29 Burst results for "One Hundred Thousand Years Ago"
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on The Mindvalley Podcast with Vishen Lakhiani
"I am about to share with you. One of my favorite things in the whole world to share with you. I have devoted this part of my life to giving people. The gifts that i believe are the most valuable in the world. I have been honored over the last three weeks that we've been here in tallinn to have people walking up to me all the time and telling me stories about how their life has been transformed from a health perspective. People are telling me about the weight that they've lost and the pain and symptoms. That are gone. I had people come up to me and go after a month of watching your videos every single day my kids started getting curious and now they want to change their food habits and so on and i think one of the greatest gifts in the world you can give. Anybody is their relationship with food. Is that true. And you know who's trying to take away your relationship with food the entire time the food industry and so that's my job is to undo what they're doing and i love doing it and one of the other gifts that i really love to give. People is the gift of communication the gift of being able to communicate your thoughts effectively persuasively influential early and the challenges is that our society has done everything it can not on purpose just the way it is to train that out of us and i think that that makes life a lot harder to live. I think some of you find yourself having intense conversation or a negotiation and every now and again you walk away from that conversation and you think to yourself afterward. I wish i'd said this who's had that feeling. I'd like it to go away. I'd like you to not have that feeling. I'd you to say the things that you want to say. I'd like you to express yourself the way you want express yourself. I suspect that if you do that it will change your relationship with you. Change your significant relationships romantic relationships. It'll change your relationships with your parents. It'll change your relationships professionally. It'll change everything and for those of you're interested in getting an incredible professional advantage. I'm talking the biggest professional or business advantage possible. What we're going to do today is going to be unbelievably valuable. And i'm going to give you some of this sort of theory and science behind this now. This is going to be shocking for some of you especially those of you. That are younger. There was a time before the internet. I know and then this'll be even more shocking to some of you. That are a little older than that. There was a time before television. Can you imagine what did families do. They sat around the radio. No kidding families used to sit around the radio and so what's really shocking is. There was even a time before the radio. You want families do then. They sat around the fire. They sat around the fire. And i have been privileged to sit around that exact fire and what i mean by that. Is that in my research for wild it. I've had numerous visits with the hodson. Bushmen and the odds bushmen live very much the way most of our ancestors did for most of our history and they sit around the fire and i want you to think about something. If you're sitting around my fire. One hundred thousand years ago. And i share a story with you. I share a story with you and it's entertaining and it's engaging and it makes you think and maybe it makes you laugh but in that story i tell you about the time that these big white. Rhinos tried to kill me because they really did. Not kidding you really happened to me. And i'm standing there and these big white. Rhinos are running toward me. And what i knew about rhinos is that they don't have good eyesight. In fact they barely can see they can smell and they can hear and so the reason they are running toward me is that they could smell me and i knew as their rank toward me and let me tell you something. Rhinos are bigger than you think. Have you guys been in that cafe with the big white rhino head on the wall that is to scale that is what a big male white rhino. That's the size of its head. Then you add the body and their way faster than you would think and when two of them running toward you. This is basically how it feels in your feet. They're running toward you and you're doing this because they're shaking the ground. What does every inch of my being wanna do. And they're running toward me. Run but i know that if i run. They're going to hear my footsteps and that's going to give them the ability to follow me if i let them follow me with those bighorns. I'm going to get some interesting piercings. Not good right. And so instead of running. I stood there and stared them down and waited. And they got fifteen feet from me and they stopped and they turned around and walked back into the bush and then they got curious again when the winds shifted directly that came running again at me and they got about ten feet three meters and then they stopped again and they walked away. If i had run i would be dead today. Or i would have interesting piercings one way or the other and so imagine that were sitting around the fire and i share that story with you and a week later. You're off the bush picking berries doing whatever you want to be doing and two white rhinos. Come running at you and you suddenly remember. Oh my god. I'm supposed to just stand still and you standstill and it saves your.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Conspiracy Theories
"Months and there's still a lot of unexplored territory that's true in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven federal wildlife authorities discovered an entire herd of canadian wood bison which had been previously considered extinct. It's also possible that like many animals sasquatch is hide when they're sick or injured which would make a lot harder for people to find a body that sad people have likely lived in the americas for tens of thousands of years. With those odds. You'd think someone would have stumbled on him. Bigfoot corpse by now unless they bury their dead as far as we know. Mortuary practices began with neanderthals. Less than one hundred thousand years ago some paleoanthropologists consider burial to be a mark of advanced intelligence before that point family members were simply left to rot. Unfortunately wilson zone research cast doubt on the sasquatch burial theory. Bigfoot doesn't seem intelligent enough to ensure their dead they don't even seem to have primitive technology. Eye-witnesses almost never mentioned sasquatch is using hunting tools or fire things that existed long before funerals. An anthropologist named dr grover krantz estimated that the average big foot was smarter than a guerrilla but far less intelligent than a human or even a neanderthal. The truth is we won't know exactly how clever sasquatch is our until primatology can study one up close until that happens. There's no way to adequately gauge their mental abilities. Especially since they're notoriously shy around people even without access to a live specimen sasquatch researchers have deduced a lot from the other clues they've allegedly left behind for example last time we discussed how dr krantz analyzed the depth of the sasquatch footprint to determine its weight also the human like shape allowed him to place the species in her own evolutionary time line and sometimes sess kuala gis getting more to work with than just muddy tracks in recent years. Dna sequencing has made it possible to buy animals from the smallest clues. A veterinarian named dr melba ketchum was uniquely positioned to prove big foot's existence to the world since she ran a genetic testing company. I she collected of samples of suspected bigfoot. Blood hair and skin then. She picked the most promising tissues and compared their dna with other known species on february thirteenth. Two thousand thirteen. She published a paper. Alleging that sasquatch is were even more closely related to humans than anyone had realized she claimed that bigfoot was descended from an unknown primate and a human catch him stated that somewhere in our distant past homo sapiens had made it with another hamad and that had created a new hybrid species bigfoot. Unfortunately kitchens worked in. Stand up to scrutiny. She published in an online only with an amateurish. Website the only paper listed was her own and a quick look at our testing companies profile on the better business bureau site reveals further issues. Customers claim she charged the money for tests she never performed then refused issue refunds. In fact a british geneticist named bryan sykes studied who work and concluded the ketchum had accidentally contaminated or samples in his book. Bigfoot yeti the last neanderthal. He claimed that her results were the product of sloppy science. That's an people. Keep finding new samples every year. So it's possible. One will eventually turn.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"H hayes observed the bones in the apparently undisturbed deposits before elliott remove. The skeleton hayes also saw the skull just after. It was exposed by a workmen. Excavating the deposits hayes said about the bones no doubt could possibly arise to the observation of an ordinary intelligent person of their deposition contemporaneous with that of the gravel this undisturbed state of the strom was so palpable to the workmen. That he said the man or animal was not buried by anybody. Numerous stone tools were also recovered from the galley hill site. According to modern opinion the galley hill site would date the holstein holstein interglacial which occurred about three hundred and thirty thousand years ago anatomically. The galley hill skeleton was judged to be of the modern human type most scientists. Now think that anatomically modern humans homo sapiens. Sapiens originated in africa. One hundred thousand years ago they say that homo sapiens sapiens eventually entered europe in the form of cro mag man approximately thirty thousand years ago replacing the neanderthals. So just what do modern paleoanthropologists say about the galley hill skeleton despite the strata graphic reported by hayes elliott kp oakley and m. f. a. montague rick Concluded in nineteen forty nine that the skeleton must have been recently buried in the middle pleistocene deposits. They consider the bones which were not fossilized to be only a few thousand years old. This is also the opinion of almost all anthropologists today. so in this case where they can't dispute the legitimacy of the skeleton or the fine. Yeah it was a burial. Yeah the galley hill bones at a nitrogen content similar to that of fairly recent bones from other sites in england nitrogen is one of the constituent elements of protein which normally decays with the passage of time but there are many recorded cases of proteins being preserved in fossils for millions of years because the degree of nitrogen preservation may vary from site to site. One cannot say for certain that the relatively high nitrogen content of the galley hill bones means they are recent the galley hill bones were found in lome a clay sediment known to preserve proteins oakley and montague found the galley hill human bones.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Never Ninety Nine
"That maybe meal older out my way. I don't think it is but like what. I'm kind of like stuff they're saying i'm like oh yeah. That is pretty cool. Yeah i use retinol now. So i feel you was written. Also face credit vitamin a. Oh gotcha sorry for what it is you rub it on your you know i mean could you but i don't need that on my skin environment. A sorry vitamin e. You can sign any everywhere. You can papa capsule you know as retinal rankle rankle vanity. Vanity vitamins have gone quite vain. I am at like. I didn't pay any attention and any other point in life about anything i did. We've seen these eyebrows blonde. Darken them now have learned blond eyebrows. Blonde thanks dad. Way to go way to go dad. You know it's like. I can have dark armpit hair but blond eyebrows. Cool or how you totally like. How did like this might be a trigger for somebody. So that's right. Yeah you try to get some haters same but like armpit here on a woman looks gross. That's pure yeah. Hold on this point this. This is the point. But that's like a social construction but why Because it's the thing that happens you can there for sure. Yeah it's it's just like saying having to eyeballs as we're like. I don't know how many women are like. Oh my god. I'm so sorry. Didn't shave girl fucking shave for you either. I don't care well. Why does it even become a thing. That's about point so my point is like i'm sure it's in the history books i wanted. I'm going to google them mad at body hair. I'm gonna figure that we'll talk about the next one. Because i was talking about that a lot i was like. Why is it a thing. Why do i think that that's definitely changed because people are like you know what i'm gonna have purple armpit hair. That's kinda awesome. It's fun seeing that. Though there. you're going to google that to have a few few friends that are heavily into growing their body here. Cool like. I don't know why i was. Yeah i was taught or that was not attractive. But why when did that start. Like that's crazy. Probably a longtime ago in france his perfume. I thought the. I thought the joke was frenchwoman or harry. All europeans in all people are hearing. We're all here. Yeah how do they become like a weird thing. That's what i wanna know. Why why does -ociety teach me that. That was unattractive next podcast. Come and find out. We're going to do some research. Yeah get it out of my head like i know. It's not like a biological thing as a cultural society kind crazy. Because i feel like you'd get more like fairmount said like would just hang out in the hair follicle would imagine like he's just being like yeah. I would imagine a hundred thousand years ago for children in a forest and brush your teeth. Yeah one hundred thousand years ago like one hundred thousand years ago times were shown in the forest and like i saw like Like a bald woman. Like a little kid be like. That's a child baby like the harry. Mamo your yeah so. I just think it's weird or interesting. How like society or cultural stuff has overridden. My biology and i can't undo it like there. Yeah like i can't look at like superheroes man it really in that. I mean as i could. But i'm not at the moment. Yeah but not in this season live. I mean like if you're superhero woman. That's awesome for you. You probably don't dig me. You know what. I mean. Because i have more than he does. You don't man. I don't have it like the same. Why do some women like really hairy chest but why. Why is the hair placement initiative. What yeah why. Because i would imagine like fat. Yeah but i would imagine what that's here nice know. Why get well. Do i get that one. I dunno still curves. I did see a funny tiktok villa shoes. Like she's like you. Think i don't get sex honey. She's like my whole body. Feels like a tasty.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on The Unmistakable Creative Podcast
"Did nothing but my parents divorced. When i was fourteen and she had a deep interest in and before that in young in psychology she immediately got a job at a young center here in los angeles and and went back to school and became a therapist a union therapist and so i think that at that point by the time she was that i was already grown in and out of the house but The interest in in in psychology. Which i think i mean i think an awful lot of the psychology from back then. Counting young and freud is so deeply outdated in so deeply misogynist and so deeply rooted in a concept of the way the brain works that has been completely blown up by neuroscience but that said it really did get down always into the. I see what you're doing but what really matters is why. And i think that that really gave me you know the interest in what was beneath the surface right because we all live on the surface. I don't mean we live surface lives. I mean you know all of us. The one thing that we can say about every one of us unique. Everybody listening is that like from the moment we're born till now we've survived in the surface world. We can see it. We have a basic understanding of it. But it's not what we're trying to figure out where always trying to figure out what's going on beneath the surface not what someone's doing it but y they're doing it because that's what really matters and it's often quite different than what it appears to be when we service of what someone's doing and sort of last thing i'll say is the most fascinating thing about the way that we make sense of things and the way that our brain evolved especially starting about one hundred thousand years ago is that vast what we're wired to look for. Were not wired to look for what's happening. Were wired to look for. Why someone's doing it because the reason that our brain had that last big growth spurt about one hundred thousand years ago and what we were. I was taught what most people until very recently were taught. The reason for that was because that was when we got the ability to.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Quirks and Quarks
"Does it just wash over you or do you concentrate on its detailed structure. If you answered yes to all of those questions you just might have. What the author of a book about human inventiveness refers to as a system. Izing mind dr simon. Baron cohen is a cognitive neuroscientist and director of the autism research center at the university of cambridge in his new book. He argues that humans became the scientific and technological masters of our planet because of our brains systemized mechanism and also that some individuals especially some with autism spectrum disorder are the system is irs of our world driving that inventiveness. His new book is called the pattern seekers how autism drives human invention. Dr baron cohen welcomed quirks and quarks. Thank you bob. Now you wrote about how you joke you redder that your book could be the shortest book in the universe. Just three words long. What are those three words. And why are they central. Driving human inventiveness. The three words are if and and then. So i think that these three words describe how humans hamas appalachians is the only animal that can reason and can reason in order to invent. I mean we're talking in the time of covet and we could say if the death rate is high and we do nothing then the death rate will be even higher but if the death rates is high and we imposed lockdown than the death rate will decrease so lockdown is an invention happens to be like a public health invention but it shows the reasoning of how humans how modern homo sapiens. Think in order to invent okay. So you're saying if i do this then that will happen but how does this system is mine. Come into that. So what arguing in in my book is that between seventy thousand and one hundred thousand years ago. There was a change in the human brain that the system is a mechanism evolved and the system is a mechanism is what allows us to look for systems in the world or invent new systems and a system is nothing more than these if and then recognizes or patents. So that's why. I called the book. The patches seekers you other animals don't seem to look for these special patents but we do what What happened back seventy thousand years ago. That that brought about this inventiveness if we look at the archaeological records because that's really all we can go on to figure out like what changed in the relation of the human brain. Seventy thousand years ago we see the first bow and arrow this if and then logic if you like was what allowed us to come up with a complex tool like the bone marrow but equally we could. We can look for other examples in the archaeological record. The first musical instrument at the oldest or the earliest musical instrument. That's been found. Is that a flute. Made from a bone a hollow bone from the bird and stay to to about forty thousand years ago but we can imagine that the person who made it was thinking. If i blow down this hollow bone and i cover one hole then like at a particular note..
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Science Rules! with Bill Nye
"If you have a a milk tooth from child you can see when they will wind. Did they encounter any really serious illnesses. Wendy young we can see that too. Sometimes this sort of interruptions in the grace then you can look at like the dental calculus. In between the teeth the the your hygiene is removes in that we can find tiny tiny preserved. Bits off starches and some if as we can tell how they were cooked. And you can also look for dna in that to say like anything that you find in assigned now. There is just the most astonishing range of techniques that we have to pull out the information. What does site look like. It depends if you have a cave caves are really good. Who being places that preserve stuff and because you know most of the time they're not subject to erosion unlike openness sites so in a cave depending on kind of chemistry. Have you have a good chance at calving bones. There depending on the different soils you might have a nice fine kind of wind blown sediment that comes in and we might have what we call bratcher where this the the cave us if then become cemented by calcium deposits and. That's you know that's really hard to dig out stuff out but if you look openness sites Then we could see for example that we have butchery sites and kill sites And those are preserved in different ways. And there's even Site in france where it looks as if nanto basically camped out near a riffa and then after they left they was just a flood in the river and it deposited late Every fine silt very quickly over that site which means that it was preserved really well including an arrangement of what appear to be post holes in a ring about ten meters across and that we believe is actually an outside structure. Basically it's a. It's an outside camp. And which had some kind of sort of barrier may be made of coast and skins and inside there you can see preserve the different areas where they were sitting in working there flint off is an area the back which had laid rotted plant stuff which possibly was bedding area. Say if we have cites with exceptional preservation. What we can say about how they actually lift is amazing. Also how did you get into this. Are you a my family We are fond of jigsaw. Puzzles is that you're kind of thing solving puzzles. She liked jake's. Oh yeah we in obsessive kid. Were you a kid who like. I wanted to understand how the world works. You're looking for clues one of these kids that Likes nature and makes collecting staff when the album. Whoops things in my pockets would be full of little. Bits of chalance stein's and tweaks and stuff like that. But i will say i guess a waste drawn to the pasta. I do remember digging out. My gonna grew up in london. And i have state memories of trying to shake that up and i still have a potshot that i found this started off on urban acuity and then went back in time but i guess i have i have a cooling to never about to try and understand. How people's past experiences were includes neanderthals. So you know. People are obsessed with who done it a style stories and kids. I can as a science education to kids are fascinated with forensics with what happened at the scene of the crime was at your kind of thing. Yeah yeah i think so. I mean it's interesting because with neanderthals. You have 'em sort of the investigative thing of what's going on in a particular site and you can have a different scales like you with one object. What does that mean. where did it come from. How is it used. what can you tell us. And then you have the whole the whole layer. It came from and then you have the whole site and then joined. They sought step across the landscape. You have these scales of what we can say is who kind of detective story. There's an amazing sight and spain. I write about it a lot in the book. An could a outbreak romani which has fascinating acuity because it has really unusual preservation where calcium deposits formed at over this site every time the water table rose and so basically have incredible preserved layers of how neanderthals all the spatial stuff. Is there like where the hawks where where the piles of animals stuff was. A and let you can see amazing stuff. They're like you can look at the mike her layers in the hoff's and see that they were burned at different temperatures over different periods on at the back of the cave bear. The halls rearranged about a meter away from the wool and that matches what we see in a lot of ethnic graphics ice. Because that's basically where people sleep right against the wall and those hoff's at the back of the cave look to have been like Smoldering horse they went high temperature. Blazing things then white nighthawks and say you start to envision in people lying down on the skins at night by these these smouldering embers and that's that's real existence so it's very hard to not kind of try and vision that okay. I i have to ask a question because this was a paper that i came across last week. And i'm sure you've seen it about a neanderthal poop. That's fifty thousand year old near the poop. Which i believe was on one of these hearths. You could tell from the chemistry that it it had not been heated so it was like after the fire had gone out an and the enter tall had defecated on the hearth. What's going on there do. do you know about this. do you have an interpretation. is that stream. This is another spanish. So i which i have in the book lot because the off. They're amazing they have really good preservation. You can tell the different species of wood that they were burning things like this. But yeah with the feces. Evidence is really interesting if it would fit what we see from other kinds of evidence that neanderthals were not sort of just united slapdash in anything that they did whether it was making tools or space. I'm all keeping their living spaces clean. We can see. They cleaned the hawks out. Dump that material in basically like midden deposits like rubbish dumps on so if they are cleaning up the site at the end and then put the fires out with waste S basically waste management and we can see the at different places. Oh okay. so here's the fundamental big question when i think about neanderthals or cave people of any sort. How did we end up. Apparently on top. What's different about our face are balloon. Heads snouts what happened with the The sapiens ended up running the show at least for now. Well everything we see about. Nancy tells i've set. They were very very successful. Living hunter gatherer lifestyle for an awfully long time. Three hundred thousand years or so. Yeah and over most of that time our early homo sapiens ancestors around and doing their own thing. And most of the time they He doesn't look very different. It's only really after about one hundred thousand years ago. The east see differences. The are beginning to be more striking So there is some differences In some of the state tool technologies like in africa you start to see Heat treatment of rock for example to basically make it more predictable in how you work. And but then there's the the more symbolically interesting things like the fact that neanderthals also interested in pigments and colors and making lines on things. It appears the early homo sapiens. People around eighty thousand years ago. Really start to get into that as well and in south africa again this is like cool blombos where we have engravings on not early pieces of red pigment amsoil red ochre also on ostrich eggshell and they are mobile formal than anything we see done by antos said they are like lines and cross hashes within like a little frame of other lines. They put round it. So it's really formalized. An nando toasted make.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network
"My hand. i'll help you up. Thank you. I think got better. Try something smaller when he took a fancy to my manchester seventy chambered for three seven five magnum cartridge life for elephant. I'm very definitely lie for dinosaur. We win hurry. And then of course just before we were ready to trick. James showed up and apologized for insulting me. He'd had a run in with the girl and he wanted to go along. And so we were off on safari. You already gentleman. Why yes. I suppose oh mr hosting you've met my partner. The roger jan poor. I heard you say how do you do. Should we cracking. After you went to holding up. Mr james thank you. Let's get going all set slam the hatch and off. We go what happens. Nothing will the force field is build up. She goes what happened. The lights for there's no karen while in transition. I don't feel well as usually a touch of vertigo. I shouldn't worry about it. Look what are you shoot for. I mean dinosaur. What is the best shot. Well you don't try for his brain you know. They don't have any law to be exact. They have a little bump about the size of a tennis on top of their spines. And you not likely the hit when it's embedded in a six foot skull driver the heart the big arts over one hundred burns and exploding. The heart will slow them down at least I see why do we have to go so far for game. I couldn't we just go back fifty years and shoot lions african other machine one more recently. One hundred thousand years ago. Why well how come. No for dimensional expert on the subject. But it has something to do with what they cool time paradox. You know if people could go back to recent times they might do something to affect history or killer and grandfather you know. And there's also some kind of taboo about sending people back to the same time again. Paradoxes must have them what would happen. I'm not sure but the university isn't taking john's is they've got about a.
"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on DSC On Demand
"Of the anthem. You can see why is tricky saw. What was that. What are some of those was so we. That's exactly how i sing it. Thank you lady gaga. Thank you a little monsters. Gel here the keys that's a toughie. Let's that so let's talk about what's coming up in our happy. Crackpot us here today. Sela sure inauguration day it is inauguration day we are going to hear from our departing president. And first lady though. They gave some speeches this morning. Now did he do his some his pardons yet. Yes he did those yesterday. I don't see. I i didn't see any headlines. People screaming bloody murder about it. Are the people mad about normally. This pisses people off You know the headline that. I saw that caught my attention. The most is that he did not pardon. Joe exotic who was so certain he was getting part and he had a limo waiting for him bomber bomber because he got a tip to man. Oh embarrassing eight cents. An hour prison gus. Tampa license plates. Get yourself a towncar. Lacoste the reasonable and all that but they free no. You got a typical bad joe. Baird joe in for murder. Nah yeah he did. isn't it. i you remember that this. What is it called the lion. King attacking different okay. So this was it. Seems like one hundred thousand years ago but this was the first big show that popped while everyone was stuck at home in quarantine. Yeah and everybody was watching it and now you haven't seen it but as i understand it. Joe is in prison for killing someone murder for hire something like that. It didn't actually pan out. But he hired someone money so a conspiracy to kill someone for sure but the real killer. His wife who fed someone to ally is not in prison. Now that was his nemesis he was trying to kill carole. Baskin is joe exotic. Joe exotic nemesis. That's who he wanted to be killed so then it turns out. Oh my god yes. She might upset her husband to the tigers and now joe weren't married now. They were not their enemy but she actually killed someone and fed to a lion right. That's what people think. She's not been do you. You saw the show. Yeah do you think. She fed someone to a tiger. She could have lutely definitely might have absolutely. it's weird. you're absolutely perhaps. Don't you mock it all right. Well no no pardon for joe exotic now president trump part and seventy three people commuted the sentences of seventy okay. I got this email about our game earlier. Today are five dollar quiz game. Dave it might be just my imagination but allah does he mean anna i. He's calling her. All always sounds a bit dismayed whenever she's far behind and she needs a naked bacteria trillion points. I don't understand why that number bothers her so much. The perfect opportunity to prove a larger number exists but chose not to allow chapstick. Send you a picture from his private becca collection. It's our own fault. You're not aware of any larger numbers. Maybe she needs to reconsider a long time listener. Poll a love your show. That is richard checking in with the good wishes for your news producer allah. Whatever got a tricky name. Why even bother trying. Who is putting together these big stories for us today. What else is all working on ala. Wants you to know that you should check your junk mail before it just throwing it away because a lot of people are throwing away their stimulus check debit card. Come on what kind of dirty trick is that. Don't showing up in email note junk. It looks like junk mail. The people they think is a fake offer for a credit card. Kind of thing it shows up in your email junk mail like your junk all. Would you say your physical address. Is it be david So it looks like junk. I've done this before Yeah changed so. I had the same thing. I got a check from something. I hit invested in and it didn't look like anything i wanted to open so i threw it right in the garbage and thank god i two minutes later like let me open it. And it was like a check for a naked beck titi trillion dollars. I was like what did i do. And instead of being glad. I hadn't thought throwing it out. I thought to myself. I wonder how many naked bacteria trillion dollars i have thrown out. I got it wasn't bitcoin. I just through this thing away. Yeah exactly have you heard about that guy who threw away the wrong computer hard drive like a year ago had a hard drive. You threw it away. it's the one that had his bitcoin information on it. It's worth seventy million dollars. And he wants to have the entire village get together and dig up the landfill and find his hard drive and he says he'll give half of the bitcoin value to the village. Hell i'll get my shovel. And he's he says you know it's not like whoever finds it gets the money he says i'll give half the value to the entire village which works out to like two hundred and fifty bucks per person no matter what if they find it in the villages. We don't feel like it this bitcoins while it sounds like it makes you super rich. Sounds like it's so much trouble. People forget passwords. They're throwing away their computers. Which all the bitcoin is on seventy million dollars guys out so it's over three hundred million of lost bitcoin in the last two weeks. And where's that go. Where's it go. If they can find it. I don't understand how there's no value to it. Because they say it's just gone yeah. Does it not revert to someone or someplace. Set comes by the other people who still have it. Doesn't that make sense. That does make sense to me. There's value to it i don. i don't. yeah bitcoin. What else do we have. He alarm you're killing all the cats alana's killing cats cat. Also what's he doing. Tell you all about it with the help of brittany sister. He's made better rats. Britney britney has in trailer swift brittany. Yeah her sisters. What's your sister's name Throw.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on The Thinking Atheist
"The last chapter book. It's rather surprising. Turns out for example that we are evolving but not visible ways that you'd ever notice we're not like in the sci-fi movie developing giant bulging cranial with bigger brains and and wimpy bodies like you see in various you know dystopia sifi. Future novels future versions of humans. Most cases are physical parents. Not changing much at all. It's more of the matter of things that are subtle like genetic changes like for example. Most human populations now retain the ability digest lactose well into adulthood which didn't used to be the case. Because we all weaned from our mothers and stop doing that but and the start of the agricultural revolution. Of course we had farm animals and again it had milk in our diets through our whole lives and so the genes redeveloping lactose is now switched on all the time and we have the lactase in our in our system which means we can drink milk and cheese and all the rest is adults likewise Many people know for example that we are having trouble many of us. Wisdom teeth are faces have shortened so much since are dismantling esters at the room for all those molars especially the last set of mos in the back the third molars which are nicknamed the wisdom teeth cars. Come in late late your teen years. And that's why they get their nickname. The wisdom teeth in many cases as you know are crowded They don't have room to wrapped They often ended up there for becoming impacted or otherwise of infecting the rest of your jaw and so a lot of people have had theirs out. Well lots of human populations now are no longer develop wisdom teeth. The gene wisdom teeth is disappearing and it will probably in the future be completely gone because we will no longer be able to have room for them. So there's a lot of subtle thing. Just tiny things that are in our genome and stuttle things in our behavior as well that are evolving and the physical changes are very subtle. That you can't see them very well because physically. Our skulls don't look at different schools. One hundred thousand years ago are the rest of skeleton as well. That part is is changing relatively little. It's things like jeans for this or that that are selected for against that are gradually changing human population. that's how revolving at the moment. I find this tremendously disappointing. I mean where are the wings. Like i want wings whereas in the back of my head so i can see three hundred sixty degrees. I mean i get it. I get it. I get where you're going real fast. Let me go to the switchboard. Before i continue my long litany of questions. Three one four. Hi who's this. Hi this is tia. And i was just calling ask a question about octopuses or occupy. You say. I heard that they did not fall on the evolutionary chain. A right now like we didn't have any evidence or information about where they feel on it. So they're considered aliens because we can't figure out whether they fall in evolutionary. And i just wanted to not know anything about that or even ikea's area expertise to speak to to pye. Dr prothesis occupy are well understood. There's no question where they belong in evolution. They are sit. F pods related to squid cuttlefish into a bunch of extinct animals and we have a good fossil record of all the relatives. But since i don't have shells themselves you don't have good fossil record of them but there's no unless you heard that it's probably some crank site. There's some prank program. 'cause nobody has any doubts. Dr pye related closely to all the other cephalopods planet now. There isn't the interesting. I brought in the book on this topic and that is occupy and some of the relatives have better is than we do. Or any of the vertebrate for that matter Octopus is designed the right way. It actually has the retina so that has nothing in front of it. Do struck the light. Coming through and no blindspot. Where's humanize and most is of our vertebrate relatives have design flaws and make our is inferior for one We have all these blood vessels and nerves. Sit on top of the layer where you have your cones and rods. And so that you don't actually see directly at the source light. Your cones rods are facing the wrong way and they actually distort your vision a bit so you have to compensate for that and also because of the way. The is organized in humans in an almost all vertebrates are nerve bundle. It comes from those kinds of has to go through the retina. Which cartwright's what's called the blind spot. There's a spot in your retina where there is no site at all and that too is not found so octopus are actually better designed as visual orders in the we are. Does that. answer your question or our yes. we have to do this by q. Very kind thanks. So much for calling the show. Dr pro throw. Would you then see the human eye as a refutation of intelligent design. Oh of course say that's one of a bunch of things. I have a whole chapter. And how poorly designed humans are and it comes from a lot of different things from our poor construction of eyeball. Riches actually inferior to said to the octopus. I to a whole bunch of things that come from the fact that we were once quadrupedal running on four legs like many monkeys still doing some apes do much of the life as well and then we put ourselves up in. A vertical position is upright Primate all sorts of biological and anatomical problems. Follow from that. They come from a lot of different directions. For example we all know how your feet and your knees especially and sometimes you hips as well or not suited to the kind of pounding that we do when we run all our lives and walk our lives and so we have one of the biggest problems we have of course is knee problems and foot problems humans all the time and back problems are similarly related likewise the sinuses in your face. They would normally have no trouble draining out if you were head facing down. Most of the time as they do in quadrupedal animals but because we're upright all the time some of the sinuses are actually drained and such a way that the holes are up at the top of the chamber which means our fight. The has fight gravity. Go out and that's one of the reasons. We have sinus infections all the time. And likewise the way our vocal cords and our voice box have shifted are the arrangement of the parts of our neck that has caused a whole bunch of problems number one which of course we have this really little tinies flap of skin that shuts off the air valve the trachea and opens it so that you could swallow and of course when you're breathing in not swallowing it covers up your your safa gifts. And that's called the gladys and that is a very susceptible problems because if you for example get startled in any hail. Suddenly the epa gladys will switch and you unhealthy.
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
The Denisovans Expand Their Range Into China
"Like modern humans than neanderthals roamed widely throughout europe. We know this because they left behind. Extensive evidence usually bones or tools but their cousins. The denisovans our more mysterious until recently they were conclusively linked only to a single cave in southern siberia called denisova cave which lies between kazakhstan and mongolia in that cave. Scientists had found a finger bone three teeth and piece of skull which tip them off to the existence of a whole new lineage of ancient human now scientists have uncovered more of the range for the denisovans says de endo mossy lonnie of the max planck institute in germany. His team turned up evidence. The ancient humans occupied a high mountain cave on the tibetan plateau. Called by shia cave belongs to monks and -mongst things that it's a very holy place in fact among found a piece of jawbone there in nineteen eighty which has been tenuously linked to the denisovans salani and his team have now unearthed more conclusive evidence by sifting through cave sediments and sequencing the genetic evidence. The denisovans left behind. Buddy decay of people chests. Gabbing down the side like bleeding. There are coping ping could left their dna. The dna appears in layers suggesting the denisovans inhabited the cave as far back as one hundred thousand years ago as well as at sixty thousand years ago and perhaps even as recently as forty five thousand years ago meaning. The denisovans might overlapped in this region with modern humans. The results appear in the journal. Science mossy lonnie says. This method could enable more denise in detective work to this like so many caves when we have evidence of human activity but we don't have opening remain so if he can exploit to sediment can actually start to track down in segment. The denisova dini denise evans live on today in the genomes of some modern day humans from the south pacific further. Genetic work like this might give scientists more clues where early homo sapiens. I met and mixed with the elusive denisovans.
What crows teach us about death with Kaeli Swift
"Whether we want to or not human spend a great deal of time considering death. And it's possible we've been doing. So since shortly after Homo Sapiens, I began roaming the landscape. After all the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around one hundred thousand years ago. What might those early people have been thinking? As they took the time to dig into the earth deposit, the body and carefully covered up again. Were they trying to protect it from scavengers or stymie spread of disease? Were they trying to honor the deceased or did they just not want to have to look at a dead body? Without the advent of a time machine. We may never know for sure what those early people were thanking. But one thing we do know is that humans are far from alone in our attention towards the dead. Like people some animals including the corvettes, the family of birds that houses the crows. Ravens Magpies Jays also seemed to pay special attention to their dead. In fact, the rituals of corvettes made acted as the inspiration for own. After all, it was the raven that God sent down to teach Kane how to bury his slain brother able. But despite the clear recognition by early people that other animals attend to their dead, it's only fairly recently that science has really turned its attention towards this phenomenon. In fact, formal name for this field comparative Anthology. First introduced until twenty sixteen. In this growing field, we are beginning to appreciate what a rich place the natural world is with respect to how other animals interact with their dead, and it's in this growing body of knowledge at that time machine to our early ancestors might be possible. So what are we learning in this growing field? Well right now, we can split our understanding into two main groups. In the first, we have animals that display stereotyped predictable behaviors towards their dead and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from experimental studies. This group includes things like social insects, bees, ants, and termites, and for all of these animals colony hygiene is of critical importance and so as a result, these animals display rigorous undertaking behaviors in response to corpses. For example, they may physically remove carcasses from the colony they may consume them. They may even construct tombs. We see similar hygiene driven responses in some colony living mammals rats, for example, will reliably Berry cage mates that have been dead for forty eight hours. In our other group, we have animals that display more variable, perhaps more charismatic behaviors and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from anecdotes by scientists or other observers. This is the animals whose death behaviors I suspect might be more familiar to folks. It includes organisms like elephants which are well known for their attendance to their dead even in popular culture. In fact, they're even known to be attracted to the bones of their deceased. It also includes animals like primates which display a wide variety of behaviors around their dead from grooming them to. Prolonged attention towards them guarding them even the transportation of dead infants and that's actually behavior we've seen in the number of animals like the dolphins. For example, you may remember the story of Taleh, the ORCA in the resident J. pod in the puget sound who during the summer of two thousand eighteen carried her dead calf for an unprecedented seventeen days. Now a story like that is both heartbreaking and fascinating, but it offers far more questions than it does answers for example, why did Kerry her calf for such a long period of time. who she just that stricken with grief. Wishy more confused by her unresponsive infant. Or is this behavior just less rare in orcas than we currently understand it to be
Neanderthals Used Glue
"There was a time when neanderthal was used as an insult with the implication that this extinct species or perhaps sub species of hominids was unintelligent and unsophisticated. But the more research that goes into how neanderthals lived the more we learn that they were quite clever. For example, they made an used glue millennia before we humans figured it out. Pay. Bring stuff is Christian. Sager here. There are some things people just can't live without. So we invented them way before we ever invented writing coats, knives, roofs, fire turns out. Another thing are prehistoric precursors needed that we still need today is the ability to stick one thing to another thing, and then you know have them stay that way which is why neanderthals had glue they might have been caveman, but they weren't savages now. Hormone neanderthalensis used their glue a viscous tar distilled from Birchbark to fix weapons on the heads of a tool onto a half or maybe a handle and neanderthals were actually the leaders in glue technology beating US Homo Sapiens to the punch by more than a hundred thousand years they began brewing tar two, hundred thousand years ago whereas the earliest evidence of modern humans using tree resin as adhesive appears less than one hundred, thousand years ago. Research published in twenty eleven shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire. So does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar proved they weren't as dimwitted as we'd like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal Nature Scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced. This stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest, but how difficult was making tar? Tar Making is definitely a process. No matter which way you go about the research team figured that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology, they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birchbark the ash mound method where tightly rolled layers of birchbark are covered in ash and embers the pit role cigar roll method where one end of Bertril is lit emplaced burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath an organic Mesh, which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire. After recreating the three tar production methods, the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature in complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method, the ash mound method yield digest a pea sized amount of tar the most complicated time consuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient. They also observed that regulating the temperature of the fire didn't make much of a difference to the product even though they have no evidence that the neanderthal way. Of Making Tar. was similar to any of their experimental methods making the connection between the Birchbark the fire and the tar would have required that neanderthals possess a proclivity for abstract thought. So whether they were making easy inefficient tar instead of something like the high yield method requiring a folded cup and a little grill made of sticks neanderthals had something going for them. They were seriously using their
What are the origins of English
"Think if it is a bunch of. It is probably a bunch of women, MOMS and aunts on the island of England. That's probably the people who invented the English language and they were called angles. So they didn't even call English. They called it anguish. My Name's Tom Howell and I used to write the Oxford Dictionary encounter and I wrote a book called the Rude Story of English and it is a history of some dudes and some woman thousand five hundred years ago trying to invent the language. So in a sense when you learned English. From the older people in your family. They are inventing English in a way because that is going to be a bit different. From the English that their grandparents spoke and then their great grandparents spoke and so on and so on and so on. Until when you go back far enough, it would be very difficult for us now to understand like great. Great. Great. Great. Great. Great great grandparents, saints which other think of how friend and neighbor are spell differently neighbors eat before I, friend is I before e friend came from one place where they said free owned once upon a time and neighbor came from another place where they were saying. It was actually called a near Ghabbour. You know has GM neighbor Mrs Weird thing we don't pronounce it now. It's just people stop pronouncing it properly but. Once upon a time, they would've been like, no, it's wrong to say neighbor without Jeanette they would have been like the correct way to say that is Nia Gabor because it was a boor who lived near you. So generations go by people make mistakes people say things a bit differently. People put on funny voices. Things Change. Now we say neighbor instead of new? Kabar I guess it is. The English is so complicated because it comes from all around the world. Yeah. What recalled English today like if you look up a word on the Internet to find out where it came from could come from anywhere. Like bungalow comes from India but you know even if you went back all the way to what the angles were saying, their language also came from all around the world like their language came from. Iraq and India and Russia and all kinds of weird places like people have been talking to each other for at least one, hundred, thousand years. So all of us, any point in history might say who invented our language and the odds would almost be some not dudes some arts and mother's thousand, five, hundred years ago. kind of doesn't matter where you are. That's always kind of be the answer.
Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams
"Around one hundred thousand years ago in what what is now. Italy are nandor tall cousins. Wait it out into the shallow. Coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. Big Grant the the molluscs from the sea floor and perhaps even died for them in deeper water and they also simply collect clams from the beach but the creatures weren't just food in a recent Study University of Colorado Boulder archaeologist Paolo Villa inner team report that neanderthals modified the clams hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The clam derived implements were found inside the grow today. Motion rainy a coastal cave. That was first rediscovered around eighty five years ago by examining wear and tear on the shells the researchers determined that about seventy five percent of the tool source material had been found found dead on the beach. These shows had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny indicating that the clams lambs were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. These shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tools so even though gathering clams underwater took more work than picking them up on the beach. The effort may have been worth it also found in the growth at any pumice stones volcanic eruptions that occurred to to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by neanderthals as abrasive tools. The study is in the journal loss. One neanderthals else were making these tools than fifty thousand years before modern. Humans first arrived in Western Europe but neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community. Munity during much of the twentieth century in recent years however evidence of their tool use and even artistic abilities has grown neanderthals hunted. That'd made cave art cooked with fire us boats and when fishing just last year for example research by villa and others found that neanderthals tolls living not far from the grocery knee. Site used resonant. He serves to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some forty thousand years ago but it's becoming ever more clear that neanderthals were intelligent creative. People who lead fully human lives.
How Do You Compare to the Average American?
"The financial profile all of the average American or more accurately profiles of many average Americans since a proper apples to apples? Comparison takes into account several factors. So we're GONNA approach this this by looking at the financial life cycle of somebody which of course starts with birth. Fortunately you don't have to pay for your own birth. That's good because because the average cost of a birth in America these days ten thousand dollars and that's if there are no complications whatsoever So let's jump ahead to one of the first experiences people have have with actually earning money and that is an allowance. How many kids get an allowance? And how much do they get law. According to a recent survey from the American Institute of CPA's as two thirds of parents get allowance and the average is thirty dollars a week. It's pretty nice. Isn't ages they say what ages they start giving they broke it down a little bit. Okay but what was interesting to me was far too five. Parents expect the children to do work. Some people feel like you should just allowance because that's how you learn how to be responsible And they expect at least one hour week of chores but on average children are spending five point one hours a week doing chores for their allowance. So let me just say that my kids are below average with my kids are not doing five hours. Where the tour? I don't even do five hours worth of chores in our house and I do a lot of chores in our. What are these are? Are these kids living on a farm like that's a very good question. Chores chores could be clean your room for us. It is dishes this. This is the number one joy that kids do and we're not even very good of making them. Do it. Put your own shoes on in the morning to dress yourself. Live at Downton Abbey. Everyone everyone here anyway. So there you go. That's allowance so that's money from your parents but you'll eventually reach the point where you can start earning money from other people and here we are talking about being a teenager but the emphasis is can because most teenagers don't according to a study by the Hamilton project. And the Brookings Institute back in Nineteen nineteen seventy nine fifty eight percent of teenagers. Were doing some sort of work. But today it's only thirty five percent most teenagers don't have a job which not even like babysitting reasoning or I I guess not then the factors for why this has gone down as number one. They say that teenagers just have more things to do. Like like more kids are doing More kids are taking classes over the summer. Also there's less low wage work more competition from older folks and immigrants. That said I have three teenagers and I'm not sure I quite vile this Mike. Especially in the summer my kids have managed to find jobs but regardless the majority of teenagers not working. What was your first job while so I used to cut before I was of age to be doing? I cut lawns in the neighborhood and Dan. I watered flowers at a local flower shop. Then sure I've told you this story F.. I faked my birth certificate so I could work in McDonalds when I was age. Fifteen instead instead of sixteen so I did that ric have I to you. It was your first job horrible paper route once where you have to go door to door and collect the money which I always hated to do you so I never did it so I never really got paid for thing. What about you so my first job? I I went to high school where you are expected to work like four hours a day so you go to class in either the morning or the afternoon and then you would then so what kind of like work at the school. Yeah you'd work in the school or you'd lurk working in nearby bakery or you'd work farm too so you could work on the farm. Some people had farm jobs or work on maintenance and the school So I worked for the principal symbol. Of course I was responding. I did a lot of you. Know entering in people's grades and typing let transcribing letters and just the office work so as like fifteen. I think started. Did you like that because I've often thought especially as a former elementary school teacher junior high teacher. I thought a lot of this education is wasted in the dish. It's been half the day like working out in the basically interning at different types of jobs because they're not learning so much in school. Yeah no I mean it was is one of the better jobs to have on campus. That's for sure. So did you. And your friends. I'll get straight a's no but we I mean we could. We could have definitely changed. All of our grades were honest asked by it was a religious school so God would have smoked in us we. We were well aware of the consequences for changing our grades. So we didn't do it got got it. At least I didn't what's next in life. maxine life is well. We're going real job hitting their well even before. Then you finish high school and and then what college you go to college. I should first of all point out that it's nice if you want to write so point out. First of all. The graduation rate from public high schools is now eighty five percent near an all time high. So let's go so how many people then go onto college sixty nine point seven percent according to the Department of Labor not everyone gets four year degree as some people go to college and they don't get a degree. People get the associates so when you look at four year bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees. It's it's between thirty five and forty percent of people who actually end up with a degree but almost seventy percent do end up going to college which of course brings us to one of the first major financial decisions. A kid has to make depending on how much their family is willing and able to pay and that is the cost of college so according to the College Board. Let's go over the numbers here for the two thousand nineteen thousand twenty year a four year your public in State Education Room Board Fees Tuition Twenty one thousand nine hundred and fifty for your public out of state thirty eight thousand three hundred and thirty four year private school forty nine thousand four hundred ninety dollars ice now. The College Board is quick to point out at those are the published sticker prices and that most people don't pay those they say that about three quarters of students receive grants that reduce the actual price that people pay and just just about every college these days has something called net price calculator. You go onto their website. You put in some basic financial information. It gives you a general idea of how much you would pay. It's not binding or anything but if you're thinking of a college go to the net price calculator and you get an idea of how much aid you might receive. That said. We all know that grants. It's an aren't enough. which brings us to the topic of educational loan so approximately two thirds of kids graduate with debt with the average being between thirty thousand and forty thousand dollars depending on which source? You're looking at repayment. Can Take Ten to twenty years. And according to the Federal Reserve one fifth of ours were behind in their payments in two thousand in seventeen. So you have to wonder is a college degree worth the cost well for most people. The answer's probably yes. College grads on average earn seventy I five percent more than high school grads but that said the Fed did find that college is not a good investment for about twenty five percent of graduates and several studies of people who have loans at found that the majority of people regret the debt and they wish they would have found some other way to pay for college either going to community college allege not going to the private school something like that but regardless of how you pay for it you do graduate head out of college time for that first job. How much can you expect to make while starting salaries these days around fifty three thousand dollars? But who's paying you the most well engineering degrees computer. Peter Science and math those starting salaries are between sixty five thousand and seventy thousand math math. Now that's crazy math data that everyone is so hot with the data. One loves the data exactly so since we just brought up salaries. Let's expand this beyond starting income income in general in the United States. What is the average or the median household income and the United States and the answer is whereas the sixty three thousand one hundred seventy nine dollars? that's what you said family or average average average household household income but there are a lot of factors that would tournament starting with where you live. So the highest incomes are in the northeast. Meeting is around. Seventy thousand thousand filed by the West Midwest and the South South is lowest at fifty seven thousand. Being married helps. The median income for a household with a married couple earns. Ninety three thousand six hundred dollars Also age is a factor the households will make the most are in the forty five to fifty four age range with a median income of eighty. Four thousand four hundred dollars. We've talked about this before. Where income generally peaks at some point in your late forties or early fifties? Finally just just give me an idea of where your income puts you in relation to the rest of America. Here's how the income dispersion breaks down so if you make thirty seven thousand dollars you're in the bottom thirty thirty percent again. Median sixty three thousand. If you make one hundred thousand year in the top thirty percent hundred eighty four year in the top ten percent and to be in the top five five percent you make two hundred and forty eight thousand dollars. That's generally how income breaks down.
A Star In Orion Is Dimming. Is It About To Explode?
"One of the brightest stars in the night sky is named beetlejuice is about six hundred fifty light years away which is pretty close in outer space terms and if you've gazed eased up into the night sky and seen the Constellation Orion. You've seen beetlejuice before. So if you were to look up at it you would want to start by finding the three stars that make a nice little line that we call a Ryan's belts and then beetlejuice is as you're looking at it. The shoulder of Orion on the left. Emily Leveque is an astronomer at the University University of Washington who studies stars like beetlejuice which is known as a red supergiant supergiant because this star is enormous much bigger than our sun. If if you were to put beetlejuice where our son is it would swallow up all of the planets out past Mars and because it's so massive it means that it goes through a very different sort of life experience than our Sun will which brings us to why we're talking about beetlejuice right now. In recent weeks astronomers have noticed that beetlejuice. It's no longer appears to be one of the brightest stars. In the night sky there were sort of quick reports put out from people who monitor and observe beetlejuice very frequently. Saying you know it's getting dimmer and dimmer it's starting to get closest to the dentist we've seen there's also big dedicated networks of amateur astronomers that keep very close track of the brightness of stars like beetlejuice and they started noticing the same thing when we called Emily. She was preparing for this big astronomy conference in Hawaii Hawaii and she thought there would be a lot of buzz there about the dimming of beetlejuice beetlejuice is going to be a big topic. I'm sure especially family. She told us a Ryan is her. Favourite Constellation Constellation. But actually you don't have to be a pro astronomer to see what's happening with beetlejuice you can look for yourself at one point. beetlejuice was one of the brightest rytas stars in Orion. But now not so much so if you were to go up and look at it tonight it's dimmer than the star in Iran's right knee which is Ri- Joel and it's about equal in brightness to Ryan's other shoulder which is a star named Bella tricks so the fact that we can see with our eyes. That got noticeably dimmer really caught a lot of people's attention and then spiralled as just a wow. This is a really interesting and compelling thing changing sort of on our timescale in the night sky. So what's going on as we'll explain with help from Emily Leveque. Scientists have a few theories for why BETA disappear so dim and in the most dramatic explanation. Is that this star could be about to die. What's known as going SUPERNOVA? It would look pretty epic. I'm Emily Kwong filling informatics format today. This is short wave the daily science podcast from NPR. So here's the thing there's been quite a bit of speculation that the reason beetlejuice getting dimmer is that it's about to go Supernova. That's the big explode e end to the lifespan of a massive star and while dimming can mean that's about to happen for reasons that will get into it's not the most likely scenario for beetlejuice but first we had to clear up something with astronomer. Emily Leveque is this very cool star named after the tenth highest biased grossing film of One thousand nine hundred eighty eight. I'm pretty sure that it's the other way around. The spelling is different and sometimes here astronomers pronounce a little bit differently. Bentley will say beetlejuice instead of beetlejuice. Three times But it's actually derived from a Arabic name and there's I think some disagreement on what exactly it means but either means the arm of Orion or the hand of Orion or the hand of the hunter because the total constellation is looks like a person hunting. It's the only can I be honest. The only constellation I can ever successfully identify. Isn't that belt. It's very telling so I'll admit it's the easiest constellation and for me to identify to This is one of those. Well kept secrets of astronomy. A lot of us are embarrassingly bad at finding things in the night sky because we're used to looking at things that are so so dim that you can't see them with their own eyes and our telescopes have amazing computers. That can help us find things so we'll occasionally go out and look up and do just what a lot of people doing fine like that familiar. Little Line of three or another easy constellation to get our bearings A.. Let's talk about how astronomers such as yourself people who really study V. Stars have noticed something different about how beetlejuice looks in the night sky. How does it look different? So I will say we've been monitoring the brightness of beetlejuice for decades its and we've been measuring its brightness very frequently and we've seen its brightness change with times we've watched it get brighter and dimmer. This just caught people's attention because it was close close to the dentist that beetlejuice has ever been and what could dimming like this indicate so our guest right now is that what we're seeing is a combination of a few behaviors that we see in red super giants and that we've seen before in beetlejuice. The just happened to be coinciding. So we know that stars like beetlejuice. Have big support of boiling convective cells near their surfaces seal sort of get a bright hot spot and a slightly dimmer cool spot and it's entirely possible that this dimming is due in part to those convective cells we also know that stars like beetlejuice will actually shed off some mass from their outer layer. sobel sort popoff. The outermost layers of the star when that mass hits the Interstellar medium. It'll condense into what we call dust and dust dust in space kind of does. What does here it blocks light and gets in the way and can be a little bit of a nuisance but it would make star look a little bit dimmer if it then had a little veil of dust around it we also know that stars like this can pulse eight a little bit so their outer layers will sort of squeeze in puff out just due to instabilities in those layers and that'll also affect how bright the star looks so? I think the current guests is that we're seeing a couple different behaviors in beetlejuice. That on their own aren't too to strange. That just happened to be coinciding to make the star look especially dim so just as a thought experiment say beetlejuice is going to go Supernova. Br Nova how would we know. And what would it look like. So first of all the light that we're seeing from beetlejuice was emitted by the star about six hundred and fifty years ago. beetlejuice is a six hundred and fifty light years from Earth so when the light emerges it comes toward us as fast as it can but it's moving at the speed of light so looking at Beta Jesus a little bit like looking back in time to what the Star was actually doing six hundred and fifty years ago in terms of whether we will see beetlejuice go Supernova in our lifetimes beetlejuice and other massive stars like this kind of follow a live fast die young philosophy so they live about ten million with an m years beetlejuice in particular we know is moving into a later stage of its life because it is so big and so red but that could mean that we still have one hundred thousand years before it dies and produces a Supernova If it did though say we all went outside tomorrow and we we were seeing the light arrive from babies dying as a Supernova six hundred and fifty years minus day sometime in the Middle Ages. Let's say okay it. It would look pretty epic we have some records of other SUPERNOVA. That happened in the Milky Way and their appearance parents is incredibly dramatic. What we would see is Bagel juice getting brighter and brighter? Because we'd be seeing the incredibly bright signature of the SUPERNOVA explosion explosion. It would actually get so bright that if beetlejuice was up during the day we'd be able to see it during the daytime alongside the sun and it would last for for weeks and I think that if beetlejuice were to go supernova tomorrow and we saw it at night it would be comparable in brightness. I think to the full moon. ooh Wow we'd be able to see are shadows based on the light from the SUPERNOVA. Okay so what would it look like for beetlejuice more of a going collapsing inward on itself. I I am more of them. Exploding outward with star debris scattering across the universe. What what does it look like for Adl juice? It's a good question in it. We think that it's a bit of both both okay initial disruption comes when the core of the star collapses and depending on the type of star. And how much mass is in that core. It'll collapse into to a neutron star or a black hole after that collapse all the outer layers of the star come falling in toward the core and then bounce back off in a sort of rebound shock and that shock is what we see as a Supernova and what we would call a supernova because we see this outward blast of material you know new gas slamming into the interstellar medium and getting really bright and it looks to us like an explosion but it originally did start as a collapse. It's why I try to avoid saying that a star exploded as a SUPERNOVA. Because it's not to be the pedantic scientist it's not quite the first thing that happened in the star. But it's a bit Moroccan role as a turn of phrase. Oh yeah how would you so. This star is a part of your favorite constellation or Ryan and how would you feel if if indeed it we're we're going SUPERNOVA. I would be psyched. And I think some people expect that we would be very sad but it's a very exciting citing transition to watch and this would be one of the best studied stars we have available to US producing a Supernova. which right now is a process that we're you're still trying to understand we'd still be able to see the Supernova as it happened and then faded away these stars also leave behind what we call supernova remnants? So they're these these beautiful multicolored gas clouds that show us the dissipating material from the star. So it would be this amazing font of data and new ways to understand stars so I think it would be incredibly exciting.
Black hole breakthrough: NASA captures its first-ever black hole tearing a star to shreds
"It's a space show like no other NASA satellites of spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe a black cold gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is white it traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in
How Did We Miss This Week's Shockingly Close Asteroid Flyby?
"An asteroid as large as a football field is just flying past the earth with astronomers not detecting acting it until literally just a day before its closest approach. The giants space rock thought to be up to one hundred and thirty meters wide came within sixty five thousand kilometers of earth on july the twenty fifth in nominal terms. That's about as close as it gets. The asteroids being catalogued as twenty nine. Okay the european paint space agency says this near earth objects close approach illustrates the need for more eyes on the sky was able to observe the asteroid just before its fly by requesting requesting to separate telescopes in the international scientific optical network is on to take images of space rock the observations allow strana missed the determine the asteroids exact back position and trajectory yesterday it was i the technical the day before its closest approach by the southern observatory veneer of asteroids research observations of twenty nine thousand nine okay with an independently confirmed by other observatories including the chiba radio telescope in puerto rico and third telescope in the ice on network following following its discovery with knowledge of the astros would have been in the past based on its current course and by manually searching for it by existing images were found in the past is is an atlas skysurfer archives it turns out birth said they had in fact captured the asteroid in the weeks before it's ultra close encounter with earth but the space space rock was moving so slowly it appears to move just a tiny amount between the images and was therefore not recognized as a near earth object neo and hence the seriousness of the threat <unk>. It wasn't appreciated of course astronomers now of an attracting thousands of asteroids across the solar system so why was this one discovered so late will unfortunately originally currently there's no single obvious reason apart from its slow apparent motion across the sky before it's close approach twenty nineteen okay travels in highly elliptical orbit taking it from within the open of venus out too well beyond that of mas this means the time it spends near earth and therefore time it's detectable both current telescope capabilities is relatively short modules towards the size of twenty nine. Okay i relatively common throughout the solar system but they impact on average only about once every one hundred thousand years or so still an asteroid like that hitting a major city or urban area would cause major devastation destruction based from its current orbital path through the solar system the asteroid one come close to the game for at least the next two hundred years. I'm stewart gary. You're listening space
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on The GaryVee Audio Experience
"Please fuck and feeble with her takes the photo, and it's game over you got all of Europe. Got it. Josie. L. I was fucking DM. The fuck out of him and be like, yo. I'm sure he does diem and be like, yo. Let's fuck in play fief. Let's play twitch people because people flee for that's my strategy Brickley. Draymond green leaves done with the NBA finals. He's come into the office. Wouldn't play MBA jams. I'm gonna play people in like the sport that they do onto which old school because I don't play the shit's fucking double dribble from intendo. I played it today, but it's a new control and I'm like, oh, you know. That's cool. Tony Hawkes fucking skateboard with Tony hawk. It's so much coming for you. You just need to fuck it strike. One song away. I believe that. I mean you guys like I have I'm always very careful with my overly aggressive like one song way, because I've empathy. Like some people like, you know, the way they think of like, like it's tough like I feel like I'm on artist as a businessman, so I get like somebody who carefully curates fifteen songs in their head. It makes this perfect fucking story. I just know that ninety nine point nine percent of the time it doesn't for the end user, it does when they tell them what it was about. Contest. Yeah. If you could just live on, it's like human album, and, you know, it's a great album, then she goes on fucking BT or fucking like you know, a documentary or like fucking on the internet. And it's like, oh, this the whole part of this album was like, what I was going through during this week, and you're like, oh, but, like, not really like he was like you see where I'm going, it's like Monday morning quarterbacking. Whereas like if you just put out like. Like one song away. I just don't. I can I will never waver from this because I know him, right? It's what the internet's about in the same way that you should have made music videos in one thousand nine hundred forty four thousand nine hundred eighty seven and a lot of people didn't because they thought it was giving away free music, and it was taken away from sales. I think you should make as many songs you've got in your heart for Spotify, and apple music in as many different ways as possible the. People won't use it again. Not play the game like also washed lessons at Cowan bell was like build such demand by still not like listen. Adele, does that one hundred thousand years ago. Would Adele would Adele do that in twenty eighteen? Ios they'll get overnights. Who single day from an impossible to get it for this is the end. Finally got the one says says push. Everything gets it. So he's still one song meet to get one hundred percent people trying to get fancy before their fancy. Raises right. Does spark. Let's get a little bit of this. A decision comes with Mongol Madison. Yep. Was for just to break out of that macro. You think it's. If she trusts you based on that question, she's got let you do one thing that looks like micromanage, and then she's got a see stop that scary. I just got an like tell us they shut up with this was like this is Florida's Turner presence, but no time to waste and wasted toward when a few, by the way, it's also like it's a lot easier to trust when you're not the product that you. So it's harder. I get it like don't fucking like let my like it's hard. I do like like I won't even edit this, this whole blog. I wouldn't even look at it. Really? But, but, you know, when you're the product, it's harder than like anything else..
The age-old quest for the color blue
"Up we have contributing correspondent Kaikaku for Schmidt. He's here to talk to us about the pursuit of blue. Hi kai. So how long have humans been on the hunt for a blue color? That's already whether the difficulty begins. I guess. Yeah. Pretty good evidence from a cave in South Africa, the Blombos cave that one hundred thousand years ago, humans already will making pigments so more like red ochre yellow ker in using charcoal for black. They will make pigments. But there's no evidence at all of any blue pigments than for a very very long time. That stays the same is some recent evidence of from from gravesite in Turkey that about nine thousand years ago. There was some burials of women children whether it had ground down as right, which is a blue mineral. And even when it's down. It's it's kind of a nice, blue pigment. They were very with this possibly was used for medics. We don't really know. But that's kind of the earliest evidence. We have of any Lukman. Why is blue so rare? Is there some physical property required to make something reflect the color blue, it's hard to achieve if you look in the plot world as a lot of different classes, pigments that we have. But there's only one class of pigments Dan to signs which can actually make blue. And even then it tends to be the complicated molecules that blue in that simply because in order for something to be blue it needs to absorb the rent. So the other part of the visible spectrum, basically and red light is of the visible spectrum. It's the lowest energy light. So in order for something to absorb the red. The kind of jumps that an electron makes which is how molecule usually absorbs collapse these jumps need to be very small jumps in order to absorb the right rather than the blue. So it's much easier for nature appears to make molecules that absolve blue instead of once that absorb Bredon appeal blue these molecules often have to have. A lot of consigned chains and little ecoregions until they really make a good blue. I mean, there is blue in nature. We got water we got sky, we got blueberries. But for some reason making a synthetic version making a dye or pigment is really difficult. What about blue butterflies? Those those have nice blue color several of the blues. You've mentioned now are ones that aren't really pigment. So if you take sky, it's you know, kind of scattered more than than red light. Which is why the sky his loop in Walter. It's interesting because Walter actually absorbs kind of in the red kind of to vibrate the water molecules vibrate with the energy of red light. But it's not a very strong effect. Which is why you only see the bluest as up of water, and then the butterflies like most animals, they also not producing any blue pigments, they have like tiny structures that reflect light in a way that most of the other colors cancelled. So. If you take something very famous example like Mosul butterfly if you do into the scales on its wings. It has these little structures, and they basically end up reflecting all of the light the Chines onto the onto the wing in a way that the other colors, just disappear. What you see is the blue. So basically, everything is not a payment or at tied that we see in everyday life. But if we want to reproduce, those colors, if we want to make painting or make something out of plastic. That's the right color blue. It's really difficult, exactly. And humans in the past. Usually they found these pigments by accident. Some of the earliest examples are indigo which is a dye made from plants, but actually the plot itself isn't extra blue. So it's a blue from nature, but it's only blue ones humans do some chemistry on people for a very long time wanted to try and make synthetic indigo. And it took the s chemical company many, many years in precedent. The amount of money to finally come up with synthetic indigo. So they spent more than eight million gold marks at the time, which was more than the company was even worth to finally come up with with the recipe for synthetic indigo which was then produced around the world in is still used today to color jeans. It does make me wonder what is wrong with the blues that we have. I mean, we have plenty of toys that are blue plastic. We have paints that are blue. What what are those things that are available now not doing right or not cheating? Right. Chart is just the festive nation with colors, right? I mean, there are so many different hues of blue. And if somebody comes up with a new one, it's just especially of the artists. So usually the first ones to use them at it's just fascinating to have, you know, one more shoop. But then the other thing is that a little the blues that use Sopher instance, ultra marine, which is basic ground down. That's right. The part of Lapsley. It was one of the one of the most expensive pigments ever made was just very rare, right? Because you need the semi precious stone Lasley to even able to do it later people came up with a way of making it synthetically. But then even this static version it takes her chemicals to make that end up polluting the environment. A lot of self dioxide is produced as site product while you do so that I mean, that's one reason this the environmental implications on the other one office. Toxicity. I mean, this quite a few loose kkob. Lou that on that on exactly healthy, and this is an ongoing. Search people are still looking for blue pigments, and dyes and new or you took a look at three different approaches that are in the works right now, let's start with the first blue seeking scientists that actually found a new blue. But on accident like most blues in history, so must super money on this is a solid state chemists than he worked for a while. And he made a lot of discoveries, but not really related to pigments at all. And then he started work at Oregon state university in values. Two thousand six and what he actually wanted to do was to find what's called a multi for roic, basic material at room temperature has certain magnetic properties also electrical properties in that would make really interesting for building a computer. And so he used manganese oxide. Trim oxide in indium oxide, and he combined these Anna turn up that the compound came up with didn't have any interesting properties. But it was incredibly blue and he remembered from his days to punt the people said Lewis actually kind of hard to make. So he just published it and the color that he created has just had this incredible life of being used in many many places than now. It's also being sold far too to us.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on WLAC
"Constitution of man. I say man, I mean woman also the constitution of the human being what makes up human being? With. The we know we have a physical body. We have an emotional nature. We have a mental equipment, and but. Three fold human being that we know. Is really only a vehicle for a high aspect which will. Coli the truth sales higher. So full. Missile. And and then the so itself is a vehicle for yet. High aspects Michael spirit and through a process of reincarnation life after life to live the soul, gradually, perfected vehicle. So that they can express its food define quality through the personality. And then there's a higher one month where the the spirit can eventually expected so fully through the now sold infused personality. And so the aim is to bring these three aspects into complete at one month. Now, a muster is one who has achieved that. One who has achieved mastery of himself in Mojo, self and. So the mice is up old new human beings have been through the whole human experience. Themselves, and there's a group of them who who stay behind to help the rest of us to that same achievement. Where are they are they scattered throughout the planet? Well, up to about one hundred thousand years ago, they lived outwardly among among men the masses of time. But since then.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"And and on that family crest or family tree this is simple ostra and i've loved it from that moment to this and it it is it's what i live it it's it's where i live visit is that trump you're gonna make me cry i gotta get my act romance ask the question again how that romantic in your sense of what it means to be romantic or that you know like you said you've just lived it i just am a romantic it's a pain in the neck i cried parades you know i look in a baby carriage and is going down this baby going downstream say oh boy are you in for some rock and roll yeah i go into museums and i see all the little amulets and pendants and i think somebody gave that to somebody one hundred thousand years ago there's a love story there i love poetry because it captures passion of people around the world it gives me a great sense of unity with all of humanity that ever was and never will be helen fisher senior research fellow at indiana university's kennedy institute and a member of the center for human evolutionary studies.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM
"The world so if you're a man it means you had the y chromosome of your father you're grandfathered greatgrandfather but mutations occur along if you go back far enough and i guess by tracing the sequence of mutations you could then trace the family tree right that's right that's right dna is a very very long molecule and although ours cellular machinery is very good at coughing it when we have children occasionally we make a mistake a little spelling errors single letter change typically um in the dna sequence and win those changes are passed on to create a lineup to said if you share a changed with someone you must share an ancestry at some point in the past and so it's these changes that have accumulated over time that we use of the tools for studying the past with dna okay now let's go back chronologically uh concerning the evolution of modern in humans and migration patterns many anthropologists believed that about one hundred thousand years ago plus or minus tens of thousands of years but about one hundred thousand years ago modern humans who look pretty much like us you give them a haircut a threepiece suit and put them on wall street and they look like pretty much all the other barbarians on a monitoring so let's say you now trace the lineage because at that point an out of africa thing happened migrations took place out of africa of modern humans so now trace for us what happens one hundred thousand years ago as humans began to leave africa well it really you've got it the history of migration out of africa is actually much more complicated than that uh you've got to distinguish in this case between anatomically modern humans people who look pretty much like us and people who act like us people who are behaviorally modern uh and given that our species is kind of created by our brains we are homeless sapiens wisemen it's really the behaviorally modern humans that were interested in so with one hundred thousand years ago you're absolutely right there individuals in africa and shortly thereafter just outside of africa and the middle east who look pretty much like us but they're not acting like us they haven't gone through the change in behaviour which led to something we call the upper paleolithic and archaeology a change in the way we interacted with the world.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM
"Gives you details of the book tour that starts february twenty here and in the second half of exploration we're gonna bring on doctors spencer wales he's a biologist and he's also a commentator for the national geographic tv programme concerning the origin of humanity do you know that we can actually trace back the origin of ancient migrations that have long been forgotten all the way back to africa in fact for a bbc special that i hosted on the nature of time i had my own dna red blood and saliva samples were taken from me sent to vanderbilt university and also cambridge university and scientists were able to decipher my lineage going back several tens of thousands of years in fact four of my my genes were very carefully catalogued in this study and there's a databank of about twenty thousand people who also donated blood and saliva samples and had therefore genes red and then on a map of the earth i could see the precise correlation of who on the planet earth had precisely the same four genes that i had and bingo you could see where your ancestors came from and you can also trace out the vague migratory path that your ancestors talk and of course all these pass eventually be to africa because we left africa roughly fifty thousand years ago so modern humans as we now know of all the out of africa roughly one hundred thousand years ago then several asians began to emerge from africa one large migration of a fifty thousand years ago and then that migration interns split into many other pieces one piece went into your asia and these people became the asian people and also the native american people another brand split off into europe creating the europeans ants more branches spread out and basically column is the entire earth unfortunately we have lost all ancestral memory of this great diaspora because it took place fifty thousand years ago and writing is only roughly or so thousand years old so in other words in this second half of the program only bringing on dr spencer wells who will be talking to us about how we use genetics to trace the origin of you man at the and the ancient migrations back to africa fifty to one hundred thousand years ago so once again our for special guest is simon saying talking about the big bang his latest book.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on BrainStuff
"Listen as it he save appears less than one hundred thousand years ago research published in 2011 shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire so does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar prove they weren't as dimwitted as we like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal nature scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced this stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest but how difficult was making tar tar making is definitely a process no matter which way you go about it the research team figure that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birch park the ashish mound method where tightly ruled layers of birchbark are covered in ash in embers deep pit roll cigar roll method where one end of a bertril is lit and placed burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath in organic mesh which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire after recreating the three tar production methods the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature and complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method the ash mound method yielded just a piece sized amount of tar the most complicated timeconsuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient they also observed that regulating the temperature of the.
"one hundred thousand years ago" Discussed on News Talk 1130 WISN
"On april wholesale inventories a highly watch number because inventories tend to climb if sales aren't keeping up consumer and business news joe mcconnell nbc news radio rush limbaugh putting people and their ideas under the microscope every day i we take a back nobody here when it comes to picking people apart we were the only people who were picking obama apart for example had it it matter which side of the political divide your on we pick everybody apart sometimes it brutal back together again what we still pick apart and we are second to none in that regard rush limbaugh live week days eleven to two on news talk 1130 w i s hair three oh look on earth the maye he never stopped working for the good of the country sean hannity were behind the scenes information on today's breaking news hannity is on right now disappeared that oceans would rise that the sea level as it were the incident moi's nc ways and all that has happened senator all its evans yet but jake before a man was even on the planet before we even were burning fires the oceans were three hundred feet shallower when people walked across from asia fright twenty thirty thousand years ago maybe up to one hundred thousand years ago the seas were three hundred feet.