35 Burst results for "Physicist"
Interview With Stephen Lamonby
"As an engineer Steven Lamb designed navy torpedoes satellite carrying Rookus oil rigs special effects for Hollywood blockbusters films like saving. Private Ryan. Ryan's just to name. Finding him. So even though homes that earns me the right to get back to my wife and. That's my mission. To. Remove your helmet and tell me Your name. Name is gladiator. I will have my venues. Generous with his time he proved that so many times when he was working at solar giving up his time for free. After the lectures were over. With students who needed that extra tuition, he joined university as a part time lecturer in special effects and mechanical engineering. And he really does turn dry boring lectures because I've definitely sat through some lectures which are quite boring into exciting practical demonstrations. And is it true that you constructed a fake Russian tank and it was used on the streets of Saint Petersburg James Bond movie. Goldeneye? Yes, we did. Yeah. We did that. How did that come about? Because the Russians didn't WanNA. Wheel tank driving over the cobblestones. Smashing cobblestones up around the Mojica Palace. So we built a tank like a kid's toy which rubber tracks and underneath had wheels. So we'll take but not break anything and how did you get into the James Bond movie. To supply. Thanks. Okay, the power of tanks they you got the PUTT supplied. All, the military vehicles for Saving Private Ryan. Was Elvis choice for the James Bond Films. Thank you a sexist misogynist dinosaur relative to. James. WAISTBAND. Like boys with toys. I wouldn't single. Chatting, sophisticated secret agent shaken but not to stir, we're actually by the river. In Winchester as the people won't buy on a sunny August stay. And a lot of people didn't about you. Thank you very much for joining us software pleasure because of that private lunch last year. So perhaps you could set the record straight firstly in what context did you say the words Jewish people are among? The cleverest in the world. It came up in conversation. About Physics I've always an interest since I was a boy in astrophysics. because. I couldn't believe that one hundred years ago almost. Albert Einstein we're talking about such abstract subjects as light being affected by gravity. And he works out the speed of light, which was a phenomenal thing to do in the nineteen twenties. How did this man come to realizations about what actually control the will then what does control the world? And the whole universe that we live in? So. My interest was based on this philosophy. On physics. And when the lady Mico sleater told me that she was a qualified physicist and she was American. It was almost involuntary question for me to Oscar. She was Jewish and again, this was a private lunch at a private lynch over Cup of coffee. Now, it was also reported to say that you said that black men on the privileged needle help that they can get. Yes. I did say that. Because I've worked all over the world of work in Africa I worked in South Africa Mozambique worked in North Africa. And I realized that a lot of people in Africa are culturally disadvantaged. Cheaper to anybody else. But. The coach or they grow up in doesn't give them the advantages that we have in the West. And therefore, I was always prepared to give them extra help. In addition to this, it was reported in the Times by Phillips that you told Dr Burner. Most Nigerians did not have it in their DNA to be engineers. Is this true? Absolutely not true. This was one of the spiteful comments made by my course. Lita. In a fifth of of temper to get me set knowing. It would certainly get me ten. She also alleged other city things. Like that I was a totalitarian. Does, one become a totalitarian over coffee break. Did you say anything about DNA and African students I said nothing about ten not not an area of expertise of mine. I know nothing about it I only know that gets us by the police. In various reports, you read in the papers on I know nothing about DNA.
Ice Like Stone
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick and we're going to be talking about materials today but this is a really fun materials episode that will shatter like glass in our hands or will it I? Guess. It's a big question mark. Yeah we'RE GONNA be talking a lot about ice, but a lot of exciting stuff about is you're gonNA learn some new things about ice I think and you're also going to think A bit more deeply about what can be done and also. Perhaps cannot or should not be done with ice. So if you've read any of George are Martin's a song of ice and fire. If you've read that saga or if you've viewed the TV adaptation, a game of thrones, you're well acquainted with the wall but to reacquaint everybody, this is a fantasy world that's day stunt sort of a medieval European model, and in the far north, you have this massive three, hundred mile long seven, hundred foot tall wall of ice that we're told has stood there for eight thousand years is a barrier against the peoples and the supernatural horrors of the far north. Yeah. It's basically. HADRIAN's wall except much bigger and made of magic. Yes. Yeah. We're told it was built by brandon the builder with the aid of giants and the magical children of the forest were definitely to understand that there is actual magic in its construction. But also there's this idea that brandon was a master engineer that he's in the vein of these various engineering cultural heroes that you see in various cultures. But of course, the the real up feature that makes this while unique is that it is built out of ice not out of stone but out of frozen water. Yes it is a wall of ice so. Ignoring the magic for a second here. It sounds like a great plan, right? I. Mean Humans have been known to make shelters out of ice glaciers and snow has served as natural barriers to travel. So why wouldn't a it'd be ideal to construct this far northern barrier which is going to be dealing with you know with far northern climate why not build it out of ice good. Question is a block of ice not just as good as stone brick. Yeah. So I, I was looking around about this and Fortunately. There is already a great book out there that dives into this very question it sidled fire ice and physics the science of game of thrones by Rebecca Thompson, PhD A physicist, and author of the popular of Spectra Series of Comic Books About Physics and I should also note that Sean Carroll wrote the Intro Cool. So she first of all, this is just a really fun book. If you if if you're interested in game of thrones and science I encourage you to pick it up I love books like this. One about Dune. I I've been eyeing one about star wars. But she goes through various aspects of the books and the world of West rose in breaks about scientifically Indus-. So in a very engaging humorous but also West rose loving style. So, there's there's one section there where she tackles the wall and she points out that ultimately this question would an ice while work is a lot more complex than you might think. So for starters, there's not just one type of Ice Crystal. There are seventeen types of crystalline is that we know of plus there are three different types of amorphous ice and three hundred. Theoretically she says there might be as many as three hundred different phases of ice. Depending on some of the the research out there
Who was Einsteins first wife
"Tashin. Mitchell here this week with a controversy that just will not be put to bed. What do you think Russia language of science? Form Language asked me are the narrowly and a fan figura. Can you guess who this is? How is it that fantastic difficult language if international think of wild wiry hair and dark penetrating is he's arguably one of the greatest original thinkers of all time and certainly in science in strive for. An outdoors. And clarity of. concepts. got. Their. Mutuel. Relation. Anti correspondent who sensory date it's L. Dan Stein yes. predicted the behavior of black holes and their immense gravitational pull through his general theory of relativity, which visualized gravity is warping of the fabric of the universe or space time around objects. But have you heard of a woman called Malaysia Malaysia Marriage Johnston to babies sauce she was his first wife and a promising scientist in the making in her own right when they met and fell in love. Now, there's been a vocal malivert fan club in recent years. It says she was fundamental to Albert's early scientific success, even a key collaborator on his theories and that her legacy was hidden. Will a brand new investigation strongly contests this climb and over the next two episodes I'm going to drilling into that evidence to let you decide buckle up. It matters just to know the truth I and Stein is portrayed as the great hero of Science and N Stein is seen as a god and you don't touch demand. For some people is just like attacking the the Cohen that the Bible, you don't touch those things. We try not to make up stories. And this story appears to be largely the hopeful story people hoped it was true they it was true but it doesn't seem to be true. She. Helped in a great. Measure. That Einstein became what he became. I. Have Serious doubts that he would have got where he is. If he did not have her supporters, he needed someone to discuss them. He needed someone to calculate them. Compare them. So she left us a genius that's her gift to the world. It's important that the truth be told when stories are based on very unreliable evidence. When you start to examine the sources, the stories just aren't hold out. And stories that matter. Mathematical abilities rivaled on stands that she co-authored on Stan's early research that they worked late into the not together blazing a trial for quantum physics. Malivert and our wits relationship really on the came to be understood at all in the nineteen eighty s when early letters between them were found in a family bank faulting California very little other material evidence remained then and physicist Dr. Pauline. Gang Gagnon believes they could a reason for that. Two people were really adamant that this story would not come out about manage. These were Helen Ducasse the personal secretary of Albert Einstein and these are two. Nedam. Both of them became, but they were the executors of his estate and these people were adamant that this story will not come. Polling is a particle physicist now retired in Germany she spent much of her career investigating dark matter at the European Laboratory, a of particle physics soon, and at Indiana University she's taken up. Malaya's 'cause and explains that even elbow full story was with health for a long time. The first biographies came out more than twenty years after the death of Albert Einstein the reason was that do not end for example, not allow anything in writing unless he would be righted himself. The everything that was in the possession of Albert Einstein was cleaned up it has to do with the fact that auto. Natan after the death of militia marriage. In. One, thousand, nine, hundred, forty, eight, or two thousand came to Zurich to her apartment. To search the apartment and probably took everything that he could fine of scientific merit. So these people made every effort to clean up what was there and to erase any trace of market right?
"physicist" Discussed on The Science Show
"You can't see them. And he goes on. Surely nothing is every bit as physical is something. Especially, if it is to be defined as the absence of something. Now. Is this really solid? Otherwise understood nothing to the absence of everything. And now, Lawrence Krauss assures us that nothing is actually the presence of an absence of something. And that he has physical properties. But, it can't really be like that either. For a best nothing can only be the virtual presence of an absence of something. This no objective reality remember. So we may well ask how virtual particles poppy in and out of virtual existence have physical properties. On this formulation, what can physical possibly main? Then in the fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene Columbia University I read that reality. The stuff of the universe is composed of six dimensional vibrations in tiny loops of virtual stream. In other words, the universe is like a ten dimensional pot of boiling. Bubbling Virtual Spaghetti made a virtual pastor in a virtual pot. But white shouldn't that also be virtual reality and don't the vibrations have to be virtual to? And if not, how does virtual spaghetti produce real vibrations. This time Max Take Mark Professor of physics at Mit has the answer. In his book, a Mathematical Universe he writes. Physical world not only is described by mathematics, but it is mathematics. Not Real, mathematics, not real objective mathematics, course, but virtual mathematics virtual mathematicians like Max mark. And Max take mark is not alone. Vlatko Vedra professor of quantum information science at Oxford. Writes something very similar. Information and not matter or energy or love is the building block on which everything is constructed? Moreover in apparent support of Stephen Hawkins claimed that the universe created itself. The drawl adds information in contrast matter energy is the only concept that we currently have the can explain its own origin. Anton Zeilinger professor of physics at the University of Vienna. Also thinks that reality is made of information. In fact, he thinks reality and information are indistinguishable. We have learned in the history of physics that it is important not to make distinctions that have no basis such as the pre Newtonian distinction between the laws on earth, and those that govern the motions of the heavenly bodies. I suggest that in a similar way the distinction between reality and knowledge of. Between Reality and information cannot be made. Max Plank, the father of quantum mechanics and recipient of the nineteen eighteen prize ventured even further. In an interview with science writer, John Sullivan keep proposed that everything is made of consciousness. I regard consciousnesses fundamental. Regard matter as derivative from consciousness. Everything that we regard is existing postulates concerts nece. Sullivan's interview with plank was published in the London Observer on the twenty fifth of January nineteen thirty one. Planks hid it again in Florence in nineteen, forty four. There is no matter as such or matter. Originating exists only by virtue of the existence of a conscious and intelligent spirit. This spirit is the Matrix of Olmeta. Now. If plank is right then, I suppose we should expect the large Hadron collider soon to turn up another new elementary particle, the fundamental interaction of the spirit or consciousness field. A plank bozon perhaps. In the ensuing years, planks view gained support from Fred Allen Wolf One time professor of physics at San Diego. State University. WHO IN A book entitled? Parallel? universes combined it with a wheeler feinman absorb theory. And concluded that the world we see out there appears physical form because information from the past, and from the future joins for a momentary flash of consciousness. Throw out either and nothing would exist as a solid object. So.
Denial of Rebirth
"I will argue that the Buddha taught rebirth. Now. He was either right about rebirth or he was wrong. I let us be clear about the fact that the Buddha taught rebirth. On the night of his awakening, the Buddha said I recollected my many kinds of past lives with features and details. This was the first knowledge which I achieved in the I watch of the night on quote. And just to be clear, it's wrong, too, so that he taught rebirth just for cultural and pragmatic reasons alone. The. Buddhist said quote, and what is wrong view? There is no meaning in giving sacrifice or offering. There's no fruit or result of good and bad deeds. There's no afterlife. Notice the Buddhist said that that was wrong view. There's no afterlife. The first component of the noble eightfold path is right view, and the denial of rebirth is counter to this. The teaching of rebirth rights be boaty crops out almost everywhere in the Pali Canon. And is so closely bound to a host of other doctrines that to remove it would virtually reduced the Dhamma to tatters. Was the Buddha wrong about rebirth. The Buddha has three insights on the night of his awakening the first, which we just read about was the recollection of his past lives. The second was the KARMIC death and rebirth of other beings, and the third was a complete grasp of the four noble truths. Now if we accept the four noble trues, why should we deny the other two insights? Psychologist Robert. Wright has written a book entitled why Buddhism is True. In it. He gives evidence that quote. Buddhism's diagnosis of the human predicament is fundamentally correct. And, that it's prescription is deeply valid urgently important on quote. But like so many modern people. He accepts the psychology of Buddhism while rejecting its metaphysics. I used to do this myself when I was a secular Buddhist. But. How could the Buddha be so right about human psychology and so wrong about the nature of reality? Was the Buddha right. In my opinion, it seems more probable that the Buddha was right about rebirth. But someone object. There's no solid scientific evidence for a berth. Remembering. That Buddhism teaches that we have six senses. The usual five plus the mind that respond. Scientists based on what the five senses tell us, but ignores the six sense of the mind. Without all our senses, we cannot know all of reality. It is like ignoring the sense of hearing, and then concluding that sound is not real. There's a name for this fallacy. It is scientism. Bryan appleyard defines it as the belief that science is or can be the complete and only explanation. Scientists Limited to the physical world, because it ignores consciousness it ignores are six sense. As Philip Goff states, nothing is more certain unconsciousness, and yet nothing is harder to incorporate into our scientific picture of the world. The problem of consciousness began when Galileo decided that science was not in the business of dealing with consciousness on quote. Pan, Sai Qasem tries to correct this error. Quote Pan psychics believed that consciousness is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the physical world on quote. Thomas Nagel argues if any two hundred pound chunk of the universe contains the material needed to construct a person, and if we deny both cycle, physical reductionism and a radical form of emergence, then everything reduced to US elements must have proto mental properties on-court. That means that consciousness is weaved into the very fabric of the cosmos. The great physicist David Bohm hypothesized that reality is incorporated. Of An explicit order and an implicit order which is unfolded. Consciousness would be part of that in folded implicit or That
Kathy Hochul, Lt Governor of New York State
"I'm Jim. Taylor skinner and this is the electorate on this episode. A have a conversation with Lieutenant Governor. Kathy focal of New York, state. Lieutenant, Governor huckle joins me. To Discuss New York response to the coronavirus outbreak, specifically the recovery in rebuilding process. We discussed. The unique ways plumbing have been impacted by Kobe nineteen and what can be done to help women recover, so please enjoy my conversation with Lieutenant Governor Kathy Cocoa. Thank you. Bradley back look I enjoyed our conversation last time. We're going to have this great. Yes, I just into welcome back. The last time you spoke of course that was of course before the pandemic and I know that you hit the ground running. You've been connecting with constituents and you've been working really hard to get the state New York state back on its feet. So I just WanNa know you know. How are you doing? Thank you for asking and I am doing fine. My normal life would've been going from my home. In the western part of New York Buffalo catching as three a M wakeup call and getting out of flight, five to go, New York City, and then maybe try out to Long Island for. For a few hours, and then up to our state capital, and maybe you know, cover the whole state by midnight, so to made parsley in his less travel and wars, zooming moving around the state is what I'm doing, so I have been able to actually touch. More constituencies speak to more elected officials I host meetings with physicist WBZ conference statewide yesterday that I would not have been able to probably pull off with the other schedule half, and so you whether it's talking to chambers women on businesses, faith based community I'm out there just talking about what our objectives are in. In terms of meeting the healthcare crisis, but now we're in the more desirable phase, which is talking about how reopened in a smart way based on the metric, so it is all consuming, but still very fascinating and We're GONNA come out of this with much more knowledge, understanding appreciation for people from all walks of life that were sort of quietly behind the scenes, and never got the recognition they deserve, and I also think this gives us an opportunity to state to really redefine ourselves and launched into the future, and sees on some of the best practices that have emerged out of. Of this crisis. Yeah, I'm glad you're doing well, and you've been working really hard to move the state into the next phase of a lockdown. Honestly I have to say it does make me a bit nervous. Given what's at stake? States begin to reopen too soon. So as are you in right now new. York state depends on the corner of the state of Western. New York upstate to just much that moved into phase to my way of buffalo buffets too early next week. Face to opens up a lot more of the businesses that he will been anxious to go to hair salons and. Retail with many limitations May. There's no nails being done his facials. It is just get a quick haircut with someone who's wearing literally a face shield and has had tested the taken test for Kobe before. They could. Even I'll serve you, so we have very tight restrictions to deal with just what you're talking about. The fear that people are going to have about. Emerging from his deep slumber. Being people have been doing everything they could to sacrifice, but to keep themselves and their families safe, and now they want. They have to be able to trust us in government that followed the doctors who followed the experts, and then we on the metrics that we feel it's safer to go out taking the same precautions we've talking about for. For three months now and so that's why we have the ability to open up slowly. We're not. We're not talking about restaurants. We'll be theaters or larger gatherings, just slowly opening up society and the economy, but nationally we passed this really grim milestone. We have now over a hundred thousand deaths from Colbert nineteen. You know it's still very scary to me on the. The other hand lots of businesses, especially small businesses. They're really hurting financially. There seems to always be this pushing pull. You know we're state. You're caught between which takes priority. Yes, and we are priority all throughout. This has been public health. We wouldn't be talking about reopening. Despite understanding deeply how extraordinarily painful this is for our small businesses and all the employers and I. I come out of a small business family I know the suffering that goes on, and you put your livestream into a low shopper, little of business and almost sign. You don't know if you're GONNA. Make it to the next month or not, so so what we've always said. Public Health comes I mean we can always bring back our economy. He'll be painful tough. Excruciating for our state, revenues are states in your body, sixty five billion dollar whole over the next couple of years already, so we're GONNA have to make some tough decisions, probably some cuts, but if people aren't alive, not protecting public health than what are we therefore so that is what has driven US early talking about reopening. Because we've seen the numbers decline really quite well now, it took a long time to reach the plateau. And if you follow along in New York state has a very transparent way to see what's going on at four dot ny dot. Gov You can really see our hostels ation rate, and it's really going downhill. The number of people use as down number of new cases. Way Down and we didn't see that we wouldn't be talking about reopening if we had stronger broader social safety nets. Nets here in the US what would be ideal in terms of a reopening schedule right in I'm thinking about New Zealand. You know I knew there are comedy is a lot smaller than ours you know, but they had a really strict walked down early on. You know, accommodate suffer bid. They're able to really crush the curve really quickly, so I guess the question is, how would we? We operate if our social safety nets were such that you know, we didn't have to worry as much about the economy, you know what would are reopening process. Look like well probably operate very differently, and what troubles me the most is that women have been hit so hard by this wing. Women were women than men are filing for unemployment. They're. They're not in the industries that are. Are being called back the earliest like construction manufacturing, those are very male, dominated field, so women will be going without their paycheck, and you longer period of time, and on the other hand, those who are working are in the most at risk jobs made therein the ones. They're the ones that are out there on the front line, a seventy eight percent of healthcare workers, the nurses and People that are working in the cafeterias and the Kitchens and and places where they exposed. Those are all women, and so women are really. Really caught in a bad squeeze here at this pandemic either unemployed, and if you're single head of household, you're having trouble. Put Food on the table. A hope and your unemployment checks come in, but let him have been anomaly delayed because of the overwhelming. The system or you're out there exposing yourself every day because you need that paycheck you going and working in a kitchen making someone's. Someone's food that they can pick up curbside and positive. Free back the virus your house, so the Connie's important, and it'd be nice if people knew that they didn't have to risk themselves. We also have to keep some basics functions going and we. We need people to still going to the grocery stores and sell our food and go into the pharmacies of make sure we have prescription. Prescription so those tend to be women, which is just a fascinating study, and whether or not society properly recognizes and appreciation to end compensates women the way they should.
The Superposition Principle
"Hi It's Eric with some thoughts for this week's audio say on the topic of Super Position. Now to those of you in the know. Superposition is an odd word in that it is the scientific concept we reach for when trying to describe the paradox of Schroeder's cat in the theory and philosophy of quantum measurement. We don't yet know how to say that. The cat is both dead and alive at the same time. Rigorously so we fudge whatever is going on with this unfortunate feline and say that the cat and the quantum system which it's life depends are a mixture of two distinct states that are somehow co-mingled in a way that has defied a satisfying explanation for about a century. Now I'm usually loath to appeal to such quantum concepts in everyday life as there is a veritable industry of people making bad quantum analogies for example whenever you have a non quantum system that is altered by its observation that really has nothing to do with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Jane Goodall Chimpanzees are almost certainly altered in their behavior due to her presence. But there is likely no competent. Quantum theorist who would analogize chimps two electrons and goodall to her mission observable executing a quantum observation. Heisenberg adds nothing other than physics. Envy to the discussion of an entirely classical situation. Such as this whoever I have changed my mind in the case of superposition if I would like to explain to begin with superposition isn't a quantum phenomena for example. Imagine that you'd come from Europe to Australia. And that you had both euros and Swiss francs in your pockets. You might then be said to be in a super position because you have pocket change in both euros and francs rather than a pure state of only one currency or the other the analog of a physical observable in this situation would be something like a multiple choice question found on the landing card about the contents of your pockets. Here it is easy to see the danger of the setup assuming you have three times as much value in euros as you do in francs what happens when you get a question. That doesn't include your situation as an answer. What if the landing card asked is all of your change in a euros or be Swiss francs with no other options available? Well this as stated is a completely classical superposition problem having nothing to do with quantum theory. We're you to have such classical question asked of you like this. There would have been no way for you to answer however if the answer. We're on the multiple choice menu. There would be no problem at all and you would give a clear answer determined by the state of your pockets so if the state in question isn't on the multiple choice menu. The classical world is forced to go. Mute is there is no answer determined by the system whereas if it is found on the list of allowable choices the answers then completely determined by the system state at the time that the question was asked. Oddly the quantum world is in a way exactly as deterministic as the classical one just described despite what you may have heard to the contrary in order to understand this. We'll have to introduce a bit of jargon so long as the system now called the Hilbert Space State is on the list of answers technically called the system of eigen vectors corresponding to the question now called a quantum observable the question will return a completely deterministic answer technically called the eigen value corresponding to the State. Iconductor. These are in a sense. Good questions in quantum theory because the answer corresponding to the state of the system actually appears as one of the multiple choice options so if that is completely deterministic while then what happened to the famous quantum probability theory and the indeterminately that we hear so much about what I told you that it. We're one hundred percent confined to the situation. Which classical theory couldn't handle either? That is quantum probability theory only becomes relevant when you ask bad quantum questions where the state of the system isn't on the list of multiple choice answers when the landing card asked if all your changed completely in euros or only francs. The classical system couldn't answer because three times the value of your Swiss francs were held in Euros. So no answer could be determined but if your pocket change were somehow quantum while then you might find that seventy five percent of the time your pocket coins would bizarrely turn into pure euros and would be wilder only turn into pure francs twenty five percent of the time just by virtue of your being asked for measurement by the landing cart in the quantum theory. This is due to the multiple choice. Answers of the so-called observable represented by the landing card question not being well suited to the mix state of your pockets in a super position between euros and francs in other words quantum theory gets probabilistic. Only where classical theory went mute. All of the indeterminately appears to come from asking bad multiple choice questions in both the classical an quantum regimes in which the state of the system doesn't fit any given answer quite honestly. I've never heard a physicist rework the issue of quantum probabilities in just this way so as to highlight that the probabilistic weirdness comes only from the quantum being overly solicitous in accommodating really bad questions for some reason. They don't like the idea of Kalyan observable that doesn't have the state of the system as an allowable answer a bad question but that is precisely why I do like it points out that the quantum is deterministic. Where the classical theory is deterministic and only probabilistic where the classical theory is mute. This is because it is really willing to answer questions that are in a sense that can be made precise bad questions to begin with. That doesn't get rid of the mystery but it recasts it so it doesn't sound quite so weird. The new question is why would a quantum system over compensate for the lousy questions being posed when the classical system seems to know not to answer? So why bring any of this up well? The first reasons that I couldn't resist sneaking personal reformulation of the quantum measurement problem that most people will have never considered but the second reason is that I've come to believe that we are wasting our political lives unjust such superposition questions for example. Let's see if we can solve the abortion debate problem right now in this podcast using superposition as it is much easier than the abortion problem itself. The abortion debate problem is that everyone agrees that before fertilization. There's no human life to worry about. And that after a baby is born. There is no question that it has a right to live yet. Pro Choice and pro life. Activists insist on telling us that the developing embryo is either a mere bundle of cells suddenly becoming a life only when born or a full-fledged baby the moment the sperm enters the egg you can guess my answer here. The question of is it. A baby's life or a woman's choice is agreed upon by everyone before fertilization or following birth because the observable in question has the system as one of the two multiple choice answers in those two cases however during the process of embryonic development something miraculous is taking place that we simply don't understand scientifically somehow a nonsense blast ula becomes a baby by a process utterly opaque to science which has yet has no mature theory of consciousness. The system in Utero isn't changing and progressing superposition tilted heavily towards not being a baby at the beginning and tilted towards being one at the end of the pregnancy. But the problem here is that we have allowed the activists rather than the umbrella gist and developmental biologist to hand us the life versus choice observable with it's too terrible multiple choice options if we'd let the embryologist set the multiple choice question there would be at least twenty three carnegie stages for the embryo before you even get to fetal development but instead of going forward from what we both know and don't know with high confidence about the system. We are instead permanently. Deranged by being stuck with Schrodinger embryo by the activists who insist on working backwards from their political objectives. So does the somehow solve the abortion issue? Of course not all it does is get us to see how ridiculously transparent we are in our politics that would allow our society to be led by those activists. Who would shoehorn the central scientific miracle of human development into a nutty political binary of convenience? We don't even think to ask. Who are these people who've left us? At each other's throats debating an inappropriate multiple choice question that can never be answered well in the spirit of the portal we are always looking for a way out of our perennial problems to try to find an exit and I think that the technique here of teaching oneself to spot superposition problems in stalemated political systems brings a great deal of relief to those of us who find the perspective of naive activism fairly impoverished worldview the activist mindset is always trying to remove nuance elections. That might better match our world's needs from among the multiple choice answers until it finds a comical binary. Do you support the war on drugs? Yes or no. Are you for or against immigration? Should men and women be treated? Equally should embrace capitalism or chew socialism racism systemic problem or convenient. Excuse is China trading partner or a strategic rival has technology stagnated or. Is it in fact racing ahead at breakneck speed. Has Feminism gone too far or not far enough? In all of these cases there's an entire industry built around writing articles that involve replacing conversations that might progress towards answers in agreement with simple multiple choice. Political options that foreclose all hope in general we can surmise when this occurred because activism generally leaves a distinct signature where the true state of a system is best represented as a superposition of the last two remaining choices that bitterly divided us. Handed us by activists so I will leave you with the following thought. The principle of superposition is not limited to quantum weirdness and it may be governing your life at a level. You have never considered think about where you were. Most divided from your loved ones politically. Then ask yourself when I listened to the debates at my dinner table. Am I hearing set of multiple choice answers that sound like? They were developed by scholars interested in understanding or by activists who are pushing for an outcome if the ladder thing about whether you couldn't make more progress with those you love by recognizing that the truth is usually in some kind of a superposition of the last remaining answers pushed by the activists. But you don't have to accept these middle brow binary dilemmas and try llamas instead. Trask a new question if my loved ones and I trust the terms of debate foisted upon us by strangers activists in the news media. Could we together fashionable list of multiple choice answers that we might agree? Contain an answer. We all could live with and that better describes the true state of the system. I mean do you really want open or closed borders? Do you really WanNa talk about Scylla Simon in heroin in the same breath. Do you really want to claim that there is no systemic oppression or that governs every aspect of our lives before long. It is my hope that you will develop an intuition. That many long running stalemated discussions are really about having our lives shoehorned by others into inappropriate binary that can only represent. The state of our world is a superposition of inappropriate and simplistic answers. That you never would have chosen for
How scientists are thinking about reopening labs
"We now speak with David Grimm online news editor at science. His recent article navigates the treacherous waters of researchers returning to their labs and fieldwork amid the coronavirus pandemic even for scientists fortunate enough to resume their research. Strange situations await greatly reduced lab teams physical distancing and face masks and the risk of corona virus infection to name a few. Hi David Angel. There's been plenty of talk about how and when researchers might return to their labs and it seems that now. The time has come for some of them. Could you highlight a few major studies that have now resumed work in a sense if it remains true that most labs especially labs that are not working on component virus are still closed or only partially open right now? It seems like labs in Europe have opened a little bit earlier. There was allowed to open a couple weeks ago and more opening now when my story I talked about any everything from research vessels going out in the Gulf of Alaska to study fish populations to archaeologist steady each feces and so obviously none of us have to do with corona virus which is why all these studies were shut down but some these are gingerly starting to reopen a little bit. How our institutions deciding which labs reopen? Will you know? It's really interesting. Some places are allowing all labs to reopen but the after we open a very limited capacity Aquino only a twenty five percent capacity will be a couple of people can be in the lab at one time in other places. Universities are prioritizing critical projects. And in that case that that be you know. Post are for Grad. Student is only a couple months away from finishing their post doc or their thesis and they just needed to accomplish more experiments. They're being allowed to come in just to finish those experiments and some of them. Don't even have supervision right. Now is not the case. So one re-stripe talks to a Nora Sistiaga who is at the University of Copenhagen Denmark. She's wants studying each and feces and she was allowed to go back into her lab by the team because she was so close to finishing data that she needed to complete her post doc but she can't do that because the restrictions are such that she can't go in by herself and her project requires somebody to supervisor and so the both can't be there at the same time because the restrictions imposed by the university so even though the genes allowing her to go back. She can't go back because she she. She can't do this work by herself. Even cases where people are allowed to go back. They're not always able to go back. One thing. Everyone even those outside of science or grappling with is that business as usual is no longer a thing what changes are being implemented in labs and feel work that might represent the new normal. Yes so the biggest thing is is the physical distance thing. So that's why the numbers have been so reduced so you imagine if the lab of twenty people were crowded together on the small lab benches knees take orders. That just can't happen right now. Because of the risk of transmitting corona virus and so she having instead his labs being allowed to have. Maybe two or three people come in Saint Time. And everybody's got to be in a separate room or the least have to be six feet of ARD and so that's one of the big things and also most decisions are requiring employees to wear face masks so even if you only have a public lab. Everybody's gotTa wear face masks at all time. Those seem to be the standard things. That are the same regardless of the type of laboratory. You're talking about. There are differences now because some labs are used to labs at deal with ancient DNA for example. These people are wearing full protective gear all the time because they don't WanNa candidate per sample. So they they are. They're already very used to wearing masks. Whereas maybe physicists owners who don't normally have to wear masks are now being forced to wear those fulltime. At least when they're in laboratory conditions a lot of these scientists and institutions are taking that leap to reopen labs and go back to research are scientists and institutions preparing for the possibility of labs having to close again. Yeah that's the really big problem. Because even as lobs kind of gingerly reopen and they're taking all these protective measures to make sure researchers can be there do their experiments. There's always a chance that things will up again. There could be an outbreak of cases in a particular area and then Milan has closed down again with university has to close down again. That's still something that's being actively sort of considered about how to deal with that and again different universities institutions dealing met with that in different ways so for example the Swiss veteran institute of Aquatic Science narrow allowing people to come back to work but one of the edicts is. Don't start new projects and don't start any projects that can't be stopped on short notice and the idea is that you don't want to start a project that's going to take you a year to finish and has to be done continuously. If there's a chance your research going to be shut down again in a month or two and so it really trying to ties the work. That is just finishing up or work that can be done. Maybe just a few weeks in case things have to shut down again.
Craig Tiley - Australian Open Tournament Director and Tennis Australia CEO
"Welcomed episode forty eight of the functional tennis podcast. This week we have the great pleasure of speaking to Craig tightly. Ceo of tennis. Australia and director of the Aussie Open. Craig tells us all about his coaching success in college tennis in the states and then move and Australia to work for tennis Australia and the different jobs. He's done there. We also talk about the challenges of the current Cova situation on looking at Grand Slams and the Aussie Open in twenty twenty one. He tells us the first time you met Roger Federer and we've to gray questions sent into a spire instagram fons. It's a great episode. Hope you enjoyed before we get started. Make sure to go over to our new. Instagram account called functional tennis podcast. And give us a follow shed into a podcast sponsors head. I've been using head rackets and says a kid I I had Agassi's ownby racket. Which absolutely loved. I've been using heads on and off really ever. Since but mainly used the radical tried to use the prestige. But I find a wasn't really couldn't always struggle on the double handed pack and with it the radical for me less a bit more room for errands bit more stable for me. So thank you guys. Okay let's talk the Craig. Hi Craig how are you good? Thanks for talking to you from the other side of the world. I. It's amazing top. You're on board. It's really big privilege. Heavy speaking here on. Yes well thank you very much couch to find that Albert. How you became the talk. Mind an tennis Australia and wound most of man in tennis anytime you speak to tennis player. They rave about what you've still not the OSCE open so can't wait to hear Beth dot before we get started. Let's talk a little bit about your early tennis career. I know you're very successful coach in the states head. Did you get involved agenda in the states or let me start out by saying it's always difficult to talk about these things in the context of the of the current climate that we ran and And having to isolate and Dual of things that we need to do to protect health system so so I apologize to beat but late to the call because as you would not which is handled. I in front of the screen on video conferences. But it's all good but Allsteel question out against the US. I was a young kid loved the game and I started later when he starred thirteen four. She was considered extremely nights. And I. I had aspirations to be a a great to be a tennis player and I loved it. I love training playing and was never realized that call and was fortunate. Enough to grow rails. That early enough This trying to make it through the twenties thirties. So one-sided centerstage Katie Myself and finished from military service on the obligations. I had to do in South Africa. Right got on the plane and went to Europe the tennis there and then an answer. GonNa go to the US and get an education. And I went with plans to stay four years and ended up staying for Dean so I think that's kind of be my modus operandi. Chris time they happened will strata was Kinda come for a few years. I being sixteen says I'm getting constant and helping and really enjoying you're making a statement wherever you go on your coach so you end up your coach successful coach at Illinois Your Coach Year Multiple Times. How did you move into coach? Well I think You when you have love the game. I'm made people in this report cost wooden and These many different career opportunities. You haven't you can be administering coaching and playing and officiating at it is. And it's such a global sports go to common language as the lines of the ten school. The highest the net that determine that commonality around the world his great battle. I did match my my love of the game with my desire to help people and those two things came. Together and I agree deal of personal fulfillment and professional satisfaction out of helping other than using vehicle for that. And when you love what you do You willing to constantly always improve and in the lookout for ways to get better and learn from others and and And I look back in hindsight down I think on on reflection and I think that because two things the desire to help people and the love of the game I was able to learn a lot and And we spoke to their slam today and I think that is one of the one of the most of being able to be lucky. Enough have had some success so the coaching side. I loved and I always did enjoyed like challenging the status quo and I enjoyed being told that things wouldn't happen. And when you star they wanted to physicist coaches ahead who was the famous Stuart Doyle from From the University of Arkansas was great to have stood for the team. We started the success and a period of thirteen years. We took a college program from no age of the best in the country for quite a few years and ended up having some many players that went on really well. Kevin Anderson from South Africa was one of the top five in the world recently. And so we've had. It's it's been divorced. Plays that success in fun to watch. The Program says the success that it did but it was. Secret is wakeup rewarding. Do the best you can do. People will treat them how you wanted to be treated because you always going to be decided runaway do on the way down and just look as hard as you can see because look for improved. Button could come. It's a long journey on a short June. I completely agree with you. The daily grind getting open put into hard work. But just getting back to you mentioned dodd. Some listeners here. We solicit snarled and they all know stuey dial of his great tennis abilities. What was he liked back in the day? All should say knows to you'll identify sanity mall. One thing that he did teach the ethics I'll never forget it. It's still resonates with me as what it takes to win a points and what it takes to be good and amount of effort and pain in the work. You've got to go through to do that and His attitude is competitive attitude on On improvement rubbed off. Funny Everyone Cussin' that's why everyone loved because by him and always say you is one of the few met. That's would be willing to go through the same pain himself To prove the others what it is versus telling you what to do.
"Welcome to kiss myths and mysteries. I'm your host Kit Crumb. I'm continuing my investigation into the concepts of time travel yesterday. I mentioned three resources. Final countdown. A movie where you can watch. Martin Sheet explained the grandfather paradox of time to Kirk Douglas. Kind of a fun movie came out in the eighties and Christopher Reeves in his movie somewhere in time takes it to a mental intellectual level kind of away from what physicists would like to think when they think of time travel and of course. There's the book by She. Wells time travel Idea that you could just go to the future. Go to the pass by pulling a switch on a machine. One of the things that happened yesterday was I mentioned the grandfather paradox of time and I gave you a place to watch Martin. She talk about this. I got a lot of emails saying why. Don't you explain it? So here goes this kind of scattered a little bit but give you an idea. Besides a physical problem time travel may also come with some unique situations a classic example. Is the grandfather paradox. Which time travel? It goes back and kills his parents or his grandfather. The major plot line terminator movies interferes in their relationship. Now think back to the future so that he has never born or as life is forever altered. That's back to future if that were to happen. Some physicists say you would not be born in one parallel universe but still born and another others say that the photons it makeup light prefer self consistency and time lies which would interfere with your evil suicidal plan. Some scientists disagree with the options mentioned above. And say time travel is impossible no matter what. Your method. The faster than light. One in particular drew derision from American Museum of Natural History astrophysicist Charles Lou that simply mathematically doesn't work you said also humans may not be able to withstand time travel at all. And that's what we're lucky nap today. Several theories time travel traveling. Nearly the speed of light would be necessary and take some kind of centrifuge. But that would be lethal. So let's go back to the beginning and say what is time while most people think of time as a constant physicist Albert Einstein showed a time is an illusion it is relative it can vary for different observers depending on your speed through space to Einstein. Time is the fourth dimension space is described as a three dimensional. Orito and we know that we have up and down forward and back left and right those who are dimensions but he talks about a fourth dimension which provides traveler with coordinates such as length width and height showing location. And then that fourth dimension provides another coordinate or direction although conventionally it only moves forward. Einstein's theory of special relativity says time slows down or speeds up depending on how fast you move relative to something else approaching the speed of light. A person inside a spaceship would age much slower than his twin at home. Also under Einstein's theory of general relativity gravity can ban time picture a four dimensional fabric. Call Space Time. When anything that has mass sits on that piece of fabric it causes a dimple or bending of space time. Let's stop and talk about this fourth dimension for a moment if you look into a Koi pond and you see the fish and they have is on either side of their head they are two dimensional creature stay left and right and they can move forward and back. There is nothing about them. There is no third dimension so if I grabbed one of the Koi and lifted about of a pond that would introduce the Koi to a third dimension so what Einstein in his speaking of this fourth dimension or call what he calls Space Time. That is something that is above us. It is literally another dimension so there you have the idea of Space Time. What that is that is that fourth dimension that's above us like the third dimension this above a Koi pond for example objects move on a curved path in that curvature of space is what we know as gravity both general and special relativity theories have been proven with GPS Satellite Technology. That has very accurate time. Pieces on board the effects of gravity as well as satellites increase speed above the earth relative to observers on the ground. Make at the UN adjustable clocks gained thirty eight microseconds a day in a sense. This effect called time. Dilation means astronauts are time travelers as they returned to earth very very slightly younger than they're identical twins that remain on the planet. One possibility could be to go faster than light which travels at one hundred and eighty six thousand two hundred and eighty two miles per second. That would be a vacuum Einstein's equations though show that an object at the speed of light would have both infinite mass and a zero of length. Go figure that s beyond me.
Responding Creatively to Fear
"Welcome y'all as many of you know at Sacred Chill West. We create a community tension every month for all of our classes to focus on as we teach meditation. Yoga Yoga and this month's community intention for the month of May is awake to the transitions awake to the transitions. Now this phrase really stems from teachings that we my business partner Octavia and I received from one of our teachers Tracy Stanley and she continually uses this phrase as the reminder not to go back to sleep when we wake up when we learned something about ourselves. Don't let yourself get pulled back into old habits or old ways of coping just because things get hard or scary even in the midst of a pandemic. So I've been reflecting on this. How do we stay awake to the transitions? How do we stay awake as the moment to moment shifts under our feet and right in line with this thinking? I listened to episode of Radio. Labs podcast you'll know. I Love Radio last. And in this episode they were reflecting on a question posed by famous physicist Richard Feynman. And he asked this question all the way back in nineteen sixty one he asked. If in some cataclysm all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed and only one sentence was passed on to the next generation of creatures what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words and then of course he went on to answer this question in his own brilliant physicist way but radio lab took this a step further and they went out and asked a myriad of artists musicians scientists creative thinkers this very question and what was so interesting to me about the response was the vast majority responded in some way with the word fear. Fear is the thing that most people want to tell other people or other creatures or other beans. This is the thing that limits us that holds us back that paralyzes us that keeps us from our potential and that we must have a willingness to respond creatively to fear. And so this whole talk. Today is based on the question. What do I do when I feel? I can't handle what's going on. What do I do when I feel? I can't handle what's going on and I'm willing to bet all of you have an immediate answer because how many of us have been sitting at home for weeks on end feeling like we can't handle what's going on and so we do the thing right. We all have these coping mechanisms. Maybe it's shopping maybe it's TV watching. Maybe it's eating or drinking or drugs or talking on the phone too much. Who knows we all have these mechanisms and we use them to avoid feeling uncomfortable? We use them to go back to sleep rather than stay awake to the unknown and of course the problem with this is this is fake control coping mechanisms. Are Pseudo control. That becomes actually like a prison. Boxing us into our neurosis. We couldn't possibly wet go of our beliefs. We couldn't possibly let go of the actions or escape mechanisms that we've created because what is left would be way too scary. We become increasingly terrified of the possibility of freedom. Now happily meditation does tell us. There's another way. Meditation reminds us. That freedom doesn't come from resisting or blocking our fears but it comes from getting to know these fears well so today. We're going to get to know our fears and in many traditions. The teachings within a meditation practice are that there are three main ways. We protect ourselves from this fear of the unknown from the fear of uncertainty. The first one is the one. I already referenced. This is the method of escape that each of us has so someone shops someone uses alcohol's food drugs sex. Tv books walking in nature being social. You know some of these are completely benign. Some of these maybe a little bit more dangerous but all of them can be methods for stain asleep. No matter how we escape. Our normal response is not one of curiosity. Meaning were not normally going. Oh look at me escaping the moment by calling a friend. No we're just calling the friend and were numb to what we're escaping. We don't explore it and our practice now is to get curious. This is step one right. Gay Curious what am I relief from when I engage this escape mechanism? What am I feeling relief from as I engage this escape mechanism the second way that we avoid fear our beliefs the beliefs that we used to give us a sense of certainty these might be political beliefs or social justice beliefs or religious beliefs? A scientific beliefs right any belief that gives us the person a sense of rightness or correctness. Now the problem of course is not the beliefs themselves but rather the problem is. How do we use these beliefs to make us feel steady to feel grounded or in control? How do we use these beliefs to avoid feeling the discomfort of not knowing? What will happen next? This one has been particularly potent for me in this moment. You Know Georgia beam the first state to reopen anything and my personal belief surrounded are that that's way too soon and sponsor and I could go on for hours and so the act of curiosity is to really pay attention does what does that righteous anger prevent me from feeling the right when. I get all up on my soapbox and outraged an angry and yelling. My opinions is it trying to make me feel more in control of a moment. That's totally out of control. And I'm not hear me say this. I am not saying you should not get outraged about certain things and speak up and not discounting the need for justice and standing up for what's right by any means that is a talk for another day but what I am talking about. Today is the curiosity of how we use those beliefs to make ourselves feel better the last way that we avoid fear is perhaps the most tricky this form of protection comes to us by seeking altered. Mind states some might do this through drugs. Some might do this through exercise highs or extreme meditation through falling in and out of love anything that takes us out of the mundane the ordinary and feels special right. These special mine states can be so powerful because we feel above or removed from the discomfort of the every day. So like if you have a really powerful meditation experience and you get some kind of clarity or visit or you hear voice or something magical happens in that meditation and in the next time you meditate you expect the exact same thing to happen but what really happens you write the grocery lists for twenty minutes. Now were feeling disappointed in our practice or upset with our practice. We can clean to those special experiences as a way to avoid life. And what we're not trying to do is avoid life. What we're trying to do is be in our
How to Lead a Less Hurried Life
"So Dr. Like men. Dr. Alan Lightman. Nice to meet you hear remotely I've to meet you opera. Thanks for joining us for this call to unite and also on super so conversations. From the moment I read that article that you wrote in the Atlantic recently title the viruses. A reminder of something lost long ago perfect title. Might I say I was so moved by your words. I've been wanting to talk with you about it so I'm glad we had this opportunity so before we get started. I just want to introduce you all to tell you Who Dr Lightman is? He's a physicist also a humanities professor at Mit you're known as one of the few scientists who is also a bestselling writer of novels and one who embraces spirituality. That's what got my attention. A scientist who embraces spirituality. Sounds like to me. You're a renaissance man. For Time. Such as this well the world has gotten more and more interdisciplinary so we need people that can cross discipline and talk to each other so before we talk about that article in the Atlantic and I was just sharing with you before we that the Atlantic is doing a great job on covert you there so nonpartisan you. You spill the truth in them. I wanted to ask you about an experience that you wrote about in one of your books. Call for the stars on an island in Maine. So you're on a boat at night on the ocean when you had a transformative transcendent experience. Share that with our audience. Will you will. I was coming back to an island late at night after midnight and a clear night and there was no one out on the water and I turned off the engine of the boat and got even quieter than turn off the running lights of the boat in got even darker and I lay down in the boat and just looked up at the sky. And just you just you just me just me on about after midnight. I lay down on the boat and looked up at the at the sky and I felt like I was falling into infinity. I felt like I was merging with the stars and not only with the stars I felt like I was merging with the cosmos was an incredible feeling. I felt like I was part of something larger than myself. And I've been scientists all of my life and But I realized later the Dow was a an experienced it was really not reducible by the methods of science. The feeling that I had of being connected to something big because science does always out to prove a thing. And you're saying that just the experience itself for you and anyone else. Who has that experience? That is proof enough. That's the authority lies the experience itself. No-one can negate the experience that you have. That's pretty amazing coming from scientists. So we're living in a world now at a time where a scientific facts as we can tell from. Every news organization are more important than ever for albro from all the information that we're getting we're living in a time where scientific fact is so important but you say that there is actually room for us understand that there is an invisible and as we just said unprovable but real connection between all living things in the universe. Can you explain a little bit more about that? Well i'd like to distinguish between the physical universe. Which is the subject of science? And what what I might call the spiritual universe and by spiritual universe. I mean the collection of all of those experience that we have where were tied to something larger than ourselves. I'm not talking about organized religion on talking about this very vital personal experience like the one I had lying in the boat and Maine looking up at the stars where we feel connected to things bigger than ourselves and those are two domains the scientists in spiritual h had their own region of validity. Up questions like how old is the earth or what is the cause of climate? Change those light in the physical realm and they are the the realm of science but there are other human experiences that we have like the one we describe lying about looking at the stars that that are not reducible by science and the report of some other world some other existence. I think that's one of the things that connects us as people. Well you know. It's interesting what you describe in the boat. I had an experience like that in two thousand six. I was walking along a road in Maui in an area where the cloud had come down and it was like we were walking through the clouds. You could see only through the cloud. Just a sliver of a of moon and it looked like the moon and my friend said Oh that looks like the DreamWorks Moon. You could put boy up there with a fishing pole and you could just see the sliver of the moon and as we're walking it became so still that I tell you just thinking about. It makes my eyes water. It became so still that I felt that thing that you're talking about in the boat where I felt a connection between all time all life all sp it just felt. I felt expanded. I felt like I felt like I was a part of the clouds. So that's one thing you're talking about. Yes that's the same thing and I think many I think all of us have had experiences like this One of the aspects of the experience you're describing and I imagine you felt to is. Is You you lose your body. You lose track of your ego you lose track of yourself you lose track of time. It's a beautiful experience is Dr Lightman. Is that just a glimpse? That's just a glimpse of what at what is right. That's a glimpse at the full present moment that we speak. So much of this is a tiny little glimpse. Just please call me Alan. Yes that's Okay Allen Dr Allen. Now that we're talking about transcendent experiences we should be. Yeah Yeah it's a glimpse it's a glimpse of something and of course we don't know with that larger thing is. Einstein said someone asked him whether he was a spiritual person or believe or something and he said I feel like we are children going into a library and we see a lot of books in the library written in different languages and we don't. We can't read the books but we know that somehow they got there that something produced those books. Yeah you know. I'm thinking that this pandemic as a massive reset for the world and I know that you believe that we have a chance to choose a less hurried life. Now you wrote about that in the Atlantic article and you write that we've been living too fast. We have sold our inner cells to the devil of speed efficiency. Money hyper connectivity progress. I know you are a whole book on this topic. Call in praise of wasting time but this time that we have white now. Do you think that this is a perfect time to be reset and to do what we're talking about? Be more united. Yeah well I think there is a silver lining to the the virus and then of course when you say that you have to. I acknowledge the tremendous human suffering. This going on the billions of people don't even have clean water to wash their hands so millions of people who've lost their jobs people lost their jobs and we need to celebrate the the care workers and the people working in grocery stores. That are keeping everything going. You know what this time has done. It is allowed us to see that the people who you for for many people overlooked and were just a part of your daily life how necessary everyone is more your life to be lived comfortably and well yes yes it gives us a greater appreciation of the end of an invisible people that make our lives run But I think that there might be one or two silver linings to this devastation. And one of them is that it is forcing many of us to slow down Of course you have to have a certain amount of privilege to be able to slow down. But I hope that we can become conscious of of the frenzy of our normal lifestyle. Where most of the Runaround checking off items on our to do list Being connected to the grid. Twenty four seven. Everything is scheduled up and we haven't had the time to think about who we are to reflect on what's important to us To be quiet and still and I I believe that one of the possible benefits of this period. We're going through now. Is that it's forcing some of us to slow down
"physicist" Discussed on Short Wave
"So okay Serafina to really understand dark energy we have to go back to Einstein right yes. So Einstein came up with this theory of general relativity which is basically his version of gravity and the early nineteen hundreds and the only way to make his equations work and satisfy what he thought was a static universe. He introduced this fudge in his words called the cosmological constant so Einstein actually thought that the universe was static. Not Not that it was expanding. That's right and over the next ten years people sort of manipulated these equations and tried to find solutions and started hinting at. Perhaps the universe wasn't static. Well it's nice to see that Einstein could get things wrong that's cool so the funny thing is this Cosmological constant he called it his biggest blunder. Honestly it's just nice to hear. Einstein say I messed up you can all fact the fun fact is that he ended up actually being right bring it so it turns out that that cosmological constant is exactly what we think. Dark energy is necessary to actually describe our universe I feel like that's classic Einstein him being wrong being more right than I've ever been in my entire life exactly yes okay so after Einstein. Introduces this idea that that the universe is static. We figure out actually that the universe is expanding right. Yeah so in. Nineteen twenty nine. Hubble Edwin Hubble showed that the universe is not static. It's actually expanding on. What HE DID. Is He measured basically galaxies? How Far Away. They are and he found that galaxies are actually moving away from us so that means that the universe is not static. It's infact expanding at this point. We think that the universe is expanding that that expansion is slowing down. Is that correct exactly? So we think that the expansion comes from the Big Bang and it comes from inflation which was right after the Big Bang. Which is this rapid expansion of space? But because there's gravity in the universe and there's mass in universe we would think that gravity starts to take over and the expansion decelerating because gravity starts to pull things back in and then in in the late nineties. We get turned on her head again. Right there's another discovery and we're like Oh wait. Maybe she's not slowing down. That's right so in one thousand ninety eight and in one thousand nine hundred nine thousand two teams that were studying a specific type of Supernova and they found that these supernova that were super far away from us were fainter than what we would have expected if the universe was in fact expanding but decelerating dot expansion and the only way to explain away thought faintness is if the universe was instead accelerating its expansion wild so we went from the University of static. Okay it's not static it's expanding but it's slowing down that expansion two way way way. Not only is it expanding but it's expanding faster than we thought it. Was it speeding up in in in the explanation for that is dark energy? You killed it. That's right nailed it so yes we have finally gotten to the point where I can ask you SARAFINA. What is dark energy so I think the only answer to that question is we don't know oh come on Sarafina. You brought me all the way here. You told me Einstein Story and we don't know I know it's it's really uncomfortable to sit with. We can see dark energy through its effects on the expansion of the universe. But we don't actually know what it is. Wow I don't even know I don't even know what to say about that. That's so wild. We don't know what dark energy is but we know it exists. Yes in you was. What are you doing over there? Astronomers this about five percent. Not that I mean. That's that's wild. Any amount of dark energy is staying the same right. So that's that's an interesting question. So I like to kind of describe dark energy and the expansion of the universe in The way that I think about it is sort of picture a loaf of bread and picture a bunch of reasons and the bread and the reasons are like the galaxies and the bread itself is like Space Time. Okay and so as you bake the bread. The bread rises and the raisins get farther and farther apart. They're sort of carried along the fabric of space time. Which means that the distance between galaxies increases with time. Okay I'm with you I'm with you. And the introduction of dark energy is like imagine you have this special type of yeast that you can put into a bread and the breads starts to rise with the and then all of a sudden it starts to rise a lot and it gets bigger and bigger and bigger over time and
What Is Dark Energy? Physicists Aren't Even Sure
"So okay Serafina to really understand dark energy we have to go back to Einstein right yes. So Einstein came up with this theory of general relativity which is basically his version of gravity and the early nineteen hundreds and the only way to make his equations work and satisfy what he thought was a static universe. He introduced this fudge in his words called the cosmological constant so Einstein actually thought that the universe was static. Not Not that it was expanding. That's right and over the next ten years people sort of manipulated these equations and tried to find solutions and started hinting at. Perhaps the universe wasn't static. Well it's nice to see that Einstein could get things wrong that's cool so the funny thing is this Cosmological constant he called it his biggest blunder. Honestly it's just nice to hear. Einstein say I messed up you can all fact the fun fact is that he ended up actually being right bring it so it turns out that that cosmological constant is exactly what we think. Dark energy is necessary to actually describe our universe I feel like that's classic Einstein him being wrong being more right than I've ever been in my entire life exactly yes okay so after Einstein. Introduces this idea that that the universe is static. We figure out actually that the universe is expanding right. Yeah so in. Nineteen twenty nine. Hubble Edwin Hubble showed that the universe is not static. It's actually expanding on. What HE DID. Is He measured basically galaxies? How Far Away. They are and he found that galaxies are actually moving away from us so that means that the universe is not static. It's infact expanding at this point. We think that the universe is expanding that that expansion is slowing down. Is that correct exactly? So we think that the expansion comes from the Big Bang and it comes from inflation which was right after the Big Bang. Which is this rapid expansion of space? But because there's gravity in the universe and there's mass in universe we would think that gravity starts to take over and the expansion decelerating because gravity starts to pull things back in and then in in the late
The Grammar Of Graphics
"Hey Katie Hi ben high you doing? What are we talking about today? We're talking about the grammar of graphics. The Grammar of graphics yeah. This is a visual episode in audio form. So let's see how this goes. This can be okay. You're listening to linear digressions. Okay so I know what? The term grammar means as it applies to language It's kind of the the rules about how you would construct sentences and I'm sure that there are many people who find better than me but that's kind of how I think about it. Yeah that when we are using language to communicate. There's an order in which we place subjects in verbs and objects. There's a recurring to language in the sense that you can have phrases. That have substructure. There's also Orders in which things tend to appear like I would say I would always say the big black car I would never say the black big car. Yes grammar is yes this this thing. That's a little bit hard to define but once you start to think of it is pretty common to think of it. In terms of the rules of language I actually was reading. Something really interesting about this It's so I just found it a tweet by Matthew Anderson things native English speakers. No but don't know why we know and the quote is adjectives in English. Absolutely have to be in the following order opinion size age shape color origin material purpose noun. So you can have a lovely little old rectangular green French silver WHITTLING KNIFE. But if you mess with that word order in the slightest. You'll sound like a maniac. It's an odd thing that every English speaker uses that list but almost none of us could write it out yeah. I think I've heard something similar to so I think that was what I would like drawing on a little bit in that Great Green Great Dragons. No Great Green Dragons. Yeah exactly so. We're not talking about language in this talk of graphics. What how what does that mean yes? So that's what we're going to spend the next fifteen minutes talking about a little bit but the rough idea here. Is that so just like? There's an expectation that you have about the word order or the construction of phrases when you're listening to someone speaker when you're reading a sentence. There's a similar idea. Perhaps for visualizing drawing visualizations of data or consuming visualizations of data. Things that you expect to see whether or not you even really think about it. Or when you're composing a visualization things that you're planning for or taking into account that again. Maybe you aren't thinking about but this comes up in a really deep way if you are say. Dealing with data visualization software at a at a pretty fundamental level. So for those of you who are into our universe and particularly The tidy verse Hadley Wickham 's corner of the our universe. You're probably familiar with a package called G. G Plot to which is a visualization library. In our that's can famously makes very beautiful graphics especially with its its defaults make for really nice graphics. the gee-gee NJIT PLOT TO REVERSE TO GRAMMAR OF GRAPHICS and own. And actually. Yeah the most of the research that I did for. This episode was reading a twenty five page paper. That had they wickham wrote about how he thinks about. And how the field a general thinks about the grammar of graphics. Data visualization says where. We're going to talk about very cool. I don't even know where to start in thinking about this. This is this is GonNa be neat. Yeah this this was a pretty challenging Topic for me to try to understand because it gets into theory pretty quickly of like what is a facet and what is the scale and what is A. What's the difference between a mapping to an aesthetic and coordinate system I think There's certainly a lot to unpack if you're just really excited about this idea but rather than getting into some of these kind of esoteric concepts especially concepts that are ESA teric without having examples to look at. I wanted to illustrate the main pieces of the grammar of graphics as highly working for example talks about it using an example of a visualization. That probably a lot of people are really familiar. With and how that illustrates a few of the big important concept that again. We all kind of take for granted probably in our day to day. Visualizations Okay so what's the. What's the example graphic then? All right let's talk about a stacked histogram stacked histogram yet can you? Can you describe it for me? Yes so let me give you an example of stacked histogram ice to make all the time when I was a physicist so when I was a physicist we used to make lots and lots of plots where what you are trying to do was look at distributions of particles that you are getting in your detector and in general there were lots of different kinds of particles that were classified as what we would call background so these were types of particles that were you know interesting but not what we are really searching for and then there were in certain situations. You'll be looking for signal particles as well so this might be like a higgs bows on if you're doing a heck search and so when you were creating visualizations of your data. What you're looking for is okay. Do we have a distribution of data? That's more consistent with there. Only being background present or does it look more consistent with background plus signal for the second cases like Oh maybe we discovered some new physics or something so we would think a lot about how to visualize background and when you're doing that analysis you tend to have different kinds of particles that are coming in from different places in your detector and so if you just look at one of those systems at a time you're going to get an incomplete picture of all of the particles instead what you wanted to layer them all on top of each other so that you have yes so that you have like a picture of the overall distribution of the particles that you see but you also have them stratified by the different types of physics processes that they correspond to and so you're kind of stacking each of those strata on top of each other and you have a visualization that shows you know each of them separately but also all of them adding together. That's roughly what a histogram is God. I think I've seen these before are I'm sure I've seen them in many places but I'm thinking about when you look at when you do a software release and you look at all of the different All of the different computers that are running the software. And what version. They're on and you can see how people have upgraded. Each version of the software will be represented by different color. And over time. You'll see them kind of go and peak and then as new software later is released than the previous version will kind of trail off and The I guess the representation that you're talking about is showing all of that in a single graph with time. Let's say being the x axis and in in my example. It's always at one hundred per cent hike because every user is on some version but you can see the dip the I guess the distribution at any given point of those versions yeah or a few decided to represent it instead of as a percentage of the whole if you had your y. Axis was allowed float and instead it was the total number of users using that system than you could imagine like the overall rate could actually go up and down as users join. Leave your your system or you're right are using your software or whatever so. I haven't I have an image in my head now. Okay great and so hopefully for most of the folks who are listening to this. Hopefully you do too. But if you don't or if you're really struggling to think about what a stacked histogram might look like an might be worth taking like five seconds to Google this on your phone to see like a mental snapshot because it's I don't imagine that the rest of this will make tons of sense if you have no idea. We're talking about so okay So stacked histogram how do we think about this in terms of the grammar of graphics so let me layer in a few of the fundamental ideas of grammar graphic so either taking place in a very explicit order to the first layer the most foundational layer of when you need to make? Data visualization is What is the data? Set that you'RE GONNA BE VISUALIZING. And how does that map from The the variables in the data set to a set of aesthetics. So what's the data set? Let's talk about that first. Let's use my example of. Let's use your example. Actually I think that's probably a little bit more familiar to our listeners than like a particle physics date set but instead we have some notion of a data set that has all of the users of our software through time and the type of what did he say. It was like the version of the software that they're using yet and actually. Can I make this a little bit? Meta and tweak this and we'll say this could be a linear digressions episode downloads. Like we can go. We can go into our hosting provider and we can see how many people download on on a given day and so of course the day after we release an episode we see a lot of downloads and then maybe two months ago by and now that episode is a small sliver.
Science Week Night True or False
"It's science week and tonight we have more true or false for you. I'll say something and you figure out if it's true or false. Here's your first one. A long time ago people used to think that the earth was flat like a pancake. And that if you sail to the edge you would fall off. So is that true or false thumbs up for true thumbs down for false ready for the answer I switch. You're rushing to the other side of the top of your mouth. Your tongue a brush to the answer is that's true long long ago. People thought that the earth was flat like a pancake. Now we know that the earth is round like an orange. Here's your next to or false. Physicists are people who can predict or tell exactly what will happen in the future. So is that true or false? It's false switzer rushing to the bottom of your mouth and brush the molars in the way back. Physicists studied the science of physics and they use math to figure out things like how to launch a rocket into space. But the word physics is kind of like the word psychics. Psychics are people who say that they can tell what will happen in the future but they're definitely not scientists switzer rushing to the other side of the bottom of your mouth but don't brush too hard. Here's your last true or false. When a word ends in the sound all edgy. That means it's the study of something. So is that true or
Daniel Whiteson on Space Itself
"How would a physicist defined space while all of space in one sentence? That is a pretty tall order. You know I'd have to say To be honest to say we really have no idea. What space is I mean? I think it's wonderful that you're asking this question. It's the kind of question that it takes like a sort of maturity of science and philosophy to even understand why the question is interesting and important. You know it's like it's like we're fish. Scientists for thousand years swimming through this fluid and then only recently realized that AIDS. It's something fascinating something to study. Something that has properties can do weird things. And so it's it's a deep an important question you know. And and just to digress. A tiny bit more like it makes me wonder how many other crazy basic questions we aren't even asking because we don't realize how rich the topic is you know so. I feel privileged that. We're at this moment in science when we can ask. This question would is space and understand that it is an important question all right so I totally dodged your question there but I can try to give a one sentence answer. If you'd like shirt will start simple and then and then we'll get more into the nuances here. All right well a simple answer to what is space is that I mean I could try. It may be impossible I'd say the simplest description I can give for. What space is is something which has various properties we've discovered it had can contain quantum fields it can expand and it has relationships to other parts of space. So that's more a description of what we've what we've observed about. Space is not really an inherent standing of what it is because we don't have that understanding. Well maybe this brings me to a question. I wanted to ask later on but If there is no good answer to this It can help ground us as we go forward so I wanted to ask. Is there such a thing as a hypothetical physics without space does all physics assume space and can we imagine say a possible world that exists but does not contain space or is that just inconceivable that all physics that we do assume space like all of our modern theories the standard model and quantum field theory they all operate in some space and there are different kinds of theories of have and some of those make different assumptions for what that space is my quantum field theory? You right down with the spaces in advance. He say I'M GONNA assume space in three dimensions and extends all in all these directions. And then I'm going to talk about the fields that are in that space other theories like general relativity. Space is part of what you're trying to get at. It's not like the backdrop. It's the thing you solve for you so if I have this configuration. Then what does the space look like? But they all assume space. I mean space gives you a relationship between stuff right tells you this year and this is not here and in the end all trying to understand the world we live in and everything. We live in space. So it's pretty hard to grapple with a non spatial theories or non spatial physics. So yeah I would say that We Need Space Okay. But so if we could come at it from the exact opposite angle. He think you couldn't really have physics without space. Could you have a universe full of space with no matter energy in it could space exist without any contents? Good space exists without any contents and yeah that is an awesome question. And it's fascinating because we have two theories of physics right now quantum mechanics and general relativity and they're both awesome achievements staggering insights into the way the universe works. And they give different answers to this question right so general. Relativity is Einstein's theory and he has a bunch of equations. Say What the universe look like depending on what you put in it. And he is and it's really hard to solve like this very few ways. You can actually saw these equations. One of the very few ways actually can get an answer out is what they call the vacuum solution like to say. Assume this nothing then. What is the universe? Look like if there's nothing in it all right. Einstein can solve that problem. Quantum field theory though theory says hold on a second space is filled with all these quantum fields and particles and matter and all the stuff that you make me and you are just like excited states of these fields so when you look at an electron it's not a particle it's not a wave it's a little ripple in some field which is not in-space. It's part of space. Save all these fields of the electron field. The electro magnetic field all the fields associated with each of the forces. Lots of them. We can talk about them later if you'd like but some of them never relaxed completely. Some of them are always have some energy in them. For example Higgs field. The Higgs field is an every part of space. And it's always got some built intention to it and that means that this energy in every part of space so quantum field theory says no. You can't have space without some energy in it. There's some inherent energy to space or the general. Says I can totally imagine it. And we don't know which theory is the fundamental truth theory of the universe if either one we can't seem to make them play together very well and so this question really goes to the heart of like the nature of reality itself fascinating kind of thing that in five hundred years visits will know the answer to and look back at. Us and be like man. Those people didn't understand anything about the nature of the universe. They were living in right. What a bunch of Caveman cavewoman. Like Mrs so. I love that idea about quantum field theory if I understand this right. You're saying that under the assumptions of quantum field theory. You could have a big block of space and even if you were able to clear everything out of it clear out. All the hydrogen particles clear out all the dust. So there's no matter left in it. You still you still really wouldn't have an empty void. Is that correct? That's right? Every unit of space comes with energy built in it comes from the factory with energy already in it and and in lots of those fields can't not cannot relax a higgs field is one example but many of these fields cannot relax all the way down to zero and so it's impossible according to these quantum theories to have space with no energy density in it at all and and that stuff all stuff is is some kind of energy like the matter that makes me and you. That's just a form of energy so to say that the space has seen it really means. It's not
Rebecca Solnit: Recollections of My Nonexistence
"Of my nonexistence. It's a profound book. It moved me deeply and let me say furthermore that this is the first time we're doing a show under these corona virus situations. I'm in my home. Rebecca's in her home and we're going to talk to one another without being able to see one another a real I for bookworm. Hi Rebecca Hello Michael. What do you mean by my nonexistence? I had the title before I wrote the Book and the book in some ways a reflection on it. It's most of all about all the forms of violence against women. The literal violence that leaves some women. Did some woman silent. Some woman pushed out of full participation in different social arenas but I also wrote about other social groups game in native people etc who face other kinds of erasure and I also wrote about reading as a positive form of non existence where you withdraw from your own life and your own physical being to enter another world and kind of float disembodied in somebody else's imaginings in somebody else's language. Wow let me say that as I was reading the book although I regard myself as I hope sensitive gay man I was made aware of how frightening it is used say at a certain point partially ironically that in your childhood your hobby was not getting raped. To what extent is that true. I-in it's completely true and I was really writing about my adolescence and early adulthood. We've had a really valuable and significant conversation. Last several years thanks to black lives matter and the response to the killing of Trayvon Martin about black parents giving talk to their sons about the dangers. They faced because of their race and gender. Most girls get different forms of the talk. Telling them often in roundabout evasive ways that they can't wear this. They can't do that. They can't aspire to this. They can't move freely. They can't go out at this hour. They shouldn't go to the party. They shouldn't have a drink and that it's entirely on them to prevent men from harming them and that society has no interest in taking responsibility for that but Democrat violence against women. So as young woman I had to constantly think about safety and strategy as I move through the world and every situation walking out in the world public transit meetings classes social situations parties Cetera and it was constant and it took a toll. I remember when I was first in college. This is around. Nineteen seventy the first feminist movements. Were starting in it in phone stickers. That said this exploits women but it wasn't yet clear that we were in a culture that exploits women altogether and that when I started to join gay men's liberation groups. We discovered how much we had grown up being teased being heard being disregarded in the language of the Normative Patriarchal Heterosexual Culture held one. Live in such a culture. You know I think if you add up those who are not male those who are not white. Those are not straight those who are not conventionally able bodied et CETERA. You end up with the majority of facing these forms of non existence. I think that you know it is a burden that people shouldn't have to carry That a lot of kinds of people carry these burdens and I wrote this book partly to try and home in on some of the nuances and complexities around gender. That I didn't feel we're talking about enough but I also wrote this book very much as a first person account of my formative years in San Francisco and gay men were a joy and support and inspiration in those years You know I lived about a neighborhood away. You know a fifteen minute walk from the Castro to see these men who had said we're going to refuse our assignment. We're going to refuse our role because we've decided it's worth paying the price rather than the price of avoiding who. We are and conforming. But I also WanNa talk about another form of non existence that really had an impact. And I think has an impact on young queer people even now on people of color the non-existence of being given reading material stories histories in which people like you don't matter don't exist aren't the protagonists. I grew up reading. Very male centered white centred literary Canon and I should say Christian centered and I feel like there was a non existence that to imagine myself as the protagonist of the great stories. I had to D- imagine myself as a woman and it always felt like I was wavering. Between who I was in my bodily identity and who I was if I wanted to be like Odysseus Sir Lord Jim more so many of the adventurous people in the books that I love when I was growing up the used to as a regular thing on once book reports ask. Who Do you identify with in this book? And since there were no queer characters and no Jewish characters except extremely negative. One says in the case of the sun also rises. I mean hemingway was particular corporate for giving us no one that we could know who would be like us. We would want to grow up into and my parents intern. They were the children of immigrants or immigrants themselves and they were given Ivanhoe to read when they got to school and suddenly they were saying words like pretty young maiden where did that come from. They weren't learning American English in their English classes. That will earning Sir Walter Scott so when I was reading your book. Rebecca this idea of non existence and the ways in which it's pressed upon us move me so deeply that I'll tell you the truth I was breaking into tears every ten or fifteen pages. Wow thank you I will say if I'm not mistaken. Ivanhoe has a beautiful Jewish named Rebecca in it but it is a very anachronistic archaic book. Rebecca Soni is an explorer of the American West and when she became involved with her younger brother in anti-nuclear demonstrations. She was there at the test sites in Nevada. Exploring what it was lied to beyond Shoshoni lands. Yes yes and actually that was such a formative place for me. I like to say the Nevada test site taught me to write because the place was so extraordinarily it demanded. I learned to integrate the different modes. In which is writing journalism criticism and kind of lyrical personal essays but also was a place in which the protagonists were Western. Schone elders Mormon down winters atomic survivors from Japan Lesbian Pagans and anarchists and just really remarkable coming together of a lot of people who already weren't part of the central narrative to exert real power make real alliances about the future of the world against the dominant narrative being told by Cold War America and then nuclear physicists and politicians who were mostly white men and it was an extraordinary movement with many
"Lighthouses changed the fortunes of nations helping determine which ones would dominate in the nineteenth century. And it's all because a French physicist knew enough about the properties of light to vastly improve the signals produced by their beacons today. Lighthouses can be destination all. They're all complete with a great view. And maybe a beautiful limbs designed Augustine for now on display. Teresa Levitt tells us about the birth of the modern lighthouse in her book a short bright flash. She teaches history at old. Miss Joins US right now on travel. With Rick Steves Theresa Welcome thank you. Let's go to talk to you for me lighthouses. Really have a mystique. I think for a lot of travelers. We see these lighthouses. And what is it about lighthouses? That has that special attraction. And why are you so interested in White House? We'll I think half of the question is that they're always in these amazing locations right. I mean the very definition of a lighthouse is that it's on the edge of civilization. You have to travel to get to them. And then when you're there that's about as far as you can go. I just love that because I really liked land's end. There's so many of the road you know when you get to the end of the road. There's still a lighthouse out there and that's the last thing you see and you can also imagine for someone travelling over the ocean that that's the first thing they see and so it's also the indication of the beginning of civilization for them before we get into specifics on lighthouses and the technology behind them give us a little primer where would the earliest lighthouses and they must be very expensive to build. What's the practical use of them? Well it's interesting because I think the word lighthouse can mean a lot of different things. People have this idea that lighthouses are very ancient form of technology. And this isn't necessarily wrong. You know in the sort of Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Everyone knows about the lighthouse of Alexandria but actually a second one of those wonders was also a lighthouse. The Colossus of Rhodes people now think was was holding up a light so on the one hand they go back very far but really these sort of ancient technologies or in many ways different from what we think of a lighthouse now They started out really to mark. The entrances of harbors so as ships would becoming usually. There'd be sort of a day beacon Some sort of marker to show that this was the entrance and then often they put fires on top of these to help make them more visible and this is really essentially what a lighthouse was for us with Epson restaurant. Because what do you think Alexandria and you think of roads? Those are the two most famous ancient lighthouses that I know about. And both of them didn't warn mariners about a refer. Iraq. They just marked great harbours right so that would be something that You know sort of sailors would be sort of wanting to approach them. That was the whole point and you can see in this sense. It's fine if the light is fairly that is I mean. Obviously you want the light to be as bright as possible but in this sense a dim light is still better than having no light at all. It'd be like a light marking the limits of your driveway. So people can get in running over your garden. Yes and these really weren't anything. Fancy I mean obviously the Lighthouse of Alexandria has a great reputation but usually what these were. Were simply fires either. Wood fires or coal fires that were at the top of sort of elevated platform so then things changed and did that come with trade when when ships were going farther afield and they just had to have markers for different things that were dangerous. Did Change started to pick up in the eighteenth century and obviously he's sort of pushed by the fact that you have lots more ships making these voyages but they're still in a way. There's still was this problem that the the lights were not necessarily bright enough to make what we think of as modern lighthouse to to really fully warn ships away from a coastline. So even once you get to the eighteenth century you've got a fairly vigorous maritime trade lighthouses are still being lit by coalfires fires or or candles and they still almost entirely marked entrance to either harbors or sometimes entrances to where you would turn into enter obey. This gets into the theme of Your Book. Which is the development of this new technology by Fornell and the birth of the modern lighthouse? And what's fascinating to me at which your book described it so beautifully as that in eighteen nineteen. You have this famous painting that those of us who've been to Paris people ever the Jabber Coz the raft of the Medusa. This horrible shipwreck. And all this suffering. I never put it together. There was no good Lighthouse in the shipwreck ran aground because there was none of that safeguard and in the same. You're for now was filling this need by developing this radical new kind of lends that could sign a much stronger beam be more effective for maritime safety. What is it about this new lens that enabled it to be head and shoulders above the previous technology? Will it's able to capture all of the light available. I mean the problem that you had with just having an open fire on a pillar is that most of the light going out of a light source. The light will radiate in all directions. Only a very small portion of it is actually hitting your eye which means that most of it is being effectively wasted in terms of its brightness. So at this lens is able to do. It's able to capture all of the light that would have been radiated in the opposite direction or above or below and it's able to bend it into a single beam which is much much brighter than what you would have seen with the naked flame alone. Okay so when I look at this for now. It looks like a picket fence of reflectors is directing all the different late that it can under one spot so then it can be pushed out or are. How does that work in Layman's terms? So the idea of lenses that it's going to end light but the problem with the standard lenses of the day. I mean you can think of these big convex lenses with sort of bulge out in the middle. If you're going to try to use that to bend the light a lighthouse it would have to be simply enormous because you're bending the light through these really sharp distances so what have been larger than anything that was physically possible to produce at the time and also it would have been so thick that a lot of the light would have been lost. Trimmer so for nels. Big Innovation has sort of big insight. Was that you could achieve the same effect of bending all of the light into a single beam by cutting out all of the glass in the middle essentially and instead having a number of different prisons that are arranged in a precise mathematical way such that. They're directing all of the light into this single beam. And so that's what you're seeing. When you see a Fennell Lens it looks like this. Beehive of Of Glass Prism some way. But they're arranged so that mathematically the light is all being directed into a single beam and you'll have different kinds you have. What are called the fixed lenses which sends the light all the way out in a plane. I level or you have a rotating lenses which will fix it into individual beams and then as the the lens rotates. You're going to see a flash of light every thirty seconds or fifteen seconds or whatever. The designated signature is
Tim Head Is Trying to Bring Binder to Us All
"physicist" Discussed on KDWN 720AM
"I'm coming from a place. Which I don't fully understand. But it's cold awareness. Among key. Doesn't have the kind of awareness. We have is a place within us. Where is that within? Well, let me just just be a little physics with you. In the beginning. Was the void. And this was on the face of the deep. Now. What's that mean? If you're a physicist summit attack you now if you're a physicist how did the universe begin with the big bang? What would that come from? Where did it come from? No in the mini gaining scripture says in the beginning, avoid it's credit. And then he says over said let there be light. Beginning where heat flows through the cold receiving cold and temendous speed always perfectly. Tufik speed the speed of light so to speak, but more than the speed of light because light is being carried and producers of resistance, a small resistance, but it flows with gravity if flows where won't go into that right now while I'm trying to say go back to it. I'm trying to say. Is it? Everything came from. So if I use the word place, I can't find another word. It's not an aside. It's not an in this side where we are. Is out there. Just beyond. Outside the universe. You is outside the universe is not inside the universe because you have to have something absolutely still to make relatively relativity of motion possible..
"physicist" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Hi, Maury cartoonist, and I'm Daniel particle physicist. And this is our podcast Daniel and Horry explained the universe in which a cartoonist and physicist try to figure out how to make the universe understandable to anybody. Yeah. And to the on the podcast, we are examining a very heavy topic. Gravity, and specifically why is gravity so weak and strange gravity as we said earlier is something which controls the structure of the universe. I mean, the reason the solar system looks the way it does is because of gravity the reason the earth is round is because of gravity. The reason we have galaxies is because of gravity. The reason we waste so much is because of gravity, right? No. No, that's because of late night. But it's such a fundamental force of nature, right leg. It's present in our everyday live. We spent a lot of time thinking about gravity, right? How not to fall down droppings? How to go up buildings go down buildings, right? These seems like one of the most important forces. I mean, if you ask people to name a force or what kind of forces the experience in their life gravity's, the one that's present in their lives. Right. You're climate upstairs. You're fighting gravity trip. You fall down. You're feeling gravity. You look around you the shape of things is controlled by gravity. And that's why it's particularly strange that gravity is the weakest force of all the forces. We've discovered it's by far the weakest yet into release strange to hear you say that really how can gravity be week. Like, you know, like, it's it's keeping the whole earth together. It's making the entire planet. Swing going Thurgau basically right without gravity. We would just shoot off into space. Right. It's a really strange. Situation. And there's other things about gravity. We don't understand as well. It's really strange. It doesn't play well with the other forces. It's very very weak. It's a total mystery signs, except that we have a theory which works beautifully, right? We can calculate. Exactly how mercury orbits a sun. We can send things in outer space and no with two millimeter precision, exactly where they're gonna land. We have a working theory that we can use. Right. But we don't understand it on a conceptual level. We have these basic deep questions about about what gravity is and how the universe works because of it. So it's a weird question. And maybe one that people had thought about before. So Daniel went out as usual and ask people on the street. Why do you think gravity so week? Here's what of random selection of folks who are willing to talk to me on a Tuesday morning had to say about gravity. I should. I was I was those are pretty strong. I I don't know. Because. It depends on this, and it's long range one. So that's why we feel it very weak. Most of the time. No, I have. No, I'm sorry..
"physicist" Discussed on News Radio 810 WGY
"Move harriers. And so they called up. Theoretical physicists in the science that they were studying was quantum mechanics? It was actually quantum mechanics that made me want to become a theoretical physicist. So it's interesting because in a sense relativity, you might say was a means to an end for me, and it's a beautiful theory. But it was a means to an end whereas quantum mechanics was just as mysterious beautiful thing that I needed to understand. And so it was fortunate for me that it turned out that I was a physicist. So I knew I could get both six I could understand relativity to see how time machine would be built at the same time. You know, I could understand what it was like to be a theoretical physicist. Use these equations to understand how the universe works in a strange thing quantum mechanics. So that was really the people are surprised at that was actually my love for quantum mechanics is real interesting question, which actually. To become a theoretical physicist. Well, they're building some incredible things. The large Hadron collider at certain Switzerland. In French borders amazing now who knows how close they can come to building an actual time machine. In terms of the things you've done to try to construct one. Are you still at it? Or are you letting other people work on? No you have to remember member. I sit down with your medical physicists, right? That what I did was to Einstein had developed a set of equations. They're called Einstein's gravitational field equations, they're part of what's known as general theory of relativity. And essentially what that series says is Einstein's theory says that what we call the gravitational force really isn't a force at all. It's actually the structure of space, and what he meant by that in the simple analogy that I give to people is the fact that think of empty spaces being like, let's say like a rubber sheet like a trampoline and think of..
"physicist" Discussed on KMET 1490-AM
"It chuck sivertsen abc news cosmos space and time travel science and technology brought to you by fear radical physicist futurist popularizer of science and world renowned.
"physicist" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030
"Conversation what condition conversation wbz here for years dick summer for example still here still doing it six one seven five four ten thirty there's the toll free triple eight nine two nine ten thirty and a super excited about the newest episode of the jay talking podcast astronomy astronomy is not the dry astronomy and physics i accidentally took astronomy in college and it turned out to be my favorite course took it the very last course in the summer and i was just astonished by it and i was really astonished i guess the other night doug the astronomer and physicist who actually makes his own telescopes he actually grinds the glass for his own telescopes how's that for for a hobby beer making winemaking can bucci making any bringing up a notch telescope making something you probably could do if you're into it i wonder how he does it i think he does it at his house i'm not sure you invited me to go up there because i go up to new hampshire all the time i wanna religion to the puck i'm gonna listen to the podcast and i urge you to do the same thing mark just posted it it's galactic sized podcast as you as you will read jay talking podcast you can just do a one off on the computer just google it and play it you can subscribe get them all automatically on itunes or what have you got on your phone also and it's just occurs to me recently i i have one hundred eight travel videos one hundred and eight the yours to watch for free anytime.
"physicist" Discussed on The Bible Project
"This in the notes but i'll just relate because it was really interesting this was about the development of the concept of force fields oh science right okay so and really it's the use of the word field okay right so you mentioned this was a physicist faraday michael faraday daniel fair day really important i know the last name faraday says michael faraday okay michael faraday there's whole institute you know physics dedicated to carrying on his legacy mid eighteen hundreds he's like pioneering physicist so he developed the concept of the magnetic field so what we're talking about is when a magnet the effect that a magnet has yeah like a you know the classic thing throw a magnum table with little pieces of iron around it yeah it exerts a force yeah or a force in attraction brings certain of those little pieces of iron business stick to it and there's a real estate around it in which it works there is a space around it where the attraction is strong enough to actually move it yeah so the whole point was about would we call that yeah what do we call that case so he developed the metaphor of field which was used according to oxford english dictionary at the time to use this an actual plot of land plot of land where everything in it is the same thing it's a cornfield wheatfield so to feel dedicated to a certain thing and everything in it's the same and then you can have field as a metaphor of like of study a field research field of whatever quantum mechanics so yeah so it wasn't that that was always a metaphor at some point fair day was like man something we need to talk about we don't have language for you so he adapted english word field and it actually changed its meaning because of magnetic field is not like a wheatfield because a wheat field doesn't have more wheat in the middle and less we on the outer rings what i love is that almost all languages that way correct that's right and that's that's always fascinat.
"physicist" Discussed on Science Friday
"Well i did fight very hard i think it's important yeah jodi jodi you're absolutely right yeah i'm not fighting i think we have over the last decade and we have ruled out a tremendous number of ideas about what a wimp could be but i think to say that it's completely dead is not a fair statement let me move on from the wimp to new thinking about physics and flip do we need new ideas are you're young you're young astronomer physicist theoretical physicist do you bring new ideas to the table that you're perhaps your your your forefathers i might say not been accepting of oh gosh i hope my advisers and listening yes so what's really interesting i think that me and probably the a lot of my colleagues we see ourselves as refugees from the large hadron collider so we are a group of of theoretical physicists who kind of cut our teeth in our phd's of building new theories for the higgs bose on and all of the promises of the nineties theories on ninety super symmetry extra dimensions all these weird ideas that we've kind of sold ourselves drinking the kool aid that when the large hadron collider turns on we're gonna find all these new particles and explain everything about the higgs and come twenty thirteen when we're all writing up our dissertations the discovers the higgs and it turns out to be the most boring possible thing from the point of view of new physics and i think a lot of the theorists on of my generation kind of had a bit of an identity crisis where we had to reevaluate what is the most pressing question in particle physics and not only what is the most pressing question but what is the most pressing question that we actually have a shot at answering experimentally in our lifetimes and so i think we've all brought a kind of tool kit for how do we approach models of particle physics to this new arena of dark matter.
"physicist" Discussed on CRYPTO 101
"Yep so then let's start with who are you rob so my my background i mean in my core scientist physicist mathematician but then i actually left the hard sciences in expanded into like nba to get a little bit management experience in military officer for leadership experience event i went back from a phd actually financial economics is i thought that having the kind of the hard science than the econ background would just be a really nice combo to build especially to do what we're doing here i think it's a perfect combo so why i got into bitcoin i could say i came from just a heritage of libertarian cypher punks where bitcoin came from i just got lucky i guess being part of that community and you know getting into bitcoin early on and then from there i started getting involved in the community actually started doing active research for my phd in on bitcoin pricing and then that led me to actually be getting a little bit more entrepreneurial involved in the space then the more i got into it the more i just it just kind of sucked me in and then i was on a project called z classic working court team there and talking to a few of the other guys on the team we realize just kind of a big gap in the industry particularly in the governor inside in applying economics i think a little bit more thoroughly to different stakeholder groups in expanding the particular technology in a direction we thought just made a lot of sense so that that's where we we launched zan from that motivation right on so you're in the military you have your mba and you have a phd you're not a slender i can say i'm actually my my mom will tell you i'm still abd on the doctor which is all but dissertation so i teach and actually teach bitcoin to boxing courts but i still eat to defend my dissertation later this stall hopefully not would reynaud.
"physicist" Discussed on KTLK 1130 AM
"That this is our inert objects they don't they're not open systems they're really closed systems the way physicist look at it the thing that's unusual about physics is that it's a level microphysics level we can't see really what's going on in the levels we can see what's going on we see that systems are organized is open systems they require it's throughput this flocks now the ancients did that i believe they they inferred like i did that even though we can't really see what's going on at a micro physical level wouldn't it be normal that nature operates in a similar fashion in that matter and energy are example of open systems that the ether is really a never ending flux that's going on and as long as that flex continues the physical world is maintained you see that concept in hindu myths for example the idea of this new dreaming idea of dreaming as concept of process and as the dream continues the mayor is generated the physical universe and then when he awakens may dissolves now that it's not that there's nothing at that point it's just the physical universe those waves and either dissipate and the you realize all along you're vishnu dreaming so when you refer to ancients well this goes to i believe back to the ice age the source of this knowledge i believe that it was lost due to a major cataclysm that happened to the planet and there was a appears a major effort to encode this science of creation in myths particularly creation myths you find it in ancient egyptian myth of out tomb also in the story of us iras you find it in the crash the greek creation myth of house zeus and his brothers sisters created the world the universe you find it a mess up to tame ian creation myth babylonian creation epic it's in the east ching hitching metaphysics you find it in the tyrol also in astrology the first thing that killed me into this this ancient science was the taro i was explaining my theory of physics which is based on this idea of a reaction kinetics either either that's engaged in process and in certain way you know you can actually describe the processes that.
"physicist" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"You know he was he was just an awfully nice man and fun to be with i never to tell you the truth every time i went into talk with him i took in the list of questions mainly to do with what i was writing about him but at the end of the lists would be questions i really wanted to know myself the more the deeper more personal questions maybe well he had very slow communicating with them all never got down to those questions and i am sorry about that i wish that it happened i don't know we don't have any time there's one other anecdote i wanted to mention but i think we don't have time to we if you could get it in in thirty seconds comment that has com his colleague gary gibbons made about him last summer at a conference who may gary was a graduate student with him at cambridge way back when and gary gary came to cambridge thinking he was a brilliant physicist thesis i thought it was a brilliant physicist and i met stephen hawking and it was like salary meeting moats via for analogy vigil basu vermont and we have just a minute to go here i your last thought and and how do we encourage more scientists sort of pushing the directions at hawking win well you know so he was human like all other humans and had his pluses and minuses he was also lonely man sometimes to the later years of his life because it was very slow talking to him so my sense was not as many people talk to him as should have could have would have because it was just hard to do so but i think the thing that we can do to remember him in the positive light and what we can learn from is courage right he had courage and thaddeus the way in which people if people have courage they can do like him on the chief similar greatness i would say well as hawking himself once said he believes he was lucky in his condition that had ails had progress more slowly than is often the case it shows that one not need not lose hope.
"physicist" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"Scholar is to convey the fruits of knowledge to the broader public because in fact the broader public cares and is interested so you know yeah i've had the experience of being in cabs all around the world and the cabdriver when he finds out that i'm a physicist will turn around and start asking me questions about quantum mechanics or about 'cause molly or something and steven was really was passionate about conveying these ideas now now i have to say that if you read the brief history of time it's not always necessarily fully comprehensible to the lay public you know i gave that book as a present to my parents and the comment was it's really beautiful but we didn't really understand but sometimes it doesn't matter you know sometimes you read poetry and you don't really understand it but it's beautiful inspiring anyway well an nba to to the point that kid he was making that it was really really important for to hawking to make things as comprehensible as he could he came back and wrote a briefer history of time right and took out a lot of the technical details right and juno partly through that role by doing that in the heat i think i think part of the reason he so beloved is he became a metaphor for the human condition you know we're all tied hand and foot by being said animals on the earth you have to eat you've got to find housing does the daily life but you get sick you die but we all yearn for deeper and higher truths right now stephen hawking was even more challenged physically than most of us but he really exemplified they're dea that there are these higher truths and that you should try to learn them and then try to communicate them and he was deeply influential that way you absolutely hit the nail on the head that's kind of what more my mind was this morning when i had heard that he had died because i mean i just feel like his influence i'll tell you on me personally really had less to do with.
"physicist" Discussed on Think Again
"Thinking in is brought to you by the national association of realtors every business faces challenges whether you need more space a better location or a little more curb appeal a realtor a member of the national association of realtors can help you find the right place to grow so get what your business needs get realtor hi there i'm jason godsend you're listening to think again a big thing podcast mm back in the old days if your species was faced with the next essential threat you were stuck hoping for some advantageous mutation maybe an extra finn or a slightly more sophisticated eyeball outwitting fate was pretty much out of the question and as much as we might prefer to disco bingewatch something and forget about it there are several plausible scenarios whereby humanity could face extinction in the too close for comfort future happily thanks to our very large brains and thinkers like my guest today theoretical physicist michio kaku we have some options dr kaku his latest book is the future of humanity tara forming mars interstellar travel immortality and our destiny beyond earth welcome to think again dr kaku that v on so it seems to me that kind of related to see peace snows old idea of the two cultures rate that the humanity is in the sciences were separating off that we may be facing something similar with respect to technology knowledge e and the future i read a lot of philosophy and literature and so on and those people are terrified many of them of many of the things that you study and talk about and then there are many people on the other side of the spectrum who are extremely extremely excited about the future about what's emerging and technology about where we're headed well i think that we are evolutionary really uh hardwired to be terrified of the future and the unknown because our ancestors were timid monkeys every time they saw a tiger in the forests or the rustling of leaves in the forests they ran that's why we're here today precisely because our ancestors were terrified of the unknown and the future those that weren't if i eat enough because once in awhile there was a tiger lurking in the forest however how do we deal with things that aren't terrifying we deal with them in three stages okay stage one is we say resolves all my.
"physicist" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The academic ladder as a physicist what happened to your interest in time travel during those years the thing is is that even when i was a kid i knew that people were concerned about me because i was in this depressed state and so i was astute enough to realise not the tell him that i was wanted to build a time machine we could implement relay us exactly and of course when i was growing up the academic ladder you know i thought i tell my colleagues interested in building a time machine right not yet thank you were still thinking about our whole young progress so far in physics you put the idea of time travel no no no no see the thing is is that what i did was i developed the cover plan you have to the physics physics is a strange strange peace this what people call legitimate crazy ideas and then there's what people call crazy crazy black holes were legitimate crazy and other words in black holes it turns out that black holes or connected with on size work and black holes are connected with taught ron malott is theoretical physicist and author of time traveller the scientists personal mission to make time travel a reality coming out bull revisit one of the greatest time travel comedy movies of all time groundhog day and will even rethink time itself i man strain champs adds to the best of our knowledge from wisconsin public radio and p r axe.
"physicist" Discussed on KMET 1490-AM
"Question uh your physicist aama physicists we have of course objective statements to make to the public however in your heart of hearts any heart of hearts what do you think is out there i first of all do intelligent beings exists in outer space be can they reach us and if they do reach us are they going to be peaceful what are your thoughts like late at night when you think about this if at night i i really think of much of anything but i i will say that the idea that you give in the movies that there somewhat like slowly don't look the same but there is some like i i you know that's what that's a little bit naive if you consider what we're doing in this century we're doing a lot of interesting thing from this country are you finally under any biology and so forth and so on but also we're developing machine that have cognitive abilities comparable to our our our own artificial intelligence and not yet artificial intelligence it can play go or our poker are kiss or anything but artificial intelligence that can do anything that human brain can do and in that sant uh what we're really inventing our successors the aliens the once were likely to hear from if they're even thousand years beyond us are 100 years beyond us they will have those machines to so i think if the majority of the intelligence from because most likely to be synthetic intelligent not soft squishy biological intelligence and consequently yet i i suppose we should be looking for signals coming from not being on some sort of planet with oceans anambra here's but from you know artificial intelligence machine and that makes our experimental very much more difficult one because i know quite know what to do about that mmhmm now let me ask you the final question japan's i'll well you probably get a lot of phone calls from people that say by humbug they're already here how do i know they're here well i visited a flying saucer the other day myself it went to venus so what do you say to people who are very sincere very honest but claim that they've already met the aliens what are your thoughts well.
"physicist" Discussed on The Weekly Substandard
"Well yes will english the doctor was she lee physicist the nuclear physicist who discovered cold fusion yes that that nuclear physicist right i don't know as always wanted to she was no christmas joe i was ways you actually second mention of movies which actually pairs that two of those characters has just like yeah nuclear physicists off in the world doing awesome research and if the two of them with their characters and i think they'll be awesome that also movie that would be a great movie did you can make it funny though you get you it is comedy oz hysterical like legally blond but with physicists and yeah do tiger cheek so speak uh speaking of deathwish it sounds like i hang up death speaking of test speaking of death come on its head honestly right you're transitions for it sounds like i backs as a deathwish for three d that's why said at healthy you go now this is a story that you picked up or which of you gentlemen that i saw the sunny eusought first so what's happening is that world so everyone who is a decent person hates three d the movies this is just the fact this is in fact of science everyone hates three d nobody likes it the only reason we tolerated as filmgoers is because the studios have decided that this is an easy way to soak money from us and they they jam all of the good screening times into three d slot so if you're just like showing up at the theater and you and you and i was amazed by this this is how a not insignificant portion of the population decides what movie they wanna see on any given night they go to the theater and they pick what showing next.