through the skin to large racks of equipment. Computers and so forth powered from the mains in order to process and make sense of this data and what they've done is taken a lot of that electronics shrunk it down, made it low power. Enabling it to be placed within the skull and relaying these signals. Wirelessly, the other thing that they showed which I think is very nice is. A robot a bit like a sewing machine. To. Insert these electrodes and apparently automatically avoid blood vessels to do a minimum amount of damage. So I think all of this is very impressive where I am more skeptical is. The the claims that they're making of being able to. Sort of read thoughts and enhance brain function through this technology. There's there's quite a big gap between being able to record these brain cells compared to some of the claims that became rather more outlandish about being able to read thoughts and and read memories and things like that because to some extent that require much more progress in actually understanding how these signals relate to complex mental and cognitive functions does this have the markings of a turf war between academics and entrepreneurs because I know that he on must recently responded to? A news report in which your own criticisms of neuro link had been quoted and he said basically that his view was academics, overweight ideas and underweight bring them to fruition or less kindly that they're all talking no trousers what do you say to that? So I I think it would be very unfortunate if this ends up being a sort of tribal arguments, Elon Musk I'm sure recognizes that he's following in the footsteps of some very pioneering work in the academic field that really pushed the idea of brain machine interfaces forward of basic. Fundamental neuroscience research into practical demonstrations of devices that could help people with spinal cord injury. I think that from the academic point of view, we ought to see this as a success story that a technology that for a long time has been being developed in in the academic research arena is capturing the attention of near technology companies. So I did not mean to any of the comments that I made I didn't mean to turn this into a turf war I think that we will. All benefit from from the exchange of ideas and working together. You heard it here. First Turf War averted and Professor Jackson to end with a look forward musk said that the ultimate goal of neuro link is to usher in an age of quote super, human cognition in your view, does that claim that view of the future really belong in the realm of science fiction as far ahead as we currently see so I think it's very hard to judge these things I think that clearly Ilan Musk likes big ideas and he likes big kind of visions. I think that at the moment, the state of the technology president is that there hasn't really been demonstrated and I think it will be quite a while before anyone demonstrates a cognitive enhancement using this kind of brain machine interface technology that doesn't mean we shouldn't try and that doesn't mean that there's probably not a lot of very interesting science and maybe all sorts of other benefits that we will get along the way but I think it's important to be somewhat kind of modest and accepting of the fact that there's still an awful lot. We don't understand about the brain how the brain works and how intelligence works Professor Andrew Jackson thank you very much. Thank you for having.

Professor Andrew Jackson Ilan Musk Tesla Elon twenty twenty Newcastle University Emma underweight New Orleans professor Garner president
"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Lew Later

Lew Later

02:49 min | 1 year ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on Lew Later

"An, execution is difficult. Making things is difficult, and in fact, I've actually got a little twitter exchange here, which is the next Hab over over part of the same thing. Where we have a user here before everyone gets too excited about the Elon Musk Nurlan demo. Here's what professor, Andrew Jackson professor of neural interfaces. At Newcastle University says, this is solid engineering but mediocre neuroscience. And you can go through and read it well, maybe I'll just do a quick piece of it. I don't think there was anything revolutionary in the presentation, but they are working through the engineering challenges of placing multiple electrodes into the brain in terms of their technology. Ten twenty four channels is not that impressive these days but the electronics to really them wirelessly is state of the art and the robotic implantation is nice. So he saying. that. What they're working on. As. Not as revolutionary as some might think because. Well. For the most part, the average person is not up to date on. The current. Neuro science when it comes implants. But of course you you may recall faintly that you've seen someone control a cursor on a screen with their mind in the past. At, the bottom of this. Quote here. So in summary I would say this is solid engineering but mediocre neuroscience finally, I think it is unfortunate that they are presenting their work in this way rather than publishing peer reviewed papers that would allow their claims to be scrutinized but I guess this is something that we will have to get used to as neural interfaces move from the academic to the commercial sector. Okay. So here's a key will. It's all fine and Dandy to be an academic side and have these very high standards and live in the Peer Review viewed world and all the rest of it. But Ultimately. That world relies on funding of some kind. You need people interested at some point is I'm trying to say. I mean. Part of the presentation, there was actually hiring people exactly and how do you hire people and how do you secure funding unless? There's promise commercial, eventual, commercial promise eligible the at some point it doesn't have to be immediately but at some point, otherwise, it remains Nizhny remains small. Once. You put something in somebody's pocket the average person. Then we see this the pace of things improve vastly because now. Who can sell it and if you can sell it, you can hire and if you can hire talent, you have more more people. Putting their minds together into one particular goal..

professor twitter Newcastle University Andrew Jackson Peer Review
"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on KGO 810

KGO 810

09:18 min | 2 years ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on KGO 810

"John Batchelor show government politics current affairs we're talking on the John chancellor show on KGO John this is the John Batchelor show I'm speaking with John Fabian with his book is Lincoln's code the laws of war in American history and we're going very quickly now through American history because it's in the minds of men of city or sitting down in December and January eighteen sixty two into the early sixty three to write the rules of war the law of war the law of war for the union army to conduct against the confederacy in the civil war this ruling on a hundred fifty seven rules become part of the conversation for every convention about war since I learned from the professor Geneva and Hey again here in the twentieth century rules about Bob Dole the rules of of torture professor Andrew Jackson strikes me as a man who is the exception who do damages all the rules he conducted war against the Indians as a genocide he did it intentionally what's he celebrated for I was but it caused a lot of controversy in the process you know there's a moment in January eighteen nineteen when the United States Congress spends one month a whole month in the longest debate that happens to that point in American history on the floor of the Congress argue about whether or not Andrew Jackson should be censured for his behavior in Spanish Florida toward the toward the end is and most importantly toward some British nationals so Jackson the behavior get some in the hot water but but also makes him president of United States the hot water is a debate about whether the Indians the native Americans should be considered to be honorable follows our foes to be recognized there's this theme always running into American warfare that when you're fighting other Europeans other white man you conduct the war this way but when you're fighting savages you conduct it that way is that what Jackson relies upon that people know with that he's fighting savages with savagery scores seem runs through not just American history but the the history of Europe an empire generally send in Jackson acts like someone who has disdain for the rules when he's fighting against us average opponents I think if we look more carefully so that the rules themselves are helping to shape Jackson's ideas of what counts as savage and what doesn't so Jackson is a very complicated set of rules go goes back to his capture other than the young boy in the American revolution when he's in the South Carolina militia and captured with his brother is mistreated by British officers any generates a real resentment towards of violations of the laws of war from there not from then onward there are two men at the center of the debate in eighteen nineteen this is January eighteen nineteen one's name our bus not I was not and the other is Brewster and I believe Jackson arrest them saying that they are Europeans they've instigated the native Americans the Indians in their revolt he he is going to punish them he wants to execute them that seems to be more country seal than all the massacres that he visited upon the Indians in Florida that's right that's what really is that's really would get them in trouble and you know the number Sir Arbuthnot are back in the news today the the the question of the one time a military commissions has raised back to public light the the president of Jackson in Florida with amber stern on this month because there are conducting warfare with enemies of the state and we can't treat them as outlaws because they might actually be volunteers into an into another into a follows a service the the the Jackson's view is that they're stirring up Indians against Americans the in the and the critics see it quite differently because the critics see these as to British nationals who were engaged in various forms of commerce with the Indians who just run across Jackson's ire all right now let's stay with the European way of fighting a war that tell and the way the British Empire applied it why did the Ross I believe the commander who rated in to Washington in the war of eighteen twelve why did he burn only public buildings what was that rule what is a long standing idea meeting sentry laws of war stretching into the nineteenth that private property something you should at least try to avoid destroying in the course of war public property is the public property of the enemy state you're fighting against the enemy nation about subjects to attack and so when the British go into Washington they in eighteen fourteen they're actually quite careful and distinguish between these two forms of property they burn only public buildings and now the twist that I learned from the professor the British also released or took possession of three thousand is the round number you're given of slaves and released them and that the Americans sought compensation or sought to have the slaves return because they declared that those were not confiscated in warfare those were stolen what is that distinction or is that the problem we have here the distinction can be made well the the ideals of the slaves with the private property of of American citizens you legally taken during the course of the war and the American statesman since the revolution has been committed to the idea that you just couldn't free an enemy slaves in wartime it was too dangerous for one thing it was private property before another it was a different kind of private property that might get involved in the war itself in a gauge and slave instructions and terrible atrocities what might ensue at well it's nonsense to because I think one of the interlocutors here said you can't treat a slave like a chair I mean this is a human being and I'm struck by how early on this argument becomes passionate did they understand as early as say mon rose timer Madison's time in Montrose presidency that slavery was the problem that America couldn't solve that it made it almost second rate compared to the Europeans because we were so knotted up by well tell you one group that did understand this I think was military officers on both sides of the Atlantic who understood that the slave society the cotton cells that was fast developing south of the Mason Dixon line was a huge strategic more ability for the United States it meant but according to French and British officers that a war with United States would be one that would be pretty easy to to win because all you have to do is stir up a slave rebellion in the south and let the war of proceed and so that the Congress did perceive this is that why John Quincy Adams who would take the opposite approach in the Amistad rebellion of eighteen thirty nine eighteen forty John Quincy Adams was passionate about how those slaves must be returned or the owners must be compensated for Adam spends the better part of a decade and a half arguing that international law doesn't allow one country to take another country another country slaves in wartime or and freedom and he pushes as diplomat and the secretary of state and then as president of the United States for composition of eventually wins it from the British the late eighteen twenties and this a complication now about slaves that's in the minds of everybody who's riding in eighteen sixty two did they know this history John are they aware of of how America has argued both sides and lost both sides go they do with their their all too aware of it and it's the backdrop for some of the most excruciating parts of the Emancipation experience and the controversy the tens of one other detail before we get into the general order number one hundred in particular what's striking about lever is that in his biography in the in the fax the chronology will lay out here he tries to be a Harvard professor fails he goes off to South Carolina college he has three sons one joins the confederacy one joins the union and loses his arm another the second the third son the youngest son joins the union but while he's in South Carolina he buys and sells slaves he seeks to profit he is a slave owner and that irony seems to be so striking to me that lever writing the code was part of the problem well it leave it leave it does become a slave owner it causes a breach in his longstanding friendship of one of the great abolitionists of of the nineteenth century Charles Sumner of Massachusetts the great senator during the civil war he he he says that he regrets it the city can't find a way to get the most help and the other way he thinks that owning them is better than renting them from somebody else but he does become deeply involved in the in the in slavery as a practice even all the while maintaining that in principle it's wrong all right it's time for general order number one hundred this is an early sixty three Lincoln's code that's what general old old hundred lever calls it that's what Lincoln coat a link it's Cody is and it has tentacles that reach all the way here in the twenty first century John Fabian what is the author I'm John bass this.

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on 77WABC Radio

77WABC Radio

09:03 min | 2 years ago

"professor andrew jackson" Discussed on 77WABC Radio

"ABC I'm John bass and this is the John Batchelor show I'm speaking with John Fabian with his book is Lincoln's code the laws of war in American history and we're going very quickly now through American history because it's in the minds of men of city or sitting down in December and January eighteen sixty two into the early sixty three to write the rules of war the law the law of war the law of war for the union army to conduct against the confederacy in the civil war this ruling on a hundred fifty seven rules become part of the conversation for every convention about war since I learned from the professor Geneva and Hagan here in the twentieth century rules about Ronald the rules of of torture professor Andrew Jackson strikes me as a man who is the exception who do who damages all the rules he conducted war against the Indians as a genocide he did it intentionally what's he celebrated for words but it because a lot of controversy in the process you know there's a moment in January the eighteen nineteen when the United States Congress spends one month the whole month in the longest debate that it happens to that point in American history on the floor of the Congress argue about whether or not Andrew Jackson should be censured for his behavior in Spanish Florida toward the toward the end is and most importantly toward some British nationals so Jackson's behavior get some in the hot water but but also makes him president of United States the hot water is a debate about whether the Indians the native Americans should be considered to be honorable photos or photos to be recognized there's this theme always running into American warfare that when you're fighting other Europeans other white man you conduct the war this way but when you're fighting savages you conduct it that way is that what Jackson relies upon the people know with that he's fighting savages with savagery loose theme runs through not just American history but the the history of Europe an empire generally and in Jackson that acts like someone who has disdain for the rules when he's fighting against us average opponents I think if we look more carefully so that the rules themselves are helping to shape Jackson's ideas of what counts the savage and what doesn't so Jackson is a very complicated set of rules go goes back to his capture by the death of a young boy in the American revolution when he's in the South Carolina militia and captured with his brother is mistreated by British officers any generates a real resentment towards of violations of the laws of war from then on from then onward there are two men at the center of the debate in eighteen nineteen this is January eighteen nineteen a one is name our bus not I was not and the other is Brewster and I believe Jackson arrest them saying that they are Europeans they've instigated the native Americans the Indians in their revolt he he is going to punish them he wants to execute them that seems to be more country seal than all the massacres that he visited upon the Indians in Florida that's right that's what really is that's really was getting in trouble and you know the numbers that are best not are are back in the news today the the the question of the one time of military commissions has raised back to public life the the president Jackson in Florida with amber service not because they are conducting warfare with enemies of the state and we can't treat them as outlaws because they might actually be volunteers into an into another into a foes a service the the the Jackson's view is that they're stirring up Indians against Americans that India and the critics see it quite differently because the critics see these as to British nationals who were engaged in various forms of commerce with the Indians who does run across Jackson's ire all right now let's stay with the European way of fighting a war of that tell and the way the British Empire applied it why did the Ross I believe the commander who rated in to Washington in the war of eighteen twelve why did he burn only public buildings what was that rule what is a long standing idea in the eighteenth century laws of war stretching into the nineteenth set up private property something you should at least try to avoid destroying in the course of war but public property is the public property of the enemy state you're fighting it the enemy nation about subjects to attack and so when the bridge going to Washington in eighteen fourteen the actual quite careful and distinguish between these two forms of property they burn only public buildings and now the twist that I learned from the professor the British also released or took possession of three thousand is the round number you're given of slaves and released them and that the Americans sought compensation or sought to have the slaves return because they declared that those were not confiscated in warfare those were stolen what is that distinction or is that the problem we have here the distinction can be made well the the ideals of the slaves with the private property of of American citizens you legally taken during the course of the war and the American statesman since the revolution has been committed to the idea that you just couldn't free an enemy slaves in wartime it was too dangerous for one thing was private property to for another it was a different kind of private property that might get involved in the war itself in a gauge and slave instructions and terrible atrocities what might and so have well it's nonsense to because I think one of the interlocutors here said you can't treat a slave like a chair I mean this is a human being and I'm struck by how early on this argument becomes passionate did they understand as early as say mon rose timer Maddison Simon mon rose presidency that slavery was the problem that America couldn't solve that it made it almost second rate compared to the Europeans because we were so knotted up by well tell you one group that did the understand this I think was military officers on both sides of the Atlantic who understood that the slave society the cotton self that was fast developing south of the Mason Dixon line was a huge strategic vulnerability for the United States it meant according to French and British officers that a war with United States would be one that would be pretty easy to to win because all you have to do is stir up a slave rebellion in the south and let the war of proceed and so that the Congress did perceive this is that why John Quincy Adams who would take the opposite approach in the Amistad rebellion of eighteen thirty nine eighteen forty John Quincy Adams was passionate about how those slaves must be returned or the owners must be compensated for Adam spins the better part of a decade and a half arguing that international law doesn't allow one country to take another country another country slaves in wartime or at freedom and he pushes as diplomats and the secretary of state and as president of the United States for composition of eventually wins it from the British the late eighteen twenties and this a complication now about slaves that's in the minds of everybody who's riding in eighteen sixty two did they know this history John are they aware of of how America has argued both sides and lost both sides they do with their their all too aware of it and it's the backdrop for some of the most excruciating parts of the Emancipation experience and by the controversy depends at one other detail before we get into the general order number one hundred in particular what's striking about lever is that in his biography in the in the facts the chronology will lay out here he tries to be a Harvard professor fails he goes off to South Carolina college he has three sons one joins the confederacy one joins the union and loses his arm another the second the third son the youngest son joined the union but while he's in South Carolina he buys and sells slaves he seeks to profit he is a slave owner and that irony seems to be so striking to me that lever writing the code was part of the problem well it leave it leave it does become a slave owner causes a breach in his long standing friendship with one of the great abolitionists of of the nineteenth century Charles Sumner of Massachusetts the great senator during the civil war he he he says that he regrets it but they can't find a way to get the most help and the other way he thinks that owning them is better than renting them from somebody else but he does become deeply involved in the in the in slavery as a practice even all the while maintaining that in principle it's wrong all right it's time for general order number one hundred this is an early sixty three Lincoln's code that's what general old old hundred lever calls it that's what Lincoln coat a link it's Cody is and it has tentacles that reach all the way here into the twenty first century John Fabian what is the author on John.