29 Burst results for "One Hundred Thousand Years"

Milankovitch Cycles

Everything Everywhere Daily

06:44 min | 1 year ago

Milankovitch Cycles

"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles

Millan Kovic Aids Kovic Milne Kovic Mellon
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older

Environment: NPR

05:16 min | 1 year ago

Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older

"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.

Antarctica Nell Greenfieldboyce Arctic Sarah Shackleton Mcmurdo Station John Higgins John Gooch NPR Minneapolis Higgins Minnesota Miami Princeton University Of Minnesota Gooch Eric Wolf China Europe
The Denisovans Expand Their Range Into China

60-Second Science

02:01 min | 1 year ago

The Denisovans Expand Their Range Into China

"Like modern humans than neanderthals roamed widely throughout europe. We know this because they left behind. Extensive evidence usually bones or tools but their cousins. The denisovans our more mysterious until recently they were conclusively linked only to a single cave in southern siberia called denisova cave which lies between kazakhstan and mongolia in that cave. Scientists had found a finger bone three teeth and piece of skull which tip them off to the existence of a whole new lineage of ancient human now scientists have uncovered more of the range for the denisovans says de endo mossy lonnie of the max planck institute in germany. His team turned up evidence. The ancient humans occupied a high mountain cave on the tibetan plateau. Called by shia cave belongs to monks and -mongst things that it's a very holy place in fact among found a piece of jawbone there in nineteen eighty which has been tenuously linked to the denisovans salani and his team have now unearthed more conclusive evidence by sifting through cave sediments and sequencing the genetic evidence. The denisovans left behind. Buddy decay of people chests. Gabbing down the side like bleeding. There are coping ping could left their dna. The dna appears in layers suggesting the denisovans inhabited the cave as far back as one hundred thousand years ago as well as at sixty thousand years ago and perhaps even as recently as forty five thousand years ago meaning. The denisovans might overlapped in this region with modern humans. The results appear in the journal. Science mossy lonnie says. This method could enable more denise in detective work to this like so many caves when we have evidence of human activity but we don't have opening remain so if he can exploit to sediment can actually start to track down in segment. The denisova dini denise evans live on today in the genomes of some modern day humans from the south pacific further. Genetic work like this might give scientists more clues where early homo sapiens. I met and mixed with the elusive denisovans.

Max Planck Institute Siberia Kazakhstan Mongolia Tibetan Plateau Europe Germany Lonnie Denise Evans Denise South Pacific
What crows teach us about death with Kaeli Swift

TED Talks Daily

04:12 min | 1 year ago

What crows teach us about death with Kaeli Swift

"Whether we want to or not human spend a great deal of time considering death. And it's possible we've been doing. So since shortly after Homo Sapiens, I began roaming the landscape. After all the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around one hundred thousand years ago. What might those early people have been thinking? As they took the time to dig into the earth deposit, the body and carefully covered up again. Were they trying to protect it from scavengers or stymie spread of disease? Were they trying to honor the deceased or did they just not want to have to look at a dead body? Without the advent of a time machine. We may never know for sure what those early people were thanking. But one thing we do know is that humans are far from alone in our attention towards the dead. Like people some animals including the corvettes, the family of birds that houses the crows. Ravens Magpies Jays also seemed to pay special attention to their dead. In fact, the rituals of corvettes made acted as the inspiration for own. After all, it was the raven that God sent down to teach Kane how to bury his slain brother able. But despite the clear recognition by early people that other animals attend to their dead, it's only fairly recently that science has really turned its attention towards this phenomenon. In fact, formal name for this field comparative Anthology. First introduced until twenty sixteen. In this growing field, we are beginning to appreciate what a rich place the natural world is with respect to how other animals interact with their dead, and it's in this growing body of knowledge at that time machine to our early ancestors might be possible. So what are we learning in this growing field? Well right now, we can split our understanding into two main groups. In the first, we have animals that display stereotyped predictable behaviors towards their dead and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from experimental studies. This group includes things like social insects, bees, ants, and termites, and for all of these animals colony hygiene is of critical importance and so as a result, these animals display rigorous undertaking behaviors in response to corpses. For example, they may physically remove carcasses from the colony they may consume them. They may even construct tombs. We see similar hygiene driven responses in some colony living mammals rats, for example, will reliably Berry cage mates that have been dead for forty eight hours. In our other group, we have animals that display more variable, perhaps more charismatic behaviors and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from anecdotes by scientists or other observers. This is the animals whose death behaviors I suspect might be more familiar to folks. It includes organisms like elephants which are well known for their attendance to their dead even in popular culture. In fact, they're even known to be attracted to the bones of their deceased. It also includes animals like primates which display a wide variety of behaviors around their dead from grooming them to. Prolonged attention towards them guarding them even the transportation of dead infants and that's actually behavior we've seen in the number of animals like the dolphins. For example, you may remember the story of Taleh, the ORCA in the resident J. pod in the puget sound who during the summer of two thousand eighteen carried her dead calf for an unprecedented seventeen days. Now a story like that is both heartbreaking and fascinating, but it offers far more questions than it does answers for example, why did Kerry her calf for such a long period of time. who she just that stricken with grief. Wishy more confused by her unresponsive infant. Or is this behavior just less rare in orcas than we currently understand it to be

Magpies Jays Ravens Kane Taleh Dolphins Kerry
Neanderthals Used Glue

BrainStuff

03:59 min | 1 year ago

Neanderthals Used Glue

"There was a time when neanderthal was used as an insult with the implication that this extinct species or perhaps sub species of hominids was unintelligent and unsophisticated. But the more research that goes into how neanderthals lived the more we learn that they were quite clever. For example, they made an used glue millennia before we humans figured it out. Pay. Bring stuff is Christian. Sager here. There are some things people just can't live without. So we invented them way before we ever invented writing coats, knives, roofs, fire turns out. Another thing are prehistoric precursors needed that we still need today is the ability to stick one thing to another thing, and then you know have them stay that way which is why neanderthals had glue they might have been caveman, but they weren't savages now. Hormone neanderthalensis used their glue a viscous tar distilled from Birchbark to fix weapons on the heads of a tool onto a half or maybe a handle and neanderthals were actually the leaders in glue technology beating US Homo Sapiens to the punch by more than a hundred thousand years they began brewing tar two, hundred thousand years ago whereas the earliest evidence of modern humans using tree resin as adhesive appears less than one hundred, thousand years ago. Research published in twenty eleven shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire. So does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar proved they weren't as dimwitted as we'd like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal Nature Scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced. This stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest, but how difficult was making tar? Tar Making is definitely a process. No matter which way you go about the research team figured that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology, they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birchbark the ash mound method where tightly rolled layers of birchbark are covered in ash and embers the pit role cigar roll method where one end of Bertril is lit emplaced burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath an organic Mesh, which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire. After recreating the three tar production methods, the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature in complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method, the ash mound method yield digest a pea sized amount of tar the most complicated time consuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient. They also observed that regulating the temperature of the fire didn't make much of a difference to the product even though they have no evidence that the neanderthal way. Of Making Tar. was similar to any of their experimental methods making the connection between the Birchbark the fire and the tar would have required that neanderthals possess a proclivity for abstract thought. So whether they were making easy inefficient tar instead of something like the high yield method requiring a folded cup and a little grill made of sticks neanderthals had something going for them. They were seriously using their

Birchbark Ash Mound Sager Nature Scientific Bertril
What are the origins of English

Tai Asks Why

02:40 min | 1 year ago

What are the origins of English

"Think if it is a bunch of. It is probably a bunch of women, MOMS and aunts on the island of England. That's probably the people who invented the English language and they were called angles. So they didn't even call English. They called it anguish. My Name's Tom Howell and I used to write the Oxford Dictionary encounter and I wrote a book called the Rude Story of English and it is a history of some dudes and some woman thousand five hundred years ago trying to invent the language. So in a sense when you learned English. From the older people in your family. They are inventing English in a way because that is going to be a bit different. From the English that their grandparents spoke and then their great grandparents spoke and so on and so on and so on. Until when you go back far enough, it would be very difficult for us now to understand like great. Great. Great. Great. Great. Great great grandparents, saints which other think of how friend and neighbor are spell differently neighbors eat before I, friend is I before e friend came from one place where they said free owned once upon a time and neighbor came from another place where they were saying. It was actually called a near Ghabbour. You know has GM neighbor Mrs Weird thing we don't pronounce it now. It's just people stop pronouncing it properly but. Once upon a time, they would've been like, no, it's wrong to say neighbor without Jeanette they would have been like the correct way to say that is Nia Gabor because it was a boor who lived near you. So generations go by people make mistakes people say things a bit differently. People put on funny voices. Things Change. Now we say neighbor instead of new? Kabar I guess it is. The English is so complicated because it comes from all around the world. Yeah. What recalled English today like if you look up a word on the Internet to find out where it came from could come from anywhere. Like bungalow comes from India but you know even if you went back all the way to what the angles were saying, their language also came from all around the world like their language came from. Iraq and India and Russia and all kinds of weird places like people have been talking to each other for at least one, hundred, thousand years. So all of us, any point in history might say who invented our language and the odds would almost be some not dudes some arts and mother's thousand, five, hundred years ago. kind of doesn't matter where you are. That's always kind of be the answer.

England Tom Howell Mrs Weird Nia Gabor Oxford Dictionary GM India Jeanette Ghabbour Iraq Russia
Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams

60-Second Science

02:20 min | 2 years ago

Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams

"Around one hundred thousand years ago in what what is now. Italy are nandor tall cousins. Wait it out into the shallow. Coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. Big Grant the the molluscs from the sea floor and perhaps even died for them in deeper water and they also simply collect clams from the beach but the creatures weren't just food in a recent Study University of Colorado Boulder archaeologist Paolo Villa inner team report that neanderthals modified the clams hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The clam derived implements were found inside the grow today. Motion rainy a coastal cave. That was first rediscovered around eighty five years ago by examining wear and tear on the shells the researchers determined that about seventy five percent of the tool source material had been found found dead on the beach. These shows had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny indicating that the clams lambs were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. These shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tools so even though gathering clams underwater took more work than picking them up on the beach. The effort may have been worth it also found in the growth at any pumice stones volcanic eruptions that occurred to to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by neanderthals as abrasive tools. The study is in the journal loss. One neanderthals else were making these tools than fifty thousand years before modern. Humans first arrived in Western Europe but neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community. Munity during much of the twentieth century in recent years however evidence of their tool use and even artistic abilities has grown neanderthals hunted. That'd made cave art cooked with fire us boats and when fishing just last year for example research by villa and others found that neanderthals tolls living not far from the grocery knee. Site used resonant. He serves to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some forty thousand years ago but it's becoming ever more clear that neanderthals were intelligent creative. People who lead fully human lives.

Mediterranean Sea Paolo Villa Study University Of Colorado B Italy Western Europe
How Do You Compare to the Average American?

Motley Fool Answers

09:15 min | 2 years ago

How Do You Compare to the Average American?

"The financial profile all of the average American or more accurately profiles of many average Americans since a proper apples to apples? Comparison takes into account several factors. So we're GONNA approach this this by looking at the financial life cycle of somebody which of course starts with birth. Fortunately you don't have to pay for your own birth. That's good because because the average cost of a birth in America these days ten thousand dollars and that's if there are no complications whatsoever So let's jump ahead to one of the first experiences people have have with actually earning money and that is an allowance. How many kids get an allowance? And how much do they get law. According to a recent survey from the American Institute of CPA's as two thirds of parents get allowance and the average is thirty dollars a week. It's pretty nice. Isn't ages they say what ages they start giving they broke it down a little bit. Okay but what was interesting to me was far too five. Parents expect the children to do work. Some people feel like you should just allowance because that's how you learn how to be responsible And they expect at least one hour week of chores but on average children are spending five point one hours a week doing chores for their allowance. So let me just say that my kids are below average with my kids are not doing five hours. Where the tour? I don't even do five hours worth of chores in our house and I do a lot of chores in our. What are these are? Are these kids living on a farm like that's a very good question. Chores chores could be clean your room for us. It is dishes this. This is the number one joy that kids do and we're not even very good of making them. Do it. Put your own shoes on in the morning to dress yourself. Live at Downton Abbey. Everyone everyone here anyway. So there you go. That's allowance so that's money from your parents but you'll eventually reach the point where you can start earning money from other people and here we are talking about being a teenager but the emphasis is can because most teenagers don't according to a study by the Hamilton project. And the Brookings Institute back in Nineteen nineteen seventy nine fifty eight percent of teenagers. Were doing some sort of work. But today it's only thirty five percent most teenagers don't have a job which not even like babysitting reasoning or I I guess not then the factors for why this has gone down as number one. They say that teenagers just have more things to do. Like like more kids are doing More kids are taking classes over the summer. Also there's less low wage work more competition from older folks and immigrants. That said I have three teenagers and I'm not sure I quite vile this Mike. Especially in the summer my kids have managed to find jobs but regardless the majority of teenagers not working. What was your first job while so I used to cut before I was of age to be doing? I cut lawns in the neighborhood and Dan. I watered flowers at a local flower shop. Then sure I've told you this story F.. I faked my birth certificate so I could work in McDonalds when I was age. Fifteen instead instead of sixteen so I did that ric have I to you. It was your first job horrible paper route once where you have to go door to door and collect the money which I always hated to do you so I never did it so I never really got paid for thing. What about you so my first job? I I went to high school where you are expected to work like four hours a day so you go to class in either the morning or the afternoon and then you would then so what kind of like work at the school. Yeah you'd work in the school or you'd lurk working in nearby bakery or you'd work farm too so you could work on the farm. Some people had farm jobs or work on maintenance and the school So I worked for the principal symbol. Of course I was responding. I did a lot of you. Know entering in people's grades and typing let transcribing letters and just the office work so as like fifteen. I think started. Did you like that because I've often thought especially as a former elementary school teacher junior high teacher. I thought a lot of this education is wasted in the dish. It's been half the day like working out in the basically interning at different types of jobs because they're not learning so much in school. Yeah no I mean it was is one of the better jobs to have on campus. That's for sure. So did you. And your friends. I'll get straight a's no but we I mean we could. We could have definitely changed. All of our grades were honest asked by it was a religious school so God would have smoked in us we. We were well aware of the consequences for changing our grades. So we didn't do it got got it. At least I didn't what's next in life. maxine life is well. We're going real job hitting their well even before. Then you finish high school and and then what college you go to college. I should first of all point out that it's nice if you want to write so point out. First of all. The graduation rate from public high schools is now eighty five percent near an all time high. So let's go so how many people then go onto college sixty nine point seven percent according to the Department of Labor not everyone gets four year degree as some people go to college and they don't get a degree. People get the associates so when you look at four year bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees. It's it's between thirty five and forty percent of people who actually end up with a degree but almost seventy percent do end up going to college which of course brings us to one of the first major financial decisions. A kid has to make depending on how much their family is willing and able to pay and that is the cost of college so according to the College Board. Let's go over the numbers here for the two thousand nineteen thousand twenty year a four year your public in State Education Room Board Fees Tuition Twenty one thousand nine hundred and fifty for your public out of state thirty eight thousand three hundred and thirty four year private school forty nine thousand four hundred ninety dollars ice now. The College Board is quick to point out at those are the published sticker prices and that most people don't pay those they say that about three quarters of students receive grants that reduce the actual price that people pay and just just about every college these days has something called net price calculator. You go onto their website. You put in some basic financial information. It gives you a general idea of how much you would pay. It's not binding or anything but if you're thinking of a college go to the net price calculator and you get an idea of how much aid you might receive. That said. We all know that grants. It's an aren't enough. which brings us to the topic of educational loan so approximately two thirds of kids graduate with debt with the average being between thirty thousand and forty thousand dollars depending on which source? You're looking at repayment. Can Take Ten to twenty years. And according to the Federal Reserve one fifth of ours were behind in their payments in two thousand in seventeen. So you have to wonder is a college degree worth the cost well for most people. The answer's probably yes. College grads on average earn seventy I five percent more than high school grads but that said the Fed did find that college is not a good investment for about twenty five percent of graduates and several studies of people who have loans at found that the majority of people regret the debt and they wish they would have found some other way to pay for college either going to community college allege not going to the private school something like that but regardless of how you pay for it you do graduate head out of college time for that first job. How much can you expect to make while starting salaries these days around fifty three thousand dollars? But who's paying you the most well engineering degrees computer. Peter Science and math those starting salaries are between sixty five thousand and seventy thousand math math. Now that's crazy math data that everyone is so hot with the data. One loves the data exactly so since we just brought up salaries. Let's expand this beyond starting income income in general in the United States. What is the average or the median household income and the United States and the answer is whereas the sixty three thousand one hundred seventy nine dollars? that's what you said family or average average average household household income but there are a lot of factors that would tournament starting with where you live. So the highest incomes are in the northeast. Meeting is around. Seventy thousand thousand filed by the West Midwest and the South South is lowest at fifty seven thousand. Being married helps. The median income for a household with a married couple earns. Ninety three thousand six hundred dollars Also age is a factor the households will make the most are in the forty five to fifty four age range with a median income of eighty. Four thousand four hundred dollars. We've talked about this before. Where income generally peaks at some point in your late forties or early fifties? Finally just just give me an idea of where your income puts you in relation to the rest of America. Here's how the income dispersion breaks down so if you make thirty seven thousand dollars you're in the bottom thirty thirty percent again. Median sixty three thousand. If you make one hundred thousand year in the top thirty percent hundred eighty four year in the top ten percent and to be in the top five five percent you make two hundred and forty eight thousand dollars. That's generally how income breaks down.

College Board America United States Federal Reserve American Institute Of Cpa Mcdonalds Brookings Institute School Teacher Downton Abbey Mike DAN Principal Department Of Labor West Midwest Peter Science South South
A Star In Orion Is Dimming. Is It About To Explode?

Short Wave

10:16 min | 2 years ago

A Star In Orion Is Dimming. Is It About To Explode?

"One of the brightest stars in the night sky is named beetlejuice is about six hundred fifty light years away which is pretty close in outer space terms and if you've gazed eased up into the night sky and seen the Constellation Orion. You've seen beetlejuice before. So if you were to look up at it you would want to start by finding the three stars that make a nice little line that we call a Ryan's belts and then beetlejuice is as you're looking at it. The shoulder of Orion on the left. Emily Leveque is an astronomer at the University University of Washington who studies stars like beetlejuice which is known as a red supergiant supergiant because this star is enormous much bigger than our sun. If if you were to put beetlejuice where our son is it would swallow up all of the planets out past Mars and because it's so massive it means that it goes through a very different sort of life experience than our Sun will which brings us to why we're talking about beetlejuice right now. In recent weeks astronomers have noticed that beetlejuice. It's no longer appears to be one of the brightest stars. In the night sky there were sort of quick reports put out from people who monitor and observe beetlejuice very frequently. Saying you know it's getting dimmer and dimmer it's starting to get closest to the dentist we've seen there's also big dedicated networks of amateur astronomers that keep very close track of the brightness of stars like beetlejuice and they started noticing the same thing when we called Emily. She was preparing for this big astronomy conference in Hawaii Hawaii and she thought there would be a lot of buzz there about the dimming of beetlejuice beetlejuice is going to be a big topic. I'm sure especially family. She told us a Ryan is her. Favourite Constellation Constellation. But actually you don't have to be a pro astronomer to see what's happening with beetlejuice you can look for yourself at one point. beetlejuice was one of the brightest rytas stars in Orion. But now not so much so if you were to go up and look at it tonight it's dimmer than the star in Iran's right knee which is Ri- Joel and it's about equal in brightness to Ryan's other shoulder which is a star named Bella tricks so the fact that we can see with our eyes. That got noticeably dimmer really caught a lot of people's attention and then spiralled as just a wow. This is a really interesting and compelling thing changing sort of on our timescale in the night sky. So what's going on as we'll explain with help from Emily Leveque. Scientists have a few theories for why BETA disappear so dim and in the most dramatic explanation. Is that this star could be about to die. What's known as going SUPERNOVA? It would look pretty epic. I'm Emily Kwong filling informatics format today. This is short wave the daily science podcast from NPR. So here's the thing there's been quite a bit of speculation that the reason beetlejuice getting dimmer is that it's about to go Supernova. That's the big explode e end to the lifespan of a massive star and while dimming can mean that's about to happen for reasons that will get into it's not the most likely scenario for beetlejuice but first we had to clear up something with astronomer. Emily Leveque is this very cool star named after the tenth highest biased grossing film of One thousand nine hundred eighty eight. I'm pretty sure that it's the other way around. The spelling is different and sometimes here astronomers pronounce a little bit differently. Bentley will say beetlejuice instead of beetlejuice. Three times But it's actually derived from a Arabic name and there's I think some disagreement on what exactly it means but either means the arm of Orion or the hand of Orion or the hand of the hunter because the total constellation is looks like a person hunting. It's the only can I be honest. The only constellation I can ever successfully identify. Isn't that belt. It's very telling so I'll admit it's the easiest constellation and for me to identify to This is one of those. Well kept secrets of astronomy. A lot of us are embarrassingly bad at finding things in the night sky because we're used to looking at things that are so so dim that you can't see them with their own eyes and our telescopes have amazing computers. That can help us find things so we'll occasionally go out and look up and do just what a lot of people doing fine like that familiar. Little Line of three or another easy constellation to get our bearings A.. Let's talk about how astronomers such as yourself people who really study V. Stars have noticed something different about how beetlejuice looks in the night sky. How does it look different? So I will say we've been monitoring the brightness of beetlejuice for decades its and we've been measuring its brightness very frequently and we've seen its brightness change with times we've watched it get brighter and dimmer. This just caught people's attention because it was close close to the dentist that beetlejuice has ever been and what could dimming like this indicate so our guest right now is that what we're seeing is a combination of a few behaviors that we see in red super giants and that we've seen before in beetlejuice. The just happened to be coinciding. So we know that stars like beetlejuice. Have big support of boiling convective cells near their surfaces seal sort of get a bright hot spot and a slightly dimmer cool spot and it's entirely possible that this dimming is due in part to those convective cells we also know that stars like beetlejuice will actually shed off some mass from their outer layer. sobel sort popoff. The outermost layers of the star when that mass hits the Interstellar medium. It'll condense into what we call dust and dust dust in space kind of does. What does here it blocks light and gets in the way and can be a little bit of a nuisance but it would make star look a little bit dimmer if it then had a little veil of dust around it we also know that stars like this can pulse eight a little bit so their outer layers will sort of squeeze in puff out just due to instabilities in those layers and that'll also affect how bright the star looks so? I think the current guests is that we're seeing a couple different behaviors in beetlejuice. That on their own aren't too to strange. That just happened to be coinciding to make the star look especially dim so just as a thought experiment say beetlejuice is going to go Supernova. Br Nova how would we know. And what would it look like. So first of all the light that we're seeing from beetlejuice was emitted by the star about six hundred and fifty years ago. beetlejuice is a six hundred and fifty light years from Earth so when the light emerges it comes toward us as fast as it can but it's moving at the speed of light so looking at Beta Jesus a little bit like looking back in time to what the Star was actually doing six hundred and fifty years ago in terms of whether we will see beetlejuice go Supernova in our lifetimes beetlejuice and other massive stars like this kind of follow a live fast die young philosophy so they live about ten million with an m years beetlejuice in particular we know is moving into a later stage of its life because it is so big and so red but that could mean that we still have one hundred thousand years before it dies and produces a Supernova If it did though say we all went outside tomorrow and we we were seeing the light arrive from babies dying as a Supernova six hundred and fifty years minus day sometime in the Middle Ages. Let's say okay it. It would look pretty epic we have some records of other SUPERNOVA. That happened in the Milky Way and their appearance parents is incredibly dramatic. What we would see is Bagel juice getting brighter and brighter? Because we'd be seeing the incredibly bright signature of the SUPERNOVA explosion explosion. It would actually get so bright that if beetlejuice was up during the day we'd be able to see it during the daytime alongside the sun and it would last for for weeks and I think that if beetlejuice were to go supernova tomorrow and we saw it at night it would be comparable in brightness. I think to the full moon. ooh Wow we'd be able to see are shadows based on the light from the SUPERNOVA. Okay so what would it look like for beetlejuice more of a going collapsing inward on itself. I I am more of them. Exploding outward with star debris scattering across the universe. What what does it look like for Adl juice? It's a good question in it. We think that it's a bit of both both okay initial disruption comes when the core of the star collapses and depending on the type of star. And how much mass is in that core. It'll collapse into to a neutron star or a black hole after that collapse all the outer layers of the star come falling in toward the core and then bounce back off in a sort of rebound shock and that shock is what we see as a Supernova and what we would call a supernova because we see this outward blast of material you know new gas slamming into the interstellar medium and getting really bright and it looks to us like an explosion but it originally did start as a collapse. It's why I try to avoid saying that a star exploded as a SUPERNOVA. Because it's not to be the pedantic scientist it's not quite the first thing that happened in the star. But it's a bit Moroccan role as a turn of phrase. Oh yeah how would you so. This star is a part of your favorite constellation or Ryan and how would you feel if if indeed it we're we're going SUPERNOVA. I would be psyched. And I think some people expect that we would be very sad but it's a very exciting citing transition to watch and this would be one of the best studied stars we have available to US producing a Supernova. which right now is a process that we're you're still trying to understand we'd still be able to see the Supernova as it happened and then faded away these stars also leave behind what we call supernova remnants? So they're these these beautiful multicolored gas clouds that show us the dissipating material from the star. So it would be this amazing font of data and new ways to understand stars so I think it would be incredibly exciting.

Beetlejuice Emily Leveque Ryan Orion V. Stars Emily Kwong University University Of Washi Hawaii Hawaii United States Scientist NPR RI Bentley Iran Bella Joel Middle Ages
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

02:13 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Awesome and I miss it this is obviously as we mentioned you've done some pretty serious Hollywood projects and Joe Swanberg a look a filmmaker here in Chicago he's famous for shooting ultra low budget movies he doesn't script them he just says Hey guys as your character sit here and turning on the camera go yeah right yeah and indeed you enjoy working that way I got elected especially because we were drunk one hundred percent related with book marked with less fear because we had young people so let's talk about the movie this is the first thing you directed you've done some short films with this is your first feature which is very exciting one of the things I've read is that it's very intimidating to be a movie director because even a low budget movie there's a lot of money there's a lot of people they're all looking to you to be the leader did you have to struggle with that was it tough for you to fall naturally into the role I I felt pretty naturally into it because I've been on that for seventeen years and I was ready to take the reins you know I was ready to be the boss so it wasn't too hard I enjoyed that part you've been on sets doing all those other projects you've been doing sitting there the whole time going down that I should be in charge increasingly yeah this movie book smart it's about two young women they're about to graduate high school it's also very contemporary if I'm not mistaken it takes place right now the spring of twenty nineteen yeah that's right and the you you are to me a very young person but you're not that young so do now to learn stuff about like what high school kids are like now and how they were different when we you were graduating high school yeah basically they're just a lot better now they're much smarter they're much cooler if they're much more of they're much more fluid is and I had to learn some of their cool lingo because I am a one hundred thousand years old and I had to kind of catch up on how they talk and the cool window like for the longest time I didn't know what they meant when they were like rats that live number one the same but that means outfit so I pass it on to you the word thank you like like broad rod sit rabbit man yeah did they ever tell you anything that made you think they were just pulling your leg.

Joe Swanberg Chicago director Hollywood one hundred thousand years one hundred percent seventeen years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

KOMO

03:57 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

"Pro democracy rally took a turn police using tear gas and firing a water cannon after protesters threw bricks Molotov cocktails of some barricaded government buildings the tribe administration expected to appeal court ruling handed down Friday against its plan for detaining migrant families at the border maybe she's more Rivera a federal judge in California blocked a plan to do away with with the trump administration calls an incentive for migrants to show up at the border with a child under what is known as the floor as agreement migrant children can only be detained for up to twenty days leading to entire families being released or families being separated the government plan to do away with the twenty day limit but the judge says it will remain in effect at least for now motor of Iraq ABC news product lawmakers working on how to proceed with president trump's impeachment enquiring ABC's news Supreme Court contributor Kate Shaw with reminder on what the constitution says about impeachment constitution says impeachment is for treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors I think because the word crime and misdemeanor both in the constitution there's a tendency to think well high crime that's like a crime but a very serious one high crimes and misdemeanors are actually quite different from ordinary criminal offenses high crime a misdemeanor it's a political offense and abuse of office and public trust and so whether or not that kind of conduct violates the criminal statute it's actually somewhat the material so I actually think it's a mistake to get too bogged down in one of the elements of a federal crime can be established but it does sound like that at least somewhat how the conversation is playing out right now this is a rarity for him as in the movie theaters this weekend to catch a new film of it looks like movie goers and security folks asking you to remain village at this has to do surrounding the new joker movie well no specific threat has been identified federal and local authorities for encouraging people to just have the spies open interest to be alert of what's going on around you as a new choker movie makes its opening this weekend the LAPD announced plans to maintain high visibility around movie theaters when the film. released yesterday the figures in part driven by the twenty twelve deadly shooting at a theater in Aurora Colorado the incident took place during the run of another Batman related film the dark knight rises ABC's news consultant and former FBI special agent Brad Garrett the law enforcement community can only act on information that they receive it if it's not specific they have to put it out that way but my sense is that they had enough concern that this could become potentially real it's a special like no other NASA satellite spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe it's black hole gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is light traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in January Michelle Franzen ABC news bad will get to the results of the husky USC game of occurred earlier today it's all straight ahead along with more of come on who Saturday thank you for tuning in. I'm arena rock injure with another como extra oxy code own hydrocodone morphine codeine these are all pain killers we've heard of and most likely if taken after a root canal at the dentist or maybe a surgery but we also know these are opioids physician assistant David over ten from advanced pain care in Olympia explains how they are supposed to work with they do is they suppress the brain function and so by suppressing brain function and then use press the pain center stand Overton says there can be safe levels of cut offs for these drugs through a person's at a fairly low level of opiates and you've done all your safety checks and you can prove that everything else failed or didn't work it had side effects is perfectly.

hydrocodone Olympia Overton codeine David morphine three hundred seventy five mil one hundred thousand years twenty days twenty day
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

KOMO

03:46 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

"Pro democracy rally took a turn police using tear gas and firing a water cannon after protesters threw bricks Molotov cocktails of some barricaded government buildings the tribe administration expected to appeal court ruling handed down Friday against his plan for detaining migrant families at the border maybe she's more Rivera a federal judge in California blocked a plan to do away with with the trump administration calls an incentive for migrants to show up at the border with a child under what is known as the floor as agreement migrant children can only be detained for up to twenty days leading to entire families being released or families being separated the government plan to do away with the twenty day limit but the judge says it will remain in effect at least for now motor of Iraq ABC news Craddick lawmakers working on how to proceed with president trump's impeachment enquiring ABC's news Supreme Court contributor Kate Shaw with reminder on what the constitution says about impeachment constitution says impeachment is for treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors I think because the word crime and misdemeanor both in the constitution there's a tendency to think well high crime that's like a crime but a very serious one high crimes and misdemeanors are actually quite different from ordinary criminal offenses high crime a misdemeanor is the political fence an abuse of office and of public trust and so whether or not that kind of conduct violates the criminal statute it's actually somewhat the material so I actually think it's a mistake to get too bogged down in one of the elements of a federal crime can be established but it does sound like that at least somewhat how the conversation is playing out right now this is a rarity for him as in the movie theaters this weekend to catch a new film of it looks like movie goers and security folks asking you to remain village at this has to do with surrounding the new joker movie well no specific threat has been identified federal and local authorities for encouraging people to just have the spies open interest to be alert of what's going on around you as a new choker movie makes its opening this weekend the LAPD announced plans to maintain high visibility around movie theaters when the film. released yesterday the sinners in part driven by the twenty twelve deadly shooting at a theater in Aurora Colorado the incident took place during the run of another Batman related film the dark knight rises ABC's news consultant and former FBI special agent Brad Garrett the law enforcement community can only act on information that they receive it if it's not specific they have to put it out that way but my sense is that they had enough concern that this could become potentially radio it's a special like no other NASA satellite spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe it's black hole gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is light traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in January Michelle Franzen ABC news bad will get to the results of the husky U. S. C. game of occurred earlier today it's all straight ahead along with more of come on who Saturday thank you for tuning in. I'm arena rock injure with another come extra oxy code own hydrocodone morphine codeine these are all pain killers we've heard of and most likely if taken after a root canal at the dentist or maybe a surgery but we also know these are opioids physician assistant David over ten from advanced pain care in Olympia explains how they are supposed to work with they do is they suppress the brain function and so by suppressing brain function and then use press the pain center stand Overton says there can.

hydrocodone Olympia Overton codeine David morphine three hundred seventy five mil one hundred thousand years twenty days twenty day
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

KOMO

03:58 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KOMO

"Pro democracy rally took a turn police using tear gas and firing a water cannon after protesters threw bricks Molotov cocktails of some barricaded government buildings the tribe administration expected to appeal court ruling handed down Friday against its plan for detaining migrant families at the border maybe she's more Rivera a federal judge in California blocked a plan to do away with with the trump administration calls an incentive for migrants to show up at the border with a child under what is known as the floor as agreement migrant children can only be detained for up to twenty days leading to entire families being released or families being separated the government plan to do away with the twenty day limit but the judge says it will remain in effect at least for now motor of Iraq ABC news Craddick lawmakers working on how to proceed with president trump's impeachment enquiring ABC's news Supreme Court contributor Kate Shaw with reminder on what the constitution says about impeachment constitution says impeachment is for treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors I think because the word crime and misdemeanor both in the constitution there's a tendency to think for high crime that's like a crime but a very serious one high crimes and misdemeanors are actually quite different from ordinary criminal offenses high crime a misdemeanor it's a political offense and abuse of office and of public trust and so whether or not that kind of conduct violates the criminal statute it's actually somewhat the material so I actually think it's a mistake to get too bogged down in one of the elements of a federal crime can be established but it does sound like that at least somewhat how the conversation is playing out right now this is a rarity for him as in the movie theaters this weekend to catch a new film it looks like movie goers and security folks asking you to remain village at this has to do surrounding the new joker movie well no specific threat has been identified federal and local authorities for encouraging people to just have the eyes open interest to be alert of what's going on around you as a new choker movie makes its opening this weekend the LAPD announced plans to maintain high visibility around movie theaters when the film. released yesterday the figures in part driven by the twenty twelve deadly shooting at a theater in Aurora Colorado the incident took place during the run of another Batman related film the dark knight rises ABC's news consultant and former FBI special agent Brad Garrett the law enforcement community can only act on information that they receive it if it's not specific they have to put it out that way but my sense is that they had enough concern that this could become potentially real it's a special like no other NASA satellite spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe it's black hole gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is light traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in January Michelle Franzen ABC news we'll get to the results of the husky USC game that occurred earlier today it's all straight ahead along with more of come on to Saturday thank you for tuning in. I'm arena rock injure with another como extra oxy code own hydrocodone morphine codeine these are all pain killers we've heard of and most likely if taken after a root canal at the dentist or maybe a surgery but we also know these are opioids physician assistant David over ten from advanced pain care in Olympia explains how they are supposed to work with they do is they suppress the brain function and so by suppressing brain function and then use press the pain center stand Overton says there can be safe levels of cut offs for these drugs through a person's at a fairly low level of opiates and you've done all your safety checks and you can prove that everything else failed or didn't work it had side effects is perfectly.

hydrocodone Olympia Overton codeine David morphine three hundred seventy five mil one hundred thousand years twenty days twenty day
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

03:18 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"Dollars some think it would help ease the financial crisis importer Rico and pave the way for the territory to regain fiscal autonomy Dave Schreiber ABC news the Federal Aviation Administration is requiring operators of certain NG jetliners to conduct inspections for structural cracks after they discovered cracks during modifications on heavily used aircraft Boeing notified the FAA upon further inspection similar crimes were found in other aircraft CBS news senior travel advisor Peter Greenberg has additional details instructions for the airlines is that the inspectors have to be done immediately and they will be done and I'm cleared to fly however when you have a problem in a critical part like this it may indicate further evidence of metal fatigue and that is even more serious that's Peter Greenberg reporting it stay number thirteen of the General Motors strike in negotiations between the U. A. W. in the auto maker continue throughout the weekend meanwhile the pickers are causing some problems around GM facilities driving in areas where GM workers are picketing can be tricky and tops Tom says he lives by the war injection and makes his living on the road it was just great Tom says he supports the workers but when they cause a traffic safety hazard to occur police need to enforce the laws against causing a public danger Mike Campbell for CBS news Detroit a new bills to deal with annoying bills at hotels CBS news correspondent Wendy Gillette explains when you were enjoying your beach vacation. the last thing you want to worry about is the bill and the Norwegian daily resort fees you didn't expect Congress is considering doing something about it legislation to ban what's referred to as unfair and deceptive resort fees the hotel advertising transparency act as a bipartisan bill that would require all fees included an advertised prices other than government required taxes twenty July CBS news space shuttle like no other NASA satellites of spotted one of the most rare in violent events in the universe a black Kohl gobbling up a starring shredding it into pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is light it traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in January Michelle Franzen ABC news the October fourth release of the new joker movie is prompting fears of violence ABC's Veronica miracle is in Los Angeles this dark and twisted choker creating excitement and fear at theaters across the country several national theater chains are ramping up security betting masks and face paint for audiences the LAPD also planning to rampart visibility at local theaters. Hey it's spider man..

three hundred seventy five mil one hundred thousand years
Black hole breakthrough: NASA captures its first-ever black hole tearing a star to shreds

WBZ Afternoon News

00:40 sec | 2 years ago

Black hole breakthrough: NASA captures its first-ever black hole tearing a star to shreds

"It's a space show like no other NASA satellites of spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe a black cold gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is white it traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in

Colin Nasa Scientist Three Hundred Seventy Five Mil One Hundred Thousand Years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on Christian Podcast Community

Christian Podcast Community

16:08 min | 2 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on Christian Podcast Community

"Apologetic answer your questions your host of striving for eternity level Yeah all right we are live apologize live here to answer obvious show he will be out at least for the into until the end of this year he's moving next month there's going to take time to move there's GonNa take time to unpack so but we have a lot of special guest apologised coming in and we will have some debates at as well so tonight we have Dr Jason Lyle and we're GONNA be talking about his background is astrophysicists physicists. He's an astrophysicist is as a and we'll be talking about things like that creation science but next week we will have a debate between a Lutheran and Baptist on the topic of Baptism the week after that we'll be having we're probably going to review a debate that Eli had done on the truth the Gospel Truth Pot really show and then after that I will be a truth matters conference in California we'll take it that week off but when we return we're going to do a review of a debate review of debate last night from the Gospel Truth as well can we actually say it was a debate for those of you who watched it you know you really couldn't say it was a debate because the guy defeated his argument in his these three minute opening he had ten minutes did three he really didn't seem to want to do any cross examination because he used it just as rebut I think he was actually my theory is he was he said he was a Gamer I think he was playing games during the debate because he seemed like he really didn't want to be there he was disinterested you know he didn't want ask questions you wanted more of a monologue I don't know if you really wanted to be there but this is apologizing live it is a ministry of Striving fraternity the podcast version is heard on the Christian podcast community and you can find all of our podcasts at Christian podcasts community dot org if you're wanting to find out we have a bunch of podcast mine that I have this is one of them the others are Andrew reports rap report that is a weekly pursued that we do where it's about an hour long but if you like the shorter things Monday through Friday Andrew reports daily wrap report what I've been doing is can you really short answers to an answers actually less about a minute and forty five seconds to challenges that we get hint the one we just did was does God tempt us to sin that was today's and tomorrow arose will be does God still speak to us today so we put those out Monday through Friday quick just so you have some of these chat oranges that people sometimes give and so they are available to you and so those are some of the podcasts out there and I want to bring in now Dr Jason in Lisle one of the things I always loved to tell the story Jason Though of you you and I on the boardwalk with some guy who was just took it over an hour and a half of this pastors time the this military guy and he walked over to this conversation that you know what's what's the the the your argument what's your position and he basically said his conclusion was there are no smart there's no intelligent Christians and I ended a basket or like what what what counterintelligence at and he says you show me someone that has a PhD and is a Christian I said okay what what what if he had a PhD in like astrophysicists like with that count if he was if he had a degree in astronomy and physics and here's like such thing doesn't exist and you were like sitting on the bench and I'm like Jason career for a second like meet Dr Jason Lisle PhD astrophysicist and the guy just walked away from you never said a word and you're like what did I say your presence was enough to chase him away I do but you used to work for a while company you worked for answers in Genesis and very well known Creation Science Ministry then you move Dover to more of a research type of ministry ICR institutue creation research which they're doing research stuff I should note for folks that if they've ever been to the Great Museum and gone in the planetarium you had a little something to do with that you actually the boat I think both the presentations together right or just the one on the original three or four presentations I wrote this yeah yeah so and then you went over ICR and then recently you've you've gone out on your own and you're with a ministry that you've created and you speak for for Biblical Science Institute so Real quick for folks as we wait for folks to come in I should announce that if you want to join the discussion just go to apologize live dot com the links to to watch and join right there tell us about Biblical Science Institute why you started this what you're doing with it and what you hope to to see God do this mystery it is a Christian ministry it's designed to show people that Bible is true from the beginning and with a special emphasis on science im scientists and by the grace of guy is he selected me to Defense the Bible I enjoyed doing that I wish I science lines with Scherzer there's a common misconception that to be Christians to be anti-scientific to the anti intellectual and really the purpose of this order tation is to show people that in fact it really is the opposite it's not to say that there aren't any intellectual who are not Christians but I I do want to show people that is intellectually inconsistent to not Christian if you're going to be fully consistently rational you're gonna make sense of science the scientific method you have to be consistent Christian in order for that to make sense and I also have a special appreciation for defensive genesis in particular foundational sued the Christian faith in terms of major doctrines had their origin their foundation of Genesis and so it's an educational Science Education Christian Ministry basically all right and so some of the stuff I have some I don't have the DVD. I wanted to talk about here you're the most isn't one and I forget the name of it the one on fractionals so the secret code of creation the Secret Code of creation folks this is you got to go to local science institute dot Com right now and get that one that is so you go folks no you just go into they have shop he's got to go into the shop I should have done that I find because there's well there's several products here but get get the one of the secret code of creation all right it's on page to their nice red background that is like if you want to just be wowed about like how cool God awesome God is that's one I mean this is the one thing you you and I were sitting in Idaho wants you were you were you were saying and like you were talking about like dentists and different professions where when they travel it's like the people will come up and ask them things that are kind of practical but you have the feel that just sits young where you're just constantly going wow God is awesome so you got some DVD's that have you your understanding Genesis so talk about that one real quick that's previously the fact that Christian doctrines are rooting justice. al Christians think well it doesn't really matter which we've genesis just trust in Jesus and Jesus is the the Center for favors Ah but Jesus is also the Creator Anti created the eastern at the university existence and so this back to genesis we we believe that that human life is valuable but why is that what is back to the genesis theme that human beings are made in the image of God or different from animals or classified as they were different we have a spirit remained God's image the hot we've been given to all these Christian concepts through back to the little district reported justice DVD's one that all the kids love especially dinosaurs and the Bible it's fun it's just something that yeah I loved dinosaurs you're a young youngster I've been a fan I looked I will I was young and I never really got over that we still think probably cool and it is it was for me it was very exciting west I realized how dinosaurs makes sense in light of the the biblical history the and that was cool it was it was profoundly I enjoy sharing that it would be that would be suitable for youngster I but for adults as well I try to reach white range of people all right and then we have astronomy reveals creation backwards is my specialty field I am an astrophysicist and so it's my joy to US share with people how the declares God's glory how it's how the universe and the science astronomy is not really consistent with the prevailing secular view of the date bang saw that shows people that science actually confirms the creation stopping and actually I should have brought the books out you have a couple of books back taking back astronomy and and the other interesting one encourage people with it is your the stargazers guide to the night sky describe that will take you back a strong I mean that's the morphology ah they're actually goes along with that DVD and so it's showing people how the university clarice God's glory how it's inconsistent with the blades fears on the sidelines genesis guide. That's a little different that one I wrote just to help people enjoy the night sky because the universe does declare God's glory and I find with the split the second book I don't need to explicitly point that out what I need to show people how to enjoy its guy better so if you want to know in the next meteor shower areas it's in there if you WanNa know how find sadder it's if you WanNa know always thinking about getting a telescope wonder the considerations it's all in there no I never going to get a telescope I just wanted to see an noculars it's so it's just assigned to the show pod enjoy the night sky from a Christian perspective the end is not hitting your head with apologetic like most of taste it's just it's just helping Jordan Steiner's off message and and I do want to talk about you know actually we'll do that before we get to the next DVD there there's been some recent Recent things it's about some some objects heading our way into our source system should we be worried a very stable universe and of course he's promised us that until Judgment Day time harvest will continue for Genesis twenty two stable which by the way eliminates any catastrophic global warming or anything like we promise from God until just mundane objects that are interstellar some Earth crossing asteroids people get very concerned about those that we can calculate centuries in advance where there's GonNa be a with with Vergara precision and not our schedule theorists what was really cool as it was about well first of all let me back up a little bit year was a year or two ago we had an object enter our solar system basically is an asteroid that does not belong to our sources some it's just passing by as it were and so this object came in space around signing back out to the face to return really fascinating and I'll also so believable long it was like the length compared to the wizard was like I don't the second one or something that was incredibly a rod basically house fascinating we'd never seen interstellar Ashford before all the other asteroids the signed and they continue to orbit this thing came in for space got bent by the sense groggy and back out in just a just like a week or two ago they discovered first interstellar comets comments that's from deep space it doesn't it doesn't circle the sun is coming in from space it's going to whiplash it's never going to get host the scientists most closest Mars it's GonNa Whiplash back out into deep space will never see again just cool because it's novel and I I like stuff like that Ronnie's let you know we got there are and so an interstellar comet coolest that it's not going to get very bright is can you get up to about magnitude team it's just about the brain of the the reflect Pluto so unless you have a very powerful tell us it is just it's it's just me it's just always surprises that the lord sense who do interstellar Palm Ernie and comments can last millions and billions of years right while they can actually the ironic thing is only if they were interstellar you asked this is perhaps the one that could last that long because it's been in deep space since creation presumably but the comments vice so that icing the journal is primarily from a surface and that's actually what forms the calmest tale that's material being blasted away from the nucleus comment by solar heat Gatien solar winds tearing away so every time you see a common it's getting smaller sloughs fast and we can we can we can measure the rate at which materials being depleted we know the something like one hundred thousand years it depends it's not millions of years let alone blades and so that's somewhat of a problem for the second review because the comments are supposed to formed when the solar system bid and the second of UNICEF four point five billion years ago but they can't last that long and that's why my second invented things like cloud to supply Longford comments and then they claim the Kuyper belts regenerates assure pretty comments so these are designed to protect the world from what is apparently.

Dr Jason Lyle one hundred thousand years five billion years forty five seconds three minute ten minutes
How Did We Miss This Week's Shockingly Close Asteroid Flyby?

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

02:35 min | 3 years ago

How Did We Miss This Week's Shockingly Close Asteroid Flyby?

"An asteroid as large as a football field is just flying past the earth with astronomers not detecting acting it until literally just a day before its closest approach. The giants space rock thought to be up to one hundred and thirty meters wide came within sixty five thousand kilometers of earth on july the twenty fifth in nominal terms. That's about as close as it gets. The asteroids being catalogued as twenty nine. Okay the european paint space agency says this near earth objects close approach illustrates the need for more eyes on the sky was able to observe the asteroid just before its fly by requesting requesting to separate telescopes in the international scientific optical network is on to take images of space rock the observations allow strana missed the determine the asteroids exact back position and trajectory yesterday it was i the technical the day before its closest approach by the southern observatory veneer of asteroids research observations of twenty nine thousand nine okay with an independently confirmed by other observatories including the chiba radio telescope in puerto rico and third telescope in the ice on network following following its discovery with knowledge of the astros would have been in the past based on its current course and by manually searching for it by existing images were found in the past is is an atlas skysurfer archives it turns out birth said they had in fact captured the asteroid in the weeks before it's ultra close encounter with earth but the space space rock was moving so slowly it appears to move just a tiny amount between the images and was therefore not recognized as a near earth object neo and hence the seriousness of the threat <unk>. It wasn't appreciated of course astronomers now of an attracting thousands of asteroids across the solar system so why was this one discovered so late will unfortunately originally currently there's no single obvious reason apart from its slow apparent motion across the sky before it's close approach twenty nineteen okay travels in highly elliptical orbit taking it from within the open of venus out too well beyond that of mas this means the time it spends near earth and therefore time it's detectable both current telescope capabilities is relatively short modules towards the size of twenty nine. Okay i relatively common throughout the solar system but they impact on average only about once every one hundred thousand years or so still an asteroid like that hitting a major city or urban area would cause major devastation destruction based from its current orbital path through the solar system the asteroid one come close to the game for at least the next two hundred years. I'm stewart gary. You're listening space

Giants Astros Stewart Gary Southern Observatory Strana Chiba Puerto Rico Sixty Five Thousand Kilometers One Hundred Thousand Years Two Hundred Years Thirty Meters Twenty Fifth
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

AP News

03:19 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

"Almost to discourage people from spending the night there mayor Keith James calls it innovative doubling down despite the ACLU condemning the city's actions as cruel we thought it would be a good idea I still think was a good idea to play music some annoying songs to the night Josh Replogle west Palm Beach Florida to the choir a B. radio news all right it's Jamie progresses employee of the month to month in a row leave a message at that hi Jamie it's me Jamie I just had a new idea for our song with the name your price tool so when it's like tell us what you want to pay the problem was what wine you say will be found coverage options to fit your budget then we just all the finger snaps will acquire goes he was coming after they've come at Jeff yes no maybe anyway so your practice tonight I got a new there so the referee cancel the insurance company affiliates price and coverage match is limited by state law the AP digital news network scientists say they've identified the earliest sign of humans in southern Greece after they found a chunk of skull in a cave the skulls estimated ages at least two hundred ten thousand years old making it sixteen thousand or more years older than an upper jaw bone from Israel that was reported last year the research published in the journal nature shows our species began leaving Africa much earlier than previously thought the travelers to Greece evidently left no descendants alive today other research has established that the exit is from Africa that led to our world wide spread didn't happen until more than one hundred thousand years later then you work is the latest sign of earlier dad and exits from the continent where homo sapiens evolved roller coaster riders were stuck for nearly two hours at a Six Flags amusement park in Maryland when the ride malfunctioned a six flag spokeswoman says the ride came to a stop at the top of the lift hill on the Firebird right Thursday night all the guests were escorted safely off but officials said passengers had to wait for nearly two hours on the floor list coaster as the park followed safety procedures Six Flags officials say the right to remain close while it undergoes an inspection the first woman on the Supreme Court now has her Arizona home in the national register of historic places the National Park Service officially approved the Sandra day o'connor house is a historic place in metro Phoenix o'connor and her husband actually helped police the adobe bricks for the home when it was being built in nineteen fifty seven the mid century modern house was heavily influenced by the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright the historic designation means the property is deemed worthy of preservation it doesn't however guarantee complete protection against demolition but any federally funded project that could negatively impact the house would have to consider its protection Britain Enron I'm to acquire the navy news minute British Foreign Secretary Jeremy hunt denounces around seizure of a British oil tanker in international waters of the strait of Hormuz this is completely unacceptable freedom of navigation must be maintained hunt adds that Britain is not looking at military options Iran denies.

two hours two hundred ten thousand years one hundred thousand years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

AP News

03:30 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

"Your listening to the AP digital news network scientists say they've identified the earliest sign of humans in southern Greece after they found a chunk of skull in a cave the skulls estimated ages at least two hundred ten thousand years old making it sixteen thousand or more years older than an upper jaw bone from Israel that was reported last year the research published in the journal nature shows our species began leaving Africa much earlier than previously thought the travelers to Greece evidently left no descendants alive today other research has established that the exit is from Africa that led to our world wide spread didn't happen until more than one hundred thousand years later then you work is the latest sign of earlier dad and exits from the continent where homo sapiens evolved Taiwan's main opposition parties picked a populist pro China Mayer as its candidate for the twenty twenty presidential race against an incumbent too often bashes Beijing the nationalist parties chosen hime grow you to run against incumbents hiding one in the January election after opinion poll results give him a forty five percent support rating undefeated for other candidates including former Foxconn technology chairman and billionaire Terry while in a party primary he's vowed to make peace with China and signed deals with four Chinese cities to sell five point two billion new Taiwan dollars or one hundred sixty seven million US dollars worth of Taiwanese agricultural products there's another first time winner on the PGA tour this time at the John Deere classic eighties a wrist beers reports the victory earned him a spot in the British open south African Dylan fratelli a twenty nine year old tour rookie won his first PGA tour event with a two shot victory in the John Deere classic for tell you sink the winning but to help the university of Texas when the twenty twelve NC double a national championship shot a final round sixty four to finish at twenty one under par enter any exemption into the British open second place finisher Russell Henley carded a final round ten under par sixty one the lowest final round in the tournament's forty nine year history Rory spears silver so annoying truck draws intense criticism I'm to acquire the navy news been if for democratic Congress woman of color say president trump doesn't deserve to be president Minnesota's your lawn marks time for us to impeach this president trump over the weekend we did that the four known as the squad that you should go back to their own countries through the foreign born in the United States one Omar was born in Somalia came to the U. S. as a refugee when she was a child drums postings have drawn an outcry from Democrats and some Republicans trump for his part double down today on the attack that's what I said in a tweet which I guess some people think it's controversial a lot of people love it by the way down today on the attack that's what I said in a tweet which I guess some people think it's controversial a lot of people love it by the way lot of people love it meanwhile the trump administration wants to reverse decades of US policy ending all asylum protections for most migrants to arrive at the U. S. Mexico border plan calls for migrants who passed through another country on the way to the United States to be in eligible rule also applies to children who cross the border loan I'm to acquire AP digital news back in a moment thank you for looking at farmers insurance we have concrete evidence that parking under an industrial cement mixer.

AP two hundred ten thousand years one hundred thousand years forty five percent twenty nine year forty nine year
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

AP News

05:10 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on AP News

"This is gonna break all the cost information in conditions of housing like license in all fifty states and one hundred thirty thirty they've identified the earliest sign of humans in southern Greece after they found a chunk of skull in a cave the skulls estimated ages at least two hundred ten thousand years old making it sixteen thousand or more years older than an upper jaw bone from Israel that was reported last year the research published in the journal nature shows our species began leaving Africa much earlier than previously thought the travelers to Greece evidently left no descendants alive today other research has established that the exit is from Africa that led to our world wide spread didn't happen until more than one hundred thousand years later then you work is the latest sign of earlier dad and exits from the continent where homo sapiens evolved you can does ports from Russia continue to flow into Turkey despite US objections A. P.'s at Charles de Ledesma reports the US is threatening sanctions if they continue the Turkish defense ministry says two more cargo planes have landed doesn't feel near the capital Ankara reading Russian made defense systems components for the fourth day running they were the eighth and ninth planes to ride since Friday Washington has repeatedly won't take a little impose sanctions on the NATO member country and excluded from the F. thirty five stealth fighter jet program if I'm correct does not told it's S. four hundred procurement the Turkey has refused to bow to US pressure sings defense purchase it's a matter of national security I'm sure that's my environmental protesters have blocked roads in London and four other British cities in a new wave of demonstrations demanding foster action against climate change hundreds of supporters of the group extinction rebellion blocked the streets outside London's royal courts of justice on Monday they called for charges to be dropped against more than a thousand people arrested during climate protests earlier this year protest rules are taking place in Glasgow called if Bristol and leads Britain aims to achieve net zero carbon emissions by twenty fifty extinction rebellion once it down by twenty twenty five eighteen radio I'm to require for freshman democratic congressman color denounce president trump was weekend tweets telling them to go back to their own countries Michigan congressman Rashid to leave says trump's attacks are just more of the same sadly this is not the first nor will it be the last time we hear disgusting bigoted language from the president we know this what is who he is trump is an apologetic labeling the Democrats socialist story even communists who despise the USA hate our country they hate it I think with a passion now it's possible I'm wrong the voters will decide several Republicans in Congress are also critical of trump Utah senator Mitt Romney calls trump's comments destructive demeaning and this unifying senator Tim Scott of South Carolina the only black Republican in the Senate says trump has interjected I'll with unacceptable personal attacks and racially offensive language in his tweets in Charlottesville Virginia James Alex fields a sentence of four hundred nineteen years in state prison for killing one anti white supremacist protester and key injuring some thirty others when he drove his car into a crowd one of those who were injured concert young says people ask her what they can do to help what I now ask of these people specifically these white people is to be less apathetic in the face of racism to accusers of Jeffrey abstain told a judge in New York to keep the wealthy financier behind bars until he goes on trial on federal charges that he sexually abused underage girls Brad Edwards is their attorney both support the government's position of no bail both believe not only is he a flight risk for the obvious reasons but also that that is the only way to secure the safety of the community this is a P. radio news contacts are being traced to the first person in Congo's largest city go by who has been diagnosed with Ebola doctor how to knit jaggery is the one with the World Health Organization this is very serious because this is a foster you know plus thirty three of many people he prays on those who are very sick dokey them and we don't know now how many people he has token go why is home to more than two million people mark low **** is at the United Nations you know already that we had cation you can day you've seen the reports of that recent case in Goma unless we're able to scale up to deal with the risk of spreading game we will not be successful in getting to zero cases health experts have long feared Ebola a responsible for killing nearly seventeen hundred people so far in Congo since August would make his way eventually to the city cut cause health ministry sought to reassure people.

two hundred ten thousand years four hundred nineteen years one hundred thousand years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

04:31 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Somebody cool to do something lame Olivia Wilde became well known as an actor and TV shows like the OC and house and movies like Tron legacy and Cowboys and alliens and now she's behind the camera seems to be working out. Well, her debut film book, smart is one of the best reviewed films of twenty nineteen a love your wild, welcome to wait, wait. Don't tell me. So you've done so much in a relatively brief time is there is there one thing for which you think you're most well, known when people see you on the street, I think it is probably have. But you never know there's, there's John fans everywhere they come out of the woodwork there there. They're sort of more of the nerdy variety. They're also the most awesome. I love the Tron banned everywhere. But I have to say drinking buddies movie I shot in Chicago. With our very own just wander and yes, and I love it very much and I have to give it up for the Chicago microbrews scene, which is really awesome. And I miss it. This is. Because obviously, as we've mentioned, you've done, some pretty serious Hollywood projects, and Joe swan Berg filmmaker here in Chicago. He's famous for shooting ultra low budget movies. He doesn't script them. He just says, hey guys, this is your character sit here. I'm turning on the camera go. Yeah. Right. Yeah. And, and did you enjoy working that way? I left it especially because we were drunk, one hundred percent of. Late it with book smart with let fear because we had young people. So let's talk about the movie this isn't the first thing you directed. You've done some short films, but this is your first feature, which is very exciting. One of the things I've read is that it's very intimidating to be movie director, because even a low budget movie there's a lot of money. There's a lot of people are looking to you to be the leader. Did you have to struggle with that was tougher? You did you fall naturally into the role. He naturally because I've been on sets for seventeen years, and I was ready to take the rain. You know, I was ready to be the boss. So it wasn't too hard. I enjoyed that part had you been on sets doing all those other projects, you've been doing sitting there, the whole time going debt, I should be in charge. Increasingly yet. Yeah. This movie book smart. It's about two young women. They're about to graduate high school. It's also very contemporary if I'm not mistaken. It takes place right now. The spring of twenty nineteen. That's right. And you are to me, a very young person, but you're not that young. So have to learn stuff about, like what high school kids are like now. And how they were different when you were graduating high school. Yeah. Basically, they're just a lot better. Now. They're much smarter. They're much cooler. They're much more evolved. They're much more fluid. And then I had to learn some of their cool Ingo 'cause I am one hundred thousand years old, and I had to kind of catch up on how they talk and they have like for the longest time. I didn't know what they meant when they were like red fitness. And why are they saying? But that means outfit, though I've had that onto you. The word. Broad RAD fit. Did they ever tell you anything that made you think they were just pulling your leg? They were the whole time, but they were very, very kind to me. I have to ask you. This is a movie as given away by the title about two rather brainy girls in high school. In fact, decide at one point they haven't had enough funds. They've been so brainy and working so hard was that what you were like in, in high school. I read the ultimate nerd high school just the nerdy of the nerd and I one of them, and I've proud to be, but we didn't have fun parties. Everyone else did. And I just wasn't made aware, but. I met a movie about it in order to go to the party. Yeah. Everyone pay them to be there. So the movie has come out. It's gotten great reviews. I hope a lot of people see let's assume that it is the success that it seems to be what you want to do next. Are you going to try to one of those big superhero movies next that seems to be that? I wouldn't that. We've done those big movies, you could handle it handle it. I can handle it wrong as I have, you know, good snacks and loud music I could make it happen. But truly I will say this are pretty grim for female filmmakers. So I say that all of that lady should step up and start telling stories as much as we possibly can..

Olivia Wilde Chicago Ingo Cowboys John Joe swan Berg director Hollywood one hundred thousand years one hundred percent seventeen years
The age-old quest for the color blue

Science Magazine Podcast

06:44 min | 3 years ago

The age-old quest for the color blue

"Up we have contributing correspondent Kaikaku for Schmidt. He's here to talk to us about the pursuit of blue. Hi kai. So how long have humans been on the hunt for a blue color? That's already whether the difficulty begins. I guess. Yeah. Pretty good evidence from a cave in South Africa, the Blombos cave that one hundred thousand years ago, humans already will making pigments so more like red ochre yellow ker in using charcoal for black. They will make pigments. But there's no evidence at all of any blue pigments than for a very very long time. That stays the same is some recent evidence of from from gravesite in Turkey that about nine thousand years ago. There was some burials of women children whether it had ground down as right, which is a blue mineral. And even when it's down. It's it's kind of a nice, blue pigment. They were very with this possibly was used for medics. We don't really know. But that's kind of the earliest evidence. We have of any Lukman. Why is blue so rare? Is there some physical property required to make something reflect the color blue, it's hard to achieve if you look in the plot world as a lot of different classes, pigments that we have. But there's only one class of pigments Dan to signs which can actually make blue. And even then it tends to be the complicated molecules that blue in that simply because in order for something to be blue it needs to absorb the rent. So the other part of the visible spectrum, basically and red light is of the visible spectrum. It's the lowest energy light. So in order for something to absorb the red. The kind of jumps that an electron makes which is how molecule usually absorbs collapse these jumps need to be very small jumps in order to absorb the right rather than the blue. So it's much easier for nature appears to make molecules that absolve blue instead of once that absorb Bredon appeal blue these molecules often have to have. A lot of consigned chains and little ecoregions until they really make a good blue. I mean, there is blue in nature. We got water we got sky, we got blueberries. But for some reason making a synthetic version making a dye or pigment is really difficult. What about blue butterflies? Those those have nice blue color several of the blues. You've mentioned now are ones that aren't really pigment. So if you take sky, it's you know, kind of scattered more than than red light. Which is why the sky his loop in Walter. It's interesting because Walter actually absorbs kind of in the red kind of to vibrate the water molecules vibrate with the energy of red light. But it's not a very strong effect. Which is why you only see the bluest as up of water, and then the butterflies like most animals, they also not producing any blue pigments, they have like tiny structures that reflect light in a way that most of the other colors cancelled. So. If you take something very famous example like Mosul butterfly if you do into the scales on its wings. It has these little structures, and they basically end up reflecting all of the light the Chines onto the onto the wing in a way that the other colors, just disappear. What you see is the blue. So basically, everything is not a payment or at tied that we see in everyday life. But if we want to reproduce, those colors, if we want to make painting or make something out of plastic. That's the right color blue. It's really difficult, exactly. And humans in the past. Usually they found these pigments by accident. Some of the earliest examples are indigo which is a dye made from plants, but actually the plot itself isn't extra blue. So it's a blue from nature, but it's only blue ones humans do some chemistry on people for a very long time wanted to try and make synthetic indigo. And it took the s chemical company many, many years in precedent. The amount of money to finally come up with synthetic indigo. So they spent more than eight million gold marks at the time, which was more than the company was even worth to finally come up with with the recipe for synthetic indigo which was then produced around the world in is still used today to color jeans. It does make me wonder what is wrong with the blues that we have. I mean, we have plenty of toys that are blue plastic. We have paints that are blue. What what are those things that are available now not doing right or not cheating? Right. Chart is just the festive nation with colors, right? I mean, there are so many different hues of blue. And if somebody comes up with a new one, it's just especially of the artists. So usually the first ones to use them at it's just fascinating to have, you know, one more shoop. But then the other thing is that a little the blues that use Sopher instance, ultra marine, which is basic ground down. That's right. The part of Lapsley. It was one of the one of the most expensive pigments ever made was just very rare, right? Because you need the semi precious stone Lasley to even able to do it later people came up with a way of making it synthetically. But then even this static version it takes her chemicals to make that end up polluting the environment. A lot of self dioxide is produced as site product while you do so that I mean, that's one reason this the environmental implications on the other one office. Toxicity. I mean, this quite a few loose kkob. Lou that on that on exactly healthy, and this is an ongoing. Search people are still looking for blue pigments, and dyes and new or you took a look at three different approaches that are in the works right now, let's start with the first blue seeking scientists that actually found a new blue. But on accident like most blues in history, so must super money on this is a solid state chemists than he worked for a while. And he made a lot of discoveries, but not really related to pigments at all. And then he started work at Oregon state university in values. Two thousand six and what he actually wanted to do was to find what's called a multi for roic, basic material at room temperature has certain magnetic properties also electrical properties in that would make really interesting for building a computer. And so he used manganese oxide. Trim oxide in indium oxide, and he combined these Anna turn up that the compound came up with didn't have any interesting properties. But it was incredibly blue and he remembered from his days to punt the people said Lewis actually kind of hard to make. So he just published it and the color that he created has just had this incredible life of being used in many many places than now. It's also being sold far too to us.

Walter Blombos Cave Turkey South Africa Bredon Oregon State University Kaikaku Lukman DAN Schmidt Mosul Anna Lewis Lapsley LOU One Hundred Thousand Years Nine Thousand Years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

01:57 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Not exactly quitting. Here's the thing. During those three months, the unthinkable happens. Somebody else does the loop-the-loop for the first time some Frenchman. He couldn't stand that someone else had looped the loop before him and he decided he was going to be the best Looper in the world. And it took him a few months of practice. But he did it. He eventually outdid the Frenchman. He would start pulling you know, four or five six loops in a row again. And again, and again when he finally did the loop to loop. I wanna I wanna reaching what he wrote the silent reaper of souls, and I shook hands thousands of times we've engaged in a race. Among the clouds plunging headlong into breathless flight, diving encircling would often speed through serial space and many times when the dazzling sunlight has blinded. My eyes and sudden darkness has numbed on my senses. I have imagined him close at my heels on such occasions. I have defied him. But so doing have experienced fright, which I cannot explain. Today. The old fellow and I are. Pal. Suffer me for a second. While I wax philosophical do it. Something happened in the psyche of humanity. You gotta realize for one hundred thousand years millions upon millions of people have wanted to fly and Frank believes when people saw Beechy loop the loop so many times so effortlessly. It was a turning point. If you could do that you could you were free in the air. We were no longer just managing to fly. Now, we own the sky. Nineteen fifteen the world's fair is going to be held that year in San Francisco, California, which is his hometown. Now.

San Francisco Frank California one hundred thousand years three months
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

02:18 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Eventually outdid the Frenchman and he would start pulling four or five six loops in a row again. And again, and again when he finally did the loop to loop. I wonder I wonder reaching what he wrote the silent reaper of souls, and I shook hands. Thousands of times we've engaged in a race. Among the clouds plunging headlong into breathless flight diving and circling with awful speed through serial space and many times when the dazzling sunlight has blinded. My eyes and sudden darkness has numbed on my senses. I have imagined him close at my heels on such occasions. I have defied him. But in so doing have experienced fright, which I cannot explain. Today. The old fellow and I are power. Suffer me for a second. While I wax philosophical do it. Something happened in the psyche of humanity. You gotta realize for one hundred thousand years millions upon millions of people have wanted to fly Frank believes that when people saw bitchy loop the loop so many times so effortlessly. It was a turning if you could do that you could you were free in the air. We were no longer just managing to fly. Now, we own the sky. Nineteen fifteen the world's fair is going to be held that year in San Francisco, California, which is bts hometown. Now at the time he was working on a monoplane a single wing airplane. It was a brand new thing it hadn't been tested, but the fair officials had seen it. And they said would you show would you fly us your new one? So Mark fourteen. Beechy takes this thing up for its very first flight some people say up to a quarter million people at the expo and most of them were watching him. So he goes up above over Alcatraz and three thousand feet above Alcatraz starts diving and that structural metallurgical smarts hadn't been developed enough yet on single-wing airplanes, and they both of his leans cracked. Someone said it sounded like a ship mass.

Beechy Frank Alcatraz San Francisco Mark California one hundred thousand years three thousand feet
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

01:30 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Outdid the Frenchman and he would start pulling four five six loops in a row again. And again, and again when he finally did the loop-the-loop I wanna I wanna reaching what he wrote the silent reaper of souls, and I shook hands. Thousands of times we've engaged in a race. Among the clouds plunging headlong into breathless flight diving and circling with office speed through serial space and many times when the dazzling sunlight has blinded. My eyes and sudden darkness has numbed. All my senses. I have imagined him close at my heels on such occasions. I have defied him. But in so doing have experienced fright, which I cannot explain. Today. The old fellow and I. Suffer me for a second. While I wax philosophical do it. Something happened in the psyche of humanity. You gotta realize for one hundred thousand years millions upon millions of people have wanted to fly in Frank leaves. When people saw Beechy loop the loop so many times, so effortlessly. It was a turning if you could do that you could you were free in the air. We were no longer just managing to fly. Now, we own the sky. Nineteen fifteen the world's fair is going to be held that year in San Francisco, California, which is bts hometown. Now.

San Francisco Frank California one hundred thousand years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on This Week in Science

This Week in Science

03:50 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on This Week in Science

"Current modern humans arriving there and also jumping to this what's very interesting though is there isn't a whole lot of at least the niessen d._n._a. that we've been able to identify in current human populations but then again we don't have as big a picture of what it means to be an isa vin d._n._a. versus nando tall which we know to be part of that system so right where we know knee under- those in humans mixed widely for a very long time though like daddy's events maybe weren't the same kind of timeframe or geographical area of mixing except me an oddly in very far east southern asia there are really big spikes what we know to be denisa than dna and those populations and some that are i think in in a in northern siberia so they got this little points that are bathed sprint themselves in terms of distance where neanderthal actually excuse me denise of dina's showing up in current human i wondering if like if if the denisa neandertal half in half cool maybe it wasn't successful in combining with modern human d._n._a. right because like all these things were were different genetically somewhat and so think about how wolf underdog and have a baby but that baby cannot reproduce right i'm just thinking that the i'm surprised that all these different hominids match together enough to make complete genomes there has to have been some issues there somewhere down the line where so so that's why i'm just wondering if there's some combination of these three populations that didn't result in successful offspring so so it's a great question and part of this is we know it was successful because it's in current human d._n._a. too don't know i'm saying you don't know what kind of strikes of it like maybe you needed to be at least seventy five percent neander paul before you could do that but we kind of do because we also know that a lot of fertility issues are traceable to nando tall d._n._a. brinton but also the this are viable i mean this might not have been a negative amongst these populations they probably overlapped and it's pretty well because they lived in smaller groups and they were so smaller populations were actually benefit versus getting pregnant and having children every time right so so part of what we would might be considered roadblocks to reproduction as a current human was actually a beneficial thing to these populations that were nomadic not to have so many children so and to think that you know they survived maybe together for many tens of thousands of years if not one hundred thousand years and we only left africa hundred thousand years ago and you know maybe some people might point to there might be some future future homonyn looking back at our current commons and going yeah because they were so fertile they over reproduced in created a population bubble so determining what is or what is not a beneficial reproduction is is only decent in hindsight hindsight is always better but we're looking forward to the rising sea is that right justin oh yes so this is okay so.

one hundred thousand years hundred thousand years seventy five percent
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on Think Again

Think Again

01:47 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on Think Again

"It will become really clear that the attachment does not in any way, enhance the feeling of love. Sure. And this is where people get confused that are leaving the puppies aside. But maybe with kids or a partner that think if I love, of course, I'm attached. But when you look carefully at the two states, you see the attachment doesn't. Lend anything to the love. And in fact, that detract from it because that's where fear comes and jealousy and possessiveness and all kinds of things in relationship that are not very helpful particularly in the parenting area. It gets confusing because we will sometimes think, well, you know, these feelings which anchor love in the kind of attachment our primal their primary their natural. This is because I, you know, for one hundred thousand years, we've had to protect our our children are what are, you know, all of these fierce feelings, but the things that are evolutionary natural to us or not not always the only option and not always the best option. That's exactly true. First of all it's to realize that one can fulfill all the natural parental functions. Right. Like protecting and caring. Right. But that could be done even better. From a feeling of love rather than from a feeling of attachment. I wonder what you think about this. Because I often think that humanity like human existence is kind of on a spectrum from on the one end closed defensive paranoid veer base on the on the other and open and welcoming this this, and I think that you know, we're often preparing ourselves in advance for.

partner one hundred thousand years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KGO 810

KGO 810

08:35 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on KGO 810

"At the thing. That's most important for ourselves. The system to work without it. This is the end it's our white dwarf yellow white dwarf vezzano Bob watches, the updates of the spud sunspot is because they very much influence our climate. What's the latest Bob well on my monthly graph of the sunspot cycle. This is actually a Noah graph. I don't wanna take credit for the graph itself. I anticipated though because I want to put on it something that they don't show. So clearly the predictions of the solar science community for this most recent solar cycle. And so I posted that on behind the black would, you know, my normal commentary. There's not much to add we're continuing to ramp down to Sola minimum where basically in Sola minimum. Now. What's interesting is the graph was updated last month to extend it out past the end of the of twenty eighteen to twenty the end of twenty two because you know, it's the graph that they've been using for the last like ten. Years ended at the end of eighteen so you need to extend it so they did that. And in the process of doing that I noticed that the extended the prediction the two thousand and nine prediction of the soul of science community out to twenty two and the way they extended it out indicates that they are expecting now the solar minimum to flat line in twenty two completely at zero for the whole year, which would make that Sola minimal one of the longest on record. No, I take that back. It would be the longest on record two to three years long at the very bottom. Normally, it's six months at the very bottom. That's what I've seen in the past. But this is this just of gigantically wall one which means that they have not dismissed the possibility that we won't have a maximum following after this minimum that will be moving into a grand grand minimum similar that happened in the sixteen hundreds when there were no significant visible sunspots for literally decade. It's literally almost a century. And that time period was also caused Carson bonding to the what they call the little ice age, which was still coming out of. Now, it's you know, things have been warming up. There's a lot of reasons that might be causing that. But one of those reasons is we're moving out of that little ice age and their life age corresponds to previous grand minimum, which they call them on the minimum. And that correspondents. There is still circumstances. Only circumstantial evidence that the to link, but we do have some data that suggests when sunspot activity goes down, the sun cools and the atmosphere calls because the global climate cools. And that's what we'll get. We'll be facing here. John. That's the certainly is highly suggestive, Bob, if we if we had promoted this idea of going to this kind of minimum anytime in the last ten years, it would have been far fetched impact. People have suggested it. And if you look at my graph, you'll see that back in the seven the soul of science community had no idea what was going to happen next. They were divided half of them thought. It was going to be an extremely active cycle and the other half thought it was going to be a relatively weak one. And it turned out that the the the week cycle was more. Correct prediction, but in truth it even under arrest. Overestimated, how weak the cycle turned out to be? They don't really know why these cycles do what they do. They don't know why I'm on minimum happens so Crandon minimum. And in fact, having one happened from scientists sex perspective would be spectacular because we have now the science instruments to really study the son in much better detail than ever before. And so having that happened would give us that knowledge that would be cool. I was reading in science magazine over the weekend about a new study by men who've gone looking for an explanation for all of a sudden a severe climate change. The plunge in the atmosphere of a of a he all of a sudden in what is called the Amy an interglacial period that's between one hundred twenty seven thousand one hundred thousand years ago, and they haven't determined exactly they thought it was the Greenland ice sheet tip broke loose and caused warming. That's not a longer accepted because they've studied Greenland, and there's no evidence that there was any any breaking away during the Email. They now look west Antarctica. The reason I mentioned all this is not because you know, they're looking at the model of the global warming. But because they say the explanation for it is a change in the earth's orbit, isn't that striking Bob that well, they're all these factors that have nothing to do with mankind that are being entertained over the last one hundred thousand years, which has nothing hundred thousand years meaningless in terms of scientific study. And and and there is no general popular conversation about the possible. The possible drivers of climate change science. The climate science field has been badly distorted by politics in the last decade. I've talked about this at length on your show on I'm behind the black and in other places, and that's a tragedy because they've gotten so focused on on on fossil fuels and carbon dioxide that it means that they don't entertain any of the reluctant to entertain any other options and in science, you've got to keep a clear skeptical mind because especially with something with a climate, which is so incredibly complicated. And we really do not have a clear understanding of it yet that to thank you settle the science one way this ignorant is. It lines. You can't they can't settle the signs for climate change. It happened on two thousand years ago. That's your that's your point. I understand. We will continue this. I was just reminded of it. We're talking about sunspots. I wanna to mention the Hubble. Because you are the author of university mayor the biography of Hubble, and you're not happy with what's happened. Well, we have some bad news, very bad news. Maybe this today. They announced that the Hubble Space Telescope Science to released a very short press release stating that the wide field camera on Hubbell has experienced quote and anomaly close quote that is forced to shut down its mere paragraph long. They provide no other information. We don't know what the anomaly is how bad it is. What's the deal? Now. This is a camera that was installed during the last shuttle maintenance mission in two thousand and nine it's almost a decade since that mission, and that mission was supposed to extend the life of five years at least, well, we're now almost a decade later. And so it's not surprising. Things are beginning to failed in October. They had a serious drive. Skip problem. They managed to get that one that backup gyroscopes was they're having trouble turning it on. One of the main dry scopes failed and they managed to get it working. But that means Hubble has no more backup gyroscopes when they lose the next time. They lose a gyroscope and they're gonna go to one dry scope mode, which means getting shop images will no longer be possible. And if the main camera has gone, then we are faced with not a lot of great pictures anymore. And so we're basically facing the end of bubble. That's the bottom line, and it's really a tragedy. It shouldn't be happening shouldn't be necessary for one thing that they self designed to be fixed. Now, we don't have a manned mission that can do, but you know, ten years ago when they were thinking about whether they should do the last man shuttle mission NASA proposed doing a robot mission, and that time it would have been very difficult. But it's a decade later. The technology has improved immeasurably as SpaceX has demonstrated. We could definitely do an unmanned robot mission now to repair Hubble on top of that the bad planning of modern intellectual class has left us with no options, no replacements for the foreseeable future. They they decided to go with. The web. Instead of an optical telescope web is infrared they decided to go with cutting with super edge, cutting edge technology, which had web become a decade behind schedule and eight billion dollars over budget. And so we have no alternative, that's really a tragedy. John, I don't know. What's going to happen? Bob Zimmerman blind Zimmerman he is the author of universe in a mirror the profile of hobble. So Genesis the story of the great success of Nasser.

Hubble Bob Zimmerman Bob John Hubble Space Telescope Science SpaceX Greenland NASA Carson Nasser Hubbell ten years one hundred twenty seven thous one hundred thousand years
"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

WMAL 630AM

08:29 min | 3 years ago

"one hundred thousand years" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

"We've been looking at rocket engineering now we're going to stare at the thing. That's most important for ourselves. The system to work without it. This is the end it's our white dwarf yellow white dwarf Bob watches, the updates on the spun sunspot is because they pay very much influenced our climate. What's the latest pop well on my monthly graph of sunspot cycle. This is actually a Noah graph. I won't wanna take credit for the graph itself. I animated though, because I want to put on it something that they don't show. So clearly the predictions of the solar science community for this most recent solar cycle. And so I posted that on behind the black would, you know, my normal commentary. There's not much to add we're continuing to the ramp down to Sola minimum. We're basically in Sola minimum. Now, what's interesting is the graph was updated last month to extend it out past the end of the of twenty eighteen to twenty the end of twenty two because you know, it's it's the graph that they've been using for the last like ten. Years ended at the end of eighteen so need to extend it so they did that. And in the process of doing that I noticed that the extended the prediction the two thousand nine prediction of the soul of science community out to twenty two and the way they extended it out indicates that they are expecting now the Sola minimum to flat line in twenty two completely at zero for the whole year, which would make that Sola minimum one of the longest on record. No, I take that back. It would be the longest on record two to three years long at the very bottom. Normally, it's six months at the very bottom. That's what I've seen in the past. But this is this suggests a gigantically mall one, which means that they have not dismiss the possibility that we won't have a maximum following after this minimum that we'll be moving into a grand grand minimum similar that happened in the sixteen hundreds when there were no significant physical sunspots for literally decade. Literally almost a century. And that time period was also caused corresponding to the what they call the little ice age, which was still coming out of. Now, it's you know, things have been warming up. There's a lot of reasons that might be causing that. But one of those reasons is we're moving out of that little ice age and little ice age corresponds to previous grand minimum, which they call them on the minimum. And that correspondence there is still circumstance. It's only circumstantial evidence that the to link, but we do have some data that suggests when sunspot activity goes down, the sun cools and the atmosphere calls because the global climate cooled get we might be facing here. John. That's the certainly is highly suggestive, Bob, if we if we had promoted this idea of going into this kind of the minimum anytime in the last ten years, it would have been far fetched. No impact people have suggested it. And if you look at my graph, you'll see the back in seven the soul of science community had no idea. It was going to happen next. They were divided half of them thought. It was going to be an extremely active cycle and the other half thought it was going to be a relatively weak one. And it turned out that the the the week cycle was the more. Correct prediction but in truth even under arrest. Overestimated, how weak the cycle turned out to be? They don't really know why these cycles do what they do. They don't know why I'm on the minimum happens granted minimum. And in fact, having worn happened from a scientific perspective, we'd be spectacular because we have now the science instruments to really study the son in much better detail than ever before. And so having happened with that knowledge that would be the. Bob, I was reading in science magazine or the weekend about a new study by men who've gone looking for an explanation for all of a sudden a severe climate change the plunge in the atmosphere of of all of a sudden in what is called the Amy an interglacial period that's between one hundred and twenty seven thousand one hundred thousand years ago, and they haven't determined that exactly. They got it was the Greenland ice sheet that broke loose and caused warming. That's not a longer accepted because they've studied Greenland, and there's no evidence that there was any any breaking away during the Amien. They now look at west Antarctica. The reason I mentioned all this is not because you know, they're looking at the model of the global warming. But because they say the explanation for it is a change in the earth's orbit, isn't that striking Bob that? Well there. All these factors that have nothing to do with Man-kai that are being entertained over the last one hundred thousand years, which has nothing hundred thousand years meaningless in terms of scientific study. And and and there is no general popular conversation about possible. The possible drivers of climate change. Science. The climate science field has been badly distorted by politics in the last decade. I've talked about this at length on your show on I'm buying the black and in other places, and that's a tragedy because they've gotten so focused on on on fossil fuels and comedy oxide. It means that they don't entertain any reluctant to entertain any other options and in science, you've got to keep a clear skeptical mind because especially with something like a climate, which is so incredibly complicated. And we really do not have a clear understanding of yet that to thank you settle the science one way this ignorant is carrots lines. You. You can't settle the size for climate change that happened a hundred thousand years ago. That's that's your. That's your point. I understand. We will continue this. I was just reminded of it. See we're talking about sunspots. I want to mention the Hubble because you are the author of university mayor the biography of hobble, and you're not happy with what's happened. Well, we have some bad news, very bad news. Maybe this today. They announced that the Hubble space. Telescope Science Institute released a very short press release stating that the wide field camera on Hubbell has experienced quote, an anomaly close quote that is forced to shut down. It's a mere paragraph long. They provide no other information. We don't know what the anomaly is how bad it is. Or what's the deal? Now. This is a camera that was installed during the last shuttle maintenance mission in two thousand and nine it's almost a decade since that mission and that mission was supposed to extend life for five years at least, well, we're now almost a decade later. And so it's not surprising things are beginning to fail. October. They had a serious drive. Skip problem. They managed to get that point that backup gyroscopes was still having trouble turning it on one of the main dry scopes failed and they managed to get it working. But that means Hubble has no more backup gyroscopes when they lose the next time. They lose a gyroscope and they're gonna go to one gyroscope mode, which means getting shopping just will no longer be possible. And if the main camera has gone, then we are faced with not a lot of pictures anymore. And so we're basically the end the public's the bottom line, and it's really a tragedy. I is it shouldn't be happening and shouldn't be necessary for one thing that they sell designed to be fixed. Now, we don't have a manned mission that can do, but you know, ten years ago when they were thinking about the whether they should do the last man shuttle mission NASA proposed doing a robot mission, and that time it would have been very difficult. But it's a decade later. The technology has improved immeasurably as SpaceX has demonstrated. We could definitely do an unmanned robot mission now to repair Hubble on top of that the bad. Planning of modern intellectual class has left us with no options, no replacements for the foreseeable future. They they decided to go with web. Instead of an optical telescope web is in parade. They decided to go with cutting with super cutting edge technology, which had web become a decade behind schedule at a billion dollars over budget. And so we have no alternative, so that's really a tragedy. John, I don't know. What's going.

Bob Hubble John SpaceX NASA Telescope Science Institute Greenland gigantically west Antarctica Amien Hubbell hundred thousand years ten years twenty seven thousand one hund one hundred thousand years