40 Burst results for "President"
Fresh update on "president" discussed on WBBM Afternoon News Update
"In a stunning reversal, the Trump Administration is abandoning an effort to force foreign college students to lead the US, Harvard University. Mighty and others sued over the rule, which would have forced international students to transfer or leave the country if their studies would be entirely online. The school's argued that the measure was unlawful. There are more than a 1,000,000 international students at US universities and colleges. And many schools depend on the revenue from their tuition. Many academic institutions are trying to figure out how to hold classes safely as covert 19 cases surge across the nation. Alison Keys CBS News polls are just closing in Alabama, where Jeff Sessions is trying to regain his old Senate seat in a runoff with former Auburn football coach Tommy Tupper Ville. Who's backed by President Trump. They're going to make up their own mind. It's just a fact or people will see the president's endorsement. Police people all over the United States support. May.
Trump signs bill, executive order to hold China accountable for 'oppressive actions' against people of Hong Kong
"President Donald Trump has signed an executive order that would end a special treatment for Hong Kong. Speaking at an event in the White House rose Garden just moments ago, Trump cited China's recent moves to clamp down on the former British colony, which had been a semi autonomous region and business engine. Today aside legislation And an executive order. Toehold China accountable for its oppressive actions against the people of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Autonomy Act, which assigned this afternoon passed unanimously through Congress. This law gives my administration powerful new tools to hold responsible. The individuals and the entities involved in extinguishing Hong Kong's freedom. Trump says Hong Kong will not be treated in the same way as mainland China disputes over Hong Kong human rights. China's assertions about control of the South China Sea and its handling of the Corona virus pandemic have severely strained U. S.
Fresh update on "president" discussed on John Howell
"So are white people. Some are white people. What a terrible question to ask. So are white people, more white people, by the way, more white people today the Trump Administration rescinded its policy that would have barred international students from staying in the U. S. If they only take online courses. Thie administration made that announcement in a court hearing in Boston today, some breaking news regarding Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Ginsburg has been admitted to the hospital for treatment of a possible infection. She's 87 years old. She is going to stay in the hospital for a few days after a medical procedure President Trump Saying warm things about Ginsberg in his news conference, saying that he wishes her well some good news about covert 19 in Illinois 707 new confirmed cases of Corona virus disease reported today. That is the lowest number in a week and the fourth straight day that the number of new cases Has gone down. But if the cases go up governor Pritzker, saying that he won't hesitate to roll things back on reopening the economy. Bill Cameron like Mayor Lightfoot in Chicago, governor Pritzker says he wouldn't hesitate to again shut down segments of the state's economy like bars. If the science and the data say it's needed, uh, you know, turn the dimmer.
Biden unveils $2 trillion climate plan
"Presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden, announcing plans to spend $2 trillion to combat climate change. Biden in a speech today from his hometown of Wilmington, Delaware, unchecked It is literally the next essential threat to the health of our planet. And our very survival. I set up for dispute. Mr President. President Trump calls climate
Fresh update on "president" discussed on Steve Scott
"Cases surge across the nation. Alison Keys CBS News polls air just closing in Alabama, where Jeff Sessions is trying to regain his old Senate seat in a runoff with former Auburn football coach Tommy Tupper Ville. Who's backed by President Trump. They're going to make up their own mind. It's just a fact or people will say the president's endorsement police people all over the United States support me you're listening to the CBS World News Round up. Now, you know,.
South Africa exceeds UK in confirmed virus cases
"Africa has surpassed the United Kingdom in the number of confirmed Corona virus cases. This, according to that nation's health ministry. A cz well AST the rolling tally by Johns Hopkins University. South Africa now has just over 298,000 cases. That's the world's eighth highest number of confirmed cases, and it represents nearly half of all the confirmed cases on the African continent. A strict lock down had delayed the surgeon cases, but it's been loosened sense because of economic concerns, South Africa's president said this week the country faces the gravest crisis in the history of its democracy.
Fresh update on "president" discussed on PM Tampa Bay with Ryan Gorman
"But you must call now. 813565 1000 That's 813565 1000. Put a Stop to your call South Bay Medical Clinic right now to claim that offer 813565 1000 Getting tough on China. Lee Sula Sarah Fox News president, Trump announcing he signed legislation and an executive order holding China accountable for actions against the people of Hong Kong Hong Kong Autonomy Act. Which has signed this afternoon passed unanimously through Congress. This law gives my administration powerful new tools to hold responsible. The individuals and the entities involved in extinguishing Hong Kong's Freedom president also tied his likely opponent, Joe buying to China, accusing him and former president Obama of allowing China to steal US jobs and company secrets. Biden in Delaware this afternoon with a pitch for $2 trillion investment in clean energy, calling an extra essential existential crisis and slamming the president's view. Donald Trump thinks about climate change. The only word he can muster is hoax. When I think about climate change. Word. I think of his jobs plan would replace government vehicles from gas powered cars to electric and put a national network of charging stations in place. His campaign says the proposal can be paid for with stimulus spending and tax increases for corporations. North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper has ordered all schools to reopen in August. If they're able to maintain social distancing. It's a measured, balanced approach that will allow Children to attend, but provide important safety protocols. Like fewer Children in the classroom, social distancing face coverings, cleaning and MME or other districts will be able to continue remote learning. New Hampshire has also ordered its schools to reopen. This is, Dr Anthony found, CI, the nation's top disease expert and a member of the Corona Virus Taskforce told an audience at Georgetown University. We should try to get kids into schools, but in hard hit regions, it should be left up to local officials. America is listening. Foster from the mosque based on traffic.
Trump administration drops restrictions on online-only instruction for foreign students
"Is now said to be considering scaling back that new policy that would bar international students from remaining in the U. S while taking classes remotely this fall. This is according to the Wall Street Journal, and would come after the Trump administration faced lawsuits from 17 states, including New York and the number of individual schools, including Harvard and MIT. The administration argues there's no reason for these students to be in the country if their instruction is completely online. We'll ice has yet to formally published. The new rules in the Wall Street Journal says they may be changed before they do. President
Fresh update on "president" discussed on KNX Afternoon News with Mike Simpson and Chris Sedens
"Supporters of the Orange County School Board clash last night as the board voted to recommend all 28 county district reopen this fall without mass or social distancing. However, the board, which is elected does not have power to make policy. The vote is a suggestion only Democrat Joe Biden is ramping up his criticism of President Trump's handling of the health crisis. Mr President. Open everything now. Isn't a strategy for success is barely a slogan Mr Trump weighed in on the Confederate flag Controversy in an exclusive interview with CBS is senior investigative correspondent Catherine Herridge. You understand by the flag. Is a painful symbol for many people, because it's a reminder of state's labor. People love it, and I don't know you. I know people that like the Confederate flag, and they're not thinking about slavery. I look at NASCAR you go, Dinescu. You had those flags all over the place. They stopped it. I just think it's freedom of speech. The.
Biden unveils $2 trillion climate plan with energy revamp
"Joe Biden is rolling out a $2 trillion plan to fight climate change and spur economic growth with clean energy in a speech not far from his home in Delaware, But Democrat challenger for president says he plans to seize what he calls a historic moment to change course I know the climate change. The challenge is going to define our American future. I know meeting the challenge would be a once in a lifetime opportunity to jolt new life into our economy strengthened our global leadership protect our planet for future
Jeff Sessions fights for old Senate seat in tough race against Trump-endorsed Tommy Tuberville
"Former US Attorney General Jeff Sessions and former Auburn football coach Tommy Tuberville are Facing off today. In Alabama's Republican primary runoff for sessions former Senate see sessions safely held the seat for 20 years before resigning delayed President Trump's Justice Department sessions later was forced to resign after drawing Trump's ire when he withdrew from the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election. Trump has endorsed
Philadelphia teachers union says district’s back-to-school plan must prioritize safety
"Teachers union wants to make sure it's Cove it concerns are addressed when the district releases it's back to school plan this week. Okay, what able to use Mike DiNardo reports ahead of the school district issuing its reopening blueprint, The Philadelphia Federation of Teachers is out with its own. Union president Jerri Jordan says the health and safety of students and staff is his top priority. He says teachers are concerned about the district hiring enough custodians to disinfect buildings. And his members are concerned they may be required to sanitize classrooms themselves. We are adamant about making sure that there are enough cleaners of that that the district hires enough players and that soap Is in the building that sanitizer are in the building. Jordan says the union did not help to draft the district's plan. But it did share the results of a pft survey, which showed that teacher's preferred a hybrid model of one week in school one week online. Jordan says he's especially concerned with how the district will accommodate immuno compromised teachers who don't want to return to school buildings.
Biden: Trump 'finally' wearing a mask isn't enough leadership
"Biden says the U. S needs a stronger and broader strategy to respond to surges in the Corona virus. The president's Democratic challenger. Is that the administration can address the health crisis that can't respond effectively to the economic crisis. It's got bad enough that even Donald Trump finally decided to wear a mask in public. I'm glad he made the shift. Mr President is not enough. We won't be able to turn the corner Get American people back to work safely without presidential leadership.
Trump downplays surge in COVID-19 cases, says he "personally" likes Dr. Fauci amid rift
"Surge in worthy behind the recent surge in Corona virus cases across the country well despite evidence that some states are struggling with testing shortages and delays and high rates of positive tests, While the president also insists his administration is not trying to discredit Dr Anthony found Disagrees with the White House on how the country is handling the pandemic. I get along with him very well. I like him personally. President Trump described his relationship with Dr Anthony Fauci is very good, but then I don't always agree with him Might as a result of those different is about you Tell CBS news he is not appreciated at the White House. So if I were advising after months of speaking his mind and contradicting the president Even after some administration officials called him out did not change course during a talk yesterday. Here it is, it's happened, You know your worst nightmare. The perfect storm. Mr Trump's forecast is very different. He claims Corona virus cases are spiking because the country is doing more testing, but the rate of positive tests has doubled in the last month. Do you acknowledge that it's Going up for other reasons, too, for example, that it's actually spreading. We have one of the lowest mortality rates anywhere. We test more than anybody by far and when you test you create cases, so we've created cases. Still, they're testing shortages across the country. Testing companies say the surgeon cases is leading to delays in delivering results. So those who are infected may be spreading the virus unknowingly, former acting White House chief of Staff McMullen Veiny said in an op ed. His son had to wait 5 to 7 days for results, and his daughter could not get a test at all, he wrote. That is simply inexcusable at this point in the pandemic, And while the White House's argue that lower mortality rates are a sign of the country's progress against the Corona virus, Some members of the task force say it's too soon to tell. We do expect us to go up. If you have more cases, more hospitalizations. We do expect to see that over the next two or three weeks before this turns around. Meanwhile, a New York court has lifted a temporary restraining order that was barring President Trump's niece married Trump from promoting her Tell all book about the Trump family. The decision also means her book and officially been released today by publisher Simon and Schuster, which is A division of Viacom, CBS That is CBS's Wishes. Shame reporting coming up on care. Lt. Your traffic and weather together on the eights were
Philadelphia Teachers union president on what needs to be done to safely reopen schools
"The Philadelphia School District finalizes its back to class plan the teachers union as some recommendations of its own. Hey, What about these? Mike Leonardo is that story. The school district is expected to announce its reopening plan this week. Philadelphia Federation of Teachers President Jerri Jordan says he's most concerned with keeping his members and their students safe from the Corona virus. We really get one chance to make it right and that You know, over the next three weeks because we cannot run the risk of gambling with anyone's help. Jordan says Teachers want to be sure that classrooms and school buildings would be sufficiently sanitized and that staffers with vulnerable immune systems can have the option of working remotely. The district is expected to announce a hybrid of in person and online learning. Jordan says his members are concerned over whether they'd have to teach online and in the classroom simultaneously. He says he shared the results of a pft survey with administrators but that the union did not have an active role in crafting the district's reopening plan.
Kanye West gets 2 percent in national presidential poll
"Kanye West? Let's be the president. A long way to go. Though he has thrown his name into running for president, there's a pole the first national poll now now his presidential run. BIDEN FOR NATIONAL FULL Biden is at forty eight percent. Trump is at forty percent kinda west two percent.
Los Angeles schools to offer classes online only this fall
"Across the nation and overwhelming majority of parents pulled are worried about sending their kids back to school. Despite President Trump in Education Secretary Betsy DeVos pushing schools to open in the fall school should be opened. This kids want to go to school, a new access sepsis Corona virus index, Poll says 71% of US parents polled say it would be risky to send Children back to school in the fall in California, officials announced The public schools in Los Angeles and San Diego, responsible for 825,000 students will hold online classes on Ly in the fall. Atlanta has joined those schools and schools in Nashville planted in the same at least through Labor
Judge Lifts Gag Order Against Trump’s Niece Ahead of Tell-All Book Release
"All the tell all book by President Trump niece hitting the bookshelves today And now, a court says Mary Trump is free to talk about New York court has lifted a temporary restraining order that was barring President Trump's niece Mary Trump from promoting her tell all book about the Trump family. The decision also means her book and officially been released today by publisher Simon and Schuster, which is a division of Viacom,
White House virus task force member says 'none of us lie'
"Our experts at the centers for disease control and prevention of lying about the corona virus president trump has re tweeted an accusation that they are the president yesterday shared a tweet from Chuck Woolery the former TV game show host to accuse CDC experts and other health professionals of line admiral bread sure why top White House coronavirus task force member says shore experts occasionally get things wrong some mistakes are made but quote none of us live we are completely transparent with the American people on NBC's today show drywall also seem to disagree with the president and education secretary Betsy to Voss who been pushing hard for schools to fully reopen in the fall we have to get the virus under control Sager make ani Washington
How Absentee Landowners Keep Farmers From Protecting Water And Soil
"Some of our biggest environmental problems like water, pollution and endangered wildlife caused by large scale farming, which means farmers are in a position to reduce environmental damage or at least mitigate it. Why don't they one reason? They often don't own much of the lands that they farm here's. NPR's Dan Charles Lisa Solti more loves nature. I reached her while she was visiting. The forests of northern Minnesota I can only describe it as healing. All the stress of our world, and said she just forget about it when you're in one of these beautiful old growth, for as she teaches ecology at Iowa State University, but when she moved to Iowa seventeen years ago, she struggled a little. She didn't have that same feeling standing in vast fields of corn. She wasn't hearing any birds or seeing many bugs all I can here are the leaves of the rustling corn around me and not one other. Biological Noise at all right. It's you know they call it the Green Desert and there is a lot of land like this this year. Corn and soybeans covered land. That's equal in size to all the East Coast States from New York to Georgia. But solti more says it doesn't have to be a green desert. She's been studying what she calls. Prairie Strips stretches of land, running through fields of corner soybeans. We're farmers of set-aside may be percent of the land for tall, stemmed grasses and wildflowers. It's a different world there. She says birds singing their bees buzzing. They were crickets chirping. There was stuff hopping around. These bits of prairie also protect soil and water capture carbon dioxide from the air. For this to happen. Though farmers have to be willing to give this land back to nature and many experts on farmland say it can make economic sense. One of them is Steve Brewer President of People's company in Des Moines Iowa who buys sells and manages farmland across the country. One of the first things that we do and we do this on every farm that we managed as we run, these profitability maps. His company creates a detailed map of the. The farm what they spend and what they earn on every acre, and they're finding consistently that some of that land loses money. It's amazing about ten to fifteen percent of all the acres in Iowa. aren't profitable. They're those hillsides with eroded soil spots where water collects in a big puddle after every rain. That is where they advise farmers to cut their losses may be bring back the prairie. Some farmers are doing this kinda thing most are not. And one reason the farm experts say is an under appreciated fact about America's farmland farmers only owned about half their land the rest of it. They rent year-by-year from a collection of landlords. Linda pro copy from Purdue University has studied those landowners. There are very diverse group of people much more diverse than farmers. Many are elderly retired farmers now renting the land to the next generation, some inherited it from grandparents. You have younger urban people who co owned a piece of land with cousins. Don't know anything about farming so when it comes to managing that Land Steve Brewer from People's company says it often plays out like this. Let's say somebody owns one hundred sixty acres. Thirty of those acres are lousy for growing crops, but they'll rent out. The whole thing is a landowner you want. Those thirty acres farmed because you're trying to get rental revenue on every acre that you can get, and the farmer will go along because he or she really wants one hundred thirty good acres. Sarah? Carlson longtime environmental advocate with the group. Practical farmers of Iowa gets annoyed by landowners who just want their rent check? We need to start calling landlord, slum lords and a lot of cases. They're just as guilty she says consider something else. Cover crops vegetation that farmers can plant in the off season to protect and enrich the soil. It's great for the environment and for your crops in the long run, but it costs money upfront, so tenant farmers who may not be there in the long run are reluctant to spend that money. Carson says some landlords do care enough that they'll spend the money to protect the Environment Bill. Does prairie strips pay for cover crops? But they're the exceptions. I mean even my mom wasn't that kind of landlord and I'm her daughter like I'm like what do you mean we're not going to do? Cover crops was wrong with you Steve. Brewer land. Brooker says he does see. Signs of things are changing. There's a new kind of landowner showing up people who didn't inherit the farmland, but decided to buy it. Some of them because they care about how foods produced and the environment, others are purely investors for them. The land is a financial asset, but they understand that this asset can't increase in value if they protected Dan Charles NPR
Absentee Landlords Interfere With Farmers Protecting Water, Soil
"Some of our biggest environmental problems like water, pollution and endangered wildlife caused by large scale farming, which means farmers are in a position to reduce environmental damage or at least mitigate it. Why don't they one reason? They often don't own much of the lands that they farm. Here's NPR's Dan Charles. Lisa Solti more loves nature I. Reached Her while she was visiting the forests of northern Minnesota I can only describe it as healing. All the stress of our world, and said she just forget about it when you're in one of these beautiful old growth for as she teaches ecology. At University, but when she moved to Iowa seventeen years ago, she struggled a little. She didn't have that same feeling standing in vast fields of corn. She wasn't hearing any birds or seeing many bugs all. I can here are the leaves of the rustling corn around me and not one other. Biological Noise at all right? It's you know they call it the green. Desert and there is a lot of land like this this year. Corn and soybeans covered land. That's equal in size to all the East Coast States from New York to Georgia. But solti more says it doesn't have to be a green desert. She's been studying what she calls. Prairie Strips stretches of land, running through fields of corner soybeans. We're farmers of set-aside may be percent of the land for tall, stemmed grasses and wildflowers. It's a different world there. She says birds singing their bees buzzing. They were crickets chirping. There was stuff hopping around. These bits of prairie also protect soil and water capture carbon dioxide from the air. For this to happen, though farmers have to be willing to give this land back to nature and many experts on farmland say it can make economic sense. One of them is Steve. Brewer President of People's company in Des Moines Iowa who buys sells and manages farmland across the country. One of the first things that we do and we do this on every farm that we managed as we run, these profitability maps. His company creates a detailed map of the. The farm what they spend and what they earn on every acre, and they're finding consistently that some of that land loses money. It's amazing about ten to fifteen percent of all the acres in Iowa aren't profitable. They're those hillsides with eroded soil spots where water collects in a big puddle after every rain. That is where they advise farmers to cut their losses may be bring back the prairie. Some farmers are doing this Kinda. Thing most are not. And one reason the farm experts say is an under appreciated fact about America's farmland farmers only owned about half their land the rest of it. They rent year-by-year from a collection of landlords. Linda pro copy from Purdue University has studied those landowners. There are very diverse group of people much more diverse than farmers. Many are elderly retired farmers now renting the land to the next generation, some inherited it from grandparents. You have younger urban people who co owned a piece of land with. Don't know anything about farming so when it comes to managing that Land Steve. Brewer from People's company says it often plays out like this. Let's say somebody owns one hundred sixty acres. Thirty of those acres are lousy for growing crops, but they'll rent out. The whole thing is a landowner you want. Those thirty acres farmed because you're trying to get rental revenue on every acre that you can get, and the farmer will go along because he or she really wants one hundred thirty good acres. Sarah Carlson longtime environmental advocate with the group practical farmers of Iowa gets annoyed by landowners who just want their rent check? We need to start calling landlord, slum lords and a lot of cases. They're just as guilty she says consider something else. Cover crops vegetation that farmers can plant in the season to protect and enrich the soil. It's great for the environment and for your crops in the long run, but it costs money upfront, so tenant farmers who may not be there in the long run are reluctant to spend that money. Carson says some landlords do care enough that they'll spend the money to protect the Environment Bill. Does prairie strips pay for cover crops? But they're the exceptions I mean. Even my mom wasn't that kind of landlord and I'm her daughter like I'm like. What do you mean we're not going to do? Cover crops was wrong with you Steve, brewer? Land Brooker says he does see signs of things are changing. There's a new kind of landowner showing up people who didn't inherit the farmland, but decided to buy it. Some of them because they care about how foods produced and the environment, others are purely investors for them. The land is a financial asset, but they understand that this asset can't increase in value if they protected. Dan Charles NPR
Serbia-Kosovo talks 'back on track
"Now Serbia has refused to recognize Kosovo's statehood since Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in two thousand and eight, nearly a decade after a very bloody war dialogue between Belgrade and Prishtina began in two thousand eleven, producing some thirty agreements most of them, though a not observed, but after talks broke down a couple of years ago, the parties are communicating again with both the EU and the US weighing in well for more I'm joined by James, Kara Lindsay who's visiting professor at the NFC and author of the politics of recognition and engagement, e you, member-state relations with Kosovo James Let's begin with the US involvement. Where do we stand with this? Well. There was a lot of excitement that the united. States was getting involved in this process a couple of years ago. There was a sense Washington really wants it's gets are. Big International Agreement. This was going to be one of trump's moments of glory. That was going to get reelected. And so there was a lot of activity that was going on. By the United States role, the separate from the e U process switch continuing as you've noted since two thousand eleven. But recently it's basically collapsed in this collapse for number of reasons one because they would charges brought against the presidents of Kosovo. For War Crimes but also I think that we just up against the clock in the United States Rick. Grenell the US ambassador to Germany, who was handling this? It looks like he's going to be very involved in trump's reelection campaign, and as we know it less than four months to go before the US election. I, think the latest sellings way hand over to Europe is saying look I've. Got To be dealing with now, so the ball is very very certainly back in the European court now and there was a video summit on Friday chaired by the the the Cherry double-act Merckel macron. What what transpired? The the problem as Well. There's a whole range of problems. As again as you noted as being a range of agreements have been put in place over the past, a number of years most which haven't really been observed, but there's also been deep divisions within the European Union about what they want. Now there's been a number of proposals being coming forward a nice been suggestions that the President Sukasto vote and Serbia. Actually at one point very close to a deal, but controversially that would include some so the territorial swap and we know that Germany in actual fact Britain as well a very very opposed to this. The. Americans on the other hand seem to be open to the idea although they seem to be a rowing buckle now now. I'm so the probably essentially have is that we need a big picture secondments here and the Europeans have been pressing so small normalization agreements, which is all very well and good boots. As I'm saying I worked Cypress pathetic years, and these small agreements, a justice difficult to get into place, and even more typical in many ways to implement than actually spending time focusing on a big picture final deal, and so I think this is the real question about half now. Is it going to be back to try to get these piecemeal agreements that don't really work or all week in the focus on the big picture? Final settlements. Will really put this issue behind both Kosovo. and Serbia and of course that question becomes very urgent, because it looks as if the leaders of Serbia in Kosovo will meet face to face in Brussels later this week. Yes I'm I mean to be honest with you? I don't think anyone's really expecting that. We can see any big breakthroughs now. and I again. I'm I'm very very skeptical that you're really even knows what it wants. the IT could be a return to these sort of. These small bitsy talks which you don't get me wrong. These are important things that needs to be doubts which will make long foot for people in costumes survey much better. But like a Lotta people a my view is the you sold. If they were the big picture deal, anyway and so what you're doing is many ways wasting time on energy block treasurer on all these trying to get these small agreements, which in the end don't really get implemented because that fundamental big picture agreement so. I I think the big problem here is that it's it's. Europe's coming at the wrong way. I mean Europe officials as saying that resolution is the only way that Serbia and Kosovo seek to become members of the EU. Do you think that that's a big enough incentive? Well. I mean I. Get sent certainly in Kosovo there is. A growing realization something needs to be done so often. Votes Clayton dependency. The was that we go from. There was a we've got. The Americans behind US rebuilt the British the French recalled Germans. They're going to go out and tell. The world recognized Kosovo and in the first few years. That seems to be what was happening and we got to a point where about one, hundred ten or hundred thirteen of the one hundred ninety three members of the UN recognized. Kosovo But Russia and China refuse to recognize it, so that prevents full you and membership, but what we've seen in the past couple of years is Serbia's lobbied countries to withdraw that recognition of Kosovo is now recognized about ninety seven countries so I think in Prishtina this realization if we want to join the UN if we want to be a normal, fully accepted country on the world stage, we've got to reach a final deal with Belgrade. What is it that we? We can offer Belgrade. The Belgrade might be willing to accept. The trump is what it sink. President Sanctuary was willing to offer Belgrade's. The German said No. We're not willing to allow it to go that far because if you stop changing borders between Serbian, Kosovo. Even if this is consensual, you'll not problems north Macedonia and Bosnia so we we have a fundamental problem here of how we're going to deal with something that frankly speaking could be dealt with sally easily. If, there was sort of coincidence abuse amongst the Americans, the Europeans, subs and the Kosovo Albanians James. Thank you very much? Indeed, that's James Collins.
Los Angeles Unified Students Won’t Return To Classrooms In The Fall
"Of thousands of students in California will continue with online learning this fall is the White House continues to call for all schools to be reopened, California's two biggest school district's announced that they would not be open. In person classes in August. They may open for a return to the classroom a little bit later in the school year. It's a decision that impacts more than 700,000 students and President Trump believes that it's aimed at hurting his chances for reelection in November. Socks is Kristin Fisher at the White House,
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Passive. Do nothing president. Well, JFK would make that image and issue in the campaign. He accused the Eisenhower Administration and by Association Vice President Nixon of standing still during the nineteen fifties. He cited the Soviets accomplishments in space as a sign that America was lagging behind. The also claimed that there was a missile gap that we were being outmatched in nuclear and conventional capabilities. and. He argued that Eisenhower had allowed. The Communists get a foothold in Cuba. As you can imagine, Eisenhower took these criticisms too hard. He knew that. If there was a missile gap, it was in America's favor since it was far head of Soviet military capability, especially with nuclear weapons. From Eisenhower's perspective Kennedy had either gotten bad information over lying. In fact under Eisenhower America's nuclear arsenal went from about one thousand atomic bombs to about twenty thousand total nuclear weapons. And he felt for the new look policy that trying to outmatch the Soviets everywhere was foolish. And he felt that Kennedy was in over his head that he had some real nerve as an inexperienced junior senator, claiming that he could do eisenhower is better than him. Eisenhower set quote. I'll do anything to avoid time over my seat and the country to Kennedy. It really irritated. Eisenhower when people said that he was passive about national defense, and he said quote, the idea of them charging me with not being interested in defense, dammit I spent my whole life being concerned with the defense of our country. Unfortunately for the President JFK's message was resonating. A new decade was coming. The nineteen sixties and Americans were starting to crave energetic leadership. And John F. Kennedy exuded energy and youthful vigor. Say, said I accept the nomination of the Democratic, party. I accepted without reservation. And with only one obligation. The obligation to devote every effort. On my mind and spirit. To lead our. Party back to victory. And on nation to greatness. Kennedy's charged that the nation was lying at anchor drift was the clear criticism, not just of Nixon but of Eisenhower. Also, it didn't help that. Eisenhower unwittingly damaged his chosen candidates chances. Nixon was largely running on his experience as vice president and his participation in the administration, but when one journalist asked Eisenhower. EP adopted any of Nixon's ideas. He said quote. If you! Give me a week. I might think of one I don't remember. The Kennedy Campaign Gleefully reminded everyone that Eisenhower seemed to be admitting that Nixon didn't play as big of a role in the administration as he was claiming. That November JFK defeated Richard Nixon in one of the closest elections in American history. Kennedy would become the thirty fifth president of the United States. Remember when I said second terms are usually rough. Well. It was the same for Eisenhower. Yes, he had had his successes like in Lebanon. Yes, he had gotten back down once again. The Taiwan Strait. But the perception that he had been asleep at the wheel, which allowed the Soviets to take the lead in the space race persistent. And the entire Youtube episode dashed any hopes for legacy making peace treaty. And it seemed that with Kennedy's election. The American people were endorsing his view that the country had been standing still. To Eisenhower's critics. His presidency was eight years of drift. After years of holding down the defense budget, preventing what he felt could be national bankruptcy, and getting bogged down in foreign. Wars Eisenhower feared that it Kennedy presidency would be a disaster. Kennedy was ambitious and he opposed massive retaliation in favor of flexible response, which Eisenhower felt might to more wars. He lamented quote all I've been trying to do for eight years has gone down the drain. But Eisenhower worried about something else. He still believed very much in his policies, especially new look. He believed that it had kept the peace and allowed for unprecedented prosperity. But he saw that Americans might be abandoning it. He feared that eating new look meant America would turn to deficit spending. He's still feared that America would bankrupt itself trying to outmatch the Soviets. He saw the outcry and the call for massive spending after the Soviets launched sputnik. He also feared that relying less on nuclear weapons would make war more not less likely. He worried that the new and more Popular Flexible Response Doctrine with tempt American policymakers to use force especially since the new president-elect was a supporter of the doctrine. Eisenhower knew that the cold. War meant that things had changed. America couldn't demobilize. In years past. But he also worried about what that meant. He worried about the impact government defense. Spending would have on American society. As he said in his famous speech years earlier, he believed that defense spending had an opportunity cost that it robbed from American productivity innovation. Eisenhower crafted his farewell address with all of this in mind. It ranks among the most famous by modern president in history, and is perhaps the most famous farewell address after George Washington's. It was delivered on January seventeenth nineteen sixty one three days before he stepped down from office. The major theme here is balanced. Eisenhower knew that, America in the Cold War. He had to walk a fine line in many ways. He had to maintain fearsome weapons of war in order to preserve the peace. He had been willing to go to the brink of nuclear war. But also is willing to sit down with America's enemies to reduce tensions. The United. States had to spend much on weapons, but not too much or else. We would bankrupt ourselves. It had to maintain a healthy concern for Soviet expansion in progress without being alarmist. Eisenhower address this need for balance in his farewell address. Crises they will continue to be. In meeting them. Whether four on our domestic greater small, there is a recurring. To feel that some spectacular and costly. Could become the miraculous solution to all current difficult. A huge increase in newer elements of our defenses. Development of unrealistic programs to cure every ill and agriculture. A dramatic expansion in basic and applied research. These and many other possibilities, each possibly.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Frantic desire of the French to remain in power. Eisenhower knew that this was not a good luck and could. The Third World Away from the West and towards the Soviets second. That the war could be won. The French were having trouble against the Vietnamese who had the advantage of fighting at home and tropical jungles. The man who led the invasion of Normandy during World War Two knew that this would be a nightmare of a place to fight. He hesitated to commit Americans to a conflict without a clear path to victory. In his words quote I had no intention of using United States forces in any limited action when the force employed would probably not be decisive effectively. The French suffered a devastating defeat at the NBA in fhu in March nineteen fifty four soon after France left Vietnam, which became independent. It also partitioned between the communist in the north and the anti-communist in the south. There was now even greater pressure and Eisenhower to prevent a communist foothold in north Vietnam remember less than five years earlier in nineteen, forty-nine China had fallen and four years earlier in nineteen fifty. The Communists had invaded Korea. There was this real fear that communism was really spreading and that if not stopped, it could continue to spread like a cancer around the world. The military draft contingency plans that may have included the use of tactical nuclear weapons which would have been consistent with the new policy. Members of Congress Eisenhower's zone cabinet and French diplomats were clamoring for action to remove Communist forces in Vietnam and Vice President Nixon suggested that American boots on the ground might be necessary. Like any president in the Cold War, there was pressure to not be soft on communism. But Eisenhower was supremely confident in his own abilities. He would not bow to that pressure. He knew that even in a zero sum competition between the superpowers you had to pick and choose your battles wisely, and wasn't that what the new policy was all about, wasn't it about offsetting Soviet power not by confronting its areas of strength, but countering where it was week. At a national security meeting in April, twenty ninth nineteen fifty four is in. How're announced his decision? He refused to escalate America's involvement in the region especially when it came to ground forces. In doing so is in how're made a fateful decision? He avoided consuming his presidency with the same conflict that ruined Linden Johnson's presidency, a decade and a half later. It is likely that it preserved his reputation among future historians, especially as they studied the costs that America incurred from the Vietnam War, and again it was an example of Eisenhower's new look policy. The parting from Truman's perimeter defense in refusing to intervene or rely on ground troops whenever the Communists made gains. But as stated earlier, the new policy did call for other measures of deterrence. Eisenhower didn't fully disengaged diplomatically from southeast, Asia. He affirmed America support for the South Vietnamese regime under no Dinh Diem despite DMZ penchant for authoritarianism, also under Eisenhower, the CIA engaged in a propaganda campaign that's spread misinformation against the Communists and falsely threatened that America was considering nukes in Vietnam again the new look strategy of reliance on the threat of the nuclear option. Although. Eisenhower wisely dodged a bullet in Vietnam. It was a difficult situation that would not be resolved during his administration. A second big crisis of nineteen, fifty, four fifty five happened in Asia this time in the Taiwan Strait. When Mao took over mainland China and nineteen, forty nine, his arch, enemy Changcai check, and his nationalist fled established a new regime in Taiwan or Formosa, some called it an island, a little over one hundred miles off the mainland coast. Since then things remain tense in the Taiwan Strait. Both sides claimed to be the true China. The mainland Chinese government claim Taiwan was a rebel province that belonged to them. Their government in Taiwan under Chiang held out hope of invading the mainland and restoring its real dare. To hold the line against the communist Chinese then president, Truman sent the US Navy Seventh Fleet into the straight effectively placing Taiwan under American protection. Now that the fighting in the Korean War had ended Communist. China could now focus again on reclaiming Taiwan. Truman thought that Chiang's dream of reestablishing nationalist rule on the mainland was delusional and refused to support his plans for an invasion anti-communist in the United States felt truman was to blame for letting China fall in criticized him for preventing Chang for mounting his invasion. When Eisenhower took office. He signalled a reversal insurance policy that the United States wouldn't. Chang from taking over the mainland, the nationalists began increasing its military presence to over seventy thousand troops onto disputed islands named Chemo and Matsue right next to the mainland coast, not surprisingly this provoked the mainland to begin shelling the islands in the fall of nineteen, fifty four and declare that Taiwan must be liberated. America warned the People's Republic of China to cease attacking Taiwan but Eisenhower knew he had to do something to deter the Chinese, so is it. Ministration forged a mutual defense treaty with Taiwan in December of nineteen, fifty, four with quickly ratified by the US Senate. It codified America's protection of Taiwan, but Eisenhower was shrewd. He knew that such treaties were often binding on parties to the point of inflexibility and could embroil one of the parties in a conflict against its interest. So. He ensured that the agreement did not obligate America to act if Chemo and Mat Su were attacked. This gave America flexibility during crises on the Taiwan Strait, so it wouldn't automatically have to respond militarily on Taiwan's behalf, and therefore find itself involved in a war China. The treaty also limited Taiwan's freedom of action, basically giving America veto power on any actions Chang might take to invade the mainland. It was generally consistent with the new look policy using alliances to deter communist foe, and it also preserved breathing space for the United States Espace that Eisenhower that Brinkman could explain during crises. It also allowed a certain level of unpredictability in American policy keeping the mainland. Chinese guessing as to whether the US backup Taiwan with force. But Eisenhower couldn't avoid a confrontation on January eighteenth, nineteen, fifty five. The mainland escalated the situation by sending in the People's liberation, army and seizing the Jiang Shan Islands. This forced the Taiwanese to evacuate nearby islands. Shelling along Metsu and Chemo continued Eisenhower knew that American credibility was on the line. Now that Taiwan was under attack, he was willing to go to the brink to defend American credibility. He got the United States Congress to approve the Formosa resolution, which gave Eisenhower the power to use American forces to defend Taiwan. The American military up plans to escalate its involvement, including the use of ground troops. In here President Eisenhower reverted back to the new look. Policies reliance on the threat of nuclear weapons, just as in the Korean War. When he leaked to the Chinese that he was considering atomic warfare, the president engaged in brinksmanship and tough.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"And the best to be expected can be simply statement. The worst is a comic rule. The best would be this. A life of perpetual fear intention a burden of arms draining the and labor of all people a wasting of strength. That defies the American system on the Soviet system or any to to achieve true abundance and happiness for the people of this earth. Every gun that is made every warship launched every rocket fire signifies in the final from those hunger are not fit those who are cold and are not this world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers. The genius of its violence the hoops of his children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber. Is this a modern brick school? In more than thirty said it is to electric power plants each serving town of sixty thousand population it to find fully equipped hostile fifty miles of three. We pay for a single fighter plane with a half million bushels a week. We pay a single destroyer with new homes. That could have housed more than eight thousand people this is. I repeat the best way of life to be found on the road. The world has been taking. This is not a way of life at all. Then he puts them under. The cloud. Threatening warranted is humanity hanging from across the via. Eisenhower did not see defense spending as a stimulus to the economy. He saw it as a burden. Something that took away from American prosperity and the thriving of American civilization after all increased defense spending meant higher taxes on the American people and it could also mean higher national debt. It's fascinating than a military man. A man who spent his career rising in the army was talking about the defense budget in negative terms. Perhaps Eisenhower was the last president who could do this. He wasn't a professional politician nor was he insa political ideology. He was a national military hero and therefore he had the clout to espouse policies. That contradicted the desires of either party and could combine aspects of both to this day. There are many who agree with. Eisenhower's warnings on Defense Meeting and hope to reduce the defense budget. Eisenhower would have counseled us to be wise about what we spend money on. But this didn't mean. He didn't recognize the Soviets as a threat. The whole point of his frugality was so that the US could compete with the Soviet Union and more cost effective way. There was no moral ambiguity for Eisenhower. He believed that America was a positive. Moral force and the Soviets were an immoral totalitarian government. In Eisenhower's is it was the Soviets who are responsible for the Cold War starting in the first place. Eisenhower stated Soviet government yelled at vastly different vision of the future in the world of its design. Security was to be found not in mutual trust and mutual aid but in force you. Jeremy Subversion Rule of neighbor nations. The goal is power superiority and all costs security was to be sought by denying it to all of the result has been tried to for the world and for the Soviet Union. It has also been running. The imagining of Soviet power alerted free nations to a new danger of aggression. It compel him in Self-defense. To spend unprecedented money and energy for women's it forced them to develop weapons of war now capable of inflicting incident terrible punishment upon any restaurant in August of nineteen fifty. Four Eisenhower would say that quote. The central core of the great world problem is the aggressive intent of international communism. So while Eisenhower feared the cost of the Cold War he still maintained that the American people had a job to do. He may have disagreed with troms methods of containment. The increase spending the perimeter defense but not with its goal the Soviet Union had to be contained. But how how do you reconcile the paradox of spending in the Cold War with the goal of winning it to answer that question? Eisenhower decided to explore all possible options. While making use of the best minds he could find to that end. He initiated a project Alarium and it was named that because it was hatched out in the Celerion Room at the White House. It involved convening a group of brilliant men from the federal government and academia and it happened in the summer of nineteen fifty three as a critical exercise. In that exercise. The men were divided up into three teams with each team. Exploring three major strategies under consideration team was led by George Kennan considered by many to be the father of containment. They were tasked with defending. Truman's current policy. Containment team be was tasked with taking a tougher line against the Soviets and focusing more on using US nuclear weapons as a deterrent and team. C was also tasked with taking tough line and the Soviets with a focus on an aggressive policy called rollback. Instead of merely containing Soviet expansion. The team would look into whether it would be possible to push them back for more. They were the entire. Solarium project was so secretive that it remained classified until the mid nineteen eighties. Out of the project came a new strategy. That would replace an AC- sixty eight. The new document was NFC. One sixty two and the new strategy was called the new look and it was a dramatically different view of containment. The goal now. The Cold War was to win by not bankrupting ourselves. This meant getting America's fiscal house in order through major cuts in defense spending. This was a time when defense spending took about two thirds of the entire federal budget. Compare that to now. Were defense is less than about fifteen percent which by the way includes both discretionary and non discretionary spending so that was the first element of new look. The new strategy also meant staying away from foreign wars as much as possible like the kind truman got us into in Korea. After all are very expensive it was kind of like a race to frugality where the most cost. Effective side wins. But how are we to maintain deterrence encounter the Soviets if we were reducing defense spending? The answer came into words massive retaliation. Nfc One sixty two said that the United States would maintain quote a strong military posture with emphasis on the capability of inflicting massive retaliatory damage by offensive striking power. But if the military budget was slashed. Were would that power come from again? An Se 162 reported that the United States quote will consider nuclear weapons as available for use as other munitions essentially the Eisenhower Administration called for greater reliance on nuclear weapons rather than conventional forces like tanks ships planes and personnel as a way to deter communist aggression whether it came from the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China adding to the credibility of this shift. Eisenhower early in his presidency had taken control of the nuclear stockpile away from the Civilian Atomic Energy Commission and gave it to the military again to some. This was terrifying prospect. Did this mean that. The United States threatened to use nuclear weapons whenever Russia or China acted aggressively. So if another career happens somewhere. Did this mean that this time we would respond with nuclear weapons and if we really were using nuclear weapons to deter adversaries were we actually willing to use them and what would happen if we did use them. What about the international blowback what about radiation poisoning and the damage to the environment? And what if we weren't really willing to use them? What would happen if we threaten to use them in a crisis? Either against the Soviets of the Chinese but they were willing to call our bluff. Wouldn't our credibility diminished then to Eisenhower. The policy of massive retaliation was about reducing costs in fact in nineteen fifty-five. Eisenhower would cut four point. Eight billion dollars from the defense budget. Four point one billion of those cuts came from the army but it was also more than that again. He feared that the alternative would be to outmatch the Soviets everywhere countering their every move whether it meant building better tanks or confronting them wherever they acted aggressively as we said earlier. This was the path to national bankruptcy at least potentially and it gave the Soviets the initiative to choose where geographically or figuratively fight but eisenhower had a different strategy in the words of Vice President. Richard Nixon quote rather than let the Communists Nibble us to death all over the world and little wars we would rely on the future primarily on our massive mobile retaliatory power which we could use in our discretion against the major source of aggression. At times and places we choose.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Expansion of the war against China could lead to victory now. Might strike you as alarming that anyone would advise the use of nuclear weapons but this was the reality Cold War. It was something that General Macarthur talked about in Korea just before president. Truman fired him and it was something that would come up time and time again as we'll see during Eisenhower's presidency the Cold War was full of unprecedented dilemmas. In Korea American and Chinese forces engaged in combat Americans were confident that they could win after all they had defeated both the Nazis and the Japanese in partnership with the Allies of course China was a third world country. Surely China would be an easy opponent but America was unprepared for the Korean War. Especially since it had demobilized after World War Two and the Chinese had an enormous number of forces bay virtue of Sheer Numbers. They pushed back. And that's how the stalemate happened the. Us Now faced a dilemma. In order to win American might have to intensify the war effort sending more forces to fight but some wondered well if we have nuclear weapons. Why don't we use them? I mean otherwise. What's the point of having them? And as the body bags piled up more Americans kept wondering. Why are we letting our soldiers get killed if we have a weapon that could end the war once and for all nuclear weapons were the most terrifying weapons ever devised by man? But you can see why some people might at least be tempted to think this way to think about using the bomb especially if you fear the spread of communism and if you're sick and tired of a bloody stalemate but of course there were fears for what this would mean if we use nuclear weapons against North Korea or against China. The world could be revolted by their use. America's prestige could be damaged forever. The fallout from nuclear warfare could lead to unprecedented collateral damage. And what if the Soviet responded given their relationship with China in North Korea they had hundreds of thousands of soldiers in Europe. What if they retaliated by invading our allies in Europe? What if they blockaded and attacked our presence in Berlin and now that they had the bomb what if they used it against us or our allies while most people shuddered at the thought of starting a nuclear war with the Soviets. Some felt that this was the time to do in the cold. War was relatively new. Soviets did have the bomb but they were few years behind the United States in nuclear firepower in the development of the hydrogen bomb in the means to deliver it. Why allow them to catch up. Why not hit them now with everything? We had so that the Soviets would never get to the point of competing with us after all. Didn't the West wait too long to stop? Hitler wouldn't more lives been saved if we had taken on. Hiller earlier was stolen that much different than Hitler and wasn't stolen even more dangerous than Hitler. Now considering he had the bomb of course the situation was more complicated than that. Hitler installing were both totalitarian tyrants ruthless killers but their circumstances weren't exactly the same still. Most people feared what Stalin could do especially since he had successfully imposed his grip on Eastern Europe and supported communist movements around the world. They also feared the worst case scenario in all of this that the Soviets would respond in kind to nuclear attack against itself or its allies with a nuclear attack of its own and then a nuclear war might ensue. The specter of nuclear Holocaust hovered over everything. These were the debates that were raging on in the early cold war in Korea would be the first decision for the new president despite the advice from Generals Clark and Vanfleet. Eisenhower refused to expand the effort in Korea. He rejected their request and move forward with negotiations for now. America's president would not go anywhere near using nukes in Korea but the temptation to use them or to threaten their use with continued to rise throughout. Eisenhower's administration on January Twentieth Nineteen fifty-three Dwight D Eisenhower. At the age of sixty two took the oath of office in became the thirty fourth president of the United States fully aware of the immense burdens. He was undertaking. The new president began his inaugural address with a prayer. My friend before I begin the expression of those thought that I deem appropriate to this moment. Would you permit me the privilege of uttering a little private prayer of my own and I asked you? Bow Your Head Almighty got as we stand here at this moment my associates in my future associates in the executive branch of government. Join me BESIKCI. That foul will make full and complete dedication to the service of the people in this throng and their fellow citizens everywhere give us we pray the power to discern clearly right from wrong and allow all our words and actions to be governed thereby and by the laws of this land especially we pray that are concerned shall be for all the people regardless of station race are calling may cooperation be permitted and be a mutual lane of those who under the concepts of our constitution whole to differing political faith. Show that Oh may work for the good of our beloved country and glory. I'm in in the weeks. After HIS ELECTION EISENHOWER SKETCHED OUT AGENDA FOR HIS ADMINISTRATION. There were two overriding concerns. One immediate and the other long-term the immediate concern was the Korean War in the plan to negotiate an end to that war. The long term concern was the Cold War and how to contain the Soviet Union. Things are right for change. America wanted to move past the stalemate of the Korean War but there was also big news. Out of the Kremlin Joseph Stalin. The totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union the Godfather of the Communist Movement for almost three decades died of a cerebral hemorrhage on March fifth nineteen fifty-three there would be a new Soviet leader. Although it would take some time to figure out who won the power struggle with new leadership in the White House and the Kremlin. There might be a new way forward in the Cold War in our previous episodes. We covered president. Harry Truman and his containment strategy. It was summed up by George Kennan. Who said that quote? The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long term patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tenancies. It was a middle ground between those who just wanted to negotiate with the Soviets and coexist with them and those who wanted to roll the Soviets back pushing them from where they were already established. Originally Truman headed here to what was called a strong point defense strategy. He felt that it would be too expensive and difficult to stop the Soviets everywhere as powerful as America was it cost too much to defend giant. Swath of international territory encounter the Soviets wherever they expanded whether it was by military force or aid to communist groups around the world and it would also give the Soviets the initiative to allow them to bogs down in conflicts around the world. They would be able to decide where the conflicts would start if we promised to stop them wherever they expanded they could start them in areas or arenas that played to their strengths and our weaknesses. The strong point defense strategy called for providing economic assistance to allies at certain points around the world so that those allies could become centers of military and economic strength that way those allies could stand up on their own feet and share in the burden of containing Soviet expansion. This strategy was made manifest in the Marshall Plan and the Truman doctrine which provided economic aid to Greece and Turkey. It also meant that. America wasn't on the hook for defending every country threatened by the Soviets or the Chinese and it would detract from the Soviets ability to dictate where a conflict or competition would occur while the Korean War changed all of that although Korea was not originally considered a strong point the possibility of millions more falling under the orbit of communism called into question America's commitment to its allies. The Truman Administration. Now believe that the defeat of South Korea meant a victory for the Communists and decided to commit forces to save it by then a new strategy document known as NFC sixty eight had been in circulation. It rejected strong point defense and called for a dramatic increase in the defense budget. Truman had originally requested thirteen billion dollars for defense in nineteen fifty. Nfc Sixty eight called for increasing that number to forty or fifty billion almost triple what was originally requested. It called for increasing both conventional and nuclear capabilities and replace strongpoint defense with perimeter defense.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"In our previous episode. We covered the first president of the cold. War Era Harry S Truman. It was under President Truman. That America initiated its policy of containment to contain wooded considered the greatest threat to world peace the Soviet Union this new conflict. The Cold War was unlike anything ever before it now. Two nations dominated the globe and with the development of thermonuclear weapons had the capacity to destroy civilization itself. History had entrusted Harry Truman with defense of the free world and he confronted crisis after crisis always with the specter of nuclear war in the background but now Truman's presidency was over and he had left the world's stage in his place was one of the most capable and experienced leaders in American history. His name was Dwight. David Eisenhower the great hero of world. War Two the Supreme Allied Commander who had invaded Normandy defeated Hitler and liberated Europe now Eisenhower or Ike. As his friends called him had the responsibility of leading the free world during this dangerous time. Few people today can recall the major events or accomplishments of Eisenhower's presidency too many. He is Amir transitional. Figure the president who served during the Stale and Cookie Cutter Nineteen fifties between the years of war under FDR and Truman and the social upheaval. Under Kennedy and Johnson but Eisenhower was no mere interlude like Truman. His presidency was one of crises. When American credibility and nuclear war were constantly at stake every decision he made involved delicate balance of terror. That could mean either peace or annihilation. How Eisenhower maintained that piece in avoided? Armageddon is the subject of this episode of this American President.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Basically the wives weren't thrilled about this because they're they're. They're training. They want to execute the mission well, but then they have to deal with all these PR events, but apparently the Hong. Kong is going on at that time in one of them. One other wives was really scared that they would contract this flu, and then go into space, and then get sick and one of the astronauts ended up getting sick, but it wasn't from the flu is mainly. It was A. You know stomach issues and things like that so anyways you see this story about flus and things like that that creep up every now and then, and it's really fascinating, and it's something I think. Historically more people will probably take a look at, and it's a good reminder to this stuff does happen. Yeah I think It's it's just. It's just interesting I think compared to just how seriously we take this this the this kind of thing, nowadays and you know I think back back to what we're saying at the beginning of the conversation. You and I were sort of tossing predictions as to what this would lead to. Again you know I thought would be disruptive I. Mean I think around what mid to late February you started to see the Dow tank. And I think for a lot of people. I saw it as a temporary setback, but I mean just. The global disruption in trade has been just astounding. The the Dow had lost. I, mean it I mean it was two thousand eight level sort of Dow doubt losses, and it was incredible to see a very bad way obviously That that made me think okay..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Things seem so distant in the past and they they're just truly not this this in the you can you can go online and basically most of the news you'll read today and for the past couple of weeks was about cove in nineteen and that's that's that's something. I don't think I have seen in my lifetime and so about history a very interesting example that I've been reading about lately and it's not an episode in history that I could say I've studied too much about but people are talking naturally about the great Spanish flu the great influenza of one thousand nine hundred eighteen to nineteen twenty ish about one hundred years ago and honestly that story I. It's fascinating what I've read about it. And just the cost that I mean it's just staggering right before that you had world war one in fact it was going on during World War One and that being the great war the worst war in history up to that time and that killed millions of people and it it introduced Just kind of new levels of of horror and agony that people were experiencing because of the war. You know people know about this. The trench warfare and Just the levels of casualties. That really dwarfed anything that happened previously and then after that or actually during that war the virus that would become the great influenza showed up in the soldiers as the United States soldiers as they were mobilising to go to Europe and I believe they sought in Kansas. You know when the soldiers were getting prepared to to go over to Europe and it followed them there and before you knew it. It spread like wildfire all across the world. And as we know it. It's known as the Spanish flu. Because so much of the world including the United States had basically a censored all information about it and President Wilson who was president at the time of the United States. he very vigorously his administration. Very vigorously prosecuted or enforce the Sedition Act which essentially made it illegal to speak out against the war and one of those things that might undermine the war. Effort was discussion of the pandemic which to me. It's really incredible. When you think about something like that. I mean I you know we live in a world today where we scrutinize everything. Our politicians say just one hundred years ago which is our grandparents may be great grandparents probably great grandparents lifetimes there was a situation where most of the rich nations wealthy nations of the world. They advanced nations and You know the United States we were all censoring this information and when you have a situation like that happening in which information is basically a life or death thing people did not have the information they needed in order to take the right precautions. So there's this amazing story of how officials in Philadelphia during World War One. They that this pandemic was a serious threat and there was a parade scheduled a parade in the city which in support of the war effort. And they knew that this pandemic virus could spread like wildfire. If you have an event like this but they still let the event continue. I mean it's it's really incredible. It's something that now. It's just unthinkable. Now you hear stories about people that are Going to the beach and all that kind of stuff and obviously a lot of people have strong opinions about that. Some people feel like that's very careless. Imagine if something like that happened where you know city officials basically Government officials suppressed any information about it. They allowed these big events to happen. And as a result of these events people gathered thousands of people got infected people died. And what's remarkable? Is that you look at the number of people that died Americans that died in World War One and you look at the number of people that died in Because of the great flew the influenza more people died in the great flew. The Spanish flu then died in the American civil war which was the war in which most Americans were killed. I mean this was a catastrophic event. I can't imagine living in a time like that. Imagine a time where a war is going on. People are getting killed and then a flu happens. Which is it's you know. Kills even more people and worldwide. You had fifty two hundred million people that died that dwarf even our statistics here in the United States. And this is after the civilized world had gone through World War One it's just staggering to me One thing that kind of adds to the against the fascination with that time is that there's a lot of speculation that woodrow Wilson himself. Actually got the Spanish flu. There's debate about it. Some people think that he had a heart attack but basically as the story goes in as a covered a little bit in our previous podcasts. Our previous episodes basically Woodrow Wilson. While he was negotiating the peace treaty which would become the Treaty of our Si- a at the end of World War. One he during the negotiations got very sick and apparently after this illness had began behaving erratically and changed his policy positions. He started thinking that there were spies around him which is very possible but he got very paranoid and started making decisions. You know erratically. And so essentially his his thinking kind of changed and the outcome of the treaty possibly was altered by that because Wilson decided to side closer with the allies against the Germans which led to a piece of vengeance which led to the resentment that fueled the rise of of Hitler. And Nazism. Now there's a long chain there many events I'm simplifying obviously but in some senses. It's possible that an illness. Perhaps the Spanish flu had implications beyond anything beyond anything. Anyone realized that the timing applications that had that had a great effect on how the twentieth century would turn out so really when you look at that story and how important it is to learn from that story and hope that we're learning from those stories today as we confront the pandemic. It's it's it is interesting to see does not look like at least from my perspective. That would Joe Wilson the handle this very well at all Earliest compared to At least how. We're how we're handling. Covert nineteen right now. I mean I mean you know a lot of people say that we've been laid on the ball and sort of dealing with it and it certainly seems that way if we heard about it you know months prior but the the you know Americans are every American is aware of what's going on right now every American. No matter what they're doing is at least aware that they should be inside and practicing social distancing that was not the case in the. Early Twentieth Century. Under Woodrow Wilson. Right and there's a great book out on that whole story it's about the pandemic generally speaking but it's called the great influenza the story of the deadliest pandemic in history it's written by historian named John Berry and one of the tag lines for that book is called the strongest. It says the strongest weapon against pandemic is the truth. And so that to me when you talk about information how important. That is really underscores. That and John Berry. He's one of those historians that does believe it. Wilson actually had The the Spanish flow. So I mean if you could think of a time where an heaven forbid but you're seeing so many people get the corona virus you know. You're seeing the celebrities Tom. Hanks you're seeing athletes. Get This and heaven forbid that it starts affecting people that are making decisions that really impact us. That already is happening right. I mean Boris Johnson. The the Prime Minister of the UK And so and so forth but none of this was theory during the great flu of one thousand nine hundred nineteen nineteen. This was actually happening. And I just can't even imagine what that must have been like for people when you hear about that and you hear about other flus other pandemics watching this documentary. Few days ago on Apollo eight the moon mission three missions before Apollo eleven but it was the first Apollo eight was the first mission to go round to go around the moon and come back. Didn't land on the moon but it went around this was in nineteen sixty eight and the interviewed one of the spouses without the wife of one of the Sorry one of the astronauts and before the mission the astronauts. So this is Frank Frank Borman Jim Lovell and Bill Anders. They actually went to the White House to meet with President Nixon and meet with a bunch of dignitaries and basically the wives weren't thrilled about this because they're they're they're training they want to execute the mission well but then they have to deal with all these PR events but apparently the Hong Kong is going on at that time in one of them one other wives was really scared that they would contract this flu and then go into space and then get sick and one of the astronauts ended up getting sick but it wasn't from the flu is mainly it was a you know stomach issues and things like that so anyways you see this story about Flus and things like that that creep up every now and then and it's really fascinating and it's something. I think historically more people will probably take a look at and it's a good reminder to this stuff does happen yeah I think It's it's just it's just interesting. I think compared to just how seriously we take this this the this kind of thing nowadays And you know I think back back to what we're saying at the beginning of the conversation you and I were sort of tossing predictions as to what this would lead to again. You know I thought would be disruptive I mean I think around what mid to late February you started to see the Dow tank and I think for a lot of people. I saw it as a temporary setback but I mean just the global disruption in trade has been just astounding the the Dow had lost. I mean it I mean it was two thousand eight level sort of Dow Doubt losses and it was incredible to see a very bad way obviously That that made me think okay. You know. This is happening in China. China's quarantining entire cities. This this has got to have If not just ramifications for for Asia definitely ramifications for global trade. And we're definitely seeing that affect now. Yeah you know one thing that I've been thinking about a lot lately. So we just released our Truman episodes. Joey you you played a big role in that. So we're very appreciative of getting those out there but one thing that the the big thing that keeps going through. Truman's administration is so story was that it was. It was literally crisis after crisis he turns because president during World War One or sorry World War Two has to decide to drop the bomb and then from then on. It's the crisis continues. You know he had the Cold War. He had Korea the hydrogen bomb. And you read these crises and you know how they end..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"He was initially naive about cooperation with Stalin. But it can't be denied that after spending much of his presidency thinking of ways to contain communism he understood its nature as well as any American statesman on July twentieth. Nineteen fifty three Harry. Truman left office at the age of sixty eight. He moved back to his hometown of Independence Missouri. He wrote his memoirs and raise money to build his presidential library. Truman lived long enough to see. Eisenhower served two terms and leave office and to see. Jfk Win Johnson. And Richard Nixon become president peeve and saw man walk on the Moon he died on December twenty six thousand nine hundred seventy two at the age of eighty eight at the urging of his widow best. He did not line state but a simple private funeral on the grounds of his presidential library. Near the end of his presidency Truman had a chat with Winston Churchill. The British prime minister reflected back on when Truman took office in one thousand nine forty-five and said quote. I must confess sir. I held you in very low regard. Ben I load. You're taking the place of Franklin Roosevelt. I misjudged you badly since that time. You more than any other man has saved Western civilization that quote in a sense summarizes Harry Truman's presidency when FDR died Americans feared what the future hadn't store. It was a world in ruins from the war with a rising communist threat and the atomic genie released from the bottle. During Truman's term the American people face crises of global proportions Harry. Truman had to make decisions that I would never wish on another person. Different presidents are dealt different hands and Sherman was dealt one of the toughest. No matter what he did he would forever be remembered as the president who ordered the first and so far only two atomic attacks in history he initiated the development of the hydrogen bomb. He committed American troops in a controversial war that ruined his popularity all without a congressional declaration of war. Whatever else he did those decisions will forever influence. How most people see him? I remember in college in Grad School. Hearing my fellow students criticized Truman's decision to drop the bomb to them. It seemed that Truman was reckless and had little understanding of the decisions he was making but to me. This kind of evaluation seems a bit hasty. I've already talked about how the real choice wasn't between using the bomb or not using it but between using the bomb or invading Japan. Both of which were terrible choices but the evidence also seems to indicate that. Truman and his men his advisors did know the significance of what they were doing. They did know that. The atomic age represented something new and dangerous enrolled history. I also remember my grandfather while I was growing up. He would sometimes talk about Truman and he didn't really liked him very much. He was from China. He's passed away since but he a lifelong hatred of the communist Chinese government and he faulted Truman for firing macarthur in not allowing him to liberate North Korea and invade Japan. In his is the last chance to topple. The communist regime was lost under Truman from Truman's perspective he had limited MacArthur's mission for fear of provoking a World War. He feared that the Soviet Union newly armed with nuclear technology would respond or full blown. War would erupt with China for Truman limiting the war meant preventing a Third World War but in doing so he was essentially sacrificing millions North Korea to the yoke of communism these were the agonizing dilemmas. Truman had to face. There is a fair debate about the wisdom of these policies. I've heard many say that America should have gone all out to win the Korean War and others who say we shouldn't have been Korean. The first place others criticize how Truman wage the war they cite the fact that he committed troops to a war without actually declaring a war. They say that this action paved the way for future interventions that ended up being clogged Myers like in Vietnam and Afghanistan and they strengthen executive power to make war a- power that the constitution granted to Congress. There may be validity to this argument depending on where you sit. If there's one thing that I can say it's at these decisions seem easier to make when you don't have the specter of World War three hanging over your head or aren't trying to prevent the advance of a totalitarian state or trying to secure freedom for millions of people all of this ties into another criticism when the ten expressed the idea that Truman expanded America's containment policy beyond what was feasible that he took the original strategy based on managing costs on picking and choosing your battles and expanded it to the point of American over-extension militarizing the nation's foreign policy successor. President Eisenhower would seek to reduce the costs and warned against over extension and ultimately the military industrial complex again. There may be validity to these arguments depending on what you believe but whatever the means were Truman. I believe was sincere in his determination to defend the free world against the communist world all without provoking direct conflict between the superpowers. It was a fine line to walk but he did it as well as anyone could expect from a man with little preparation for the job. It's often said that Truman represented the common man. One critic even said that he was a common man's common man deathly not a compliment. He seemed to many to be remarkable. He was far from perfect. P had a quick temper and was prone to salty language when he left office he was one of the least popular presidents in history but in a recent C-SPAN survey of historians. Truman was ranked the sixth grade as president of all time. Although his decision still provoked controversy. Historians have come to respect Truman sense of history his integrity his determination and his willingness to make difficult decisions historians realized that though common he was he had the gift of something that was often lacking in politics common sense. I've mentioned how much Truman's advisers admired him. These are brilliant men and they were serving a man who had no college education who wants had been a farmer and had salesman but they knew what he was made of. They knew that he was a leader. Truman had earned the respect. I also mentioned Truman's love for his wife Bess. Yes Truman was feisty with a sharp tongue but he also had a strong moral compass. That could never be shaken. One story illustrates is character when the nineteen forty. Eight presidential election was approaching true and was expected to run for his own terms president which eventually ended up doing but before the campaign. He actually offered the top spot on the ticket. To General Eisenhower was enormously popular telling him that he'd be happy to run as his vice president. Mike was rather taken aback by this and swore off any political ambitions illustrated who Harry Truman was. He was still the man he was when he left. Missouri practical home spun and unawed by power. It's hard to imagine any president willing to subordinate himself as Truman was willing to do. Its sometimes easy to look at Truman as a historical accident in some ways he was. It's a bit unsettling to remember that. His elevation to the presidency during such a critical time was not the product of a well thought out process but more due to political convenience he was the first president of the Nuclear Age the first US chief executive to unambiguously be the most powerful man in the world who could alter the destiny of mankind with a single order at the same time. He is likely the last president of his kind. It's hard to imagine another President One without a college degree. Not really looking to seek the office. Someone who looks like a statesman and more like your next door neighbor. Someone like him. It's hard to see rising to the White House anytime soon. Then again. Human events have a way of surprising us even today regardless Americans now seem grateful that such a decisive leader rose during such a decisive time. Harry Truman story is the American story. A former Haberdasher who became president and made decisions that still echo throughout history. It proves once again that the unlikeliest and lease the steamed of men can rise to the heights of power and leave a profound imprint on. The world.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"The whole operation was an unprecedented logistical success. Stalin finally realized the futility of the blockade in order that it's cease Harry. Truman had stood toe to toe with Joseph Stalin the most ruthless despot in the world and got him back down. Although the Berlin airlift was a triumph for the United States? The world remained as dangerous as ever and things would get even more dangerous in nineteen forty eight Harry. Truman had won a presidential term his own right. It was one of the greatest upsets in American history. One of those supporting Harry. Truman was an actor in Hollywood Ronald Reagan. Who also happened to be the head of the screen actors guild. Reagan was an avowed. Fdr NEW DEAL DEMOCRAT. Having voted for him four times and also supported. President Truman appearing with him at a campaign event and recording an ad supporting him Ronald Reagan would eventually abandoned the Democratic Party believing it was failing to respond to Soviet communism in Truman's inaugural address in January twentieth nineteen forty nine. He portrayed the Cold War in terms of an epic confrontation between two ideologies. Two ways of life in pursuit of these aims the United States and other like minded nations find themselves directly opposed by a regime and contrary aims Anna totally different concept of life. That regime adheres to a false philosophy which purports to offer freedom security and greater opportunity to mankind misled by that philosophy. Many peoples have sacrificed their liberties only to learn that deceit and mockery poverty end tyranny. Are they're hard? That false philosophy is communism. Communism is based on the belief. That man is so weak and inadequate that he has gone able to govern himself and therefore requires the rule of strong masters. Democracy is based on the conviction that man has the moral and intellectual capacity as well as the engine of a right to govern himself with Raisin and justice..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"As we covered in our previous episode Truman succeeded to the presidency. Upon the death of Franklin D Roosevelt the longest serving president and one of the most consequential chief executives in American history. It was not easy to follow president as popular as FDR and Truman would spend much of his presidency trying to measure up but for those who neutral and worked with him. There was something about him that people admired in a previous episode about FDR. I noted that he was a bit devious. He was a true politician who often gave his staffers contradictory information and manipulated them. Roosevelt's secretary of war Henry Stimson who served as a cabinet member for two previous presidents described him as quote the poorest administrator. I've ever worked under not so with Truman. This midwestern Haberdasher was refreshingly straightforward even with the media journalists Cable Phillips wrote quote. He used the press. Occasionally as most presidents have done to test the wind but he never tried to condom with flattery and devious favouritism Harry. Truman worked less to ingratiate himself with people but succeeded better at it than any important public figure. I've ever known he did it. I think because he was so utterly honest with and about himself there was something. People found endearing about the feisty. Midwesterner he also had these huge pair of bottle cap glasses that magnified his is White House. Usher J. B. West said quote. I had the feeling he was looking at me. All around me straight through me. Truman's advisers and his staff came to really love the man they admired his integrity and the way he managed his administration his Labor Secretary of State Dean Aitchison wrote quote. He was so fair he didn't make different decisions with different people. He called everyone together. You were all heard and you got the answer together. He was a square dealer. All the way through atchison found that Truman was confident insecure in his own abilities. Even while being surrounded by brilliant men observing that quote he was not afraid of the competition of other ideas but atchison added that Truman was grounded and humble quote free of the greatest vice in a leader. His Ego never came between him and his job and they loved his unpretentious manner. A secret service agent Floyd Boring wrote quote. He never came on as being superior he would talk to anyone. He could talk to the lowly peasant he could also talk to the King of England agent boring later called one of my favourite Harry Truman stories which made clear his devotion to his wife. Bess now best. Truman hated the limelight and hated being first lady and Truman remained totally devoted to her. When Truman was in Berlin during the Potsdam conference he was in a car with a young military officer and agent boring during the ride the officer hinted to him he could get him anything he wanted including a Harem of women in response. Truman gave him the reprimand of a lifetime. He said quote listened son. I'm married my sweetheart. She doesn't run around on me and I don't run around on her. I want that understood. Don't ever mention that kind of stuff to me again when Truman got out he didn't bother saying goodbye to the young officer. In the few months after the Japanese surrender. The world remained euphoric from the end of the war but many feared that a new conflict was on the horizon the Soviets continued to ignore the Yalta agreements negotiated by FDR Churchill and Stalin earlier in nineteen forty. The Soviets promised democratic elections in Eastern Europe. But they were reneging on that commitment. The Soviet Union was imposing Communist. Puppet governments there and in other places like Azerbaijan. The Soviets believed that they were entitled to create a buffer zone in eastern Europe. Something they wanted to do after being invaded twice by Germany during the world wars but that buffer zone meant totalitarian rule over the populations in those countries. The Americans and the Soviets grew more and more suspicious of each other's intentions at the same time. Communist parties were rising and France in Italy and in China the most populous nation on the planet the Communists under Mao Zedong were gaining ground in the civil war. Against Chiang's nationalist government. Many Americans felt that Communism was spreading across the world and feared that it was just as aggressive. A totalitarian government as the Nazi regime was in just a few weeks in February and March of Nineteen forty-six a series of events occurred that would solidify. What would be known as the Cold War on February Ninth Soviet leader? Joseph Stalin delivered a speech in Moscow where he recapped what happened during World War. Two and how the victory over the Nazis supposedly was proof of the superiority of the Communist system. It's interesting because I read the speech. And he doesn't directly say much about the United States or the West or about boosting military production but given the tensions of the time it was interpreted as an aggressive speech Stalin said that capitalism inevitably leads to war which is what happened in World War Two and seemed to imply that a future war was also inevitable quote perhaps catastrophic wars could be avoided if it were possible periodically to redistribute raw materials and market among the respective countries in conformity with their economic weight. By means of concerted and peaceful decisions. But this is impossible. Under the President. Capitalists conditions of the world economic development stolen then called for a massive increase in steel iron coal and oil production saying quote. Only when we succeed in doing that can we be sure that our motherland will be insured against all contingencies. Americans were alarmed Supreme Court Justice William. Douglas said it was a quote declaration of World War Three. It's easy to think that this may have been an overreaction on the part of Americans be after a member. They had the memory of arms races in the early twentieth century when Europe especially Britain and Germany engaged in an endless competition to build stronger ships and other weapons of war arms racists that ended turning into war to them arms. Racists seemed to make a war inevitable and then came disturbing news from the north from Canada. A clerk named Eager Zenko who worked in the Soviet embassy defected and exposed a high level. Spiring which was passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union about the Manhattan project. The project to build the atomic bomb eventually thirty nine people were arrested in eighteen. Were convicted one of them was an actual member of the Canadian parliament. A man named Fred rose. I remember taking American history classes in college and learning about the paranoia that people felt during the Cold War and I got the sense that my professors and classmates thought that it was silly for Americans to have been so concerned and there were times when in a country of hundreds of millions that paranoia might have gone too far and have led to excesses. But I think it's easy to forget why Americans felt the fear of communism that they did. They had lived through the world wars where they had fought against authoritarian regimes and had a genuine and understandable concern. The Soviets. Were the next great enemy. They had the memory of Hitler in the Nineteen Thirties. How he rose to power and how. Europeans tried to placate him by bargaining with him. They're remember that appeasement only invited further aggression. They remembered how isolationist America had been in the nineteen thirties and how the world fell. Apart without their leadership many Americans felt had they been more involved in the world. They might have prevented things from exploding into global conflict. Far fewer lies would have been lost and now that the Soviets were expanding aggressively into Europe. They wondered if they had to do something now. That if they didn't they'd have to face stronger. Soviet Union later on after all the Soviets were the only true power left in Europe and looming over. All of. This was the fact that the nuclear genie was out of the bottle. America had a monopoly on the bomb as far as they knew but there was a sense that inevitably other nations would soon attain nuclear capability and just north above the United States. Americans were learning that there were people living in Canada actively spying on the Manhattan project on behalf of the Soviets of course. Multiple nations were engaged in espionage America included but the steak seemed higher than ever before with the fear that world war three might be around the corner where the weapons could now threaten the existence of civilization everything even the smallest incidents had geopolitical implications in a time of tension the knowledge that spies were on the continent made it hard to not be at least a little paranoid but these factors in mind. It's easy to see why people were alarmed. It was on February. Twenty Second Nineteen forty-six that a State Department official stationed in Moscow named George. Kennan sent a message to Washington. That would change the course of American Foreign Policy. It would be known as the long telegram. It was an analysis of the Soviet Union. But it was really a kind of psycho analysis of the Russian mind. A mind that predated the communist regime in it. Kenan essentially argued that for years American policy towards the Soviet Union was one big long mistake. According to Canon America under Roosevelt and now under Truman naively believed that it could use diplomacy to cooperate with the Soviets he described Russian leaders as inherently insecure and suspicious of the rest of the world. A kind of deeply embedded paranoia even xenophobia. The telegram reads like a rough draft. It's missing a few articles but bear with me. Quote at bottom.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"So in our last episode we mentioned our kickstarter campaign where raising money so that we essentially can have a permanent studio with upgraded equipment like acoustic panels and new microphone basically so he could produce more episodes and higher quality content and for the campaign we gave ourselves the goal of One thousand eight hundred dollars meaning that we had to raise a minimum of that much one thousand eight hundred dollars to actually get any of the money at all. Well thanks to you our listeners. We raised as of February seventeenth. We raised two thousand two hundred twenty dollars. So we're definitely going to get the money that you contributed and I just wanted to say that we at this American President are honored and quite frankly thrilled by all of your support and we just wanted to let you all know that we appreciate everyone who donate and we also asked that if you haven't donated please consider donating to us and if you have we just want to thank you all for your generous donations We have stretch goals beyond one thousand eight hundred dollars the more money we have the better equipment we can buy and the higher quality content we could produce and we need your donations by noon on March fifth. We're also offering you rewards for your contributions if you donate five hundred dollars or more. You can co produce an episode of this American presidents of those a topic that you've always wanted to learn about we'll be happy to meet with you and basically talk about an that you have and will make a short episode about that topic now. Four hundred dollars or more. We add this American president. Meaning Michael. We'll take you on a private tour of Mount Vernon George Washington's private home and we also offer group tours of Mount Vernon at one hundred fifty dollars or more. If give one hundred dollars or more you can become a sponsor of an episode and have your name or the name of someone you know Read as a sponsor during an episode. So you'll be immortalized in this American President History and if you donate less than that you can have the option. I think the minimum twenty five dollars. You can have the option of getting a Mug a t-shirt or both and if you like swag if you know someone that does. This is the perfect item. The perfect gift. So just make sure you go to kickstarter and look up this American President podcasts studio and again just behalf of me and Michael we just want to thank you all for your generous donations and we look forward to giving you more quality historical content in the future in our previous episode we covered President Harry S Truman's unlikely rise to power and his first few months in office he had made the momentous decision to drop the atomic bomb world. War Two is over in America and the world. Now look to an era of peace but new problems were on the horizon the victorious allies were now forging a new world order but couldn't agree on what that order should look like the world had suffered through two world wars and desperately feared a third one especially now that the atomic genie was out of the bottle how President Truman handled. These challenges is the subject of this episode of this American President..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Mm it didn't help that. FDR didn't prepare me all for the job he didn't include any war strategy meetings or and other meetings General George Patton just who was Harry Truman well he came from very different pedigree than FDR while Roosevelt was raised in a wealthy prominent New York Family Truman had far more modest upbringing he was born in eighteen eighty four and raised in Missouri the son of a farmer in his youth truman learn to play the piano and developed lifelong fondness for history he was voracious reader on anything from ancient Greece to the American civil war after graduating high school he enrolled in call College in Kansas City but left after year he then worked a series of random jobs is a timekeeper at a railway where he slept in camps for Hobos in the mail room of a newspaper and as a bank clerk although he studied for a little while in law school he quit school altogether he was the last American president did not have a college degree true join the National Guard and when America entered World War One he became a captain of an artillery regiment that was sent to France in one thousand nine eighteen it was there that Truman first exhibited the qualities that would mark his tenures president tenacity and leadership he transformed his unit into an active fighting force and they performed admirably while enduring intense combat during the war he was a feisty leader while at the mountains in France he and his soldiers came under heavy German fire when his men started fleeing Truman unleashed a foul mouthed tirade that stop them in their tracks and got them back to fight in another instance he led an attack on the Germans that save many lives in the US Army's Twenty Eighth Infantry Division these were critical experiences is life giving him confidence as he pursued a career in public service when he returned home he quoted a woman named Bess Wallace who he had known since he was six and she was five he proposed to her in nineteen eleven but she turned him down he was persistent and they finally married in Nineteen nineteen they eventually had one her name Margaret Soon Trim went into business and opened up a haberdashery basically a store that sells men's clothing accessories and fortunately this her failed when the economy tanked in the early Twenties Truman was bankrupt but he caught the eye of a local Party boss named Tom Pendergast who was looking for a candidate for public office while most people didn't see much in Truman to pendergast he was an ideal candidate a veteran who is known for hard work and honesty he can Vince Truman to run for County Judge Eastern Jackson County in nineteen twenty two basically being a county supervisor he won the election thus truman began his political career. Although Pendergast was typical political boss seen by many as corrupt and power hungry German got a reputation for comp sense and integrity he adopted political views in the tradition of Jacksonian democracy fighting for the interest of rural citizens and common folks against the corrupt establishment this helped him get elected a US senator in nineteen thirty four Truman arrived in Washington at the start of the Roosevelt Administration as it was implementing it's new deal policies to deal with the Depression Truman was a loyal Democrat and supported many of FDR's programs but it was during World War Two when Truman really made a name for himself he was appointed to chair a special Senate Investigative Committee which became known as the Truman Committee to investigate wasteful defense spending according to some estimates the trim committee saved the taxpayers about fifteen billion dollars or about two hundred ten billion in today's dollars by nineteen four eighty four Harry Truman was sixty years old although he was well respected among his colleagues most Americans didn't know anything about him he likely would have retired an obscure political figure had not been for the events at the nineteen forty four Democratic convention that year FDR was running for his fourth term but he was McMahon in fact his doctor told him he would likely not survive a fourth term especially given the strain of running the war effort and it showed anyone who saw FDR by then already knew that he was in poor health he was too thin for his clothes his jaw often hung open and his skin was Pale Grey Democratic Party leaders had a hunch that he would die in office the problem was that the incumbent vice president was a man named Henry Wallace who was far too liberal for most at the Party and who was a bit of an oddball he had a history of engaging in spiritual mysticism and had poor political skills he was often feuding with other members of the administration but Wallace was popular with the liberal rank and file enduring the convention there was a push to renominate him for vice president but the party bosses engineered for him to be removed from the ticket in his place they found someone with few enemies Harry Truman the evidence indicates that Truman had sought the office but fate had other plans the Roosevelt Truman ticket won that November in Harry Truman became vice president in January nineteen forty five within three months Roosevelt was dead and the former Haberdasher a man with no college degree was the commander in chief of the United States during a pivotal Senate in world history the new president now had to confront the growing conflict with Joseph Stalin a man who had ruled the world's biggest country with an iron fist I for about two decades American advisors were getting more concerned about the Soviet Union by taking over Eastern Europe and installing pro Soviet regime in countries like Poland it was violating the Yalta agreements many Americans felt that Roosevelt had been too lenient on Stalin at Yalta almost all of Truman's major advisers had served Roosevelt for years and gave Truman different advice on how to handle stolen on one side was averill Harriman. America's combat Asadollah to the Soviet Union he was wary of Russian aggression and felt the United States might have to resist any expansionist moves but he also believed that cooperation and was still a possibility after all the Americans and the Russians had been cooperating for years against the Nazis it was better to try to continue this cooperation and not rock the boat too much especially since any daylight between the allies might encourage Germany or Japan to continue the fight on the other side was secretary of the Navy James Forrestal who believed that the conflict between America and the Soviets was inevitable he therefore felt the Americans had no time to lose that we had to confront the Soviets now before they strengthened their position in Europe to Secretary of war Henry Stimson an army chief of staff George Marshall for or stalls idea was sheer lunacy after all Germany and Japan still hadn't surrendered those nations still had to be defeated did we really want go to war against the Soviets when the Nazis and the Japanese were still holding out the Germans might've been on the ropes but the conflict with Japan was fierce so fierce that the Americans hoped the Soviets would enter the war against Tokyo. FDR had asked Stalin to enter the Pacific Theater and Stalin had agreed to do so are the Germans were defeated American strategists hope that this would convince Japanese that they had no chance to win perhaps the war could end sooner with Soviet help thousands of American lives might be spared besides stimpson felt that the Soviet incursion in eastern Europe was less about domination and more about it pushing a buffer zone for their own security they had just been invaded by Germany twice in the past thirty years I during World War One and then during World War Two both times leading to absolute catastrophe and millions of Russian deaths in Stimpson's is it wasn't unreasonable to expect that the Soviets were taking action in to prevent another invasion from Europe these were the immediate decisions that the new inexperienced president faced in his first months in office decisions evolved fates of millions of people around the world on one hand Truman was being told to stand up to the Soviets that they were potentially our next adversary on the her hand he was told that we needed their help in the war against our current adversaries if he pushed the Soviets too hard he might jeopardize the alliance against the access power ars. And if the Nazis and the Japanese had a sense that the allies were quarreling with each other it might encourage them to fight on could prolong the war on the other hand allowing the Soviets to impose their will over eastern Europe could signal to the Soviets that the Americans were unwilling to enforce the altar agreements it could be seen by Stalin as a sign of American weakness in emboldened him to undertake further aggression it could give the Soviets a stronger hand in the postwar world and it could mean sacrifice.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"On April Twelfth Nineteen forty five at three thirty five P M Franklin D Roosevelt died of cerebral hemorrhage while vacationing in mm springs Georgia he had been president for twelve years longer than anyone in history so long that many Americans could barely remember another president and he had four times the American people trusted him with the nation's highest office in those critical years something they had never done with anyone else the United States had been at war for three and a half years in Europe American and Soviet armies were closing in on Berlin Nazi Germany was being dismantled inch by inch American and military officials were predicting that the war in Europe would be over in six months in the Pacific American forces were engaged in brutal combat with the Japanese in the Philippines and Okinawa hundreds of American B twenty nine's were striking the Japanese homeland with incendiary bombs killing and burning to death what would eventually be hundreds of thousands of people still there were few signs of Japanese surrender military planners were predicting the fighting in Asia to last another year and a half at the highest levels the United States had been coordinating with Great Britain led by Winston Churchill and the Soviet Union led by Joseph Stalin to defeat the axis powers as we covered in episodes five and six Roosevelt had met with Churchill and Stalin at Yalta back in February nineteen forty five the finalized Lance to end the war and has shaped postwar world since then the Soviets were imposing their grip over eastern Europe including Poland Stalin prize missed free elections in Poland but in the months since he had installed a pro Soviet regime and had no intention of honoring his commitments some Americans and fearing that once the war ended a new conflict between the West and the Soviet Union was inevitable this was where the world's stood on April Twelfth nineteen forty five live at the climax of one conflict and at the dawn of another between two unprecedented global struggles but the one man the country trusted was gone FDR was now dead the man who now face these challenges was Roosevelt's vice president a sixty year old man named Harry S Truman had been vice president for just eighty two days he was added to the Ticket for Roosevelt's fourth term he had virtually no foreign policy experience and few Americans News name and he was frightened you wasn't quite sure he was up for the task but he was the man destiny had chosen to lead the country at this critical time how he re on into this challenge is the story of this episode of this American President were a little past seven o'clock but two hours after Franklin Roosevelt is dead Truman was in the cabinet room the White House as he stood by his wife Bess and his daughter Margaret surrounded by cabinet and military officials he took the oath of office the thirty third president of the United States he was now the commander in chief of the greatest military force the world had ever seen sixteen million men and women twenty seven carriers ten battleships and countless planes tanks and guns FDR's death was a shock to the nation millions of Americans heard weather America could go on without him especially now with so much at stake and even worse how could this true fellow measure up we in two thousand nine you might find this over dramatic but that's because we know the outcome we know that the allies would go on to win that the war would end in just a few more months but no one at the time I knew how things would play out some feared that FDR's death could breathe new life into the Axis powers some believed that the war could be prolonged and millions they killed historian David McCullough wrote that quote too many it was not just that the greatest of men had fallen but the the least of men or in any rate the least likely of men had assumed his place Harry Truman was placed onto the ticket because the leaders of the Democratic Party didn't like the previous vice president Henry Wallace not necessarily because of anything remarkable about Harry Truman you can learn more about that in episodes five and six of our podcast there seemed to be something absurd about the whole thing most presidents are chosen after a long election cycle in which the country has a chance to size up the candidates when there's an international isis the candidate's abilities become even more important but no one really cares about the vice presidency when people voted for Roosevelt and Truman in the nineteen a four election they're really just voting for Roosevelt but in electing him the inadvertently put Truman in the position to become president during this crucial time lamented quote it seems very unfortunate that in order to secure political preference people are made vice president who are never intended by party nor the Lord to be Presidents Truman himself was among those doubters to reporters Truman said quote there have been few men in all of history the equal of the man into who's shoes I am stepping I pray God I can measure up to the task later that day more candidly he told the press quote boys if you ever pray pray for me now I don't know if you fellows ever had a load of hay fallen you but when they told me yesterday we what happened I felt like the Moon Stars in all the planets had fallen on.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Applied in the establishment of our forms of government, the free cultivation of letters, the unbounded extension of commerce, the progressive refinement of manners, the growing liberality of sentiment but cr-. Greater than all of these Washington said, was the influence of something higher. Something divine, quote, above all, the pure and benign light of revelation has had an immediate rating influence on mankind and increase the blessings of liberty given all of these blessings. Washington said the choice was now up to the American people, quote at this auspice period. United States came into existence as a nation, and if their citizens should not be completely free and happy, the fault will be entirely their own Washington, then prescribed a series of policy solutions to secure American independence. There are two that stand out, I quote, an indissoluble union of the states under one federal head. In other words, a fully empowered federal government second, quote, a sacred regard to public Justice. In other words to fulfil are obligate and paying down all our debts including those, we owe to our soldiers. But these were just policy prescriptions, they couldn't ultimately make Americans good law abiding citizens for that Washington. Again, looked somewhere else somewhere transcendent somewhere above, so he closed the stock with a prayer for the American people, quote, I now make it my earnest prayer that God would have you an estate over which you preside in his holy protection that he wouldn't incline the hearts of the citizens to, cultivate, a spirit of subordination in obedience to government to entertain brotherly affection, and love for one another for their fellow citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for their brethren who have served in the field. He then quoted from the ancient prophet mica asking God, quote that he would most graciously, be pleased to dispose us all to do Justice to love mercy, Washington closed, asking God to incline, the American people to live in a way reminiscent of how assert. Itinerant preacher from Nazareth, lived almost eighteen hundred years earlier, quote, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and Pacific temper of mind, which were the characteristics of the divine author of our blessed. Religion for Washington. This was absolutely indispensable. You can have the right structure of government, but you couldn't thrive as a nation, unless the citizens conducted themselves with virtue he concluded that without imitating that divine author, quote weaken. Never hope to be a happy nation rancher. Now, the Pulitzer prize winning biographer, who wrote the book on Alexander Hamilton that became a Broadway play noted that Washington referred to Jesus to underscore, the past store tone, in the circular, almost like a spiritual father, advising his flock, there remain, many questions about where America would go from there. Congress did not yet have the powers Washington felt it needed for the country to survive. But there was little more that he could do in that sense. It is fitting that he was ending his public life with a prayer asking for help from a higher power on November twenty fifth. The British evacuated New York City, the war was virtually over, but general Washington had one final task when the war began he was granted a commission by congress for his appointment as commander in chief of the continental army since he was planning to retire. He needed to return that commission back to congress symbolizing that he was relinquishing power back to civilian authority. He inquired congress about the means with which he should do. So congress understood the implications of what Washington was doing most victorious generals throughout history, partly their success into political power oftentimes as dictator it was, what Caesar did after the Roman civil war would Cromwell did after the English civil war in what Mao Zedong would do later during the Chinese communist revolution. But wa-. Washington would have no part of that. He fought for Republic. He had won independence. He had led the nation through perilous threats from within and without and now he would secure it by leaving power. It was an act unparalleled in the modern world reminiscent of the great Roman general Cincinnati's who had fought to defend Rome and upon victory. Relinquished all power in four fifty eight BC to go back to his farm. George Washington would be the American Cincinnati's congress which had moved to Annapolis. Maryland responded arranging for ceremony, where Washington would return his commission on December twenty third seventeen eighty three a three man committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, James McHenry, and Elbert. Gary was selected among the members of congress to plan for the ceremony when Washington arrived in Annapolis on December nineteenth. He found general gates there as part of the welcoming committee. We have no record of what was said between the two men perha-. They both reflected on the journey the taken the way their paths had crossed gates likely work to undermine Washington throughout the war, perhaps even to supplant him. And yet here they were Washington, the unquestioned hero of the war, whose prestige was in the stratosphere while gates was being relegated into historical footnote on December. Twenty third general. Washington appeared before congress in the Maryland state house. The nation's Representative sat in their seats on the floor of the chamber while many of the city's prominent citizens occupied the floor and the gallery above upon his entrance the members of congress remained seated the presiding officer Thomas Mifflin sat on a raised platform, elevated, above Washington. This was all deliberate and contributed to the symbolism that the military remains subordinate to civilian authority, Mifflin, informed, Washington, that congress would receive his communication Washington began to read from a prepared text, quote, Mr President. The great events on which my resignation dependent having at length taken place. I have now the honor of offering my sincere congratulations to congress and of presenting myself before them to surrender into their hands to trust committed to me and to claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country, James McHenry marveled at what he was watching knowing how rare, it was to see a man surrendering power at the height of military success saying, quote, it was a solemn and affecting spectacle, such as history, does, not present even the victorious general Washington trembled at this momentous occasion, mckenry noted, quote the general's hand which held the address shook as he read it Washington continued now recognizing his officers and their quote distinguished merits. He recommended that congress give them quote favorable notice. At this point Washington began to break down perhaps the memories of the past eight years of sending. Thousands of young men to fight and die to suffer to endure, miseries untold came flooding back, according to mckenry, quote, he was obliged to support the paper with both hands the site of general Washington. A man renowned for his legendary stoicism laying bare the deepest of emotions struck a chord among all those present mckenry, noted, quote, the spectators all wept. And there was hardly a member of congress who did not drop tears Washington gathered himself to finish his remarks as he concluded he once again looked to the almighty, quote, I consider it an indispensable duty to close. This last solemn act of my official life by commending, the interests of our country to the protection of almighty God, and those who have superintendents of them to his holy keeping McHenry observed at this point, quote, his voice faltered and sunk and the whole house felt his agitations. Perhaps he was swept up with gratitude for the glorious results of the war and outcome, that had been in doubt, throughout most of its, duration one that he would later attribute to God alone. Washington ended speaking, what he believed would be his last words in public life, quote, having now finished the work assigned me. I retire from that great theater of action and bidding, an affectionate farewell to this August body under whose orders. I have so long acted. I here offer my commission and take my leave of all the employments of public life with that Washington druid has commissioned from his pocket and handed it to president Mifflin. He then turn in greeted every member of congress mckenry later struggle to capture the myriad of emotions throughout the ceremony one that recalled memories of blood sweat, and tears. He ended his account with the following quote, so many circumstances crowded into view and gave rise to so many affecting emotions. The events of the revolution just accomplished the new situation in which it had thrown the affairs of the world. The great man who had borne so conspicuous a figure in it in the act of relinquishing, all public employments to return to private life. The past the present the future, the manner the occasion, all conspire to render it a spectacle, inexpressible solemn and affecting Washington departed, the state house, mounted his horse, and headed home to mount Vernon and his wife Martha two days later on Christmas day. Seventeen eighty three he arrived home, a private citizen of a new independent Republic, George Washington's retirement didn't last long as it turned out several prominent men in the new Republic, including Benjamin. Franklin James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and gouverneur Morris came together during the convention in seventeen eighty seven to write what would become the US constitution knowing that Washington. Unrivalled prestige would be a valuable asset to getting a constitution ratified his fellow delegates elected him unanimously to preside over the convention. They then proceeded to overhaul the entire structure of the government fulfilling Washington's vision in his final circular to the states without his support. It is unlikely that the American people so fearful of a strong federal government would've accepted the new constitution's, ratification in two thousand five the great historian, David McCullough published the book seventeen seventy six in it. He covers the heroic story of Washington's thrilling victories in Trenton and Princeton. He leads us through Washington's night March on Christmas night, and the crossing of the Delaware. It very well. Might be the most popular George Washington book in recent memory, it portrays, a dynamic commander in chief, who emerges from overwhelming defeat to unlikely victory. It's a great action packed story showcasing some of Washington's. Finest moments, but having researched our first president for many years. I believe that there is an even greater Washington. The Washington is seventeen eighty two and seventeen eighty three. Ironically, it wasn't a time of triumphant victories on the battlefield. Washington's foes weren't British generals, but the vices or shortsightedness of his own fellow citizens. Many generals have triumphed in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds, but very few accomplished what Washington did in those years, it was a time when the greatest threat came not from a foreign foe. But from within the Americans had created a country based on the idea that the people could govern themselves, but no one had ever seen it done on that scale to govern oneself means to govern one's own worst excesses from seventeen eighty to seventeen eighty three as America was on the cusp of independence. It faced many of its own demons. Various groups whether in the congress or the states or. The military had legitimate grievances. But we're so focused on short-term gain that they lost sight of the bigger picture. It's leaders were tempted to give up on the ideal of Republic and to believe that security stability, and liberty were mutually exclusive the schemes of various interest groups threatened to destroy the fabric of the country and that delicate balance of civilian and military authority as West Point professor, Matthew, Martin noted, quote, once an army has risen up against the government. The people can never fully trust again ever since then that balance has been maintained an American civilian leadership has never been seriously threatened, elections occur, at regular intervals, this remarkable pattern of continuity was not for a deigned that it even began rests largely on the character of George Washington, he refused to give up his belief that men could govern themselves while others conspired, Washington refused to. Be tempted to use his power as commander of the army whether out of fear for his country's security, or stability or out of a desire for personal elevations. He unambiguously spurned all suggestions of using his power beyond the bounds set by congress, even if it came from well-meaning, men, like Colonel Nicola, when he resigned his commission in December of seventeen eighty three he secured, the Republic, completing one of the great historic achievements of all time observers around the world cynical about the American republics prospects were stunned to hear about Washington's resignation in seventeen eighty four American painter, John Trumbull, who was working in London said that Washington's act, quote excites, the astonishment and admirations of this part of the world. In the words of historian Thomas Fleming, quote, this visible incontrovertible act did more to affirm America's faith in the government of the people than thousand declarations. Entreaty. By philosophers, ultimately history is proven Washington. Right. He believed that despite the shortcomings of civilian leadership, it's a thorny must be upheld in a Republic that conviction as well as the government established under the new constitution one that Washington himself had envisioned enabled America to become the most powerful nation in the world and the leader of the free world, that this was all accomplished at the expense of those who fought under Washington made his task both painful and poignant in seventeen eighty nine. Washington again, was called from his retirement, when he was unanimously elected, the first president of the United States, the only man in American history. So honored he appointed Thomas Jefferson as his first secretary of state and Alexander Hamilton as his first secretary of treasury Washington served two terms, laying the foundations of government, but precited over increasing divisions in the country divisions, which often centered on. Familiar issue just how much power should the federal government have, although this issue is hotly. Debated in America to this day, one issue is not the necessity of subordinating, the military to civilian authority, Mirroring his resignation in seventeen eighty three Washington delivered a farewell address in seventeen ninety six and step down after two terms, the following year setting a critical precedent, that all of his successors have followed with the exception of Franklin, D Roosevelt Washington returned to his beloved mount Vernon in died..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Oh, if you do this this will happen, you know, and it's all in the air force. We call it. Delridge ranges angles in vir- for this topic. It's it's all probabilities. Sure. You know, you wanna slow down for the stop sign. You wanna plow through the stop sign. You wanna stop for the stop sign all you're doing affecting your probabilities in most instances, it's not gonna make any difference. But the probabilities are different over time. They're going to be differences. Sure. And that's that's kind of the way we would culture are warnings right now whenever there's a presidential election. I I'm not in the intelligence community when there's an election, and they're all these different candidates. And when the icy looks at these people these are their potential commanders chief, and I'm sure there's obviously maybe not concerns the right word, but there's interest in what kind of. President will this be the intelligence community. What do people in the icy think of during the election? So so one remarkable thing is they don't talk about it very much -mongst themselves. Sure. All right. There's I mean, there's I mean, we don't please people chatter at the water gore. Yeah. There's just a general reluctance, given the the nature of the business Scher that you you. Don't talk politics. Right, right. You just stick to our mission. It's hard enough. Sure. I will say that the transition to this presidency is the most difficult on record. And it was because well, lots of reasons I frankly think it's personality the president is kind of disinterested. And just interest in these kinds of things based on a base of almost non-existent information about these kinds of things, but the on that all right, which would have been hard enough. It was a great national tragedy. At the first time we had talked to the new president. President-elect was on an issue that other Americans were using to challenge his legitimacy as president on the Russian intervention poisoned the relationship. I see. Yeah. We thought we were telling the truth, and he thought we were trying to challenge his presidency. Now one very interesting aspect of your book. Is you talk about health, and you briefed congress and that how you brief them dozens of times intelligence community. I think you also mentioned judiciary committee services armed services. Yeah. Lots of different political jockeying in those situations. What lessons did you learn? Yeah. Bet can help you know, ic- officials with my my council is go longer. Many members of the committee as possible as much as you can as early as you can. Okay. All right. And frankly, I mean, you won't be put it in the mean-spirited throat away force in the tell you don't do it when everyone's scared, and no one knows what the future holds, you know, don't don't give him the hall pass that allows them to complain about what it is you're doing when you tell them later after. No scared in the futures known. I it was just such a unique time to where it was. And frankly, the president for lots of reasons some of them, political sure others ethical should have shared this responsibility with the congress. Okay. Okay. For the most part. And I look I informed on we met the letter of the law which allows the president to inform only a narrow fraction of the committee's. Sharon ranking member. All right. But I in retrospect, the more, practical course of action would have would have been to of briefed all the members of the committee early on as completely as possible and again and again forced to sent early right which would have been at a cost because they would then be buying increased danger rather than allowing descent later, which was at no cost in your book. You basically talked about you guys briefed members of congress multiple times. And basically later on a lot of these member these. Senators congressman is very dishonest about what you brief them. This honest or selective in their memory to be fair to them that really busy..
"president" Discussed on This American President
"Another thing that that stood out to me is he he pressed hard on you personally, when it came to some bin Laden understandable and also on Iran. Yeah. If you could just kind of talk experienced member. Remember that the two big priorities were counterterrorism and kind of preparation right in the Bush administration. And so what he really wanted to know about Iran was well where are they on the nuclear program, but more importantly, and this was harder. How did they make decisions where the points of leverage g how do I do? I hurt influence that was really hard because it's a very opaque society government. The other one was terrorism and Osama bin Laden may just set a personal view quite understandably. Sure that he would love to have been the one to take Osama bin Laden off the battlefield now, we had we had tremendous success against Al Qaeda, while President Bush was president particularly against Al Qaeda's number three, boom. They had many because the life expectancy for number three was measured in weeks, and you know, number one and number two bin Laden and ZOA hairy. They contributed to the move. By simply staying alive shirt. Number three was chief of operations. He had to do stuff yet communicate. Right. It run run there. And that gave us a footprint, and we were remarkably successful dismantling the CUDA operational network. Although we do not get bin Laden under President Bush's watch right right now. President Obama gets elected president. You know, the intelligence community is standing by for who wins. What what does that transition? Like. Yeah, we had we had a team in Chicago. We had a team in Arizona ready to brief the president-elect the next morning, and it was gonna be the same briefing, the President Bush got modest covert action. If there were church and items in there that would come in due course. Okay. All right. But as far as we're concerned, you carry the electoral college get the briefing chur, and we were ready to go. Sure, what has your interaction been with President Obama brief prisoner Bama on covert action in December after the election?.
"president" Discussed on This American President
"What I try to impress upon folks. These your friends and everything by the way, if you live we're talking right now, and they are your friends in literally, right? Yeah. You may not know it a lot of agency folks out there in the civilian community. Go to church, go to the soccer games and your kids intermingle with their kids. And and so on they share your values. They are just forced by their profession to apply these common values and circumstances. You probably will never face and may never even know about. But they do share your values. Yeah. And that's one thing you talked about a lot as far as how how much you guys cared about the people that that worked for you guys, obviously and wanted to protect them for many kind of harm that might come from disclosures or anything like that. And that seems like a big responsibility for whoever is running those agencies now just a few things as far as the interesting things that happened day-to-day. I know that you you basically briefed the president on covert actions often in there for the briefing as well, the president Stalybridge sure, just you know, to know, what what all that is like as far as you can say and George Bush had a lot of time, George W so does dead, but George W Bush's the president, I served the longest time. Right. And he had a lot of time for intelligence, and he was an incredibly interactive client. He did not sit back passively and just let us drone on with the briefing. He engaged he pushed back. He asked questions. He said he would say that's not what you told me two months ago. Sure. And challenge things we were saying and so for an intelligence officer. That's that's pretty good client that someone that you appreciate. And he gave us the time. He took the president's daily brief in person six days a week every week of the year. Oh, wow. So you saw almost every day. But. Well. Someone in there like me. I saw him regularly on Thursdays, whereas suggested earlier I did the covert action briefing and you were appointed originally by President Clinton. Right. And just looking around. You know, have a lot of portrait's when you and president George H W Bush, what could you talk about those two men and just so I did not ever meet President Clinton in a professional capacity. Okay. Okay. My first meeting with George W Bush was a week or two after nine eleven. So he's been in office for what eight months when on. I saw them. I had worked for his dad, George H W Bush when he was president. I was on the national Security Council. Okay. And so I mean, he didn't know me all that. Well, but he was aware of that. I was on the staff you realize he was one of my predecessors. Hey, let's true. All right. So when President Bush w came out for my formal swearing in. He came into my office, and I had moved in with any of the knickknacks books, and so on and looks around just absolutely bare shelves and says to me and my family, you can tell a lot about a man by his library. And then I said. We're you're in this office before Mr President. We did you come here when your father. CIA president it. Nope. Too much of a security risk then. The sounds exactly like what he would say. That's great. And but since then as far as president, George H W Bush gotten to know him he came to the agency for our sixtieth anniversary celebration, right? We had a Texas barbecue on the front lawn. Great deal of affection for him from them workforce. Who remembered his time and the agency? And so you you become one of the alum do, and it's you know, you, obviously didn't always agree. Sure. Change directions from time to time you weren't for different presidents and so on. But once you've been in that job, you feel a certain kinship with everyone else who has been in that job to sure yes. And as far as President Clinton, you have you gotten a gnome and other. I briefed secretary Clinton. Okay. Several times. Okay. She was very quick study. Very smart..