21 Burst results for "Pony Express"

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:51 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"And sweet dreams ooh..

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

01:57 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"Pony express shutdown on october twenty six eighteen sixty one having lost more money now it ever generated the closure eighteen just two days after western union completed the transcontinental telegraph line at salt lake city. New technology is making great strides and connecting the nation. Eventually russell wardell and majors sold their stations to a stage coach commpany. The assets changed hands until they ended up with wells fargo. After the civil war away. America communicated began to change rapidly from the invention of the telephone onward.

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:01 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"On the evening of april third eighteen sixty. The first rider climbed up on his horse and settled down onto the bag resting on the saddle carried fifty pieces of mail. Each postmarked with the point of origin saint joseph missouri. It is said that many crowds gathered in the city streets as speeches given by the local postmaster and mayor m jeff thompson among others. And we can't know for sure one can also very will is russell dell and majors looking on with pride as the rider readied himself journey ahead.

first rider Each jeff thompson joseph missouri fifty pieces of mail saint evening of april third eightee russell dell
"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:22 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"They rebranded it as the central overland. California and pikes peak express company. I the late eighteen fifty s the population of california at reached. Three hundred eighty thousand. And though it was much smaller than states such as new york with almost four million or pennsylvania orchard close to three million the preceding years had demonstrated allah. -fornia would become vitally important to the country.

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:50 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"It's impossible to know exactly how russell and his family travelled or the route they took. But it's easy to imagine. Packed all the worldly belongings and a canvas covered wagon stewed by a horse that clip bopped its way along the dusty trail. Maybe the teenage russell took the leather rains at times steadily. Aiding the horse as we watched the countryside stretch out before his is.

russell
"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:57 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"From april eighteen sixty to october eighteen sixty one. Riders were tasked with boldly carrying sacks of mail across the wild and open landscape all the promise of delivering messages about ten days but even though the pony express close just nineteen months after it began due to financial woes it still managed to capture the public's imagination. The legend of the pony express is very much rooted in the story of how america became a bi coastal nation that we have to travel back to eighteen. O three. we're the third president of the united states. Thomas jefferson decided. He wanted easy access to the mississippi river. Jefferson had been inaugurated in eighteen. O one country comprise just sixteen states. The most western of which was tennessee. Beyond was the louisiana territory region of land that stretched from modern day canada down to the gulf of mexico between the two nestled the mississippi river which had served as a vital resource for drinking water fishing and agriculture long before european settlers arrived the beginning of jefferson's presidency owen sided with the transfer of the louisiana territory from spain back to france at the time french. Under general napoleon bonaparte had plans to reestablish a dominant north american colony understanding francis military power. Jefferson was keen for the united states. You secure access to the port city of new orleans located at the bottom of the mississippi river near the gulf of mexico new orleans had grown into a thriving trading hop one that jefferson understood. Would be key to the country's future and so it was an eighteen. Three jefferson sent james monroe to france. The join robert livingston was the us representative based there. They were tasked with negotiating the purchase of new orleans and west florida or ten million dollars.

jefferson Jefferson april eighteen sixty Thomas jefferson james monroe france ten million dollars west florida tennessee spain canada new orleans mississippi river robert livingston october eighteen sixty north american sixteen states european owen two
"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

Get Sleepy

05:05 min | 3 weeks ago

"pony express" Discussed on Get Sleepy

"And we get sleepy as always. I'm your host. Thomas thank you for tuning in. I hope you're having a great weeks so far. Now when people think of the american west in the eighteen hundreds images of cowboys and wild untamed lands will often come to mind one of the most famous stories of this time is that of horseback riders galloping across open country delivering mail for the pony express and tonight t k will trace the short yet exciting history of this famous mail service through the nineteen. Mumps it was in operation. We've been thrilled by the response to lavalle. Sleepy history episode so far. i really hope you enjoyed. They swim as well tomorrow. Elizabeth will be guiding a lovely meditation. That's incorporate succumbing breathing technique and takes you to a forest greenhouse filled with thriving plants. So come and join us for that on. Get sleepy premium and get access to our entire catalogue over two hundred stories and meditations completely free of ads and promos just to get sleepy dot com slash support or following the lincoln. The show nights talamo just a quick. Thank you twelve sponsors. Who make it possible for us to keep bringing you to free episodes every single week. Fastly to our friends at may have. You've probably already had me speak about. Natives legendary aluminium free deodorant which i use all the time and absolutely love but have you tried the body wash toothpaste or their brand new mineral-based sunscreen with some very much on its way for us. Folks in the northern hemisphere native now has a broad spectrum. Spf thirty sunscreen. For your face and body you can also get deodorant and body. Wash in amazing sense like coconuts and vanilla lavin. Durham rose a my personal favourite eucalyptus cement plus many more so stay fresh and stay clean with native goto native. Do dot com slash. Get sleepy or use promo code. Get sleepy at checkout and get twenty percents off your first daughter butts native d. e. a. dot com slash. Get sleepy or use promo code. Get sleepy all warm wide for twenty percents off your fast order and thank you to mute snoring for that support. Plenty of told me you listen to get sleeping pot to help drown out your partner's snoring well. The good news is mute. Snoring might be able to go one step further towards assimilation mutes has helped seventy eight percent of uses to breathe better and seventy five percent to snow last. Three quarters of partners noted a reduction in severity of snoring. Meaning better sleep. All round get sleepy. Listeners will receive ten percent off and free shipping. When you go to mute snoring dot com slash. get sleepy and use the promo code. Get sleepy ten at checkout. that's mute. Snoring dot com slash. Get sleepy and use the code. Get sleepy one zero. For ten percent off plus free shipping and as ways i'll include all the links and promo codes you need for tonight's sponsors in the show nights.

90: Epilogue to the Wild West

History That Doesn't Suck

00:42 sec | Last month

90: Epilogue to the Wild West

"So because of how rapidly technology's changing. I mean it's basically like it's the carphone of its era. You know it is sexy for like five minutes and then it's gone it's done that's really well put thank you. I mean we have discussed these things before but that like that valve olympic boom. It's a if only if only that up so recorded. Yeah that'd been it's okay. That's what the applause for. And i think that the pony express is another good example of non just how quickly this technology changing but also how we remember the west and how we remember the frontier because the pony express like greg said is only here for eighteen

Greg
"pony express" Discussed on Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

01:36 min | 11 months ago

"pony express" Discussed on Sports Talk 1050 WTKA

"If the Bruins goaltender to core ask, opted out in July and never entered the bubble. And told his teammates guys, I got a newborn at home or pregnant wife. Whatever it was that the time I've got kids I just don't think I can. I'm not going to be able to get myself into a mental space into a competitive place for this. I would be doing a detriment to you if I even came along employed. That point. I don't think there's really much criticism. To do it hours before a playoff game. Isn't that different? It is to me. And I don't think that guy needs to be like tarred and feathered and called all kinds of disparaging names, and I don't think you know he gets branded one of the biggest quitters in sports history or anything like that. But the chain of events hear what he said a couple days ago and then his actions to leave abruptly. I do think, open him up for criticism. Not an individual sport. It's a team sport. And I wonder what you think of a player, a bubble athlete in the middle of this just saying, You know what? My heart's not in it. I don't want to do it anymore. Do we have to just respect that decision? Or do you think there is room for criticism their questions? 855 to 1 to four, CBS 855 to 124227 is the number We'll take more. Your call's coming up next. If you don't want to call and you could tweet me at the Pony Express pony spelled P O.

Pony Express Bruins CBS
"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

11:48 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"While the Internet and I have become ubiquitous serfs contributions to communications and networking are far from behind him in the late ninety S. He was on the team that originated the protocols today. His work on seeks to revolutionize networking once again allowing communications engineers to extend the Internet deep into space. What is what makes it different from standard? Ip Doc Goddard Communications architect and engineer. Dave Israel Explains Bird bringing Internet style operations in locations and in scenarios. Where were the Internet? Protocols won't work said network based store and forward a protocols so the Tan originally stood for delay so so of a first day issue is the speed of light time the IP in particularly things like TCP IP protocol. That there's actually a lot of back and forth between computer and whatever computer connected to pick messages that go go back and forth that the user never notices because there's such a short delay once you you start going distances where speed like time. There's there's nothing you can do about it. We still haven't worked out traveling communicating faster than the speed of light So so So you get these these days so if you wanted to say Hello to somebody and they say hello back end There's ten minutes is be late time. Delay takes twenty minutes for that exchange to happen. So if you have to in points that need to exchange little things back and forth in order for protocol at work back then that's just not the cut when you're when you're far away and then the other aspect built into that example is someone that the two end points of. The conversation are connected at the same time and we have our situations where maybe let's say there's something on the far side of the moon and we want to put a relay up up. It would be one thing if we need to work out Only communicating the time when the relay is in view of the thing on the surface end earth at the same time would really limit the amount of time we'd be able to send data but if we could do it in pieces and have the user on the surface. Send it to the Rela- a whenever the relays. In view the relations date back whenever the Earth is in view. There's the new get more opportunities to send more. Data and detained provides automated ways to to to simplify. Let's look back at the Pony Express. Each node is a station. Where horses or mail carriers? I can rest before moving to the next one. If there's no clear path to the next station the male can remain at that station until a path clears alternate if another path opens up. The Mail can move through the network of pony express stations or nodes without dealing with the downs station so unlike the computer to computer. Ip Connection used in the modern Internet technologies allow for the temporary disruptions often experienced danced by spacecraft far from our planet just as the Pony Express. Riders conquered great distances by breaking the journey into smaller pieces detain not allows data to travel piecemeal through a network comprised of many stopping points and alternate routes. I like to think that lets the data get creative. Even if the path home isn't obvious. DT and finds away technologies and protocols wouldn't just benefit spacecraft far far from home implementing on Earth could improve communications services for remote locations with spotty activity like the rainforest or the Arctic pick in two thousand eighteen. NASA used to demonstrate this terrestrial benefit by sending a Selfie from the National Science Foundations McMurdo Station in Manteca to the International Space Station which has been using for science data since two thousand fifteen starting at McMurdo detained software on a mobile phone bundled the self data for its journey to the space station. The bundles traveled from the McMurdo Ground Station to NASA White Sands Complex via the tracking tracking and data relay satellite system. A constellation of relay satellites. Twenty two thousand miles overhead then a series of nodes forwarded the bundles to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama the access point to the space station's DT and network. The bundles were then forwarded to the space station. Shen via another satellite link. The final note extracted the picture data from the D. N.. Bundles that originated from Artika. Reassembled the original picture and displayed it on board the station. Data transmission has always been a challenge for Antarctic researchers with scant civil infrastructure restructure and very few providers able to service the geographic South Pole. The data demands they're far exceed the capabilities needed by scientists hoping to to get their data from the Arctic back to their research institutions. Communication disruptions can have serious consequences for researchers disturbing collaboration between distant scientists scientists though and Arctic researchers are not communicating across interplanetary distances. McMurdo is remote location and minimal animal infrastructure. Make it an ideal candidate to benefit from D. N.. If detailed data bundles from the Antarctic failed to transmit all the way through the network they can simply simply go into storage until an alternate path off. The continent can be found. If the bundles were all part of a larger file. That file can be reassembled at the final destination Asian once all the packets have found their way through the network before vint cerf spoke with the communications and navigation community at Goddard. He went to visit the team working on the plankton. Aerosol cloud ocean ecosystem mission or pace pace is an early adopter of and will become the first science science mission to implement the technology in space for operations the pace mission will advance scientists understanding our oceans and build on decades of NASA asa research into ocean systems. The pace satellite has instruments capable of studying everything from the carbon cycle to blooms of phytoplankton microscopic algae with an outsized impact on ocean ecosystems. The benefits of pace research will be felt worldwide. Aiding in the assessment of water and air quality providing riding insight into Earth's climate system and Monitoring Ocean Ecology Andrei dress pace mission manager the communications quote. We need them. mm-hmm is has multi facets to it right so there's just a real time telemetry that gets transmitted down to the ground stations through the net the net network network over here too so that the people at the Mission Control Center can see the data right. And then there's recorded data so there's comes in a couple of flavors services like housekeeping data housekeeping dated. It's like temperature's engineering units on pointing stuff like that and then there's the science data the all of that data's captured and stored on the spacecraft and then transmitted back then back here to goddard where it's processed and from. I'm from a perspective it. It helps in releasing of memory so the faster we can acknowledge that that data is here on the ground right in captured and stored the sooner we can release the memory on the spacecraft as an an early adopter of pace is proving technology as an operational capability encouraging other science missions to US and protocols this will go a long way to infuse the innovation into space communications networks the benefits to the pace mission and to the development effort could change changed the way we think about both Earth's natural systems and Nastase digital ones. It's a symbiotic relationship. One of the many ways NASA explores floors as one John Verbal works to infuse technologies into new missions and fusion is where you take a technology. That assertive is a an opportunity. Something that we know has a lot of benefit but it doesn't have a specific mission. That's using it yet. Or that's depending ending on it and basically sort of infusing it means to take it and develop it and build it so that it's ready to meet mission needs so we spent a lot of time looking at the needs from an operations point of view. which in many ways are different from the needs from just a pure technologists point of view and that operationalisation is sort of things like an operator GonNa work with this technology or the software? How is how is it going to interact with the other elements within the network or or the system? How are you going to control it? How you'RE GONNA get status from it? How is it going to be interacting with other things? Sort of what we. He called concept of operations. And so. That's the type of things that working with technologists we can build up their repertoire and actually operationalize is commonly people refer to something as the wild west to capture a sense of lawlessness many described the early days as of the Internet as the wild west because at the time Internet networking technologies were developed. There were few regulations to guide developers. Pioneers like vint CERF had a blank. Slate Chalk up as they saw fit out of that lawless chaos our digital age was born but I think think the phrase wild west also carries tinges of optimism. It's about wide open spaces and boundless innovation it's about the the Pony Express. A logistical marvel that carried mail faster than ever before connecting to disparate ends of this vast continent. It's it's about the Internet a network that connects all of humanity bridging oceans and forests and even the Arctic. And now it's about out. DT N A technology that promises to connect us to each other. No matter what planet we might call home in this season of the invisible network debuted in November of two thousand nineteen podcast is produced by the space communications and navigation program or scan out of Goddard space flight center in Greenbelt Maryland. Episodes were written and recorded by me. Danny Baird with editorial support from Matthew Peters. Here's our public affairs. Officers are Peter Jacobs of Goddard's Office of Communications Claire Skelly of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and Catherine in Hamilton of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate special. Thanks to Barbara. Abby Scan Policy and Strategic Communications Director Rob Garner garnered web team lead Amber Jacobson Communications lead for scan at Goddard and all those who have lent their time talent and expertise expertise to making the invisible network. A reality be sure to rate review and subscribe to the show. Wherever you get your podcasts? For transcripts of the episodes visit is it NASA dot Gov slash invisible to learn more about the vital role that space communications plays in NASA's mission visit NASA dot Gov Slash Scam Yeah..

NASA Pony Express Doc Goddard Communications vint cerf Goddard Arctic McMurdo Ground Station National Science Foundations M Space Technology Mission Direc International Space Station Dave Israel McMurdo engineer Marshall Space Flight Center Operations Mission Directorate
"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

The Invisible Network

11:48 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

"While the Internet and I have become ubiquitous serfs contributions to communications and networking are far from behind him in the late ninety S. He was on the team that originated the protocols today. His work on seeks to revolutionize networking once again allowing communications engineers to extend the Internet deep into space. What is what makes it different from standard? Ip Doc Goddard Communications architect and engineer. Dave Israel Explains Bird bringing Internet style operations in locations and in scenarios. Where were the Internet? Protocols won't work network based store and forward a protocols so the Tan originally stood for delay so so of a first day issue is the speed of light time the IP in particularly things like TCP IP protocol. That there's actually a lot of back and forth between computer and whatever computer connected to pick messages that go go back and forth that the user never notices because there's such a short delay once you you start going distances where speed like time. There's there's nothing you can do about it. We still haven't worked out traveling communicating faster than the speed of light So so So you get these these days so if you wanted to say Hello to somebody and they say hello back end There's ten minutes is be late time. Delay takes twenty minutes for that exchange to happen. So if you have to in points that need to exchange little things back and forth in order for protocol at work back then that's just not the cut when you're when you're far away and then the other aspect built into that example is someone that the two end points of. The conversation are connected at the same time and we have our situations where maybe let's say there's something on the far side of the moon and we want to put a relay up up. It would be one thing if we need to work out Only communicating the time when the relay is in view of the thing on the surface end earth at the same time would really limit the amount of time we'd be able to send data but if we could do it in pieces and have the user on the surface. Send it to the Rela- a whenever the relays. In view the relations date back whenever the Earth is in view. There's the new get more opportunities to send more. Data and detained provides automated ways to to to simplify. Let's look back at the Pony Express. Each node is a station. Where horses or mail carriers? I can rest before moving to the next one. If there's no clear path to the next station the male can remain at that station until a path clears alternate if another path opens up. The Mail can move through the network of pony express stations or nodes without dealing with the downs station so unlike the computer to computer. Ip Connection used in the modern Internet technologies allow for the temporary disruptions often experienced danced by spacecraft far from our planet just as the Pony Express. Riders conquered great distances by breaking the journey into smaller pieces detain not allows data to travel piecemeal through a network comprised of many stopping points and alternate routes. I like to think that lets the data get creative. Even if the path home isn't obvious. DT and finds away technologies and protocols wouldn't just benefit spacecraft far far from home implementing on Earth could improve communications services for remote locations with spotty activity like the rainforest or the Arctic pick in two thousand eighteen. NASA used to demonstrate this terrestrial benefit by sending a Selfie from the National Science Foundations McMurdo Station in Manteca to the International Space Station which has been using for science data since two thousand fifteen starting at McMurdo detained software on a mobile phone bundled the self data for its journey to the space station. The bundles traveled from the McMurdo Ground Station to NASA White Sands Complex via the tracking tracking and data relay satellite system. A constellation of relay satellites. Twenty two thousand miles overhead then a series of nodes forwarded the bundles to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama the access point to the space station's DT and network. The bundles were then forwarded to the space station. Shen via another satellite link. The final note extracted the picture data from the D. N.. Bundles that originated from Artika. Reassembled the original picture and displayed it on board the station. Data transmission has always been a challenge for Antarctic researchers with scant civil infrastructure restructure and very few providers able to service the geographic South Pole. The data demands they're far exceed the capabilities needed by scientists hoping to got their data from the Arctic back to their research. Institutions communication disruptions can have serious consequences for researchers disturbing collaboration between distant scientists scientists though and Arctic researchers are not communicating across interplanetary distances. McMurdo is remote location and minimal animal infrastructure. Make it an ideal candidate to benefit from N.. If detailed data bundles from the Antarctic failed to transmit all the way through the network they can simply simply go into storage until an alternate path off. The continent can be found. If the bundles were all part of a larger file. That file can be reassembled at the final destination Asian once all the packets have found their way through the network before vint cerf spoke with the communications and navigation community at Goddard. He went to visit the team working on the plankton. Aerosol cloud ocean ecosystem mission or pace pace is an early adopter of and will become the first science science mission to implement the technology in space for operations the pace mission will advance scientists understanding our oceans and build on decades of NASA asa research into ocean systems. The pace satellite has instruments capable of studying everything from the carbon cycle to blooms of phytoplankton microscopic algae with an outsized impact on ocean ecosystems. The benefits of pace research will be felt worldwide. Aiding in the assessment of water and air quality providing riding insight into Earth's climate system and Monitoring Ocean Ecology Andrei dress pace mission manager the communications quote. We need them. mm-hmm is has multi facets to it right so there's just a real time telemetry that gets transmitted down to the ground stations through the net the net network network over here too so that the people at the Mission Control Center can see the data right. And then there's recorded data so there's comes in a couple of flavors services like housekeeping data housekeeping dated. It's like temperature's engineering units on pointing stuff like that and then there's the science data the all of that data's captured and stored on the spacecraft and then transmitted back then back here to goddard where it's processed and from. I'm from a perspective it. It helps in releasing of memory so the faster we can acknowledge that that data is here on the ground right in captured and stored the sooner we can release the memory on the spacecraft as an an early adopter of pace is proving technology as an operational capability encouraging other science missions to US and protocols this will go a long way to infuse the innovation into space communications networks the benefits to the pace mission and to the development effort could change changed the way we think about both Earth's natural systems and Nastase digital ones. It's a symbiotic relationship. One of the many ways NASA explores floors as one John Verbal works to infuse technologies into new missions and fusion is where you take a technology. That assertive is a an opportunity. Something that we know has a lot of benefit but it doesn't have a specific mission. That's using it yet. Or that's depending ending on it and basically sort of infusing it means to take it and in develop and build it so that it's ready to meet mission needs so we spend a lot of time looking at the needs from an operations point of view. which in many ways are different from the needs from just a pure technologists point of view and that operationalisation is sort of things like an operator GonNa work with this technology or the software? How is how is it going to interact with the other elements within the network or or the system? How are you going to control it? How you'RE GONNA get status from it? How is it going to be interacting with other things? Sort of what we. He called concept of operations. And so. That's the type of things that working with technologists we can build up their repertoire and actually operationalize is commonly people refer to something as the wild west to capture a sense of lawlessness many described the early days as of the Internet as the wild west because at the time Internet networking technologies were developed. There were few regulations to guide developers. Pioneers like vint CERF had a blank. Slate Chalk up as they saw fit out of that lawless chaos our digital age was born but I think think the phrase wild west also carries tinges of optimism. It's about wide open spaces and boundless innovation it's about the the Pony Express. A logistical marvel that carried mail faster than ever before connecting to disparate ends of this vast continent. It's it's about the Internet a network that connects all of humanity bridging oceans and forests and even the Arctic. And now it's about out. DT N A technology that promises to connect us to each other. No matter what planet we might call home in this season of the invisible network debuted in November of two thousand nineteen podcast is produced by the space communications and navigation program or scan out of Goddard space flight center in Greenbelt Maryland. Episodes were written and recorded by me. Danny Baird with editorial support from Matthew Peters. Here's our public affairs. Officers are Peter Jacobs of Goddard's Office of Communications Claire Skelly of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and Catherine in Hamilton of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate special. Thanks to Barbara. Abby Scan Policy and Strategic Communications Director Rob Garner garnered web team lead Amber Jacobson Communications lead for scan at Goddard and all those who have lent their time talent and expertise expertise to making the invisible network. A reality be sure to rate review and subscribe to the show. Wherever you get your podcasts? For transcripts of the episodes visit is it NASA dot Gov slash invisible to learn more about the vital role that space communications plays in NASA's mission visit NASA dot Gov Slash Scam Yeah.

NASA Pony Express Doc Goddard Communications vint cerf Goddard Arctic McMurdo Ground Station National Science Foundations M Space Technology Mission Direc International Space Station Dave Israel McMurdo engineer Marshall Space Flight Center Operations Mission Directorate
"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

05:08 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"Special collision. We want to be connected to the Internet and the Federal Networking Council said Okay and so they all got hooked up and then surprise surprise these networks were completely independent of each other until they hooked up to the Internet and all of a sudden every one of their customers could talk to every one of their competitors customers. They were all using the same Internet. Email protocols that was a little surprised because the Internet and was free at the time and so that messed up their business model just a little in any case those were the sort of unexpected side effects and then along comes tim burners he's he's a physicist and he's trying to figure out. How do I help? My physics. Buddies share their papers with each other. They're formatted text and imagery and graphs and charts. How do we they make it easy for them to find their stop any events worldwide Web html for formatting and http for hypertext transport protocol and nobody nobody notices except a couple of guys at the National Center for supercomputer applications? Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina who build the mosaic browser which is a graphical interface to the worldwide web. You know a million downloads in two weeks. Everybody goes nets the Internet is suddenly a technicolor magazine. And it's got imagery and formatted tax jason eventually video and audio and everything else so That starts to take off like crazy right about that time. In itself said we're not going the fund the Secretariat for the Internet Engineering Task Force anymore. So I said okay. We gotTA find a nonprofit to go underwrite the cost of running the secretary so Bob Kahn. And I started the Internet society in Nineteen ninety-two. Another reason I'm going through. This is to draw your attention to the fact that in this evolving Internet environment and we would create new institutions as as the need arose. So we didn't try to anticipate ahead of time. All of the different institutional elements that were needed. But this was this was was one that was needed for funding purposes. And eventually of course it's played a significant role in policy development and articulation in in Europe. there was say reseau. Ip Or e e Pay Europan which is a internet protocol research that works in Europe they started implementing TCP Ip again against the background of should conquer everything so they took okay risk and join us in that space. The National Science Foundation paid for connections international connections between the European research networks. The American research that works the Japanese research networks so NSF once again sort of plowed the ground to help make this global phenomenon. The Asia Pacific Network Information Center get started in ninety three and is responsible for allocating. Ip address space in domain names similarly Mullaly The RIPE NCC Netscape. Communications gets founded to do. The Mosaic Browser goes public in one thousand. Nine hundred five it's IPO. Joe Goes through the roof and the boom is on so just to catch you up to the end of the institutional story. The Internet Corporation for assigned assigned names and numbers get started in one thousand nine hundred ninety seven so the authority for all of this stuff policy for the Internet went from the Department of Defense in the National Science Foundation to the Department of Commerce by way of anti and now finally independently operated by Cam. Every time I am somebody invented a new networking technology. Somebody said okay. It's over for the Internet and I used to tell everybody you know I p runs over everything including you if you don't get out of the way. So that's what happened. The Internet evolves successfully because of its open architecture. It was designed Zayn to be vulnerable. It was designed to invite new applications. New Protocols New implementations and we should be thinking about that this freedom freedom to create new services and applications is vital and as we think about exploration of the rest of the solar system. We're going to want to have an architecture that will invite new applications in new protocols as they are As the need arises I think in the Internet world we had to have of incentives for the business world to build and operate and sustain maintain and grow stop. Final point is the future isn't written yet. Remember that line from back to the future we get to write it. So that's your job. We get to write the future of the interplanetary network we get it through right the future of pace and some of the other missions that are coming up. That's not only a big responsibility but it's also an absolutely wonderful opportunity. So I join you in looking forward to writing that future..

technicolor magazine Internet Engineering Task Forc physicist National Science Foundation Internet Corporation Federal Networking Council Europe. Marc Andreessen Bob Kahn National Center Asia Pacific Network Informati Eric Bina Pay Europan secretary Zayn Joe
"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

The Invisible Network

05:07 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

"We want to be connected to the Internet and the Federal Networking Council said Okay and so they all got hooked up and then surprise surprise these networks were completely independent of each other until they hooked up to the Internet and all of a sudden every one of their customers could talk to every one of their competitors customers. They were all using the same Internet. Email protocols that was a little surprised because the Internet and was free at the time and so that messed up their business model just a little in any case those were the sort of unexpected side effects and then along comes tim burners he's he's a physicist and he's trying to figure out. How do I help? My physics. Buddies share their papers with each other. They're formatted text and imagery and graphs and charts. How do we they make it easy for them to find their stop any events worldwide Web html for formatting and http for hypertext transport protocol and nobody nobody notices except a couple of guys at the National Center for supercomputer applications? Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina who build the mosaic browser which is a graphical interface to the worldwide web. You know a million downloads in two weeks. Everybody goes nets the Internet is suddenly a technicolor magazine. And it's got imagery and format attacks. Jason eventually video and audio and everything else so That starts to take off like crazy right about that time. In itself said we're not going the fund the Secretariat for the Internet Engineering Casper's anymore. So I said okay. We gotTA find a nonprofit to go underwrite the cost of running the secretary so Bob Kahn. And I started the Internet society in Nineteen ninety-two another reason I'm going through. This is to draw your attention to the fact that in this evolving Internet environment and we would create new institutions as as the need arose. So we didn't try to anticipate ahead of time. All of the different institutional elements that were needed. But this was this was was one that was needed for funding purposes. And eventually of course it's played a significant role in policy development and articulation in in Europe. there was say reseau. Ip Or e e Pay Europan which is a internet protocol research that works in Europe they started implementing TCP Ip again against the background of should conquer everything so they took okay risk and join us in that space. The National Science Foundation paid for connections international connections between the European research networks. The American research that works the Japanese research networks so NSF once again sort of plowed the ground to help make this global Finan the Asia Pacific Network Information Center get started in ninety three and is responsible for allocating ip address space in domain names similarly Mullaly The RIPE NCC Netscape. Communications gets founded to do. The Mosaic Browser goes public in one thousand. Nine hundred five it's IPO. Joe Goes through the roof and the boom is on so just to catch you up to the end of the institutional story. The Internet Corporation for assigned signed names and numbers get started in one thousand nine hundred ninety seven so the authority for all of this stuff policy for the Internet went from the Department of Defense in the National Science Foundation to the Department of Commerce by way of anti and now finally independently operated by Cam. Every time time somebody invented a new networking technology. Somebody said okay. It's over for the Internet and I used to tell everybody you know I p runs over everything including you if you don't get out of the way. So that's what happened. The Internet evolves successfully because of its open architecture it was designed designed to be vulnerable. It was designed to invite new. Applications New Protocols New implementations and we should be thinking about that this freedom freedom to create new services and applications is vital and as we think about exploration of the rest of the solar system. We're going to want to have an architecture that will invite new applications in new protocols as they are As the need arises I think in the Internet world we had to have of incentives for the business world to build and operate and sustain maintain and grow. Stop final point is the future isn't written yet. Remember that line from back to the future we get to write it. So that's your job. We get to write the future of the interplanetary network we get it through right the future of pace and some of the other missions that are coming up. That's not only a big responsibility but it's also an absolutely wonderful opportunity. So I join you in looking forward to writing that future..

technicolor magazine physicist National Science Foundation Internet Corporation Federal Networking Council Europe. Marc Andreessen Bob Kahn National Center Eric Bina Pay Europan Jason secretary Asia Pacific Network Informati Joe
"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

The Invisible Network

08:57 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

"Respect in that equipment so Cisco Systems and Proteon and others up subsequently like Juniper Started building routers. What was interesting is the way you build a router originally was that you found a computer and a graduate student and you ramp the graduate student around the computer and turn it into a router? The problem we had is that we ran on a graduate student. So so CISCO Had Its origins at Stanford University. They started building equipment that you could essentially by so you could build a piece of of Internet and as the system began to grow well We realized that the naming system needed to be All needed to be redesigned. Originally all we were doing sending ending a final round with a list of all of those names in their Ip addresses. That was it. And so this file go out once or twice a day and update all of your tables but as the network started did you get bigger and bigger more networks for involve more sites. Were involved we had to develop a richer architecture so the domain name system which is a hierarchical distributed you'd file system was developed in Nineteen eighty-four by Palma petrous in Jon Postel. And then John Bless his heart who was the RFC editor later becomes the Internet assigned numbers authority. He he is personally handing out. Ip Address Space and keeping track of it in a notebook somewhere and handing out domains. He does his all himself one guy or the editor domain names and IP address allocations. Well at this point the National Science Foundation decides that it's going to build five supercomputers and it's thinking how are we going to get the three thousand research universities in the United States connected to the supercomputers. Maybe we should build a network. Will that work is going to have to connect three thousand universities plus the five supercomputer centers. And then ask what protocols should we use to achieve this objective and a guy from Ireland had been brought in to NSF to run the supercomputers under program and decided that that In one thousand nine hundred eighty five that they would use. TCP Ip protocols to do this. This caused a gigantic hue and cry. Because in one thousand nine hundred seventy eight. In Europe the International Standards Organization launched a project called open systems interconnection and and so we're now in a pitched battle between TCP IP and I accept nobody and implemented inside. They just had stacks documentation action beautifully documented. Fantastic new vocabulary seven layers. You know wonderfully documented so this Irish guy says I need something I think that works so he chooses. TCP Ip and he is He he was a lot of incoming as a result of that decision but he stuck with his guns and And a good friend of mine. David Mills built the first NSF backbone on Fifty Kelvin lines. which at the time were you know moderately high speed? It died instantly overloaded by demand and traffic and so the NSF response was to design and build a not one network with the help of MCI and IBM and in the meantime in one thousand nine hundred eighty six. My good friend. Dan Lynch starts a company called interrupt to show. Oh the private sector houses. TCP Ip work. And how all of their equipment could be made. You wonder work. So he had a big show net. Big Ethernet my yellow cable and in order to be the at interrupt you had to show up and show your stuff work with everybody else's stop you can't imagine how much debugging got done at those interrupt things because these guys are out there trying to sell their gear ear and then buyers are saying show me at works so it was a fabulous arrangements all around because lots and lots of people got to see how it worked in. Lots of people got your products to work As a consequence of that I just want to draw attention to one of the things that NSF did turn out to be super helpful. And again I want you to be thinking about in terms of commercialization and distribution of knowledge and access in this particular case and itself said. Okay we're going to build this backbone network doc but we need to collect connect three thousand universities and they thought the poor guys who were building this backbone would have three thousand potential customers Mars and that would be very distracting so they said Hey. This internet thing allows you to build multiple networks and connect them together. That was the whole idea. So they said why don't we build a doesn't intermediate level networks and have them be regional have various universities cooperate with each other to build these regional networks and then the regional networks would we connected to the Internet backbone the backbone. Well that we're only a dozen regional networks so that made for a nice modest size customer base for the NSF net backbone and in the meantime the regional networks. Had you know several hundred possible customers spread across dozen those and so the result was is a rapid growth in the number of networks that were part of the NSF net or part of the Internet. Backbone I've already mentioned the Interrupt shows I walked in in Nineteen eighty-eight out one of his shows in San Francisco at Mosconi Center the fifty thousand people attended Eric. Benhamou is then the head of three com and the first thing we encounter when we walk in a two story Cisco display so I stopped and I turned eric and he said how much do these costs and he said about a quarter of a million dollars. I remember this is nineteen eighty-eight one quarter of a million dollars. You know. It was a significant the amount of money and he said that doesn't count. The cost of the people demand the thing for a week and I just stood there. You know sort of God dropping thinking my God somebody. Somebody thinks they're actually going to make money out of the Internet and then I thought wait a minute. How heck are we ever going to get the general public up on the system and I figured the government was GONNA pay for everybody's home use to the Internet? So he said how do we build an economic engine under this thing and it turned out around that time Brown. Eighty Eight I said Oh there's a rule it says no commercial traffic is allowed on the government. Sponsored answered backbones. So how am I going to break that rule So so I had built. MCI MAIL COMMERCIAL SYSTEM FOR MCI MCI. When I've gone into the private sector so I went to the then federal networking council and I said? Would you allow me to perform an experiment merriment to connect the commercial. MCI Mail System to the Internet to see whether we could make the two protocols work together. Of course the real reason is wanted to break that rule that said no commercial traffic so they said okay for year so in one thousand nine hundred nine we got the MCI mail system up and running on the the On the Internet backbone and two things happened as a result the first one is three commercial Internet services popped up that year nine thousand nine hundred nine unit which eventually ended up at MCI which is now at Verizon and an PSI net which was a commercialization of the New York State Education in research network and surf net out in San Diego which was originally supposed to be called SCORF. Because when else would you do in San Diego. They had whole. Oh ad campaigns surf the Internet and then they discovered the guys owns already taken the term. SCORF net so somebody says well. I know what we call ourselves. The California Educational Research Foundation Network. It sounds the same and then somebody says Oh maybe we should call Vin so they called me up and they said is it okay if we call our network cer ethnic and my first thought was oh if they screw it up on my going to be embarrassed interest. They said wait a minute. People name their kids after other people into the kids. Don't come out right. They don't blame the people they named them. After so I said so I said sure why not so I flew out in July of eighty nine and Susan Estrada. Who is the executive director of the time? I got got a plastic bottle for glitter and we smash it over to Cisco Router and launch the Surf Net so those were the first three commercial networks and about the same time the other commercial email services Tele Mail on time compuserve heard about MCI mail being connected to the Internet and they say wait a minute those MCI guys you know. They can't have this special collision..

MCI NSF CISCO National Science Foundation graduate student Stanford University editor Europe Dan Lynch Ireland Proteon Juniper United States International Standards Organi
"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

The Invisible Network

09:45 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

"On Monday may six twenty and nineteen nineteen NASA Goddard played host to a networking luminary. Dr Vint CERF Vice President and chief Internet evangelist at Google and an JPL distinguished visiting scientists surf came to speak to the communications and navigation community in a forum focused on his role in founding the Internet and more recently the maturation of technologies wearing one of his signature. Three piece suits he outlined find the development of the IP or Internet Protocol that allows computers on Earth to interact with one another. It's a foundational technology technology of the Internet with a long history but one that many are unaware of what follows are serfs recollections of that effort from infancy infancy to fruition. But there are some things you need to know before you listen. I some acronyms Arba or advanced research projects objects agency later called Darpa. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency was and is a branch of the military responsible for developing being immersed urging technologies with potential military applications. arpanet was an early network developed by Arba which became the foundation for the Internet as we know it today second. Some technical details packet. Switching is a method of transmitting bundled data over a network. TCP CPI or transmission control protocol slash. Internet protocol governs the connections between computers and the Internet enabling packet switching. Command and control is a military term that refers to the process by which information is spread through the chain of command and two allied forces third. I've edited serfs. Talk Down for the purpose purpose of this podcast but there's so much more to this history than what is included. I'd encourage you to search the Internet to learn more but in the meantime enjoy and if it's all a little little too technical feel free to flip forward twenty minutes to catch the end of the episode learn more about Dt an fifty years ago The first four nodes of the arpanet were put into operation and I was a graduate student at UCLA My responsibility was to get this computer. Hooked up to the interface message processor that formed one of the four packet switches of the original arpanet so that was the very beginning and of a what became a wide area packet switching experiment very very successful one at the time packet switching was considered to be extremely risky most of the traditional communications. People said it wouldn't work so they didn't have anything to do with this crazy idea but they'd be happy to sell dedicated circus to us so we can build very stupid network so we did and they did and it worked so the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded the arpanet the net initially not to deal with nuclear war or anything else. They simply had a dozen universities that we're doing research in artificial intelligence in computer science and every year every single one of the computer science department said the Darpa. You need to buy us a world class computer every year so we can do world class research. And even Arpaio couldn't afford to buy another you know mainframe computer dozen of them for each university so they said we're going to build a network and you're gonNA share and everybody hated that idea Darpa said and we're going to build a network and you're gonNA share so this was a resource sharing experiment experiment. Initially it was also an experiment in packet switching my good friend Steve Crocker. I mentioned the math in Nineteen fifty-nine started a document series called request for comments. And some of you. Who might have had something to do with the Internet Engineering Task Force or or other Internet work? We'll have encountered these documents because they although they the first one came out in April one thousand nine hundred thousand nine hundred eight thousand eight hundred of them. Now and and counting Steve led the networking group which developed the host to host protocols for the arpanet there the early equivalent of the TCP Ip the protocols of the Internet somewhat less capable because they relied on the underlying network for reliability. The Internet Assumed that none of the networks are reliable and we had to do and`recovery which by the way is a feature also the delay and disruption tolerant networking under Bundle Protocol. So Bob Kahn and I did. Did the design of Internet over a six month period from spring to the fall nineteen seventy-three we wrote a paper which was published in May of seventy four. I started a series of of experimental notes separate from the RMC series. Because we didn't know whether this is GonNa work either but we switched over to the RFC series As we got deeper into The design so we had a detailed specification of the TCP IP protocols actually it was only TCP at that point in December of one thousand nine hundred ninety four by the way. If if you wonder where did the term Internet come from it was a short form of internetworking and it was used for the first this time in the title of the December nineteen seventy four are while I was at I was advised advised by my then boss Bob Kahn. Also my partner in the design of this system that if I got hit by a boss I should make sure that somebody else knew how now this thing was supposed to work so we created the Internet Configuration Control Board. The name was selected purposefully to sound as boring as possible possible so nobody would want to be on it and then I pick the the leads engineers for the various universities that we're contributing to the Internet design and they became the Internet Configuration Control Board. I left Darpa in late. Nineteen eighty two to go into the private sector my successor rename the ICBC. See the Internet Activities Board with ten task forces under that Spawned the Internet Engineering Task Force. which is one of the larger of the task forces and the Internet Research House force and we required in this standardization process? That you had to show multiple implementations designed and built from the SPEC not from sitting down with the other guy who had something working verifying that the SPEC was sufficient. Listen to actually make something work so in one thousand nine hundred seventy seven. I was still at the time feeling like it was important. Morton show that this stuff could actually link different kinds of packets which nets together because the whole idea was to allow an arbitrarily large number of distinct separate and disparite packet switching systems. Do Inter work so we had a mobile packet radio network operating out in the bayshore freeway. Anyway in the bay area in San Francisco. We had a packet satellite system that we built over the Atlantic using out for a and then we had the arpanet which had been extended to Europe by that time using an internal satellite hop now the the model the I should say the purpose that drove. This particular design was the use of the Internet technology for command and control so by this time time. We're saying packet switching works. How do we use it to help us? Use Computers in command and control and of course the immediate obvious problem problem is that that means computers. Airplanes computers that ships at sea and computers and mobile vehicles and up to that point all we had were dedicated telephone lines connecting getting fixed installation computers. So we needed you know. You can't use wires to connect with tanks because they run over the wires and they break and airplanes. Never make off the tarmac. Back in the ship's get all tangled up so we had to use mobile radio and satellite. They had different speeds different era rates different late nineties Different packet sizes different addressing structures. And so we had to figure out how to bind them all together and that's what TCP IP did so remarkably on November twenty thirty second nineteen seventy seven demonstrated that this stuff actually works in that elaborate environment then comes a kind of a you spread of Internet. So how did this actually get out there. This was an all Darpa thing up until this point so My good friend Bob Metcalf. WHO's the inventor of Ethernet when he was Xerox Park started a company called three com? Nine hundred seventy nine to sell commercial either nets and he built a TCP IP appea- for the UNIX operating system so that his ethernet would be useful of the National Science Foundation sponsored. Something called the C. S. net computer science network starting nineteen eighty-one again using the TCP IP protocols. Some reckless systems get started. They decide to use open. Protocols is an open open designs and they so they adopt TCP IP Berkeley is paid by by Darpa to go implement climent Another version of TCP IP on UNIX. And that was bill joys Contribution of course he was one of the founders of some microsystems systems then comes commercialization in one.

Defense Advanced Research Proj Internet Engineering Task Forc Vice President and chief Inter Bob Kahn Darpa Steve Crocker Internet Activities Board Dr Vint CERF NASA JPL Google Goddard
"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

09:45 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"On Monday may six twenty and nineteen nineteen NASA Goddard played host to a networking luminary. Dr Vint CERF Vice President and chief Internet evangelist at Google and an JPL distinguished visiting scientists surf came to speak to the communications and navigation community in a forum focused on his role in founding the Internet and more recently the maturation of technologies wearing one of his signature. Three piece suits he outlined find the development of the IP or Internet Protocol that allows computers on Earth to interact with one another. It's a foundational technology technology of the Internet with a long history but one that many are unaware of what follows are serfs recollections of that effort from infancy infancy to fruition. But there are some things you need to know before you listen. I some acronyms Arba or advanced research projects objects agency later called Darpa. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency was and is a branch of the military responsible for developing being immersed urging technologies with potential military applications. arpanet was an early network developed by Arba which became the foundation for the Internet as we know it today second. Some technical details packet. Switching is a method of transmitting bundled data over a network. TCP CPI or transmission control protocol slash. Internet protocol governs the connections between computers and the Internet enabling packet switching. Command and control is a military term that refers to the process by which information is spread through the chain of command and two allied forces third. I've edited serfs. Talk Down for the purpose purpose of this podcast but there's so much more to this history than what is included. I'd encourage you to search the Internet to learn more but in the meantime enjoy and if it's all a little little too technical feel free to flip forward twenty minutes to catch the end of the episode learn more about Dt an fifty years ago The first four nodes of the arpanet were put into operation and I was a graduate student at UCLA My responsibility was to get this computer. Hooked up to the interface message processor that formed one of the four packet switches of the original arpanet so that was the very beginning and of a what became a wide area packet switching experiment very very successful one at the time packet switching was considered to be extremely risky most of the traditional communications. People said it wouldn't work so they didn't have anything to do with this crazy idea but they'd be happy to sell dedicated circus to us so we can build very stupid network so we did and they did and it worked so the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded the arpanet the net initially not to deal with nuclear war or anything else. They simply had a dozen universities that we're doing research in artificial intelligence in computer science and every year every single one of the computer science department said the Darpa. You need to buy us a world class computer every year so we can do world class research. And even Arpaio couldn't afford to buy another you know mainframe computer dozen of them for each university so they said we're going to build a network and you're gonNA share and everybody hated that idea of Darpa said and we're going to build a network and you're gonNA share so this was a resource sharing experiment experiment. Initially it was also an experiment in packet switching my good friend Steve Crocker. I mentioned the math in Nineteen fifty-nine started a document series called request for comments. And some of you. Who might have had something to do with the Internet Engineering Task Force or or other Internet work? We'll have encountered these documents because they although they the first one came out in April one thousand nine hundred thousand nine hundred eight thousand eight hundred of them. Now and and counting Steve led the networking group which developed the host to host protocols for the arpanet there the early equivalent of the TCP Ip the protocols of the Internet somewhat less capable because they relied on the underlying network for reliability. The Internet Assumed that none of the networks are reliable and we had to do and`recovery which by the way is a feature also the delay and disruption tolerant networking under Bundle Protocol. So Bob Kahn and I did. Did the design of Internet over a six month period from spring to the fall nineteen seventy-three we wrote a paper which was published in May of seventy four. I started a series of of experimental notes separate from the RMC series. Because we didn't know whether this is GonNa work either but we switched over to the RFC series As we got deeper into The design so we had a detailed specification of the TCP IP protocols actually it was only TCP at that point in December of one thousand nine hundred ninety four by the way. If if you wonder where did the term Internet come from it was a short form of internetworking and it was used for the first this time in the title of the December nineteen seventy four are while I was at I was advised advised by my then boss Bob Kahn. Also my partner in the design of this system that if I got hit by a boss I should make sure that somebody else knew how now this thing was supposed to work so we created the Internet Configuration Control Board. The name was selected purposefully to sound as boring as possible possible so nobody would want to be on it and then I pick the the leads engineers for the various universities that we're contributing to the Internet design and they became the Internet Configuration Control Board. I left Darpa in late. Nineteen eighty two to go into the private sector my successor rename the ICBC. See the Internet Activities Board with ten task forces under that Spawned the Internet Engineering Task Force. which is one of the larger of task forces and the Internet Research House force and we required in this standardization process that you had to show multiple implementations designed and built from the SPEC not from sitting down with the other guy who had something working verifying that the SPEC was sufficient? Listen to actually make something work so in one thousand nine hundred seventy seven. I was still at the time feeling like it was important. Morton show that this stuff could actually link different kinds of packets which nets together because the whole idea was to allow an arbitrarily large number of distinct separate and disparite packet switching systems. Do Inter work so we had a mobile packet radio network operating out in the bayshore freeway. Anyway in the bay area in San Francisco. We had a packet satellite system that we built over the Atlantic using out for a and then we had the arpanet which had been extended to Europe by that time using an internal satellite hop now the the model the I should say the purpose that drove. This particular design was the use of the Internet technology for command and control so by this time time. We're saying packet switching works. How do we use it to help us? Use Computers in command and control and of course the immediate obvious problem problem is that that means computers. Airplanes computers at ships at sea and computers and mobile vehicles and up to that point all we had were dedicated telephone lines connecting getting fixed installation computers. So we needed you know. You can't use wires to connect with tanks because they run over the wires and they break and airplanes. Never make off the tarmac. Back in the ship's get all tangled up so we had to use mobile radio and satellite. They had different speeds different era rates different late nineties Different packet sizes different addressing structures. And so we had to figure out how to bind them all together and that's what TCP IP did so remarkably on November twenty thirty second nineteen seventy seven demonstrated that this stuff actually works in that elaborate environment then comes a kind of a you spread of Internet. So how did this actually get out there. This was an all Darpa thing up until this point so My good friend Bob Metcalf. WHO's the inventor of Ethernet when he was Xerox Park started a company called three com? Nine hundred seventy nine to sell commercial either nets and he built a TCP IP appea- for the UNIX operating system so that his ethernet would be useful of the National Science Foundation sponsored. Something called the C. S. net computer science network starting nineteen eighty-one again using the TCP IP protocols. Some reckless systems get started. They decided to use open. Protocols is an open open designs and they so they adopt TCP IP Berkeley is paid by by Darpa to go implement climent Another version of TCP IP on UNIX. And that was bill joys Contribution of course he was one of the founders of some microsystems systems then comes commercialization in one.

Defense Advanced Research Proj Internet Engineering Task Forc Vice President and chief Inter Darpa Bob Kahn Steve Crocker Internet Activities Board Dr Vint CERF NASA JPL Google Goddard
"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

NASACast Audio

03:04 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on NASACast Audio

"It takes just a moment to send a message from Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland. Home of Nasr's near Earth and space. Networks where I am them to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California home of NASA's Deep Space Network. I can look up a phone number in the NASA directory and call them. I could type an email I could send it instant message. Collaboration between these NASA centers. Some twenty five hundred miles apart has never been easier. Web Conferences can be arranged within minutes. Should an in person meeting be necessary. A five hour flight could take take someone from. Jpl by the close of business in the eighteen. Hundreds though communications between these centers would have been impossibly possibly inefficient male had to be carried by hand to the West Coast. The delivery could take months by ship or as many as twenty five. Today's by stagecoach. There was one exception though. It wasn't as fast as an email or phone call but this delivery system could deliver mail L. across the continent in an average of ten days the Pony Express in operation from April of eighteen sixty two October of eighteen sixty. You want had mail carriers on horseback riding at breakneck speeds. Riders would switch mounts every ten to fifteen miles to give. The horses is a break every seventy five. To one hundred miles couriers would pass their Mo- Chia's hybrid saddles slash mailbags along to the next rider. In just just two short minutes the pony express though a logistical feat was never financially solvent. It was just too too expensive to use or operate the network but the nail in the coffin for the express wasn't a fiscal failure. It became obsolete in October of eighteen. Sixty one western union completed a transcontinental. Telegraph line the Pony Express shuttered two days after though the Pony Express was only around for a year and a half its legacy endures the Smithsonian Institute's National Postal Museum Liam in Washington has of exhibit featuring aspects of the Pony Express is short but fascinating history stories and histories of the old west. I often use this incredible transformation. In the speed of communications to clearly delineate the past from the present a bygone era from from our digital one in spite of this the Pony Express serves as a simple if imperfect metaphor for a bold new networking technology. You that might just revolutionize space communications enabling an interplanetary Internet disruption tolerant networking or DT DT. I'm Danny Baird. This is the invisible network.

Pony Express NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Nasr Maryland Danny Baird West Coast California National Postal Museum Liam Smithsonian Institute Washington
"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

The Invisible Network

03:04 min | 1 year ago

"pony express" Discussed on The Invisible Network

"It takes just a moment to send a message from Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland. Home of Nasr's near Earth and space. Networks where I am him to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California home of NASA's Deep Space Network. I can look up a phone number in the NASA directory and call them. I could type an email I could send it instant message. Collaboration between these NASA centers. Some twenty five hundred miles apart has never been easier. Web Conferences can be arranged within minutes. Should an in person meeting be necessary. A five hour flight could take take someone from. Jpl by the close of business in the eighteen. Hundreds though communications between these centers would have been impossibly possibly inefficient male had to be carried by hand to the West Coast. The delivery could take months by ship or as many as twenty five. Today's by stagecoach. There was one exception though. It wasn't as fast as an email or phone call but this delivery system could deliver mail L. across the continent in an average of ten days the Pony Express in operation from April of eighteen sixty two October of eighteen sixty. You want had mail carriers on horseback riding at breakneck speeds. Riders would switch mounts every ten to fifteen miles to give. The horses is a break every seventy five. To one hundred miles couriers would pass their Mo- Chia's hybrid saddles slash mailbags along to the next rider. In just just two short minutes the pony express though a logistical feat was never financially solvent. It was just too too expensive to use or operate the network but the nail in the coffin for the express wasn't a fiscal failure. It became obsolete in October of eighteen. Sixty one western union completed a transcontinental. Telegraph line the Pony Express shuttered two days after though the Pony Express was only around for a year and a half. Its legacy endures this Massoni and institutes National Postal Museum Liam in Washington has of exhibit featuring aspects of the Pony Express is short but fascinating history stories and histories of the old west. I often use this incredible transformation. In the speed of communications to clearly delineate the past from the present a bygone era from from our digital one in spite of this the Pony Express serves as a simple if imperfect metaphor for a bold new networking technology. You that might just revolutionize space communications enabling an interplanetary Internet disruption tolerant networking or DT DT. I'm Danny Baird. This is the invisible network.

Pony Express NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Nasr Maryland Danny Baird West Coast California National Postal Museum Liam Washington
A Different Kind of Derby

In The Gate

09:46 min | 2 years ago

A Different Kind of Derby

"A different kind of derby to tell you about it's the Mongolian derby. Yes, we said Mongolian derby, it takes place in you. Guessed it Mongolia between Russia and China. So you might be asking where is there? Racetrack in Mongolia. Well, you're not approaching this right? This Turbie is not run at a track. The track is the wild landscape of the country. The Mongolian derby is a six hundred twenty mile endurance race a thousand kilometers. It's designed to recreate the pony express mail system set up by the Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century this derby takes anywhere between six and ten days to finish this coming. August will be the tenth anniversary of the Mongolian derby. It was started in two thousand nine by a British based company, but we want to talk about the two thousand thirteen edition of the race the fifth annual event just a few weeks before a nineteen year old girl named Lara. Prior. Palmer was cruising the internet from her home in the United Kingdom and came across the Mongolian derby with zero training and some but not enough money to pay even the entry Faye? Miss. Prior Palmer hit the apply button and wallah entered the race most competitors trained for years in order to endure the fatigue and hunger and horsemanship necessary to get through the race. What happened after that internet? Search is a testament to the human spirit a true tale miss. Prior Palmer, spins in the new book rough magic which comes out right about now. And we're very pleased to have Lara. Prior Palmer with us to discuss her story here on in the gate. You didn't even have the money for the entry fee? So what happened when you told your parents that you were doing this? Definitely it didn't tell them together. I think my mom is li- enticed by horse's name Massa where they are in the world and was taken with the rebound to Susan ally. Was I think my my phone is difficult gauge, he's not doesn't angle himself into reality in the same race that he said it was very dangerous and said it was too opportunistic to do it at the last minute as I was going to and sort Instead of. of just didn't imagine that was the way I should be spending my summer, I think he had ideas probably more related to have imagined his children should be funding. Nessim I'm not even going to go there. What was your goal going in to win to have a spiritual experience to find yourself? Definitely doesn't have go. I was there wins co teenager who was really excited raise money for charities. I thought it was great is in the UK. Lots of people do rap marathon running. And I thought the mobile w was quite unusual. And it would be good thing to raise the greenhouse sports who do fantastic through sports in London with kids from dysfunction communities say that was definitely a goal. And then the other goal is just to finish the race. I guess the pot for doing it and guessing the experience at least for one day before jokes out if I did because no on my age or under the twenty three I think could yet finish the race. You will get to the human suffering in a second. But before we go any further, I think we need to clarify a couple of things first of all it's not one horse that takes you through this race. It's around twenty five horses. How do the horses that you're not writing travel with you through the race? Great question. Yes. It's an insurance rates to humans. Not voices say in Mongolia. There is not a lot of forces than many families on the set have varying amounts of numbers of forces their status symbol, as they are in many, many roads. And so in the summer, the organizes travel mongo Leah us king families if they'd like to act as a horse station for the race and the families will then get together thirty five before she forces. And there's a stations a place that sort of twenty five mile into intervals say, he writes, it three or four hours between station, and he stopped and you given your tied horse and wait for its heart rate to come level. And then you look at the line of twenty horses on it depending on how many runaway in the storm the night before maybe three and then he decided you're an expert. Cindy right on. So you don't even know these horses until you literally hop aboard. And. Get going exactly because even in polo, for example, where a number of horses are on a team with a competitor their property of the competitor. He knows all those horses or she knows all those horses. This is not that. Oh my gosh. How different are Mongolian horses from horses. We're used to seeing here in the west and not just thoroughbreds. I mean. Hard to say casino, lots of British horses a vaguely similar to mongering recipients by EastWest vied, really. But for example, I've ridden some some small Arab pennies in a friend in the states like she had some Icelandic ponies, which not dissimilar from Mongolian pennies, and that they have a large head size, and they've quite stocky and actually genetically qualifies forces, even though they sort of with a height that pony. Tony's it'd be under fourteen two and the way they differed the rave going into the Ray rarely Rijn the ones that I raised. You can't get together one thousand five hundred horses for grace and make sure they will probably train lots of the Masami wild. And they'll have been backed often didn't quite understand steering, which is lucky. He's quite often describe a straight line and a buck Christ law. When he got on them co box and open the ones that bucks that hard. The best bolt is and they would get Alex for good. I'll steam so yet to take that risk. So you're traveling like six hundred miles with horses that are bucking on you. They thought behold way back in the beginning. Maybe. More failing cheeky some of them. I mean within Mongolia, the horses a difference. Some families had Jerry very nice donkeys should expect type horses out of brilliant racing champions who were like woman is no horses. They relied lions do you? Try to talk to them chirp to them. Calm them down. Yeah, you can too. That's another thing saying among Golian language said different Brad for world. In different words, instead of giddy up is more like sound, and Yeah. you You can can talk talk to to them. them as much like I signed on credit lot. I told them, but my frustration Kreidler your any if you writing Elaine, some people some people do their your any companion. You've got to make friends of no matter what the athletic ability is speaking of the other people. I mean, I imagine that most of the other competitors kind of know who each other is somewhat. Then you show up for a fischel testing out of practically nowhere. What was that? Like, it was very global many of the right is not that. And lots of people that it was there was a sense of people trying to make partnerships because we were afraid to write a load, and I never really got round to doing this electrical doing enough of a serious bond with anyone they would welcome any on the testing days with two days or something. It was tens by slightly ignored that I was let high on the excitement of this new group of people fresh out of school with less. Not a sheltered life cried say, particularly and I was just biggest take cited by the whole gyn to natures how terrified I was. Did you get any vibe that they were saying away tea with teenage girl? What is she doing here? It wasn't quite like that. Because I was some other young competitors Severo friendly with each other. There was a sense of surprise that. I wasn't so prepared for the race and as desire from some older people to help me out of the show how many competitors are there in this race varies some years. This about fifty and other years my either eight thirty two so we're talking about thirteen fourteen hours of riding day. Right. I mean, what were the conditions line conditions is in the weather. The weather was very entertaining. We had storms, but it by seat raves followed by floods where you can't cross the land 'cause it's a trap. So you weren't comfortable, and you probably had a change of claves. If you went very good at packing like me. And you're probably sue because there's no way of training for this race. There is nice setup. Like in the any. Russia. How much you've written red semi truck or train polo. Tony's no one's really done this before teen hours a day. And is title is suck on the body. And you get off

Mongolian Derby Mongolia Palmer United Kingdom Tony Genghis Khan Lara Eastwest London Masami Wild Russia Massa Susan Ally Cindy China Faye Alex
 A ‘full-blown bailout' by the IMF could make Argentina’s financial crisis worse

Here & Now

02:23 min | 3 years ago

A ‘full-blown bailout' by the IMF could make Argentina’s financial crisis worse

"Eighty enduring hardship and just kind of getting through so in this modern age you think the pony express still resumes absolutely jimmy felices new book is west like lightning the brief legendary ride of the pony express jim it was a great book thanks for speaking with us about oh thanks for having argentina's currency the peso has been in freefall it's fallen more than thirty percent against the us dollar this year alone and the international monetary fund is due to begin discussions with argentina's government about a possible bailout joining us now from buenos aires is the bbc's daniel pardo and daniel what is causing what's being described in some headlines as an economic crisis in argentina well one of the first things that we need to think about is is really an economic crisis in a country with a history of hyperinflation with huge devaluations with political out outraged because of the economy i wouldn't say this is a an economic crisis in country the economy's partly slowly growing there's huge tension on the street and the dollar even though that it's you know in very tough times going down going down today and yesterday but it does show that there's deep holes in argentines economies and that fix them is going to take a lot of time one for instance is the huge dependence on the dollar the dollar here marks almost every price you can use dollars if you want to when when you're in argentina to rent an apartment by car all those big transactions you need to pay dollars there's no other way to do it you really need to understand that the dollar here's huge and everyone always speaking about it you know you can ask anyone they'll tell you what the deliberate is today that doesn't happen in any that in american country now this is a historical problem and mcafee says that that is something that he inherited from previous governments but the opposition the current position is saying that someone who turned argentines couldn't meet to the international markets increased dependence was indeed mcafee michaeli solve the that he had.

Jimmy Felices Argentina Buenos Aires BBC Daniel Pardo Mcafee United States International Monetary Thirty Percent
Dwane Casey, fired by Toronto Raptors, writes letter thanking Toronto, fans

The Dan Patrick Show M

01:02 min | 3 years ago

Dwane Casey, fired by Toronto Raptors, writes letter thanking Toronto, fans

"Nobody's told me differently and until they do i'm still you're still fighting still scratching still meeting with players and that's all i can do nobody's haven't changed my key lock or whatever the doors steel opens but have had some meetings with masai and talking about what we can do better next year to get over the hump so until that changes i'm still here you're listening to the pony express here's andrew phillip pony welcome back in that was twain casey the deposed coach of the toronto raptors saying just four days ago that he was in good shape or so he thought to be back coaching the team next year sent packing after a franchise record fifty nine wins pudding love letter in the toronto star thinking basketball fans in canada and toronto for being so polite inconsiderate.

Twain Casey Toronto Raptors Andrew Phillip Toronto Basketball Canada Four Days