28 Burst results for "Planetary Science Institute"

Lunar Water is More Abundant Than Previously Thought

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

05:45 min | 2 months ago

Lunar Water is More Abundant Than Previously Thought

"Astronomers have discovered that water maybe far more abundant on the moon than previously thought water is is already being detected on the permanently shadowed floors of craters neither Luna polls with some never reaches and signatures for hydroxy polls that he's molecules made up one hydrogen and one oxygen atom has been detected on the lunar surface now, and you study reported in the Journal. Nature Astronomy is confirmed that water molecules comprising one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. Good outage to uh-huh has been found in lunar regular. Even sunlit areas of the Moon, the observations were made by Sophia the stratospheric observatory for infrared astronomy a converted Boeing seven, four, seven SP airliner fitted with a two point seven meter infrared reflect telescope. The observatory which is operated by Nassar and the German Aerospace Centre de la was able to detect the molecules in the Moon Southern Hemisphere Safiya Project Site Alexandra Roy from dealer says scientists have been looking for water on the moon ever since the first lunar rocks were brought back to earth in the nineteen sixties. However evidence it's been hard to come by the first confirmation of Luna, water came in two thousand and eight from this moon. Meteorology Mabuhay aboard the Indian Chan One spacecraft which detected frozen on the shaded floors of Doc. Paula. Craters Sophia was able to identify the mistake fingerprint of water molecules in the mid infrared range at a wavelength of six micrometres in the vicinity of the the crater in the moon southern fear, and that raises some interesting questions where did the water in these non polar regions come from and how come it can persist in these areas without an atmosphere surface temperatures can read something like two hundred and thirty degrees. Celsius hot enough to cause water to evaporate under the hate of the light of Sun. Now, it's possible that micrometeorites which are. Constantly falling onto the lunar surface I carrying small quantities of water which deposited the lunar rocks during collisions. In the process, the water becomes enclosed in tiny glass bead like structures in the ground. Another idea involves a two stage process in which hydrogen from the solar wind riches the lunar surface combined with hydroxyl molecules on the ground to form water molecules. The data required by Safiya indicates that most of this water being detected so far lies within the substrate covering the lunar surface. Now, we're not talking about much Roy estimates. It's about the. Equivalent of a three mealy milliliter. A can of drink spread a resurface area, the size of a football pitch in reality, it means the moon still dry than the desert's of earth, but the quantity of water that's been discovered could still prove important future missions to the moon severe. We'll now observe the moon sunlit surface during different. Luna faces to investigate this water phenomenon in greater detail sinus that this will open up a new insight into where the water on the moon comes from how it's stored and how it's distributed across the surface. Meanwhile a second study also reported in the journal Nature Astronomy modeled areas of the lunar surface cast in permanent shadow finding that these so-called cold traps contain at least twenty percent of all the water is on the moon it seems small scattered. Cold trips are scattered across the lunar polar regions and could provide accessible water resources which could be used for drinking for making oxygen for breathing and making oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel. One of the study's authors. No, but Shraga, offer from the Planetary Science Institute says Future Lunar Rovers may have a hard time driving into date dot craters. With extremely low temperatures but smaller cold traps would be far more accessible. He says approximately ten to twenty percent of the cold trap area for water is fantasy contained within microcode traps must witcher less that a major across the discovery changes sciences perspective of water on the Moon, which until now is focused on the largest water as was situated within the broadest deepest craters at high latitudes astronomer. Johnny Horner. From the University of southern Queensland says these latest discoveries of water on the moon will play a major role in the autumn missions returning humans to the lunar surface in twenty twenty four. Ways, you can look at of them that he's much more general and the people took much. It's what really shattering this myth, the Walter Scott in the innovest, which is something that's been a bit of bath mindset. A couple of decades since got my career Walter is everywhere. It's just it's Walter ice rather than liquid. Well, what we found over the last decade of so it's the most lessons that we look the more West finding. Walter, in it never imagined, we're announcement of Wall Toronto Mercury it will not last thing to look what we're finding. The. Central Time there is Walter. The colts of the mode have been confirmed on the mall, the compound as more water than people my. Locations way will be able to access that won't actually from a technology on down the line I'm not hungry exciting locations, the future of kind of human space exploration particularly from the point of view I've going places and then creating your own fuel back to go on from that, which if you do that, it says a huge amount of because if you only continues feel. You've lost fueling. To take with you for whatever future and he wants to attack the problem is that launching prevented big Strong gravitational. You've got much better as well. So every time you wanted few, you've been going to use more fuel to launch fuel. So you have this kind of runaway way.

Nassar German Aerospace Centre De La Alexandra Roy Luna Safiya Nature Astronomy Sophia Boeing Shraga Planetary Science Institute Paula Journal Johnny Horner Walter ROY
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

06:05 min | 3 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"CAST episode five eighty one other kinds novais welcome to China caster weekly faxes journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know how what we know. . I'm Brisbane publisher of the Universe today with me as always as Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science, , Institute and the Director of course. . How you doing I'm doing well, , how are you doing good the word size just comes up your senior scientists working for a scientist a tude science science science. . It, , it's kind of the way I live my life. . It's nice to have people focused on science it is. . It is and Happy, , I Canadian thanksgiving. . Oh. . Yeah. . That's this weekend. . Yeah. . We're. . We're not that big about Thanksgiving around here in fact my. . My my sister calls no thanksgiving. . All, , right we we keep a pretty low key. . chloe's to be coming back from university for for Thanksgiving and we'll be hanging out so so. . Excellent. . Yeah. . But but. . Trying to organize like a Thanksgiving dinner is very complicated around the house so. . So ten we tend to make something Super Yummy. . That's all you name. . Yeah exactly. . But it's also you know as I mentioned year after year it's entire. . It's very civilized although I think this year. . Like, , nobody's be traveling in the US to attend Thanksgiving's so I think you have to worry. . But maybe in future years once the pandemic has wrapped up, , then consider adopting Canadian thanksgiving is your date because it's just. . Air travel traveling in general is a lot easier in in. . October than in November. . This is true and we're starting to get fall leaves. . So it's more. . than. . The the leaser. Great. . . Yeah. . November they're they're they've all fallen. . It's gross. . Yeah. . All right. . So don't ever accuse us of not comprehensively covering every kind of exploding star this week we gather ball the leftover ways that stars partially or fully explode don't probably enjoy. . Oh Pamela. . So I'm not GonNa lie I did absolutely zero preparation for this week's episode. . Because I have no idea. . What's In fact, , we were prepping like okay. So . what what's left and then you then proceeded to rattle off a whole bunch of ways it starts getting split I had no idea. . Had even had names but. . Why. . These these are in minimal exploding right moments in our life. . You gotTa Start and start gets brighter. . It could be an explosion, , it might not be. . And and this is where we have to go back to what does the word Nova mean it it's a new star and so Nova New Star. . Yeah. . So anytime, , a star decides, , Hey, , I, , may not have been visibly bright before but look at me now and hops into our sky. . That's a Nova. . And so far we've discussed where you have a compact object White Dwarf Neutron Star, , whatever that is stealing matter from a companion and periodically flares in brightness due to usually some sort of an exploded. . We talked many times in the past about supernova where an entire star decides I'm GonNa could boom either my outer atmosphere or all of myself and we've behind something or nothing depending on the stars mass and whim. . Yes. . Put. . There's other really cool stuff out there. . And the other cool stuff out there. . has produced some of the most beautiful didn't actually explode remnants for Hubble and other massive telescopes to point that. . So let's let's run through a couple of examples I guess of of of Stars that did something interesting but not in a traditional variable star sense because we've talked to them plenty of times but like weird variable stars, , Right Right. So . so here we have systems like I think the most famous may be Ada Karena. . exploded. . Ready. . Right well or not. . I, , mean here we have this this star that wasn't particularly noticeable Intel in the eighteen thirties. . It decided to suddenly do the opposite of bagel juice and it became brighter than Rachel. . Brightest, , stars in the sky. . It became the second brightest star in the sky for a while. . Just after serious. . It's had multiple episodes of getting brighter getting, , Fainter. . and. . It's thought that this humongous Nebula that is around it this it looks like an hourglass with an exploding waistline. . I don't know how five it. . Yeah. . So the hour glass of material around it is is thought to be material that was given off during its great eruption in the eighteen hundreds. . And its subsequent. . inning occurred when all of this material cooled and coalesced into dust and that dust hit the the two stars. . We now know that are lurking down in the center of this system

scientist Planetary Science, Institute Dr Pamela Gay Brisbane publisher Director
Other Kinds Of Novae

Astronomy Cast

06:05 min | 3 months ago

Other Kinds Of Novae

"CAST episode five eighty one other kinds novais welcome to China caster weekly faxes journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know how what we know. I'm Brisbane publisher of the Universe today with me as always as Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science, Institute and the Director of course. How you doing I'm doing well, how are you doing good the word size just comes up your senior scientists working for a scientist a tude science science science. It, it's kind of the way I live my life. It's nice to have people focused on science it is. It is and Happy, I Canadian thanksgiving. Oh. Yeah. That's this weekend. Yeah. We're. We're not that big about Thanksgiving around here in fact my. My my sister calls no thanksgiving. All, right we we keep a pretty low key. chloe's to be coming back from university for for Thanksgiving and we'll be hanging out so so. Excellent. Yeah. But but. Trying to organize like a Thanksgiving dinner is very complicated around the house so. So ten we tend to make something Super Yummy. That's all you name. Yeah exactly. But it's also you know as I mentioned year after year it's entire. It's very civilized although I think this year. Like, nobody's be traveling in the US to attend Thanksgiving's so I think you have to worry. But maybe in future years once the pandemic has wrapped up, then consider adopting Canadian thanksgiving is your date because it's just. Air travel traveling in general is a lot easier in in. October than in November. This is true and we're starting to get fall leaves. So it's more. than. The the leaser. Great. Yeah. November they're they're they've all fallen. It's gross. Yeah. All right. So don't ever accuse us of not comprehensively covering every kind of exploding star this week we gather ball the leftover ways that stars partially or fully explode don't probably enjoy. Oh Pamela. So I'm not GonNa lie I did absolutely zero preparation for this week's episode. Because I have no idea. What's In fact, we were prepping like okay. So what what's left and then you then proceeded to rattle off a whole bunch of ways it starts getting split I had no idea. Had even had names but. Why. These these are in minimal exploding right moments in our life. You gotTa Start and start gets brighter. It could be an explosion, it might not be. And and this is where we have to go back to what does the word Nova mean it it's a new star and so Nova New Star. Yeah. So anytime, a star decides, Hey, I, may not have been visibly bright before but look at me now and hops into our sky. That's a Nova. And so far we've discussed where you have a compact object White Dwarf Neutron Star, whatever that is stealing matter from a companion and periodically flares in brightness due to usually some sort of an exploded. We talked many times in the past about supernova where an entire star decides I'm GonNa could boom either my outer atmosphere or all of myself and we've behind something or nothing depending on the stars mass and whim. Yes. Put. There's other really cool stuff out there. And the other cool stuff out there. has produced some of the most beautiful didn't actually explode remnants for Hubble and other massive telescopes to point that. So let's let's run through a couple of examples I guess of of of Stars that did something interesting but not in a traditional variable star sense because we've talked to them plenty of times but like weird variable stars, Right Right. So so here we have systems like I think the most famous may be Ada Karena. exploded. Ready. Right well or not. I, mean here we have this this star that wasn't particularly noticeable Intel in the eighteen thirties. It decided to suddenly do the opposite of bagel juice and it became brighter than Rachel. Brightest, stars in the sky. It became the second brightest star in the sky for a while. Just after serious. It's had multiple episodes of getting brighter getting, Fainter. and. It's thought that this humongous Nebula that is around it this it looks like an hourglass with an exploding waistline. I don't know how five it. Yeah. So the hour glass of material around it is is thought to be material that was given off during its great eruption in the eighteen hundreds. And its subsequent. inning occurred when all of this material cooled and coalesced into dust and that dust hit the the two stars. We now know that are lurking down in the center of this system

Scientist Nova New Star Dr Pamela Gay Planetary Science, Institute Brisbane China United States Publisher Director Nova Fainter. Hubble Intel Rachel Ada Karena.
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

02:53 min | 3 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Astronomy Casper weekly facts based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know I'm Fraser Cain publisher of University with me as always Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientists for the Planetary Science Institute and the cosmic if how you doing I'm doing well, how are you doing? Too. Good. Boy I've I've been talking a lot about life on Venus though that's that's my life that is the new. That is the new reality is just talking about life house life. I could be making the life, but the part that I love is the response now that there are some cool missions in the works that people are thinking of to send. I've seen a couple of really great ideas. Now, we've got people have something very specific to look at. So hopefully, we'll be able to follow up in a couple of years with some cool missions to. I hope. So it's the thing that really frustrates me is I know the timescale of going from thinking about a mission to building in sending the Michigan and it's like I want them to go figure this out while I'm alive. But the good thing is the Venus only takes a couple of months to reach. So it's Zaddar or or Mercury, right? Yeah. Mercury's a tough one to get to. But but hopefully, we'll get some answers. We'll get some answers for you everybody. Now. I've got some bad news for you though stars die they do at some point in the next few billion user. So our son is going to start heating up using a ball the fuel in its core, and then eventually die becoming a white dwarf. It'll then slowly cooled down to the background temperature of the universe becoming a black dwarf. Let's learn about this fascinating process. What's the timescale are versed? Why is the Son Dying? I mean we're all dying board and immoral. So the say it add ultimately it's just gonNA run out of energy. So the way that stars shine and support themselves in their core they're undergoing nuclear reactions now, exactly where in the core depends on the stage of evolution. Initially WANNA start turns on it's burning. Hydrogen it's it's going through the Proton Proton process and. All the light that has generated during this fusion because when the particles come together, they release energy as they fuse into something new and that energy pushes out against gravity supporting the outer layers of the star. And eventually, it runs out of fuel in the core. Yeah. So it's eventually going to run out of hydrogen in the core. The star is going to go through different changes in luminosity changes in color changes in size, it's GonNa end up burning hydrogen in a shell..

Mercury Fraser Cain Astronomy Casper Planetary Science Institute Dr Pamela Gay publisher Michigan
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

05:56 min | 4 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Wadham to astronomy, , cast our weekly facts based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know. . But how we know what we know I'm Fraser Cain publisher, , of Universe today and with me as always Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Cosmic Quest Pamela. . Welcome back from Summer Hiatus I missed you. . Thank you. . I've missed you too although I have to say it feels like we're like experiencing march. . Two. . Hundred instead of September at this point time has meaning it doesn't it really has no meaning. . Yeah. . Yeah. . It's a it's a it's a snake in a circle eating its own tail. . Made of everything nothing at the same time. . I don't know whether I'm coming or going. . The days just blur and yet time just takes forever. When . do I get my vaccination? ? You are you are you on I was thinking about this really want to do what I want to go places and see people. . That's what I do. . To to have gone from having that amazing experience in January where we were together in Hawaii for the W. S meeting. . And towards the end of that meeting, , we were starting to talk about the news about this strange illness in China and remember the Thursday night on. . Talking with a couple of my friends at the conference about. . Just want to get home before the illness makes it to Hawaii. . And I had no idea that. . Nine mice be earlier. . Still Yeah, , no I guy I had my suspicions but. . In. . And now I you know we do feel like we're closing in now on the final stretch that more and more vaccines are coming into into the final stage of trials, , and there's going to be some kind of roll out but I really hope that that herd immunity will start to get kicked in and we can start to see the end of this hopefully during this season. . So we will we will and herd immunity from. . Thanks. . From getting sick. So . we will. . Exceed the end of it during the season and. . Regular life will return. . This season fourteen, , our show is major and I feel that having a very cranky year is consistent with going through our teenage ness. . Thank you bye-bye. Now . this is. . All right, , every two years or so Mars lines up nicely with the earth it takes only two minutes to communicate with the Rovers. . You could see the polar ice caps in a small telescope and it's the best time to send your spacecraft to the Red Planet and also I. . Guess. . It Mars opposition. . Between Your horoscope your Mars horoscope is really good that other works. . Maybe, , that's Mars in retrograde. . That none lucky time. . They can happen at the same time whereas in retrograde and an opposition. . Yeah. . That's true. . All right. . So so so we're going to talk about how Mars and opposition is a really like the best time for Mars that's Mars really takes over the night sky and shows us what it's got but. . Why is Marzano Position? ? So technically, , it is that moment in time when you have the sun, , the earth and Mars precisely lined up so that at midnight on earth. . Mars is at its highest possible point in our terrestrial sky and if you were to look at it from space. . Walk. . Would they look from above you're looking down on the solar system and you're looking at? ? Earth Mars and the sun what would you see? ? Align they're just nicely in a line. . And There's some years where because Mars orbit is a lot more elliptical than earth orbit that we are noticeably closer. . There's some years that were noticeably farther apart of back in two thousand and three. . There's a lot of Hoopla because we were than. . We'd been in hundreds of years would be for another hundred some odd year. . He was fifty thousand years was the closest yet had been. . Two Thousand and three. . And at these closest points, , we are more than twenty million miles closer than we are during opposition when Mars is at its far points. . So there is a substantial difference, , but in the grand scheme of things. . Mars is still smaller than allows to see it as a desk without. . Really good binoculars or a telescope. . So but just to give just to give people a sense of perspective, , I mentioned this the beginning of the show it takes two light minutes to communicate with Mars just over two minutes right now we'll win Mars you not position until you can. . You know you send your beep boop commands to your over and you're over goes beep boop and sends back it's commands and it's just like you're playing a video game with. . Fairly reasonable times, , but when Mars is. . Old Dial up modem exactly. . An Internet game what it gets worse right on average the a the time to transmit to Mars is about twelve and a half minutes and at the very worst when Mars is on the opposite side of the Sun It's twenty minutes. . So if you want to send some piece of information to Mars, , you've got to wait twenty minutes for the message to get there and then twenty minutes to come back. . So. . The distances are really significant. .

Hawaii Dr Pamela Gay Fraser Cain Planetary Science Institute Rovers scientist publisher Director China W. S
Mars in Opposition

Astronomy Cast

05:56 min | 4 months ago

Mars in Opposition

"Wadham to astronomy, cast our weekly facts based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know I'm Fraser Cain publisher, of Universe today and with me as always Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Cosmic Quest Pamela. Welcome back from Summer Hiatus I missed you. Thank you. I've missed you too although I have to say it feels like we're like experiencing march. Two. Hundred instead of September at this point time has meaning it doesn't it really has no meaning. Yeah. Yeah. It's a it's a it's a snake in a circle eating its own tail. Made of everything nothing at the same time. I don't know whether I'm coming or going. The days just blur and yet time just takes forever. When do I get my vaccination? You are you are you on I was thinking about this really want to do what I want to go places and see people. That's what I do. To to have gone from having that amazing experience in January where we were together in Hawaii for the W. S meeting. And towards the end of that meeting, we were starting to talk about the news about this strange illness in China and remember the Thursday night on. Talking with a couple of my friends at the conference about. Just want to get home before the illness makes it to Hawaii. And I had no idea that. Nine mice be earlier. Still Yeah, no I guy I had my suspicions but. In. And now I you know we do feel like we're closing in now on the final stretch that more and more vaccines are coming into into the final stage of trials, and there's going to be some kind of roll out but I really hope that that herd immunity will start to get kicked in and we can start to see the end of this hopefully during this season. So we will we will and herd immunity from. Thanks. From getting sick. So we will. Exceed the end of it during the season and. Regular life will return. This season fourteen, our show is major and I feel that having a very cranky year is consistent with going through our teenage ness. Thank you bye-bye. Now this is. All right, every two years or so Mars lines up nicely with the earth it takes only two minutes to communicate with the Rovers. You could see the polar ice caps in a small telescope and it's the best time to send your spacecraft to the Red Planet and also I. Guess. It Mars opposition. Between Your horoscope your Mars horoscope is really good that other works. Maybe, that's Mars in retrograde. That none lucky time. They can happen at the same time whereas in retrograde and an opposition. Yeah. That's true. All right. So so so we're going to talk about how Mars and opposition is a really like the best time for Mars that's Mars really takes over the night sky and shows us what it's got but. Why is Marzano Position? So technically, it is that moment in time when you have the sun, the earth and Mars precisely lined up so that at midnight on earth. Mars is at its highest possible point in our terrestrial sky and if you were to look at it from space. Walk. Would they look from above you're looking down on the solar system and you're looking at? Earth Mars and the sun what would you see? Align they're just nicely in a line. And There's some years where because Mars orbit is a lot more elliptical than earth orbit that we are noticeably closer. There's some years that were noticeably farther apart of back in two thousand and three. There's a lot of Hoopla because we were than. We'd been in hundreds of years would be for another hundred some odd year. He was fifty thousand years was the closest yet had been. Two Thousand and three. And at these closest points, we are more than twenty million miles closer than we are during opposition when Mars is at its far points. So there is a substantial difference, but in the grand scheme of things. Mars is still smaller than allows to see it as a desk without. Really good binoculars or a telescope. So but just to give just to give people a sense of perspective, I mentioned this the beginning of the show it takes two light minutes to communicate with Mars just over two minutes right now we'll win Mars you not position until you can. You know you send your beep boop commands to your over and you're over goes beep boop and sends back it's commands and it's just like you're playing a video game with. Fairly reasonable times, but when Mars is. Old Dial up modem exactly. An Internet game what it gets worse right on average the a the time to transmit to Mars is about twelve and a half minutes and at the very worst when Mars is on the opposite side of the Sun It's twenty minutes. So if you want to send some piece of information to Mars, you've got to wait twenty minutes for the message to get there and then twenty minutes to come back. So. The distances are really significant.

Mars Hawaii Dr Pamela Gay Planetary Science Institute Fraser Cain Rovers China Scientist Publisher Director W. S
Observing The Moon

Astronomy Cast

05:29 min | 7 months ago

Observing The Moon

"I'm prisoner. Cain publisher of university with me as always as Dr Pamela Gay, a senior scientist for the planetary. Science Institute and the Director of Quest. How you doing. I'm doing well. How are you doing this fine night before summer? Solstice I know it's. I've got to say we've been doing the virtual star parties, even having to go later and later and later we have start at nine o'clock. It's going to be nice that that the that nighttime comes earlier now. We'll talk a bit about this next week a bit about about. The things we've able to see in the in the nice warm summer, nighttime sky in the Northern Hemisphere. But as you probably know, this is going to be our our penultimate episode for season. Would we bath beforehand? What did we say season fourteen? We think it seems to work we. We think we're on season fourteen of astronomy cast. So we start up again in September. Typically we used to start with whatever interview Pamela would do at Dragon Con, but I don't think that's going to be happening this year. Not so much so much, so we will, but yeah, we will be picking up again in two months so this episode next week's episode, and then we start back up. But one I just want to promote. If you haven't already is, you should sign up to my weekly email newsletter. That I write every week. In fact, I'm in the midst of writing it right now. I send it out on Friday, mornings. And it is. Got Twelve to twenty stories in it links to dozens of other interesting stories. Great Pictures Astro photography. It is a one stop shop for every piece of Space News. That's happened this week that I. Find Interesting, so you should go to universe today. Dot Com slash newsletter to sign up. It's totally free. There's no ads. It's just. Fraser's. musings on what's happening in space and astronomy. It's awesome you wanted. And when he calls into this letter, he's lying. It's more like a magazine. It's amazing a lot. It's a novella. Each one is about yeah. I'd probably say it's about fifteen thousand words that I. write once a week, yeah! That right. No, not that many words five thousand, probably five thousand words alright. As amateur astronomers, we curse the moon every month. seriously. Why doesn't someone get rid of that thing? This week something occurred to us. What if we actually pointed telescopes at the Boone? What would we see? Yeah, we I hate them. Does Because half of the month for goodly portions. You, look up at the moon and there's you look up at the sky and all you see. Is The sky glowing because of the stupid moon? But the pick your crimes better. Yeah, exactly picnic only yeah, only look at space for two weeks when the Moon is below the horizon the times when it's not raining here on the west coast which face it. That's all the time. Yeah Yeah. Pick your times better. So let's look at the blue so. The the

Dr Pamela Gay Fraser Cain Science Institute Northern Hemisphere Space News Director Scientist Publisher
"planetary science institute" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

04:00 min | 7 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

"Made of methane and ethane untitled temperatures so cold. The water's frozen so hard it forms the bedrock tons. Atmosphere is about ten times as thick as Earth as primarily nitrogen list with methane and ethane, it forms a dense hydrocarbon hayes high in the mid stratosphere, where it's eventually destroyed by some odd scientists believe it's all very reminiscent of what the early primordial earth would have been like. This new studies lead author. Charles would from the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson Arizona says morphological features, including collapses elevated ramparts. Halos and Hold suggests that some of the abundant small depressions. The North Polar region of Titan are likely to be volcanic collapse craters Anne believes at the apparent freshness of some of the crater seen by Cassini suggests they could be evidence of relatively recent explosive events on Titan which could even be continuing today at. It's not just the northern polar latitudes. Similar depressions have also been detected tightened south. South Pole would says the close association of the proposed volcanic craters, and Polo Lakes is consistent with a volcanic origin through explosive eruptions followed by collapse is either Caldera's or shallow, flat floored craters, Tuxedo mission revealed many landforms and Titan. That are very similar to those found on earth. There was sand Dunes River. Valleys lakes all the results of actions by the atmosphere surface driven by Sola. But would says the findings also show this evidence of internal heating, manifesting on the surfaces cry, volcanoes mate from melting the water ice bedrock into liquid water, which then erupts onto time surface. These features are roughly round with raised rims, and sometimes they overlap each other, in fact, the very consistent with the shapes of other volcanic landforms on earth and Mars which are formed by explosion, excavation and collapse, the fact that these features a common in polar regions. Of Methane medicate that methane, nitrogen, or some other volatile could be powering them this space time still the come new. Zealand's rocket launches its orbital mission, and later in the science report takes and medicine being seen as a major breakthrough for saving the lives of Covid nineteen patients all that and much more still to come on space time. Electron rocket is successfully blasted into space carrying five satellites into orbit. The payloads included three classified satellites for the United States national. Reconnaissance Office as well as one for NASA and one for the University of New South Wales that mission which been appropriately code don't stop me. Now lived up to its name after initially slated for launch back in late March, but that was the laid some two and a half months by the coronavirus, pandemic and attempt to launch last week was also scrubbed. This is a strong winds. The early morning flight from rocket labs Mahia Peninsula Launch Complex on New Zealand. Norfolk island Mac, the tooth mission for the two states, seventy meter tall electron rocket from says green and enabled flat. Screen and a new book for flight. Clamp is open and proceed with strawberry trap a flight attracting strong back. No stations is on mission. Could from now on should be nurtured flags in your out CC's. Be advised vehicles currently green, ready full-fledged. Female Commission. Please confirm fly computer has, goes agree. Convince. And Miss Please look the order, sequence and Kim. Ams A lot. More stations flown mission. I can confirm we go forward to sequence start Aviano flood on mission, Cook. Knocks confessional vets switched engine about Av bats are on trial. Convince Stage POWs.

Titan Mahia Peninsula Launch Complex Tuxedo mission University of New South Wales Aviano Planetary Science Institute sand Dunes River New Zealand Arizona United States South Pole Tucson Polo Lakes Zealand Covid Charles Reconnaissance Office Cassini NASA Female Commission
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

04:31 min | 7 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Weekly facts based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know, but how we know what we know, I've risen cain publisher of university with me as always Dr. Pamela gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of cosmic. How're you doing I'm doing well? It's it's. Summer is almost summer hiatus, but we've got nowhere episodes like three more episodes including this. Thanks so yeah, until for people who who aren't familiar of course across all of the cosmic quest empire. We take a much needed vacation over July and August to replenish our energy and mostly just to spend. A couple of months, not having to find our way too high speed Internet and all the. And I find it really. recuperative and so. Now I'm not sure exactly what's going to happen with the world, but but astronomy cast weekly speeds. Hang out virtual star parties and the open space. Do they're all gonna go on hiatus for the next two months? Some of the other stuff that I still do the the the non live stuff. Qa's guide to space videos all work universe today the newsletters. All that is still going to happen, but I just will be able to do that from from the. Having to live high speed Internet so we're. Days just a couple of episodes away from everything going on hiatus, and we're going to be taking weeks throughout the summer to do daily space, but one of the big things that we have planned is normally in the summer. You and I would be going to various events traveling all over the place..

Dr. Pamela gay Planetary Science Institute scientist publisher Director
Discovering Comets

Astronomy Cast

05:25 min | 8 months ago

Discovering Comets

"I'm Freezer Cain publisher of university with me as always as Dr Pamela. Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of cosmic quest. How you doing I'm doing. Well how are you doing fraser? Great Full on Paradise is back here on the west coast of Canada. Everything is growing like crazy. I can't we'd fast enough to keep up with the the new plants that yes. Yeah yes I put eight bucky garbage pails out filled with yard waste for the garbage trucks to come and take away. This is madness. Yeah Yeah and it's it's beautiful like every everywhere you like. Oh it'll never like just looks like such horror show and then boy come. May everything just just paradise again. Love it up here. I did plant my ps too early and they have little frost tinged leaves for the ones that didn't get underneath my cold frame fast. Enough a weird we. We can plant our piece here January and that's pretty much can't plant them early enough. January's fine February. Yeah and then. That's the perfect timing because they like to be cold and then they come up and then yeah we actually have a very mild climate here on Vancouver Island compared to what you have. So Oh yeah well and you started your PS outside. I started mine inside. And you're like wait we. We don't like it out here to you. You always start them outside here. You don't you're it's crazy you're wasting your time you just dump you dump amount of peas into the ground and they are popping by by. March you start to get fresh peas off them by April. I didn't plan any this year. We've we've shifted everything deflowers because somebody likes flowers and hates hate peas although peas meek flowers flowers yeah but anyway let's get onto it so discovering comets is one of the fields that amateurs can still make regular contribution to astronomy but more and more comets are getting found by spacecraft automated systems and machine learning this week. We'll talk about how comets discovered in how you can get your name on one. Have you ever tried to be? Have you ever tried to discover a comment very briefly in graduate school? And then the fact that I had to do graduate. Schoolwork stopped that plan. Yeah so so. How did how did that work like man? I want my name on a comet. Well it was the Soho Data and so not every games. Yeah but it was just the I want to be the first one. It's it's like you see people who on threads on forms or like I and that's all they want to do. This is the comment equivalent of this. Because I just have to do everything nerdier so I wanted to be able to say I on an image of a comment and Soho data so all right so for I mean we've done episode whole epistle comments. We've talked about many things but for anyone who I guess I don't want I don't want to say like you don't don't don't explain what a comet is but explain explain in come off like this baby's first astronomy cast like. Let's let's bring things forward a little bit here. But at least let's talk about the features of comets as a relate to how and where we see them. Find them okay. So comets are small bodies in our solar system that when you apply enough heat grow a cloudy coma around them and a tale of debris that is getting pushed back from them by the solar wind their orbits tend to be a lot more elliptical than the orbits of Asteroids and so we often initially categorize something as asteroid or comet based on its orbit. Because when you find a comet far enough out you can't tell what its future may be but really the only difference between an asteroid and a comet is the ratio of things that melt and things that don't add inner solar system temperatures and we have those two varieties of commerce. We have the short period long period comets and. I'd say that we actually have three because we also have. Yeah sure you need to add behave like a long period comet and so short period comets they go around and around and around and they don't get that far away from the sun and they appear on a regular basis but I mean that can be Haley's comet once every seven years you see this thing flare back up again and again and again. While the long periods we're seeing them for the first time ever and chances are they've never been to the inner solar system and there's a really good chance that a lot of prior long period comets that we saw were actually interstellar and we just didn't know it because we didn't stop to think about it

Planetary Science Institute Canada Vancouver Island Fraser Dr Pamela Publisher Scientist Director Haley
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

15:03 min | 8 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Help you understand not only what we know but how we know what we know. I'm Fraser. Cain publisher of University with me as always Dr Pamela. Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Bus Hip Pamela. Hey doing I'm doing well. How are you doing fraser a once again? The weather's just getting better and better. The apocalypse has never looked so. Lovely Garden is getting out of control. Is the chief sentence. It is now in control and we've got to cut it back. There's just too many plants too much grass too much weeds. I got many weeks ahead of me at this point out in the garden. The day of the trip is trying to be upon you exactly every year. More and more people are making their way to space. Some private citizens have already gotten their astronaut wings paying for a trip to space out of their own pocket. What are the ethical implications of this as the cost of spaceflight? Come down so we've got a new series. We're going to do like at least a two part series. Maybe at most two part series home. But this week we're going to talk about private spaceflight and just what are the ethical issues with this? Next week we will talk about military spaceflight. We're GONNA talk about Space Force. Although I think if we got timing a little better we could do. The episode after Space Force COMES OUT THE NEW TV show. Oh Yeah we can pull that off. Can we may thirty first. So let's talk about today. We'll talk about space tourism. The new movie that is planned next week will look at the trade off between commercial space and scientific exploration from the ground. So issues like the iridium satellites and of space resources for economic purposes. And then we'll go to space force. Okay now we've done two episodes about space tourism to fourteen and four fifty one to cover too much ground. But I think the thing that I found very interesting was just the way you had proposed it. Which is let's deal with the commercial and the ethics of this situation and we'll sort of see where that gets US first. Let's just talk about like? How do you define private spaceflight? When the purpose is the economic benefits of the parent company and its shareholders over the advancement of science and exploration causes that benefit mankind rather than stakeholders and. I mean like one version. That could very well be space. Tourism that you've got a space tourism company that is sending people on flights and they're having fun in going to the zero g hotel and enjoying themselves or flying to the moon and printing about on the moon in that low gravity but that is really just a sub set of what private spaceflight could look like so when you think about that larger umbrella. What are some other examples of the kinds of missions? We'd be run privately. Well this is where we start looking at. And this is what triggered this for me Sending people to spaced film adventure movies rather than to do the normal peacekeeping educational and scientific endeavors that take place on the space station even space tourists up until now have pretty much been tasked with. We're going to train you like an astronaut. You're GONNA do education stuff while you're up there too. And Hey we may throw you a bone and give you a little bit of science to do right but right now. Tom Cruise is looking to partner with spacex to partner with NASA and this has been tweeted out by NASA administrator. Jim Breitenstein they're gonNA film a not mission impossible but certainly an impossible mission on the International Space Station. Yeah I can't even imagine how awful difficult that process is going to be. I think I had a chance to interview someone who took the Imax seventy millimeter imax cameras up on the space station and tried to make a documentary. They gable the gave the astronauts. They taught them how to use these cameras than they had to. Fly Up with these cameras and try to shoot what they were doing. While they're up there and then send the footage back down or it was on the space shuttle. Anyway it was tough. Because it's a great big bulky professional camera that shoots an enormous amount of film at this huge aspect ratio. And it's a real challenge and so same thing right. Does he do his own shooting? Do you send up another person. Who's who does can handle camera sound hair makeup fright to the Astros get involved so I just. The details of this are blowing my mind but I think when you when we look at just all of human existence today and we think about all the trips that human beings take the vast majority of them are private right. When you fly in an airplane you know ninety nine point nine nine. Nine percent of the airplane flights are for private purposes. You are on a trip. You are carrying cargo. You are doing this. And then every now and then some would fly the airplane to a hurricane or you know to take some aerial footage of a of a drought. And that's the scientific purposes but the vast majority into. Why wouldn't it be that into the future? This is where it starts to become a how the numbers work out. And what is the ethics of this kind of question and in the frame of reference? I'm using for this is when I was a graduate student at McDonald Observatory. We'd periodically get. Vip's coming through the telescope and no matter what we're observing for science at that moment we had to kind of put it on the back burner and yeah. We'd bang the keys that we needed to keep things more or less going in a timely fashion but we had to pay attention to these guests who might be funders who might potentially help keep our science going one more year with the money. They might give the Observatory. And this okay. We are a not for profit. Enterprise we exist thanks to the generosity of our donors thanks to our competitiveness in peer reviewed science funding opportunities and thanks to our benefit actors in the state government who give us line item budgets. We know that we exist by the grace of all of these different humans and so we have to dance like the dancing monkey when they appear to keep them happy. That is of the job that we are. All aware of and astronauts are fully aware that that is also part of their job. They are all given amounts of media-training they're given massive amounts of here are effective ways to communicate complex ideas how to work a crowd how to be this stem educator. Even though they may be training pilot an engineer a doctor a myriad of other different things geophysicist. But they're all trained to be educators in the role of astronauts and when they're on the International Space Station. They know part of their is going to be on video cons with girl scouts to Judge Science Fair from outer space to do all these different feel-good tasks that remind everyone. Hey we have astronauts so the funding keeps flowing. We know that's part of the job. But that's a few moments a few hours out of your day and what we're looking at here is filming a movie in Outer Space. We don't know how long Tom Cruise and whoever else might be on the International Space Station but what we do know is while they're up there there. It's a twenty four hour gig in a large way and so now. Instead of being there a stem professionals benefiting mankind inspiring engaging educating their crew on a movie that the movie's primary goal is to have a great storyline and earn a whole lot of profit. And so where is the ethics in having our astronauts instead of engaging people in Wasilla educate them about space having them work crew on a film right and I mean I think I mean that is just the beginning? That's the tip of the ethical iceberg. We have to sort of think about the risks involved. You know it's one thing to for a test pilot. Professional astronaut who has been taking risks all their life who is going to space for the betterment of all humankind to make incredible discoveries that will push stem and science and technology all ahead. And it's another thing for them to take those risks as you say so that they can act as crew on a movie or for them to Babysit some property magnate who is vomiting in their spacesuit The other the of course the other quite a public issue was this private space flight that was purchased by Japanese businessmen to fly around the moon on us. Basics capsule now. I'm not sure how far that mission has stalled scheduled. It's still getting. Yeah but who knows I mean again we live in? Busk time starship. We don't know what it's schedule is. Who knows we whether it'd be on searchable it'll be on a falcon heavy? Who knows what's GONNA fly? Or if they're going to be able to have a capsule as capable of doing it you know you can sort of see. Some benefit like space x will need to make their crew dragon capsule capable of handling someone for a week and a half on a long duration mission. Maybe so you can sort of imagine some benefits and so you get some willing test subject to take that flight but essentially you are looking at this bifurcation of funding into something. That is a distraction from the main purpose and yet it is inevitable as I said airlines. You know it's completely flipped around the other way. Nasa wants to fly some astronauts out to Hawaii for test mission. They hop on a commercial flight and they fly out to Hawaii right and this is where context ethics aren't black and white. There's a whole lot of grey where context determines the right or wrong of a situation grabbing someone squeezing them as hard as you can and hitting them in the back as hard as you can is generally considered to be something you shouldn't do but if someone's choking on an almond that's exactly what you're supposed to do. And so that's an extreme example. But when I look at spacex saying we as a private corporation are going to fund from our private coffers it's now muddier because space x now has artists as part of its time. Line with starship. When they say we're GonNa Fund our private coffers this amazing art project to send under the leadership of this one artist. Who's already well-known a group of people on a journey around the moon as proof of concept for our mission. Everyone kind of goes. Are you going to kill them? Please don't kill them okay. That at least we're all acknowledging it but when a private corporation does that it Kinda falls into the same category as when Red Bull. Has someone jumped from a huge altitude and parachute? It's the same thing as when a movie does special effects that risk the lives of everyone on the set for the sake of getting good seed these are private endeavors that have private insurance. And we're not risking the tax payers dollars the same way but I know Harvard University number of years ago decided they weren't going to allow their campus. Be used shoot movies any longer because it was too much of a distraction to the education of the students and with space craft. It's not just the distractions that you have an issue. It also is when something goes terribly sideways that something tends to be looked at poorly we have seen. This happen with Boeing with their seven. Thirty seven Max. The entire Boeing fleet has seen decreases in orders prior to Kovic coming in post covert. Nothing counts any longer and that is simply due to the risk assessment. Now tied to Boeing Boeing had that goes sideways. What else is going to break with the spatial program? Nasa made the decision not to allow space tourists on the space shuttle. Full Stop and part of that was informed by just how hard it was for everyone to recover from the loss of Christa McAuliffe Yeah because that was a teacher who was not trained as an astronaut since then been astronauts who were form we teachers. She was a teacher who was kind of trained as an astronaut. Not An astronaut. Right right right. I mean back in the Apollo era all of the astronauts are test pilots and then as they moved into shuttle era than they would have the mission specialists who had they didn't necessarily have the same kind of test pilot capability. Not Not every one of them could pilot You know an F. Fifteen but they do have other specializations and as you said. Some do include teacher but a lot of them. They mostly include. Phd In about five different things as well as engineer. It's true and so that is still a professional. That is still someone who is that. They have made the career change from from whatever was they. Were doing before to professional astronaut. With all of the risks that that implies and the understanding of that and all of the You know all of those requirements and so now we're moving to and again. This is the mean. This has already happened. I mean there have been a half dozen people who've already flown to space paid their twenty million dollars flown to the International Space Station floated around people that I really respect as well. Yeah and and there was one vague plan to film a music video in Space Lance Bass tried really hard He. He completed at the age of twenty three all of the U. S..

International Space Station Outer Space Boeing Tom Cruise spacex NASA fraser engineer Planetary Science Institute Hawaii Cain scientist Dr Pamela partner Lance Bass publisher Director Wasilla
Ethics of Commercial and Military Space

Astronomy Cast

08:47 min | 8 months ago

Ethics of Commercial and Military Space

"I'm Fraser. Cain publisher of University with me as always Dr Pamela. Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Bus Hip Pamela. Hey doing I'm doing well. How are you doing fraser a once again? The weather's just getting better and better. The apocalypse has never looked so. Lovely Garden is getting out of control. Is the chief sentence. It is now in control and we've got to cut it back. There's just too many plants too much grass too much weeds. I got many weeks ahead of me at this point out in the garden. The day of the trip is trying to be upon you exactly every year. More and more people are making their way to space. Some private citizens have already gotten their astronaut wings paying for a trip to space out of their own pocket. What are the ethical implications of this as the cost of spaceflight? Come down so we've got a new series. We're going to do like at least a two part series. Maybe at most two part series home. But this week we're going to talk about private spaceflight and just what are the ethical issues with this? Next week we will talk about military spaceflight. We're GONNA talk about Space Force. Although I think if we got timing a little better we could do. The episode after Space Force COMES OUT THE NEW TV show. Oh Yeah we can pull that off. Can we may thirty first. So let's talk about today. We'll talk about space tourism. The new movie that is planned next week will look at the trade off between commercial space and scientific exploration from the ground. So issues like the iridium satellites and of space resources for economic purposes. And then we'll go to space force. Okay now we've done two episodes about space tourism to fourteen and four fifty one to cover too much ground. But I think the thing that I found very interesting was just the way you had proposed it. Which is let's deal with the commercial and the ethics of this situation and we'll sort of see where that gets US first. Let's just talk about like? How do you define private spaceflight? When the purpose is the economic benefits of the parent company and its shareholders over the advancement of science and exploration causes that benefit mankind rather than stakeholders and. I mean like one version. That could very well be space. Tourism that you've got a space tourism company that is sending people on flights and they're having fun in going to the zero g hotel and enjoying themselves or flying to the moon and printing about on the moon in that low gravity but that is really just a sub set of what private spaceflight could look like so when you think about that larger umbrella. What are some other examples of the kinds of missions? We'd be run privately. Well this is where we start looking at. And this is what triggered this for me Sending people to spaced film adventure movies rather than to do the normal peacekeeping educational and scientific endeavors that take place on the space station even space tourists up until now have pretty much been tasked with. We're going to train you like an astronaut. You're GONNA do education stuff while you're up there too. And Hey we may throw you a bone and give you a little bit of science to do right but right now. Tom Cruise is looking to partner with spacex to partner with NASA and this has been tweeted out by NASA administrator. Jim Breitenstein they're gonNA film a not mission impossible but certainly an impossible mission on the International Space Station. Yeah I can't even imagine how awful difficult that process is going to be. I think I had a chance to interview someone who took the Imax seventy millimeter imax cameras up on the space station and tried to make a documentary. They gable the gave the astronauts. They taught them how to use these cameras than they had to. Fly Up with these cameras and try to shoot what they were doing. While they're up there and then send the footage back down or it was on the space shuttle. Anyway it was tough. Because it's a great big bulky professional camera that shoots an enormous amount of film at this huge aspect ratio. And it's a real challenge and so same thing right. Does he do his own shooting? Do you send up another person. Who's who does can handle camera sound hair makeup fright to the Astros get involved so I just. The details of this are blowing my mind but I think when you when we look at just all of human existence today and we think about all the trips that human beings take the vast majority of them are private right. When you fly in an airplane you know ninety nine point nine nine. Nine percent of the airplane flights are for private purposes. You are on a trip. You are carrying cargo. You are doing this. And then every now and then some would fly the airplane to a hurricane or you know to take some aerial footage of a of a drought. And that's the scientific purposes but the vast majority into. Why wouldn't it be that into the future? This is where it starts to become a how the numbers work out. And what is the ethics of this kind of question and in the frame of reference? I'm using for this is when I was a graduate student at McDonald Observatory. We'd periodically get. Vip's coming through the telescope and no matter what we're observing for science at that moment we had to kind of put it on the back burner and yeah. We'd bang the keys that we needed to keep things more or less going in a timely fashion but we had to pay attention to these guests who might be funders who might potentially help keep our science going one more year with the money. They might give the Observatory. And this okay. We are a not for profit. Enterprise we exist thanks to the generosity of our donors thanks to our competitiveness in peer reviewed science funding opportunities and thanks to our benefit actors in the state government who give us line item budgets. We know that we exist by the grace of all of these different humans and so we have to dance like the dancing monkey when they appear to keep them happy. That is of the job that we are. All aware of and astronauts are fully aware that that is also part of their job. They are all given amounts of media-training they're given massive amounts of here are effective ways to communicate complex ideas how to work a crowd how to be this stem educator. Even though they may be training pilot an engineer a doctor a myriad of other different things geophysicist. But they're all trained to be educators in the role of astronauts and when they're on the International Space Station. They know part of their is going to be on video cons with girl scouts to Judge Science Fair from outer space to do all these different feel-good tasks that remind everyone. Hey we have astronauts so the funding keeps flowing. We know that's part of the job. But that's a few moments a few hours out of your day and what we're looking at here is filming a movie in Outer Space. We don't know how long Tom Cruise and whoever else might be on the International Space Station but what we do know is while they're up there there. It's a twenty four hour gig in a large way and so now. Instead of being there a stem professionals benefiting mankind inspiring engaging educating their crew on a movie that the movie's primary goal is to have a great storyline and earn a whole lot of profit. And so where is the ethics in having our astronauts instead of engaging people in Wasilla educate them about space having them work crew on a film

International Space Station Outer Space Tom Cruise Fraser Planetary Science Institute Dr Pamela Cain Partner Scientist Wasilla Publisher Director Spacex Jim Breitenstein Gable Nasa Astros Engineer
In situ resource utilization

Astronomy Cast

07:40 min | 9 months ago

In situ resource utilization

"I'm Fraser. Cain publisher of University with me as always Dr Pamela Gate a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director. Cozma quest. If you doing I'm doing well. How are you doing fraser good? We sound particularly of cheery for the apocalypse. It's a Friday. I'm going to go in the yard and burn things later today. We've we've definitely moved from the existential crisis. The deep grief phase of this process to the marathon portion where we are settling in for what is probably going to be months if not years of on and off again restrictions lockdown and quarantines and although is still terrible out there and please everybody you know we through this. Collective sacrifice have made a dent in many countries on the spread of this disease. Now we have to lock it up. Yeah Yeah we have to lock this. Have TO LOWER THE RATE. That is transmitting to other people. To below one and and wipe it out of existence and New Zealand's already succeeded so this is possible. It requires a massive combination of testing and Quarantine and tracking down contacks. But that little island nation or two island nation proved. It is possible now. A LOT OF PLACES OUT. There are lifting their shelter in place warnings. Well you're about to be in trouble in three weeks and we're very sorry. Yeah so even. If the shelter in place has been lifted keep an eye on the spread. Remember how it was spreading back in the beginning and just think about that as well in the end. It's sort of like the responsibilities on each one of us to ensure the safety of everybody around us so so take those with a grain of salt. How the key to surviving in space? We'll be learning how to live off the land instead of carrying all your fuel water and other resources from Earth extract them locally at your destination. It's called Institute Resource Utilization. And if we could figure this out it'll change everything our Pamela. Do a bit of a history lesson here when we talk about. How essentially we couldn't have done exploration here on earth without in. Situ resource utilization. It's the key exactly. Yes and it has actually reshaped our world. Nowhere more so than the island of Iceland. It turns out that sailing ships require masts and masts like to break and way back when the great explorers of the northern oceans. The Vikings came across this place with amazing forests and tall strong trees and they settled in and the mast they needed and carried on with their massive trade. We always highlight the pillaging that occurred but it turned out these were also traders hunters gatherers and well. Iceland was once a greatly forced Atlanta and now it has almost no forests and it's leading the vast amounts of erosion. So be careful what you take. Yeah it's interesting when you're there at Iceland. There are no trees right. That's because the vikings yeah mean there's the occasional tree like a person might have a tree in their yard. Apparently there are now some efforts to attempt to reforest the island in theory you know get another couple of hundred years and there will be focused on on Iceland again but clearly. They found what they needed. They were able to survive by cutting down all those trees. Thanks so maybe that's not necessarily the. How want this lesson to workout? But the point being that the only way they were able to survive was the fact that there were resources that they could use traffic. Cut DOWN ANIMALS. They could hunt fish. Eat things places. They could grow things they were able to survive in. What is a very hostile place? And this is how we have systematically explored our world again another amazing example of the past is the Polynesians. They knew exactly were all the little islands dotting the South Pacific were located and had an amazing. Plus you'll navigation skills and new. If they went from here to here there would be freshwater when they got to the next place there would be food. There would be things necessary to carry on their carrying on as they moved throughout massive areas of the ocean. And so when we look at the history of space exploration plans when you look at the Moon missions they carried everything every calorie that the astronauts would need was carried up from the surface of the earth every drop of water every every molecule of oxygen that they were going to breed. Everything had to be carried completely from Earth. And then all the way back from the moon and back in the fifties sixties seventies eighties nineties. People were planning missions to Mars. That would be the same thing. Carry everything the Mars and then carry it to be able to survive on the on the surface of Mars and carry out a mission. It's not feasible. The math just kept breaking. Yeah and this is where it gets really interesting to me. Just what is considered in situ resource utilization? Basically if you don't have to take something with you that means you are utilizing it where you go and if you don't have to carry all of your own energy with you so say you have solar panels. Those solar panels count as an in situ resource utilization. And it's something that doesn't work everywhere in this hour system because we have places the outer solar system for instance we really need to have those radio thermo generators those nuclear fuel cells whereas on Mars. Unless you're curiosity they just solar power away. And that's a form of institute resource utilization. The Sun is in situ you talk about the power. Yeah let's say you don't have to carry your liquid. Hydrogen liquid oxygen. You don't also don't have to carry the fuel to carry the liquid hydrogen liquid oxygen and so there is this huge multiplier for every kilogram. That you're trying to carry to the surface of Mars. Many kilograms of propellant. Get you there and we. I started seeing people. Think hard about. How do we separate the resources we need from the rocks of other worlds in the nineteen sixties and this started crop up in novels like the Moon is a harsh mistress? Which if you haven't read that is absolutely required reading in modern times and in that novel they were shipping grain seeds from Earth up to the moon utilizing human by products and Water. That was found in the regular of the moon to grow vast crops. That were then shipped back to Earth. Which was actually a day shipping the water from the moon down to Earth

Iceland Institute Resource Utilization Vikings Fraser Planetary Science Institute Dr Pamela Gate New Zealand Cain Scientist Publisher Director South Pacific Atlanta
"planetary science institute" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

07:10 min | 11 months ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

"Of Mars such as go creator have the right temperature and humidity conditions at night and just after sunrise during the Martian winter for moisture in the atmosphere to be absorbed by salts on the ground potentially forming salty liquid water. And of course chemical analysis of Doc streaks known as recurring slope linear which are often seen flowing down the sides of valleys and cliff faces during the Martian summer have also identified the presence of hydrated salts again. A signature of liquid salty water in this case possibly for melted subsurface permafrost. In this new study. Nobody Shogo off from the Planetary Science Institute has developed a hypothesis that briny water could form the Martian surface for a few days every year in the shadows behind boulders at mid-latitudes he says the continually shaded area behind the boat would be extremely cold which would accumulate water ice in winter then. Temperatures increase again in spring. The ice would suddenly hate up now. His calculations suggest that the temperature would rise from minus one hundred and twenty eight degrees Celsius in the morning to around minus ten degrees. Celsius at noon. Now that's a huge temperature change over just a quarter of a day and over such a short timeframe. Not all of the frost would be lost into the atmosphere and as we said earlier salt depresses the melting point of water so on. Salt rich ground. Brian's of salty water would form until the ice had finally turned into either a liquid or vapor and that same process would repeat itself year after year is called the process crocus melting. That's because the shattered aries behind the ball a so called in winter that not only water frost but also Cobb oxide is would build up for Mas- the first day with at Comdex is in. Spring is called the Craig estate and as water melting would occur on or immediately after the crack estate. The term crocus melting seemed appropriate. You're listening to space-time still to come. Astronomers confirmed the discovery of new exit located just two hundred and fifty light years away that a first Aurora and later in the Science report and you study warns that having ten or more sexual partners in a lifetime has been linked to an increased risk of cancer all that and more still to come on space time. Astronomers have confirmed the discovery of planet located just two hundred and fifty light years away. The planet cataloged as two fifty seven B has about forty times the mass and about three hundred and fifty times its volume suggesting that it's a mostly gaseous world. It orbits a special type F white style of about one point four times the sun's mass and almost twice its radius circling the star every eighteen days having such a close in orbit suggests the planets tidally locked with the same side always facing the star. And that would give the planet's cloud tops temperatures of around a balmy thirteen hundred degrees Celsius. T. A. Y. Two fifty seven is an example of what astronomers a cooling sub saddens as the name implies these awards lodger the Neptune but smaller than satin. It's a type of planet not found in our solar system. The data suggests the system could contain a second planet if so it will be carried lowest tier two fifty seven. C astronomers have been to confirm whether or not it really exists in coming months. The study's lead author. Addison from the University of southern Queensland says the planet was initially detected by NASA's transiting exoplanet survey satellite tests and then confirmed by the Minova astrologers optical telescope array maneuver strollers is an array of five seventy centimeter aperture robotic telescopes at the Mount. Kent observe a Tree Green Mountain in western Queensland. It's the only dedicated Hunting facility in the southern hemisphere and so far is played a key role in the confirmation discovery of nineteen exoplanets. As of January tennis is found more than one thousand six hundred and four planetary candidates with follow up observations confirming thirty seven planets. Addison says warm sub sentence like two fifty seven B are among the rarest currently known EXO Planets Canada part of US Q. and nervous frolics uses high resolution spectograph in multiple telescope to follow up tests. Transcending EXO planet candidates With the radio velocity technique. That's the method right so tests finds these things using a different method. The transit method that is involving the a lot from tipping. Just a little bit as a planet transit so passes in front of the stock and then once it's seen that few times and there's a possibility that this planets orbiting that star then you guys take over and and try and confirm that I take it. That's that's correct. And that's exactly what happened with T. A. Y. Two fi seventy so tests. Observe two transits and the community was alerted that there were two transit surround this host star and we ended up following up this star We made many observations with the doppler wobble or radio velocity technique and from those observations. We were able to confirm the planet because we saw the radio velocity orbit which is basically we measure the velocity shift of the star when the star moves towards this in a way from us as the planet is orbiting its host star. Yeah so with with the planet like say the Earth orbiting the sun. It's not just the earth goes around the sun. The Sun also moves a little bit from what we call the Berry Center and in the case of the earth and Sun. It's it's less than what a few centimeters I guess. But in the case of the planetary system to fifty seven the spectroscopy using is so precise and so fine you can see the star moving slightly as the gravitational pull of the planet causes it to move off center. Yep that's correct and our precision is on the order of a few meters per second so this is just a little bit faster than walking pace which is pretty cool when you think about it that you can measure the wall of a star hundreds of light years away when it's moving only basically at walking pace so it's it's pretty incredible when you think about it. What can you tell us about the characteristics of Teo? I two fifty seven Bay though with the with the transit we got the size of the plant so the size of the planet is about seven times the size radius of the Earth. Put that into perspective. Saturn is about nine times the size of the year so this is a little bit smaller than Saturn Neptune Uranus about four times larger than Earth. So the size of the client is between Neptune and Saturn. And it's what we call a sub sadder now with the data that we collected with Minerva..

Addison T. A. Planetary Science Institute Craig estate University of southern Queensl Mas Teo seven Bay Brian US Aurora Queensland NASA Berry Center Kent Tree Green Mountain Minova Mount
Betelgeuse

Astronomy Cast

09:40 min | 11 months ago

Betelgeuse

"Beetlejuice able juice could use. Try Our weekly facts based journey through the cosby help. You understand not only what we know but how we know what we know. I'm Fraser. Cain publisher of University with me as always Pamela. Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Cosmic West. Hey Pamela I'm doing well. How are you doing fraser? I'm doing great and I mentioned this in the preamble but I just wanted to say this again. Which is a huge congratulations to our good friend. Dr E-e-e-e-no Neil who just announced that he's going to be working at NASA jet propulsion lab in their media department in is terrific science journalist. One of the best in the business and it's a pretty good fit that he's now working over at NASA he was the editor for the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Mercury He has been a columnist for discovery and seeker. He did work with us at Universe today. And and this is great. Congratulations Ian Android. GonNa take the next two weeks off. I'M GONNA call it spring break. I'm not going anywhere. I'm just going to be writing software but you sir are going on a grand adventure. Yeah I'm going to Japan with my son and there is. This is not work. This is literally just him. I said where do you WanNa go and he goes? I want to go to Japan and then I waited for cheap tickets to come around and he did and so we're off to Japan of course rough Japan when there's a corona virus of but you know we'll take precautions and it doesn't look like it's that bad they're currently so And I can't wait to see this place. I've wanted to go to Japan all my life and to be able to do. This is going to be a lot of fun. Definitely take pictures. Might Visit a few spacey. Things like the Japanese space agency but this is about. This is about his trip. Not You know now. My trip are able see. You might be surprised to hear that we've never done episode of astronomy cast featuring beetlejuice. Were good news. This is that episode. Let's talk about the Star. Why it might be dimming. And what could happen if it explodes as Super Noah I? I've had to do a search for I actually You know wrote on my intro and I think we suggest that wanted to pursue put on the calendar and like all of this time. We've talked about a Ryan. We've talked about the way stars die and we've obviously mentioned bill many times as a candidate for new supernova but had never actually spent a whole episode on this one specific star. Well obviously good timing on our part because it's so interesting right now So what does beetlejuice? It is a red supergiant star that is visible to both the northern and Southern Hemisphere. We have no hemispheric bias. In choosing this star it has evolved off the main sequence which means it is no longer burning hydrogen in its very core and it probably did this only about a million years ago and now it is systematically burning through heavier and heavier shells of elements deep in its well. Many many solar mass self as it hangs out shining bright in the northern winter and the southern summer and it is. It is a Ryan's right shoulder. I mean when you look at it. Looks like it's on the left but if you were a Ryan and you were facing towards us than it would be his right shoulder and there's some fascinating history on its name and I have to admit I went down a little bit of a rabbit hole. Prepping for this episode. It's it's name is Arabic and yes over. The years has probably been missed. Transcribed so that there are those who believe that it translates as a Ryan's armpit right and this can be caused by dropping a little dot under one of the characters at wrong moment in time It probably has a much better name than a Ryan's armpit. This is still up for a fair amount of discussion. We'll actually one of our one of our viewers Rami amid who speaks Arabic. He's saying that it is the name comes from the Arabic Abbott L. Josiah which literally means the armpit of the mighty hunter so that sounds better than Orion armpit. It's of the mighty hunter it's true. It's yeah true and we. We're going to mispronounce it and of course. The hilarious thing is is how people give us such a hard time. Because they're expecting that it should be beetlejuice. Yes but and we tend to say bail juice and that is. That's a little bit of a holdover from. I think the way they used to describe it before the movie came out. Seattle has has shifted it to Beatlemania. Even that isn't correct so so maybe we can after. The fact may be get Susie to get maybe Romney or someone to do the proper Arabic pronunciation in the show and then you know then that conserve as the as sort of the standby and I've heard a lot of people like even the German say people are say that well. Actually it's a German word but it's not no near Bec- yes it comes from. Yeah it's has an Arabic root so anyway. Yeah so we're going to say bill. And maybe even shifted beetlejuice every now and then Please just just bear with us and however you choose to pronounce it. This isn't an object that was strictly noted and observed by a people living around the Mediterranean Ocean. This is an object that it's variable in its brightness as all of us can currently go out and see and this variability appears to have. I been noted by the aborigines of Australia. It it is a star crops up in the Lore of society after sisters after society but the science the awesome saw. Science is why we're here today because when you ask which objects in the sky are most likely to go boom. This is one of the two ADA crane has the other it is strictly southern hemisphere. Cirilli beetlejuice is the one we want so that all of us can enjoy the experience. And the problem is we don't know when this is going to occur but scientifically reproduced sure. It's not now right but you can hope to be wrong. Yes yes so. It's it's a random event. We'll talk about this a little bit about what's going on and how we might know but So I wanNA talk a bit about just what stage it is kind of star. It is compared to say a star like our Sun. So so how does this star compare to to our son? I radically different. Our our son is because it is ours. It is used as the measuring stick by which we well measure everything outright. It weighs one the Sun. Exactly yeah exactly one. The Sun Beetlejuice is estimated that when it was in the same of illusionary stages that our son when it was on the main sequence burning hydrogen in its core. It's estimated to have been just under twenty solar masses if we had seen it during that stage it would've been one of those bright blue o type stars like we love to enjoy in the Orion Nebula Orion is a massive star forming region. That entire swath of the sky is rich in all the things needed to make stars and there's lots of young stars in that direction well beetlejuice isn't necessarily young. It finished burning all of that hydrogen. But because it's so massive as it evolved off of the main sequence as it expanded out it didn't go through this massive flash that we see in smaller stars where it suddenly was like boom. I'M GONNA burn helium in my core instead because it was so massive it was able to gradually transition into doing this and as it did it just basically migrated sideways across the color magnitude diagram. That hurts been Russel Diagram ending up in the top center of that diagram being cool red and kind of unable to hold onto all of its atmosphere.

Beetlejuice Ryan Japan Fraser Pamela I Nasa Orion Nebula Orion Planetary Science Institute Cosby Russel Diagram Southern Hemisphere Cain Scientist Astronomical Society Dr E-E-E-E-No Neil Ian Android Seattle Publisher Cosmic West Mediterranean Ocean
Supernova SN 2006gy

Astronomy Cast

07:33 min | 1 year ago

Supernova SN 2006gy

"I came publisher Serve Universe today with me as always? Dr Pamela gave a senior scientists for the Planetary Science Institute. And the director of COSMO question. How you doing? I'm doing well. How are you doing doing very well as well? Well as well Anything new happening in your verse. It Komo customers federal few extra snow falls too so we are plugging away. Every winter's Day on our new code set One of you out there. You know who you are actually came over in. Joined us on dischord to help us out with the coding and that made me super excited so if any of you want to donate some time and join our open source project. We're doing a complete rebuilt and you're all welcome And and I get super happy if you say you understand javascript. Complete rebuilt are always fun. And by that right I mean never. We've been following this story for more than two decades with great to finally have an answer to the question why was Supernova two thousand six six G Y so insanely bright. Astronomers originally thought it was an example of a supermassive star exploding but new evidence provided even more fascinating. Answer our Pamela do you remember where you were when Supernova two thousand six G. Y. exploded especially before our time on astronomy cast. Yeah so oh I I would have just moved here to Illinois. I would have been a baby professor. We would have just started this show. This was an end of the year Supernova and so. I don't know exactly where I was but it wasn't too far from here. I upped. I don't remember the story. I I had to go. And Look in the archives at the time when when we reported on it and then all the various updates that we reported on on this story and it's one of those things though where when you do kind of look back at the story with all of the knowledge that we now have you can see the whole thing unfolding unfolding bit by bit and so back in two thousand six as you say at the end of the year astronomers saw a Supernova That was unlike anything that they had ever seen so much. What was wrong with it? Well not surly wrong but the thing that was initially fascinating about it is it was just way brighter than we had previously. CBS lease seen. Once you corrected for distance it had the highest luminosity up until that date so so with massive amounts of energy coming out of it and with a crazy light curve that was initially assumed that this was what's called a type to Supernova explosion of a massive star this going to leave behind a neutron star or black hole but different kinds of Supernova are supposed to increase decrease in brightness and very sat ways and while this started out looking like type two SUPERNOVA. It didn't stay looking type two SUPERNOVA. So let's talk. I mean we've done whole episodes on all the different flavors but let's go back and give people the the quick overview of the different kinds of Supernova. You can expect to see out there. So broad physics case you have supernova that are single stars that are generally massive and when they run out of fissionable fissionable materials in their core that can generate new energy. They stopped producing light pressure that supports the outer layers of the star and they collapsed under gravity and all of that collapsing material triggers a new round of thermonuclear reactions ends the star now explodes outwards as a Supernova. So that's one model of behavior now. The other model of behavior is is your something like a white dwarf that is made out of what we call degenerate matter. A White Dwarf is an object roughly the size of the earth that has the mass ask of the sun and when you cram all of that mass into so small volume you end up with the electrons having to you arrange themselves in a very specific way to avoid breaking the polly exclusion principle so all of the electrons like you. Okay you be in this level you being this level level will spin in these particular ways and this electron degenerate. Gas is as tight a gas. Is You can form out of the electrons and if you compress it too far the electrons can no longer support each other. polly exclusion in principle breaks those electrons and protons are associated with ended up merging informing neutrons. Everything goes badly. There's a lot of of energy released and this is the other way you can get. A SUPERNOVA is by piling too much mass on one of these electron degenerate gas white Dwarf Stars Defying the polly exclusion principle and exploding that white dwarf. That's type one a supernova now in general because type one as all detonate at the same amount of mass. There's post be the same amount of light now. The names for those massive Asif Stars that are exploding. Are All over the map. There's type two type one C. There's all these different letters added on. But they're all massive stars so okay so just to sort of follow the mystery. A stronger saw what was the moat inherently the brightest Supernova. Would they had ever seen yes but it so then it couldn't have been white dwarf because they're not that bright exactly exactly at least us what was initially thought. So you have their initial thinking and I'm going over this so that I can make sense of all all of this later because no physics is harmed in this episode so you have a white dwarf worth of energy tied up in the mass and that amount of energy when it goes boom always releases is the site and the sort of example right. I mean essentially. It's like one big diamond the size of the earth it is this. Is this carbon. As you say this carbon lattice and the moment it crosses over this line where the thing collapses inward the whole thing just turns into carbon burning. And it's it's just gone like Komo and it's gone because the whole thing. Suddenly a lifetime's worth of fusion happens in an instant every atom in the entire star precedes do carbon fusion. And the whole thing just goes and you get this wonderful standard candle. This is used to measure the size of the universe

Komo Dr Pamela Planetary Science Institute Serve Universe Publisher Director Cosmo Illinois Professor CBS G. Y.
Moon Rocks Still Awe, And Scientists Hope To Get Their Hands On More

KQED Radio Show

04:35 min | 1 year ago

Moon Rocks Still Awe, And Scientists Hope To Get Their Hands On More

"Fifty years ago this month astronauts left their footprints on the moon what they brought home was rocks we have a ton of moon rock was collected by the six Apollo missions to the lunar surface NPR's nail grant Nell greenfield voice looks at what happened to those rocks my scientists still want to go back and get more when Darby Dyer was a kid she remembers watching the Apollo astronauts return she'd see their capsule bobbing in the ocean as the astronauts emerge with some precious cargo they climbed out and then the very carefully to the lunar samples and put them in the little river boat you were watching on TV absolutely the box holding the rocks look like an igloo cooler she never thought that someday she would study those rocks I was growing up in Indiana in the nineteen sixties girl didn't do science I never saw a woman scientist she set out to be a journalist but ended up majoring in geology as a college student she started working for a researcher who gotten some of the newly arrived moon rocks she remembers how he kept them under lock and key we all knew that the filing cabinet in his office was the safe you know I remember my hands shaking the first time he said well you know crying this up and put it in the same folder and I was like are you sure Dyer is still studying moon rocks she's a researcher with the planetary science institute who is also a professor at Mount Holyoke College at her lab there she shows me a bunch of lunar samples Somers theme translucent slices of rock on microscope slides others look like gray pebbles in tiny glass vials a few vials look empty if you had the microscope you could look at these files that seem to be empty and in them you would find tiny single crystals of lunar samples which we carefully save because we have to return every speck of this the Johnson Space Center when we're done Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is the chief repository for Apollo samples the rocks and dirt are stored in special cases involves Ryan Ziggler is the curator he says the Apollo astronauts collected eight hundred and forty two pounds of lunar material eight hundred forty two pounds is couple refrigerators worth of samples in terms of sheer volume and wait he says a tiny fraction of all this was destroyed in analytical experiments some of it is on display like in museums but the vast majority is available for study there were two thousand two hundred individually numbered samples that came back and we looked at two thousand one hundred ninety four of them so we only have six unstudied samples from the moon I love the unstudied ones a few are pristine they were vacuum sealed on the moon and have never been opened NASA was waiting for technology to advance and now the agency says it's time to open one it's not exactly because it's the fiftieth anniversary but it sort of is NASA recently picked six science teams to study these precious rocks one of the lucky scientist is dire I think we knew that there had been some samples put away for future uses and what I remember as a graduate student thinking and I went I wonder what that could be what we were doing in forty years what she'll be doing is studying tiny glass beads that forms during ancient eruptions to learn about volcanic activity already lunar samples of told scientists a lot about how the moon formed when a giant body hit the early earth but they've also learned about the rest of the solar system by dating rocks from lunar craters they could tell when different sized meteorites hit the moon which help them understand the history of other planets they were being similarly bombarded so it's really the underpinning of a huge amount of Terry science just being able to relate the size of the crater to how old it was NASA is aiming to go back to the moon maybe as soon as twenty twenty four I asked dire if she could go to the moon and get any rock what would she want she says in the South Pole there's a giant crater where some massive impact seems to have punctured through the moon's crossed and exposed rocks that we don't see anywhere else on the surface of the moon I would love to go there and it it would be really really important to understand is the interior of the moon really what we think it is she sometimes marvels at how far the study of lunar materials has come over her lifetime I've also been known to get the samples out on the night of a full moon and stand there in my office when I can see the moon out my window in thank look you know I got party here you know we're on to you NASA will probably be ready to open the pristine sealed lunar

Eight Hundred Forty Two Pounds Forty Two Pounds Fifty Years Forty Years
Ancient Astronomy of the American Southwest

Astronomy Cast

04:26 min | 1 year ago

Ancient Astronomy of the American Southwest

"Welcome to castor weekly facts based journey through the cosmos, where we help you understand not only what we know what how the woman, I'm preserve Cain publisher of universe today. With me as always Dr Pamela, gay, a senior scientists for the planetary Science Institute and the director of cause request Pam how you doing I'm doing. Well, how are you doing Fraser, really good? It's been a nice relaxing week. So far, actually it's been good. Some follow up stories, we you know, the bare sheet Lander crashed and but now bear she too is is is go. The falcon heavy landed. Perfectly accepted didn't the the the core booster fell over in the high seas and broken half and half returned to Poseidon. You didn't know that? No. Yeah. So it landed and then fell over in the high because 'cause the Octo grabber can't grab the core booster of a falcon heavy, and so yeah, it fell over and the top crunched off and and went to the went to Davy Jones locker and they need they need an octa grabber. Massive addition Octo grabber heavy. Yeah. Yeah. And of course, still been just feasting on black hole news. So it's it's been a, but it's a poor chil. But it's been it's been good. It was let's say it was very burnt out on. Space news last week all excited. Let's basins again this week yesterday. And today have been like story after story after story. And what I loved is today. There was a theme of when asteroids invade your solar system, and it was a pleasing theme really pleasing thing. Yeah. Inter people's had no light pollution, and they knew the night skies. Very well. In fact, they depended on them to know when to plant when to harvest today, Pamela, talks about the arc yo astronomical sites of the American southwest, which coincidentally is a place you are going to be traveling to relatively soon. It. It is true next. August I am going to be leading an Astro tore through the American southwest departing from Tucson going to places still being determined, but will include national parks, and observatories and ending it all in Las Vegas. Now, we aren't going to get to visit a lot of the archaeological sites that I'm thinking today. But the reason that I'm leading that tort is because that's the part of the country where I spent my summers growing up. It's where my grandparents are it's where I went to graduate school. Well, it's where I did a summer or a you as an undergrad. And so when I picked the topic for today, it was basically like, okay. The news is heavy. I wanna pick something will bring me joy to read. And I know I just don't I know exactly how this went down. You were like looking at sites that you were going to be going in thinking about it. And then just nerd out and went down a rabbit hole of cool. Historical archaeological sites in the American southwest. Yeah. Now that eight so actually I was playing ticket to ride with keeper of maps and paranoid. You're going. Have no idea what to talk about. I have. No, I am out of a DEA 's. And it was out of me bemoaning how I was like out of ideas, as I faced the weeks world news that I was like what if and it was like archaeology, let's talk about archaeology. Let's talk about things and before the expletive hit the fan. So. Oh, yeah. So, but I mean, the irony, of course, is that the places you're going to be talking about are not places that you're going to be going on your Astra tour. I think that's the point is likely is is that you this is pure Pamela rabbit hole. This is you. Yes, finding something and nerd ING out about it for for our benefit. It's it's true. And this is going to be part of a series. And we are going to talk next week most likely about the modern astronomy being done in the American southwest today. We start with the beginning times. And next week. We're going to talk about how we're learning about the end times.

Dr Pamela Octo Davy Jones Planetary Science Institute Cain Fraser Publisher PAM Director DEA Astro Las Vegas Tucson
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Newsradio 950 WWJ

Newsradio 950 WWJ

01:39 min | 1 year ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Newsradio 950 WWJ

"Star Saturn has dozens of moons of its own tighten the biggest has a thick atmosphere and lakes of liquid methane and geysers of water and ice shoot into space from a distant moon Enceladus. Another moon is a lot less active. But it has some interesting features. Nonetheless, straight lines up to hundreds of miles long that lie parallel to its equator Diony is Saturn's fourth largest moon. It's about seven hundred miles in diameter and orbits about two hundred thousand miles above Saturn's, cloud tops. Its service is made of is it scarred by impact craters and jagged cracks the strives were revealed by photographs from the Cassini spacecraft which orbited Saturn for a decade. The stripes were studied by researchers from the planetary Science Institute. And the national air and Space Museum. The scientists found that the stripes are no more than three miles wide, but upset hundreds of miles long. They're brighter than the surrounding landscape, and they're completely straight like stripes painted down a highway. The researchers say the stripes probably were created by something other than Diony itself. They could have been deposited by a rain of ice from Saturn's rings or bypassing comments or they could consist of material blasted off nearby moons by small space rocks sprays of ice forming sporty stripes on Oni starting WW. Jay is made possible by Cranbrook institute of science there. Metro Detroit explores.

Cranbrook institute of science planetary Science Institute Space Museum Cassini Detroit Jay
"planetary science institute" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

WMAL 630AM

01:33 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

"Alright. Well, you know, most of the science planetary missions that Nassif puts forth entirely focused on geology and science goals. Trying to figure out if there's life there. History geological history of the planet, and and as an extension the history in geological history of the solar system. That's generally, the focus. It's very it is not really all normal for NASA to focus on the interests of future. Colonization its exploration. They do things, but that's not their primary, focus, generally. But they now have funded a research project at the planetary Science Institute to map out the near surface ice deposits in the low elevation regions of MAs northern hemisphere. What they're looking for a places where they think now there is a ground water ice table almost planet wide. This means that you go down a certain depth. You'll hit like on earth. The water table would be ice frozen frozen ground, basically, but it would be below the ground, and they think it's pretty extent. Planet wide, but they don't really haven't mapped out very, well, it's somewhat still pulmonary result. What this is going to do is look at that northern hemisphere in the low elevation regions and try to pick out those places that most likely to have accessible water for future exploration colonization.

planetary Science Institute Nassif NASA
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

02:13 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Shaima cast at for soup five seventeen Brits Wiki and sweet transient facility. Welcome to strana facts beast journey. The cause will be held you understand. I'm Lou what we know. But how do we know? I'm prisoner. Cain publisher of university date with me as always Dr Pamela, gay senior, scientists of the planetary Science Institute and the director of causal quest Hamill. He done I'm doing well. How are you doing? I'm doing great. And I want like a couple of things I've got a quickly log roll here. One is that you and me and skyline and Johnny goad gate and Paul Sutter are all going to be leading a fantastic star party in Joshua, California. And that's going to be in the end of June. And if you wanna be a part of this go to Astro, tours dot CO. It's called the all stars party. We're going to be setting them much telescopes. We're going to be teaching than sky. We're going to be hanging out or it could be going on adventures. It is going to be fun for the whole family. So check that out. The second thing is did you know that oceanside photo telescope has a new podcast as well. I did junk both been on it. Yes, separately. So it's called space junk, and I'm not sure what wonderful topic they picked for you. But for me they want to talk about conspiracy theories. So that was that was fun and couldn't I couldn't help but turning into conversation about the Fermi paradox and colonizing Mars, but but still we talk a bit about about this the nature of conspiracy theories. So if you want an interesting podcast to listen to check it out twenty Darnell in and Dustin Gibson are the hosts and ran for a long time. It was a very low uncover sation, and we had a lot of fun. I was well caffeinated during that and some of you may already know Tony journal he's done some work with us in the past. And he is the voice behind deep astronomy. Yeah. Yeah. In twenty two hundred Darnell does give ten super fun to talk to hilarious. And. Yeah, it was a great thing. So check check out their podcast space junk. One of the most influential. Astronomers in the twentieth century was Fritz Wicky hit his hand in the discovery of dark matter gravitational Lenzing supernova neutron stars..

Dustin Gibson Darnell Lou planetary Science Institute Cain Fritz Wicky Astro Johnny goad Joshua publisher director California Dr Pamela Paul Sutter Tony
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

04:08 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Based journey through the cosmos. But we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know. I'm Fraser Cain publisher of university with me as always Dr Pamela, gays, senior scientists for the planetary Science Institute and the director causal quest. He come are you doing I am doing. Well. How are you doing? I'm doing great. I episode that we are recording in the new year twenty nineteen feels like only a marginal dumpster fire. So far should be a good year. That's optimus. Dick. This was we mentioned last week a ton of really fascinating space science astronomical stuff. That's going to be happening. This year. Everything else is relevant to us. All we care about a space base base. Keep it some as I the other kiss. To keep the exactly keeping simply space, not even full science that that even that will, you know too much chance of things going awry, cool. Well, how did the funds with cosmic Wasco where we at? So by December thirty first we're still waiting for the final numbers to come in. But it looks like we brought in thirty five thousand dollars. This is really impressive given that we started the fund right fundraiser the day after the US government shutdown which means that there's a whole lot of people out there who really care about our show who don't know when their next paycheck is going to be it's super impressive because the Dow Jones claps that day as well. And so I'm really proud of how many people that in these super turbulent times said helping the science project. Helping people better. Do learn a means base ci- matters to me, and I'm going to put my wallet where my mouth is. And and thank you to everyone who showed you want us to keep going. And I just hope we can make you proud. Yeah. Yeah. Thank you so much everybody who contributed pamelas got some runway to run Cosby quest for the next few months, and hopefully, we can get to a point that we've got more funds coming in from some of the grants, and such and will just keep on doing science, especially now that the size Rex Zet at Benue in that little space gonna need some help choosing a rock any day. Now, we're going to be getting up first mosaic, and I can't wait. Yeah. I was going to be citing. All right, finding planets is old news. But we now know of thousands and thousands of the, but the terrible irony is that we can only see a fraction of the planets out there using the traditional methods of Radio City and trans. It's but the new telescopes will take things to the next level in image. The planet's directly right panel today. We're gonna be talking about direct imaging planets before we get into direct imaging. Let's just go back a bit and talk about the traditional ways of finding planets orbiting other stars. Well, the the old school way we are grandparents used to do it. The the initial way that people found planets was they looked for the Doppler shifting of regular everyday stars by hot Jupiters, and because the gravitational pull of planet will indeed yenk around its sun. We measure those motions the same way police officer measures if you're speeding or not by seeing how light coming from the star. It's shifted read words or blue words in its motion. Now, this was good in nineteen ninety five ninety eight early two thousands. But it was quickly realized that you can actually see the dip in light from a star when a planet passes in front of it..

US Fraser Cain planetary Science Institute Wasco Dick publisher director Dr Pamela officer Rex Zet Radio City Dow Jones Cosby Benue thirty five thousand dollars
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

04:31 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Through the cosmos, where we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know. I'm preserve Cain publisher of universe today. With me as always doctor, Pavel gay senior, scientists for the planetary scientists to toot and a director of cosmic quest panel. He doing I, you know, I have two things are kinda man right now. Yeah. So so I have this great brand new job. And it's it's one of these things where for years Kuzma quest strana cast. We've been trying to have a major impact while working from small institutions that are more focused on education than research. And it turns out sometimes you're better off when you're with the well, the big publishers at the big research institutions, and so I looked for. Job and look to move my entire program over to the planetary Science Institute after happily getting hired and NASA isn't letting us cancellor isn't letting transfer grant and is in fact, cancelling our grant. So no one gets to keep the grant and merry Christmas. Unless there is a miracle. I have to fire my entire staff, including myself because an astronomy you can have a job and no salary. So. Yeah that happens. Ouch. So and this grant, so can you just explain briefly what this grant has been covering and was expected to cover. So so this this grant started in two thousand fifteen we were one of thirty one projects selected when NASA did a massive reorganization and brought all of their education and comp- and citizen science programs together in one portfolio since then we've been working to launch new citizen science projects this has been funding a whole bunch of student programmers an early career not actually a student programmer myself, an several educators, researchers working on the science all over the nation. So this is a number of scientists a-hole lot of students oppose stock all of us. No salary starting January one. So I know I can get more grant funding. I know I can keep the project going we've been doing this since two thousand twelve but as we've talked about in past up astronomy cast it takes significant time to apply for new funding. And we'd started to get some Hinson August that this might becoming. We were warned the James Webb space telescope cost overruns would lead to the cancellation of some projects. And when someone takes the time to tell you that, you know, you're in jeopardy. We also were told that there were new policy changes on citizen science coming that may cause funding difficulties as well. But August two now I've been traveling the whole time. So yeah, I'm going into overdrive writing grants proposals and begging on the internet, which is why were bringing this up during his up of sewed. Right. Yeah. While you him lobe writes all of the new grants proposals to. Fill in the funding to make sure that all of these projects working on continue along grant need private. We require some bridge financing. Yeah. So I'm trying to raise funding. So that I don't have to fire my staff, and I personally because I have a husband who can pay the bills. I'm only going to pay myself off of any grants that I find. So what we're trying to do is raise money by lifting every rock. We can't. So we're we have four specific asks for today. One goes support patriotic that that will keep Suzy going that will who has a college daughter that will keep shod going. Go. If you don't want to support us on patriotic. If you just want to do a one time drop of funding cosmic quest X on twitch is linked to our pay. Pella count. We are in this weird situation where NASA cutter funds, but we're not allowed to ask for funds on our website. So I'm going to send you to twitch and donate through patriot. The third thing you can do.

NASA planetary Science Institute Pavel Cain programmer publisher Pella director James Webb lobe Suzy
"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

Astronomy Cast

02:48 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on Astronomy Cast

"Us trying to Makassar weekly facts based journey through the cosmos, where we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know. I'm Fraser Cain publisher of university. With me as always is Dr Pamela, gay, a senior scientist for the planetary Science Institute. And the director of Cozma quest hip, how you doing I'm doing well as an astute listener will have been able to notice we're moving institutions, there's a whole lot of different reasons for this. But bottom line, I'm going to be at an organization with roughly one hundred other PHD, scientists all working on cutting edge research, and I'm getting back to my astronaut Michael roots for at least planetary roots. In this case and astronomy cast is going on this journey. We have a new five oh one C. Three if you are aiming to make year end donations. Now is the time to do it because we wanna be able to pay our staff, and please while we're sorting the finances of the transfer everything will transfer everything will transfer. But now, you're nations would really be useful for making sure that Susie. It's paid Chad gets paid server gets paid Amazon kind of likes to get paid. Yeah. Exactly. Well, congratulations. Thank you. And I look forward to working with the planetary sciences to toot especially so much of the work that we do through causal quest is directly connected to a lot of really interesting. Planetary science research. I know you always go to the conferences every year. So it's a great fit. And actually I highly recommend there. I get a ton of news from the planetary science institutes news feed. It's one of the best that's out there. So highly recommended I need to remind everybody that Dr Paul Sutter, and I are. Going to be going to cost Rica with a few dozen of our best friends, and we've reached the minimum for people to come. So we're definitely doing the trip. And I think we've got about another six weeks to the end of December for people who want to sign up to be able to commit to the trip. So if you're interested in joining us in custody, which we're gonna take telescopes we're gonna see volcanoes or wildlife, and then every night, we're going to be doing guy watching I'm going to teach you the night sky with these beautiful dark says in Costa Rica? So this is the thing that you wanna be a part of us should definitely go to Astro tours dot CO and check out and if the timing and price were both is wrong for that trip aren't taking people on a tour of the American southwest next end of summer fall, depending on your point of view. And that's Astra Torres dot co slash star. Strider.

planetary Science Institute Fraser Cain Makassar Costa Rica Michael roots Dr Paul Sutter Astra Torres publisher Rica Susie Amazon director Astro Chad Dr Pamela scientist six weeks
"planetary science institute" Discussed on 710 WOR

710 WOR

01:47 min | 2 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on 710 WOR

"And welcome back to coast to coast george noory with you we've got to amazing guests who will be joining us at this hour david greene spoon i of course you know david he's been on the program lots of times he's at astro biologist award winning science communicator prize winning author in two thousand sixteen appointed the inaugural chair of astro biology at the library of congress and has been a senior scientists at the planetary science institute as well with allen stern they have written the book called chasing new horizons which we're going to talk about and david welcome back it's always good to have you on the show thank you next to be talking with you again george what what are your thoughts of nasa finding these organic molecules on mars oh i very exciting you know it's kind of what we were looking for when we when we sent this rover back to mars i we we sent biking in nineteen seventy six and realize that we didn't fully know what we were looking for and more sorta puzzled by those results in that we've taken this more methodical approach to trying to find the right environments on mars with you know with clues to at least ancient life and now we've you know they pay dirt in these in these much stones these these preserved organic molecules are telling us something important about the history of organic matter on that and we care about organic matter 'cause 'cause that's what we are i think one day they're gonna find even more on march don't you think well yeah i'm sure they will because you know we literally scratching the surface right with his little primitive rovers at eddie's little drills and now that we.

george noory congress planetary science institute eddie david greene allen stern nasa one day
"planetary science institute" Discussed on WTMA

WTMA

02:09 min | 3 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on WTMA

"Five five four hundred savage eight five five four hundred seven a two sovereign listen to the big talker on alexa alexa unable wtma skill than two players per se for alexa play wtma wtma remembers 2017 wendy seventeen the year in review the war on terror ball terrorist attacks carried out in the name of isis took place in several cities across europe and in new york the year was marked by the defeat and expulsion of the terror group from all of iraq and the retaking of isis is selfdeclared capital of rock in syria through an interpreter the commander of the serie and democratic forces made the announcement armed forces have achieved the victory over the terrorist president trump took credit for that victory i totally changed rules of engagement i totally changed our military afghanistan suffered several terrorists the tax including a suicide bombing that killed one hundred fifty people in late may at least three hundred people were killed in mogadishu somalia and a double car bombing they're the us military increased its presence in africa and one counterterrorism mission in nizhny air led to the deaths of four american servicemen i'm steve kastenbaum artistic images of jupiter i'm bob her shannon this is science update nastase juno probe is sending back incredible images of jupiter and sanitary scientist candace hanson co heart jack of the planetary science institute says nasa is encouraging the public to crop process and enhance them and we have gotten the most amazing pictures ranging all the way from scientific quality to win the cold war of art despite the processing she says the atmospheric features highlighted a real and help point out areas of interest for scientists who wonderful world been turbulent from dorm that jupiter that's not our amateurs making things up we've gotta linked to the june okay i'm website at signs update dot com.

planetary science institute nasa scientist bob steve kastenbaum africa afghanistan president europe cold war new york candace hanson nizhny air us somalia suicide bombing trump commander syria iraq
"planetary science institute" Discussed on WTMA

WTMA

02:24 min | 3 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on WTMA

"I'm john batchelor this is the john batchelor show i welcome my colleague my longtime colleague planetary scientist astrobiologist david grins spilling the author most recently of earth in human hands he's at the planetary science institute to discuss venus david as a young astrobiologist planetary scientist look very closely to venus for his inspiration especially the atmosphere the clouds of venus however over these years and it's were approaching the second decade what's become clear in my conversations with david is that attention venus is not commonplace that for for reasons that david will explicatives the exploration robots that we routinely discuss and we will mention some of them here the results of those robots have been directed at other planets them venus we have a probe iran jupiter we certainly have a probe this headed outbound into the keiper belt there's there are several probes around mars and several on the surface of mars and there's been one recently around mercury to give us an understanding of the closest planet or what's left of the planet into the sun but venus not so much in this a very good reason david a very very good evening to you why is it that we haven't put robots many robots i believe there was only one on the surface of venus what about the conditions of a planet you have long a a described in this audience as our closest twin in the solar system good evening to you damn good evening john yeah i mean it's a really good question i think of why we haven't been explore hiring venus it in recent decades um and i think the simplest answer and the correct answer is it's a hard replace to explore then for example mars um inherently venus's more difficult to study because it's completely cloud enshrouded so you cannot see the surface with a telescope from earth you can't even see the surfaced from orbit with a with a telescope or a camera and it's a very difficult place to land on because it's so extremely hot almost nine hundred degrees and you have to go through those sulfuric acid crowds so it's it's tremendously difficult to sort of.

john batchelor planetary science institute solar system scientist david grins iran nine hundred degrees
"planetary science institute" Discussed on WPRO 630AM

WPRO 630AM

02:24 min | 3 years ago

"planetary science institute" Discussed on WPRO 630AM

"I'm john batchelor this is the john batchelor show i welcome my colleague my longtime colleague planetary scientist astrobiologist david griffin spilling the author most recently of earth and human hands he's at the planetary science institute to discuss venus david as a young astrobiologist planetary scientist look very closely to venus for his inspiration especially the atmosphere the clouds venus however over these years and it's were approaching the second decade what's become clear in my conversations with david is that attention venus is not commonplace that for for reasons the david will explicatives the exploration robots that we routinely discuss and we will mention some of them here the results of those robots have been directed at other planets them venus we have a probe around jupiter we certainly have a probe this headed outbound into the keiper belt there's there are several probes around mars and several on the surface of mars and there's been one recently around mercury to give us an understanding of the closest planet or what's left of the planet into the sun but venus not so much in this very good reason david a very very good evening to you why is it that we haven't put robots many robots i believe there was only one on the surface of venus what about the conditions of a planet you have long a a described in this audience as our closest twin in the solar system good evening to you day good evening john yeah i mean it's a really good question i think uh why we haven't been exploring venus it in recent decades um and i think the simplest answer and the correct answer is it's a hard replace to explore than for example mars um inherently venus is more difficult to study because it's completely cloud enshrouded so you cannot see the surface with a telescope from earth you can't even see the surfaced from orbit with with a telescope or a camera and it's a very difficult place to land on because it's so extremely hot almost nine hundred degrees and you have to go through those sulfuric acid crowds so it's it's tremendously difficult to sort.

john batchelor planetary science institute david solar system scientist david griffin nine hundred degrees