4 Burst results for "Percy Lebaron Spencer"
"percy lebaron spencer" Discussed on Forked Up: A Thug Kitchen Podcast
"Hundred seventy percy lebaron spencer died because who cares who cares well shut the fuck up and listen spencer develop the microwave nineteen forty-five after he noticed a candy bar that he had in his pocket had melted after being accidentally gently exposed to radiation from the magnetron tube. He was working on at the time. This sounds like a sounds like like d._c. Comic like article volume one of someone's origin story. I just had a bomb pocket and then melted. What's crazy that his origin story is crazy from before that like his upbringing was nuts okay so his dad died. When he was super young his mom died when he was like four then he went to live with his uncle and his zandt then everybody's dead right and so he goes as a child until he was sixteen he worked from sunrise to sunset at a school nil mill like that's old fucking shit right there. He worked at a god. Damn spool mill as a child that's right. He was not in school then then when he was a bit older still working full mill he discovered that a local local paper mill which apparently in the middle game is a step up it from the local paper mill was going to convert electricity which was super rare in his rural hometown started learning as much as possible about it. He got all the books he could get his hands on and talking to everybody so that you get that job yeah so because of all that study he was one of three people that were hired to install the electricity and the plant despite having never received any formal training as an electrical engineer or he didn't even finish grammar school he was at the school mill six guys the alphabet in there like fools all right eighteen after that spencer joined the u._s. navy and there he made himself an expert on radio technology all right quote. I just got a hold of a lot of textbooks and taught myself standing watch at night all right. He subsequently taught himself trigonometry calculus chemistry physics and metallurgy urge among many other subjects. What a fucking nerd takeaway. No i just like yeah. I gotta wonder under like his personal time that he was i mean he was standing around reading books. He was watching night at the you know in the navy. He'd be oil and he's looking around. He's got some time on his hands so he learned fucking calculus. What you're laziest do pick your nose. You masturbated your girl girl back home. Some like navy sailors is like pulling out their luggage and rub in japan. This is the diamond bessie. Some other sailor runs over and grabs jobs lock it. They're like stop bringing it to my girl. Somebody else's just draw dirty cartoons but they're just really stick. Thank you hiddink comically like just a big old city anyway and then you go fucking spencer of their learning calculus reading chemistry books so by nineteen thirty nine spencer become one of the.
"percy lebaron spencer" Discussed on Talk 1260 KTRC
"Forty-five. You'll see the Senate fan hometown project nineteen forty five here we are in. Santa Fe New Mexico. This was nineteen forty five and at the end of the war. The federal minimum wage is raised to forty cents per hour. Around that time you could buy a gallon of milk for about sixty two cents in a loaf of bread for about nine cents. And the average American could afford those fancy new frozen foods from bird's-eye. Brand new consumer reports praise them said that these are pre cooked frozen foods have a brilliant future. But how cook these darn things? Anyway, we'll an inventor named Percy lebaron Spencer, invented the microwave oven in nineteen Forty-five built by the Raytheon company. The new radar rained was a monster appliance about five feet tall with a kind of built encounter. Now. This counter ran directly under the cooking raise which did was put the food and a little basket pushed it on the counter would fit directly under the Ray gun and turned a dial up. Oh seconds later while you pull it out and served it pretty stylish for nineteen Forty-five. But you know, that thing cost nearly three thousand dollars now since the minimum wage was forty cents an hour in the radar range costs three thousand dollars. Well, you do the math well times were hard during wartime. But you know, there was no shortage of jobs, even if. You didn't work in a defence related factory here to prove my point. Let's take a.
"percy lebaron spencer" Discussed on Trailblazers with Walter Isaacson
"Up. As the Aleutian of the stove continued its steady much to the kitchen ranges of today. Other smaller appliances began to pop up originally in the days of the Roman empire bread was toasted of an open fire to make it last longer. But the first mechanical toaster came about in eighteen ninety three. Thanks to Scottish scientist, Allen McMasters. There was a catch though. The inner workings of the appliance often mountain when you used a decade or so later American Metallurgist Albert Marsh made an ally strong enough to be a heating element. But that problems to it only heat Brad on one side, and it had a tendency to burn finally and nineteen twenty one with Charles str-. Right. I'm Cannock from Minnesota and his patent for a pop up toaster with springs Emmett timer. The toaster down a permanent place in the market. And in our kitchen. While toasting bread was once a way to preserve it before the nineteenth century making any other food lasts for meat to vegetables could be done only by drying, canning smoking or salting ice houses with for the rich be Welson if you pull or even middle class, and you only very cold things when it was winter. And there was no foam affiliation. Suddenly in the nineteenth century, scientists figured out various kinds of gases that could be used which could work on the ages old principle of operation. In eighteen o five American inventor. Oliver Evans built a simple system that use vapor to cool would be another century before companies like Kelvinator and frigid air began to mass produce electric Frejus. But there were concerned about these early bulky appliances that ran all day and night. One of the biggest issues was that the gases they use metal chloride sulfur dioxide could be and had been lethal nineteen thirty was a big year for the fridge industry. Not only was the gas freon twelve introduced and adopted by all fridge manufacturers. Eighty percent of US homes now had electricity and for the first time refrigerators outsold iceboxes becoming a staple of the American kitchen. Freon was eventually phased out of use after it was discovered to cause damage to the earth's ozone layer. That same decade Irving. Axon prolific American inventor came up with another revolutionary tool. Inspired by his mother stories about growing up in a Jewish settlement in late nineteenth century Russia. They couldn't work a cook while observing Sabbath. So families developed a clever way to make sure they had a hot meal on Saturday nights. This is his daughter Lenore Nexen on Friday afternoon. Her mother would take a crock and would throw whatever kind of root vegetable there was and beans, and whatever piece of meat she had into it and sent her to the town bakery, where the ovens were going to be turned off for the Sabbath over mother would place the crock a large clay pot. In the bakery's oven still hot from the days baking and the meal would cook in the lingering eight, and then she would come back on Saturday night when the Sabbath was over and bring it home, and there would be this trend or stoop and dad thought, gee, how can I replicate that? How can I create a slow even heat? So that something can cook. Over time in may nineteen thirty six Irving applied for a patent for cooking apparatus one of some two hundred patents. He receive in his lifetime, including one fully electric, frying pan. But it's a legacy of his cooking pot. That runs deepest originally dubbed the Nexen beanery he took it to the market in the nineteen fifties. It was. Sold allowed commercially for neighborhood coffee shops and drug counters that sold foods. So that restaurant tours could keep soups and chilies in it all day. In nineteen seventy a company called rival purchased. Maxim utilities with the beanery almost as an afterthought. The owner of rival ask their in house, home, economists to experiment with it. She whipped up of book of recipes and the next year it hit the market rebranded as the crock pot. It became such a big deal and the crock pot as it was newly branded became absolutely ubiquitous and part of it had to do with the fact that over the course of years after the second World War that women were going into the workforce. And they needed an inexpensive efficient way to cook family meals, and this provided the perfect way for that to happen. Food is story in be Wilson say much of modern cooking technology company be on. Understood without this y story about women taking increased amounts of paid work outside the home. If you look back to the nineteenth century, there was very little interest in saving labor, and I think it was partly because when the days when people had either a wife that they just expect to do everything for them or servants. There wasn't that much interest in saving the labor. If the labor in question was not your own whereas suddenly in the nineteen seventies. You have this completely different relationship emerging between women machines on the kitchen Lenore Nexen. It was developed in a way to make life in the kitchen easier. And if they're proviso is the kitchen is a woman's wife's province than it is a way to have her spend less time there and do things with less cost and more efficiency. The crock pot us little more tricky than it took to power an incandescent light bulb a boon during the energy crisis of the nineteen seventies. Helping to fuel the success of the device in nineteen seventy five a peak sales year for the crock pot. Three point seven million units were sold. As a fishing became more important to the American consumer few appliances could match the speed of Percy Spencer's invention, which brings us back to his story. Back in the radar lab in nineteen forty five. My name is George Rodman Spencer junior. And my grandfather was Percy lebaron Spencer, the inventor of the microwave oven Percy Spencer's insatiable curiosity about new technologies led him to become a renowned scientists when the war ended. He and his company Raytheon were eager to turn their attention to more domestic concerns. So when the candy bar melted in his pocket as he worked on a magnetron that day he took on the challenge to understand what happened. I remember him telling me that he went out and got an egg. And they had this. Rather despairing Jing engineer not really believing that. Well, you can use this heat stuff. And so what the egg behind the baffle and turned on the magnetron and engineer looked over the baffle igloo up in his face. And then he brought in the next day some popcorn for everyone. And that was sort of the beginning of it. A few weeks later in October nineteen Forty-five personally applied for a patent to use microwaves for the purpose of heating food and Raytheon set to work building the first microwave oven the radar range as it was called was released two years later, if you're interested in buying a multi thousand dollar microwave oven that was also capable of tracking airplanes back in nineteen forty nine. You were one of three people. So was not very popular. They were big refrigerator weighed three hundred pounds was water. Cold would take twenty minutes to warm up before he could cook anything, but it would do a potato in about ten seconds. So it was overpowered maybe ten times more power than what you can get nowadays. While the original rado ranges did have commercial applications restaurants, for instance, what weeding food on air. Plains. It was not a success. We'll take another twenty years before countertop versions slowly began to appear in American kitchens in the nineteen sixties. Japanese tech company sharp began to manufacture more audible microwaves and in the nineteen eighties. Sales took off by nineteen ninety seven ninety percent of American homes had a microwave oven. Food historian b Wilson in houses where microwaves were adopted enthusiastically. They completely changed the way people.
"percy lebaron spencer" Discussed on Gastropod
"This episode. We have so much fun digging into passing topics and discovering something new. That's what the great courses pluses, all about. Unlimited access to explore anything about everything. Learning from leading professors and experts in their fields. There are over ten thousand lectures to stream. Choose from any subject history, science, the arts, even how to cook or play the guitar. And with the great courses plus app, you can watch or listen whenever you want. Check out their brand new course. Ancient Mesopotamia, life in the cradle of civilization, which incorporates the latest archaeological findings. I was shocked by one detail in the first farming communities, the women who had to kneel all day to grind grain. They ended up with Tobin's permanently fused into crouching position. You can start enjoying the great courses plus today with a very special limited time offer for our listeners a full month to enjoy all of their lectures for free. But to start your free month, you must go to the special URL sign up today at the great courses plus dot com. Slash. Gastropod. That's the great courses plus dot com slash Gastropod with a wide range of organic gluten free and stone ground products. Bob's red mill has been making it possible to eat healthy and cook, delicious food for decades. But before you get to know Bob's red mill, you need to make the man behind it. Bob more by, I've got inspired in the nineteen sixties after reading John Goths mill a book about an archeologist who rebuilt a flour mill. He then wrote to twenty companies that made militant before finally tracking down the courts millstones used in traditional stone grinding in North Carolina today, all of Bob's high quality products from oats and grains to flowers and meals are minimally processed from their stone mill in Oregon, and Bob can still be found at the mill taking part in its day to day operations, enjoying a bowl of oatmeal, or even playing the piano. Although in two thousand ten for his eighty, first birthday, he transferred ownership of the business to his employees, head to Bob's red mill dot com to shop and explore their huge range of products and get inspiration from hundreds of recipes. That's Bob's red mill. Dot com. So what had happened Percy lebaron Spencer's chocolate bar? Well, let's back up. The magnetron was originally developed to spot nutsy warplanes, but now the war was over and Raytheon wanted to find a way for this radar technology to be useful for something other than spotting Nazi warplanes. They wanted to sell it to civilians and Percy Spencer got an idea. Spencer was inspired. He said it assistant for a bag of uncooked popcorn. Then he spread the corn over the table near the magnetron and waited. Less than a minute later, but colonels began exploded. Spencer was now certain that the microwaves themselves were doing the cooking and it wasn't auspicious beginning. Percy Spencer had made the first batch of what would become the world's most popular microwaved food popcorn. The next morning, the exploded eneg for colleague. Clearly this device was going to be a hit in the kitchen. Bercy worked with his colleagues at Raytheon and turned that radar into an oven, the original microwave, but not the kind you see at home. This one weighed more than six hundred pounds and cost three thousand dollars, which at the time was the equivalent of a year's salary. It was called the radar range, the winner in an employee competition to name this magical new oven. The radar range was so powerful that the cooking times for recipes were in seconds like a fifty second baked potato and a thirty second hamburger, but the wonder cooker was just too expensive for Joe and Jane average. So it was targeted to railroad dining cars restaurants than shipboard kitchens. But they worked selling like hotcakes even though they could make hotcakes in seconds. It took a couple of decades, but eventually Raytheon decided to partner with them on a consumer appliance company to make a version of their race. Dr range that was targeted at the general public mover manner, radar range, microwave up and cook, Mattie collar shift that you select any speed. You want full speed cooks, almost everything in one, fourth, usual time, even though it was lower power. This new oven must've seemed pretty miraculous baked potatoes cooked in minutes, and you put something inside, press a button, and nothing really gets hot except for the food itself and maybe the plate no hot oven. How does this miracle box actually work? We called food science grew Harold McGee to find out though microwave is essentially a radio transmitter, but instead of broadcasting outward at broadcasts inward. Basically that magnetron thing, it's broadcasting, short waves, microwaves of electromagnetic radiation. And those waves are being reflected off the walls of the box and into the food and the prime target for those microwaves, the water in food. So what you're doing when you microwave a food is your heating. It's water. Molly. Cules. The thing about water molecules is that they are Ason metrical in electrical terms so that when the the radio field shift says it does many, many times a second. It causes those asymmetrical molecules to shift at the same time, in fact, billions of times a second. And what that does is caused friction which heats up the food microwave oven, connect vibrate than heat up the water molecules to a depth of about an inch into the food. This is very different from how an oven heats food and oven can only eat the food up at the surface by heating up the air around it and error is a very poor conductor of heat. So it takes a long time to heat things up. There are benefits to the oven, slow cooking speed. I, it gives you a larger window to rescue your dinner if it slowly getting overcooked. But more importantly, it's a wonderful place to put foods if you want to get a crisp crunchy Brown. On surface because air is dry, and the oven is very good at decimating, the surface of foods and allowing those Browning reactions and flavor development to take place not to get enough style Jake for risk beef again, but an open fire is actually even better at this. A regular oven works by conduction. So heating air, which heats the food. A flame is pretty much pure infrared radiation. And that gives you the most gorgeous sizzling crest microwaves are good at getting water molecules really, really excited, which means those water molecules rub against each other and generate heat sexy. It's great up, say reheating soup. But if what you want is that wonderful Brown crust, it's simply not going to give you that note. No delicious roasting, or baking, or Browning in the microwave. The one of the things that is really weird about microwaves is that your food gets sweaty in them, and that's a problem actually, your. Food sweats in an oven to anytime you heed a food with water in it. It begins to cool itself off just the same way we do by Evaporating water from its surface in an oven that Aras hot. And so the surface stays hot too, but in a microwave, the surface sweats and cools down, but the water, an inch in it's heating up and it can't go anywhere. So turns out that you can actually burn foods on the inside in microwaves, there are other problems, these microwaves, their waves. So they have high points and low points which leads to the dreaded issue of hot and cold spots in your food. This is a big enough problem that there's a microwave scientist at Cornell University named ashamed data who is studying just this issue. If you have the hot air oven with the fan, it kind of makes us and they replaced is close to the same temperature that is fundamentally not the case in microwaves because you have these pattern. High electric field and low electric field. I seems favorite way to demonstrate this problem to students is with cheese or you're layer of cheese, and you'll see that someplace it melts and other places it doesn't, but nobody was talking about or thinking about these types of problems when microwaves were first introduced to the public. These ads were all about the cooking revolution from the beginning, the life of a cook has never been easy. But now there's worth incredible microwave oven. It'll defrost similar. Bake cook the complete meal for four in less than an hour, the microwave. In the seventies the microwave oven up his us, the savior of the busy housewife, Elizabeth Silva has her own favorite microwave add. It appeared in good housekeeping magazine in nineteen Seventy-three. And it's the dress directly at, yes, the busy housewife, your husband is returning from conference in forty, five minutes, the chairman and his wife are company him, but dinner is still unprepared. You would like to offer tomato soup, followed by trout with new potatoes, peas and asparagus. And for dessert, an upside down cake topped with peaches and cherries, Basu and to know for today in that time, you can cook the new of your choice. Set the table, put the children to bed and get changed a mazing. But once again, we're talking about an innovation in cooking technology that's also tied into its larger social context. At this point in the. Nineteen seventies the issue is that the busy housewife, she actually now has a job, but gender roles barely changed. So she's expected to put dinner on the table for the chairman and his wife after a long day in the office. That's the excitement behind the microwaves introduction saving time. And as a result, the microwave also is another step towards basically not needing any knowledge about cooking or food at all, which had a curious kind of side effect in terms of those gender roles. And the question of who was doing the cooking. In many ways, there is g ties -ation of the cooking process won't bring power is put into the microwave. I called that the merging of the stupid cook, teenagers could cook, men could cook, but how much of this was really cooking. But the microwave is best at, as we said is just heating up food and properly engineered foods in terms of size. Is in terms of texture, incomes of all of those things. And that properly engineered food pre prepared and small enough regular enough chunks to not explode or heat unevenly. That kind of food was best made in a factory is of course the decade in which processed food is kind of taking over. Like Elizabeth says, the microwave is push button, stupid cooking, but the food is pre prepared to in combination. This kind of cooking could not be further from the woman using her hand to gauge the temperature before making muffins, or from Ivan days, sophisticated fire management for roasting, and there's something else about this pre-prepared microwaveable food. It usually comes in a serving size of one. It does leave the rate people from eating together in many ways. It fits in with a more flexible fluids way of living, which again is a long way away from the fireplace as focal point. Now we've not only lost. Our flame. We have a little countertop box making ready meals for one, but the microwave never became the most used appliance in the kitchen. As those futuristic ads promised, unlike the oven, which did totally replaced the hearth, the microwave lives, sort of alongside your existing of him. In reality, people almost never use their microwave to cook trout in new data's from scratch for the chairman and his wife. I think the best uses for the microwave is reheating things that have already been cooked the way you want them to be, and you simply need to bring them back up to a desirable temperature and the occasional bag of microwave popcorn. We've now brought the oven pretty much up to date in the Modin kitchen. But there are a lot of people in the world who don't cook in a modern kitchen sub. Three billion people are thought to use either pretty inefficient woodstoves or just open fires to cook their food, Michelle Knight house as a reporter, and she traveled to Guatemala to write about these woodstoves for National Geographic judge. Just as they were in sixteen hundreds England, these wood-fuelled cooking fires are dangerous and dirty. The estimate is that the the typical cooking fire produces about four hundred cigarettes worth of smoke every hour. So you can imagine over lifetime or over a childhood, particularly that that would have pretty huge health impacts. That's not the only problem with these inefficient wood fired stoves people, cutting wood for stoves can lead to stripping hills and regions of their forests which can lead to landslides and other environmental problems. Plus these stoves are sooty the black carbon. They emit is a major contributor to climate change and when women and children have to walk farther and farther to find would they're often not able to go to work or school. So this seems like an easy problem to fix. Right. We've figured out ovens in the developed world that's just share that technology with these folks and boom. But what sounds like an easy fix fortunately, much more complicated. NGOs have been working on this issue for about four decades. It really will got started after a huge. Earthquake in Guatemala in nineteen. Seventy-six a bunch of major international aid groups came into the country to help rebuild and a lot of people as they were helping families who had been affected by the earthquake. Notice that these families were dealing with these very smokey. Inefficient stoves thought, we'll gosh, maybe we can fix this problem. So this cook stove, replacement efforts started in the nineteen seventies that's about forty years ago. You'd think maybe they'd have fixed the problem by now and everyone would have great ovens. You know, they figured a lot of things out, but they've run into a lot of unexpected obstacles. Some of these obstacles, the various challenges. How do you make something that is fuel efficient and not smokey and super affordable and portable? And then some are only predictable. If you look at history, the people who use these smokey stoves today, feel the same as folks in England did when they couldn't cook there roast the way they wanted to. They're used to cooking tortillas and tamales on a big flat surface over a fire. No one wants to use a stove that doesn't cook