19 Episode results for "Oliver Cromwell"

BOX240: Please Pass The Severed Head

The Box Of Oddities

38:56 min | 3 months ago

BOX240: Please Pass The Severed Head

"What follows may not be suitable for all audiences. Listener discretion is advised episode two hundred forty. The world is full of stories. Stories of mysteries. Of Curiosities. auditees. Join! and Joe through Gilligan Tov for the strange. The unexpected. As luth delivered and obviously inside. The box auditees. Yeah I've got a little throat. Thing going and don't worry. It's not the cove it. Okay. But just to be safe while you're listening to this podcast, where mascots six feet away from your radio, or you're listening on a rainy well, people listen on the radio in in a in a vehicle. Pictured a boombox. Remarks like now probably not. No Hey. This was an exciting week for us this week. Mark a real milestone the box of oddities has been downloaded more than seven million times since its inception was doing her two and a half years ago. Something like that yeah, and also are coming a foreigner anniversary. Seven million downloads. Sir But we've only been married for five years. That's true. That's true. Big a deal where but we're still married. I'm still married to you. Yeah, I suppose that's a good point especially when I'm highlighting the downloads over the years we've been married. Happy Anniversary to you, thank you. What is it would? Need to give you some would. That's right for anniversary. We actually got a really nice gift from Rick and Steve, our friends from Maryland and They sent us a would anniversary gift a log. Yeah, I love. It grows mushrooms. Kind of you guys I'm allowed lady. See how I just zipped right past the you giving me would. Never acknowledged it again didn't even lift your head now once. So anyway. I go I. Oh and I'm GonNa, tell you about the incredibly morbid. Journey of the most famous severed head in history I. Love It. The severed head of Oliver Cromwell. So, here's the story. In sixteen forty nine King Charles I of England was arrested, put on trial and executed by a group of parliamentarians. They were called the round heads, which is a dumb name. Absolutely, it was led by Oliver Cromwell Charles. The second was exiled to the European mainland at the end of a long period of civil war and unrest in in England Charles the first execution in Cromwell's ascension to quote Lord Protector led a decade of non-royal rule in England, so ten years in England there was no king starting in sixteen, Forty nine Oliver Cromwell helped overthrow royalty, and then he just took over. Okay, pretty much was a king, but Didn't take all the trappings. Although he took all the property, he lived in all the the Nice building, and you know all those nice royal buildings that they have over there cromwell was born on April, twenty fifth in fifteen, ninety nine, he led the parliamentarian army in the English civil war once the army one he oversaw the conversion of England into a Republican. He abolished the monarchy and also the. The House of Lords after the execution of Charles the first okay well, let's seems a little sketchy like once you get into power doesn't mean that you just change the way our whole ship works. Okay, grumble became Lord protector and his rule started in December of sixteen, Fifty three, and that was very similar to Kingship, but he he turned down the offer to have been bestowed the title of King. Says it really just a label kind of thing I've got other other than not having the name King Right. He was pretty much acting as king unrestricted power. He lived in all the royal palace ass. He was formerly offered in sixteen, Fifty, seven, the title of King, but after quote, agony of mind and conscience. He turned it down. Throughout sixteen fifty eight Cromwell suffered from an illness, and the also had some family tragedy, and he died in the in the afternoon of September third sixteen, Fifty Eight, so he was an Agni a lot of ways. Yes, okay. His death in his funeral were treated pretty much the same way that when a king died, you know there was a lot of trappings and pomp and circumstance lots of big hats off big hats and slow moving brigades. The elaborate funeral was delayed two times by what they call hesitant preparations. They kept changing their mind on things. But when it did fresh clothes, mean. Meanwhile they're just freshly washed or are they brand new clothes? The funeral procession made its way through London on the twenty third of November sixteen, Fifty Eight. The body had already been buried at Westminster Abbey for two weeks at this point, because well. Rotting corpse. In those days they did not as we have mentioned many times. Before have refrigeration units in the fifteenth or sixteenth century shame, really in fact by the time that the funeral procession took place, he'd been dead for two months. So he was dead for two months, but they kept him above ground, just kind of propped up there for about six weeks until he just couldn't take it anymore. That sounds unpleasant Oliver Cromwell's corpse. Pretty much undisturbed at Westminster until the restoration of the Stuart Monarchy under Charles Son King Charles, the second in sixteen sixty, so King Charles the second, came back and kick some ass and took back the throne. At this point though Cromwell has already been dead for a while. But that wasn't enough of a punishment for. For King Charles the second. It didn't make him feel good enough so i. he rounded up the twelve remaining surviving members of the group that overthrew the royalty and he had them tried and executed. Okay, probably not so much time trying them as just. You know executing them, yeah. They were hanged, drawn and quartered. We've read about this That's they drag him through the streets on and on wheeled sledge. There hanged by the neck then they're cut down while they're still alive. disembowelled while they're still alive, they're beheaded and dismembered cut into four quarters. That's a rough way to go. So after all that was done, he said yeah, but what about Oliver Cromwell, so he went in had Cromwell's body removed Westminster Abbey. While they were doing that he he out the parts of the guys that he drawn in, he had drawn and quartered, and just kind of handed them out and pass them around to different provincial cities to put on display. Oh, sure, yeah, like put them on stakes at the entry way to the city like welcome to Birmingham. Shire This is the head of that guy. Don't fuck around. We would have settled for home of the world's largest ball of twine, but no now home of like some guys botox hanging from a bridge got the lower left quarter, so cromwell's body had been hidden in the wall of the middle, aisle of Henry the eighth. Lady's Chapel at Westminster on the twenty eighth of January sixteen, Sixty one. The body of Cromwell was taken to the Red Lion in in whole burn, and in my mind I'm here. Please in my mind. I'm picturing the red roof in. I'm sure I'm thinking little different. What kind of travesty are they pouring down on this poor man's desecrated corpse. What an injustice! I WANNA GO! See these things. I'm feeling Berry untravelled right now. And now nobody wants us to come to their country. That's. Not New. For you and me. Or just Americans in general. So cromwell's shrouded body was dragged on a sledge through the streets of London to the gallows He was hung in full. Public view is already decomposing. He's been dead for a while They hung up until about four o'clock in the afternoon. I think that's time, isn't it in? Well that's enough. Then they took down. CROMWELL's head was severed with eight blows placed on a wooden spike on a twenty foot pole, and raised above Westminster Hall of various conspiracy. Theories exist as to what happened to the body. A lot of experts say that. The word was that Cromwell's daughter Mary. Had it rescued from pit that they had just kind of tossed it into home? Hope she ain't going. Get at herself because I bet that was fun. No not fun. What's the word I'm looking for? Bad. A. Sealed Stone Vault was claimed to contain the remains of a headless Cromwell, at Newbury priory. It's more likely that Cromwell's body was just thrown in the pit at thai-born where it remains to this day. That's those are the theories about his body. His head remained on that spike over Westminster Hall until the Late Sixteen Eighties, except for a brief period of time when they took it down for roof repair in sixteen eighty one, they had to re Shingle, the side of one of the sides of the chapel, and so they took his head down briefly for that in sixteen eighty one. Circumstances in which Cromwell's head was removed from. Westminster is pretty straightforward. Apparently, there was a big storm toward the end of James. The seconds rain, sixteen, Eighty, five, sixteen, Eighty nine, and it broke the pole, bearing the head, and threw it to the ground and one of the. One of the sentinels that was guarding the entrance it just Kinda went boom boom. It fell next to him, and he just looked over and went I'll have that. And he took it and put it under his cloak, and took it home and hid his chimney. Rude. That's not your head. I mean fair enough. Maybe you don't want it. Put back on a poll that you have to look at every day. I get it. People fairly quickly saw that the head was missing right? Hey, where's that head? And so they start looking for it, and they offered a considerable considerable reward that like an Easter egg hunt. To get all the kiddies out there, looking in behind bushes and under plywood, Yup, but instead of gaily decorated eggs it was the decomposed severed head of Oliver Cromwell. We should have cromwell hunt this spring I very much look forward to it. We have a Cromwell role I wish they did that on the White House lawn, so there are posters being put up all over, London. Hey, there's a reward for the. For for Cromwell's head and the guy who had it. He didn't want to divulge that he had it because he thought it was a trick, and that they would throw him in the hour of London or something until seventeen ten, he had it, and that's when the head went into the possession of a guy named Claudius deploy. He was a Swiss French collector of curiosities, and he had a private museum in London hit. He displayed Cromwell's head in that museum for Awhile, it attracted visitors from all over the place. It was quite. A sought after ticket to go see Oliver Cromwell's head at this at this point in time he was offered sixty guineas to sell it, which is about five thousand pounds in today's money and. p.t Barnum to me a very very. Do even know that that was really Oliver Cromwell's head, or he just say it was all over. Head because again. well there have there were questions throughout the history of. The head being in various possessions whether or not it was all over Cromwell's head by the eighteenth century, it had become a curiosity in an attraction. and. Originally it was meant to scare people into not killing royal people right, but it had lost a lot of its sinister message are. The head was really thought of more as just a curiosity. It was in the possession at this point in the eighteenth century of quote, a failed comic actor in drunkard named Samuel Russell. That's my new twitter bio. Russell was rumored to be a relative of Cromwell's. which is I guess genealogical plausible? The CROMWELL's intermarried with Russell's in in several different alliances name. What's Russell about this point? Another twitter handle for you. It was spotted by prominent Goldsmith, clockmaker and Twenty Min James Cox. Who was convinced by all circumstances that it was in fact Oliver Cromwell's head. Okay, so he offered hundred pounds, which is about fifty six hundred pounds in today's money, but even though Russell was kind of a poor man. He refused to part with the head. He said it was so dear to him is sentimental. Absolutely totally understand the head of a dead ancestor. What are you GonNa? Do Plus it's an antique at that point, so you would think that he would have taken good care of it, but he really didn't. Get like really liquor it up and invite his friends over, and then they just pass it around, and like whoever had the head was the one that could talk like one of those things, but maybe something like that fire game. Yeah, it's very possible, but what happened in the process was irreparable erosion to the features of the head well. Is it leathery at this point? I would imagine it's kind of leathery. I would think at this point. Your fingers, they have that oil. It's not good for the the leathery skin, Oliver Cromwell's decomposed head. At this point Russell said he wanted to donate it to Sidney Sussex College. He offered the head up to the master of the college, and they said No. No, you've put your dirty hands all over at Russell. Even believe that this is Oliver Cromwell anymore because it's just a leathery ball with some weird hair sticking out of it. Is that why they didn't want to? I'd be concerned about the condition yeah yeah. But. Let's not forget about prominent Goldsmith. clockmaker and Toyland James Cox. He had not given up on trying to get CROMWELL's head. Right so Russell. He wasn't able to give it to a college. They didn't want it, so Russell had it so what Cox did was start loaning him small amounts of money. And then over time it added up to one hundred pounds and Russell couldn't pay it wasted. I'll take the head. He looked at it as a quote, retail investment at the time Cox had his own Museum of curiosities. Apparently, everybody had one back then. But by the time that he actually had the head in his physical possession, he no longer had the museum or or a place to display, so we sold the head in seventeen, ninety nine, for about two hundred thirty pounds or seventy four hundred pounds in today's to three brothers, whose last name was Hughes. Wanted to start their own display on bond street, and they got the head with the idea of this will be our chief display. This'll be our big draw Oliver Cromwell's head. They also bought a bunch of posters and. Memorabilia started making like eighties. Teen Angst movies. That's John Hughes. No these not the Brat Pack. These are more like they're running head pack. Yeah. That is last time. Regardless. The exhibition was a failure because the entrance fee was too high, they were charging. They wanted what would be in today's money five pounds to get in to see the head. Despite the failure of the Brat Pack Museum one of the Hughes Daughters continued showing the head anybody who wanted to see it. Yeah, well. That's another reason why your museum won't work like if you're like I'm going to charge you five dollars to come and see this, and then someone's like. Can I see? Oh, yeah, here, take a look, so they tried to sell their museum or or exhibition, and they couldn't. So it forced the daughter to sell. Sell the head privately. And in Eighteen fifteen it was sold to Joe Cya Henry Wilkinson and in his family. It would remain until the late nineteen fifties. Oh, wow, now as you touched. Upon earlier, there were claims that the head was not really that of Oliver Cromwell, but after a full examination in nineteen eleven by the eugenicist Karl Pearson, and the anthropologist Jeffrey Moore, the issued a one hundred nine page report that concluded that there was a quote. Ninety that the head was that of Oliver Cromwell Wow. At this point, the guy who had it is name was horace. Wilkinson and we're in the nineteen fifties now. Nineteen, fifty seven, he died, and he left it to his son, who was also called Horace Horace Wilkinson the second wish to organize a proper burial for the head. Rather than you know, put it on a pike on top of Westminster Zib it in a CD hotel or pass it around a campfire, so he contacted Sidney Sussex College. If you remember, it was the one that Russell couldn't get them to to take the head back in the late seventeen hundreds, and we're like no, thank you. They welcomed the burial. They said this great, so the head was interred on the twenty fifth of March, nine, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty in a secret location near the Ante Chapel. It's oak box in which the Wilkinson family had kept the head since eighteen fifteen. The box was placed inside an airtight container like I'm thinking like one of those tupperware lettuce Christopher's. And buried with only a few witnesses, including family and representatives of the college, secret burial was not announced until October nineteen, sixty, two and the site. Nobody knows for sure where it is, and it's because they're concerned that someone will try to snag. Some. You know toymaker. Talk! I made that had so. There's the rather interesting and lengthy journey of Oliver. CROMWELL's head I love it. That thing in the middle. A number of years ago there was a prisoner whose name was Steven Jay Russell. Stephen managed to escape jail by simply walking. Out, pretending to be prison guard. Dis later, he was captured. But Russell paid his bail by pretending to be the judge. Well he was caught again a few days later. But this time. Russell walked out of prison by pretending to be a doctor. When he was captured again Russell then broke out of prison by pretending he was dead. The box of oddities with cat and jeff through Gilligan Tov. All about making life easier, and that's why I love care of care of can make taking your vitamins and supporting your health goals attainable so care of vitamins. They make it easy for you to stay healthy. Here's how it works. You take a short quiz. Answer some questions about your diet and health goals, lifestyle care will recommend a list of vitamins and supplements. Supplements made just for you for your health needs and your goals. They come in personalized little packets with your name on them and fun. Fact I really enjoy that part, and it's exactly tailored for you. 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MARKET DOT com slash box to start your risk free membership and get up to twenty dollars toward your first order thrive market dot com slash box. The Link Center show description. So we've just want someone to unexpectedly, Yo Penis at his funeral. We wonder what cat wants to hear. I. Don't think I can say that. He's use the bucks oddities. Episodes ago I was talking about the bodies that are left on Mount. Everest mountain climbers that didn't make it in hundreds of them up there, and how there have been mountain climbers who have survived after being in distress in stressful situations, and they refer to there being a third man in the party that was not really there that somebody would show up and help them get to safety and then disappear, and this is called, and we talked about this briefly third man factor, and it often happens when people are under great amounts of stress in survival is questioned in. Some things someone some presence shows up and helps them out, but it's also used in therapy. We talked about this about creating your own third man and one of the free. Throw to us. Vic Says Oh. Hey, I use the third man factor in therapy for CPI. D I use a Livia Benson when thinking about or working through stuff that I went through mazing. I would trust her. She's from. which law and order she from? SP? You says it helps a lot to reprocess. What happened by someone trusting capable of helping being there? That's really interesting. I never really thought about that, but I can see where that would be extremely beneficial. I love that and I need to go back to therapy. I do too, if only to meet my third man. So I'm sitting here all the twitter. What do you have for me? well. I was asking our Amazon Echo. I will not use the word launch word. So as not to, but plug anyone one of my favorite things to ask her about this week in history and I learned that in this week in history is when the globe theatre burned down, it was June twenty ninth, sixteen thirteen, and that's where most of Shakespeare's plays debuted and right before they cut off Oliver Cromwell's head. That's. Up Forty years. Wow, interesting, interesting parallels Ethan. Period. Oh! So obviously theater has been going on and has changed for Millennia Western. Theater developed and expanded considerably off the Romans, and then in the fourth and fifth centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the eastern. Roman Empire today, which is called the the Byzantine Empire surviving evidence about the Byzantine. Theater is slight and it shows that mime pantomime were very popular. That scenes from plays were played out, but theater wasn't the same. It wasn't going on in the way that it had been, but people would go to a Byzantine theater in watch. A Guy Imagine he's inside an invisible boxx. It happened mostly on streets and. Like I said it changed a lot over the years the dark ages were really tough time for theater as you can imagine, most organized, theatrical activities disappeared entirely in western Europe. This is according to Brockett and Hilda's the history of theater. It does seem that small nomadic bands traveled around Europe throughout the period performing where they could find audiences, and there's not evidence that they produced anything but crude scenes so again. What do you mean by crude? So it's not like full theatrical plays, but scenes from plagued thought not like lemon party now. No, not not like that. It wasn't two girls one cup. No, okay, not that kind of crude more just a simple basic different than what you're thinking of which is. Weird these performers were denounced by the church during the Dark Ages They were viewed as dangerous and Pagan and shunned theater was just not to be done during the dark ages according to the church, except some churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of particular biblical events on specific days of the year. So that was okay, that was okay. Please were outside of the church staged on a wagon, and mostly it was like. Like it was like a stage that was on wheels, and they would have to kind of unfold the sides of the wagon, and that was their stage, and then they fold everything back up into lawn away for like a funnel cake. Stand kind of like that. Yes. I think it was one to be able to find an audience and perform in different locations, but also because it wasn't. It was kind of frowned upon so they. They want to just be like. Oh, no, no just funnel cakes here. Your funnel cakes yeah. Artan fresh, so morality plays did emerge as a distinct dramatic form around fourteen hundred and flourished until the fifteen hundreds during this time comedian del Norte. Troops also performed improvisational play. Let's let's call them across Europe and that originated in Italy in the fifteen sixty s, it was like an actor, centered theater kind of a one man show again kind of pantomime mime. These kinds of singular artist plays took place. readings May. Actually please didn't originate from Britain drama, but from scenarios called Lousy which were loose frameworks that provided the situations, the obstacles and outcomes around which actors would improvise. It was kind of like the sitcoms of the day like situational events that they had to kind of deal with and. Like Second City Yeah Second City theatre lots of Improv for sure so renaissance theatre. What generally when someone says theater? It's what I think of is theater, and it's probably because I am. Not Very well educated now. Renaissance Theatre derived from several medieval theatre traditions, such as the mystery plays that formed as part of religious festivals in England and other parts of Europe during the Middle Ages. So since before the reign of Elizabeth the first companies have players were attached to households of leading aristocrats, and they were performed seasonally in various locations so. The play cast the theater. Actors kind of belonged to royal houses, or or the the fancy pants houses, so these became the foundation for the professional players that performed on the Elizabethan stage, the tours of these players gradually replaced the performances of the morality mystery plays by local players, and in fifteen seventy two law eliminated the remaining companies, lacking formal patronage by labeling them as vagabonds, so the Common Council of London in Fifteen, seventy, four started licensing theatrical pieces performed in in yards within city limits. The theater company is maintained the pretense that any public performances were rehearsals for the royal patrons. A loophole it was kind of your. But. Really that's where they made. Their money was outside doing plays for the regular people to escape the restriction actor James built his own theatre on land that he least outside of city limits the theater, which was called not super creative by the way had been built by. Burridge is Father James Burge in shortage in fifteen, seventy six, and it was called the theater. The BURGE's originally had A. A, twenty one year lease, but the building itself was owned outright, but when the lease had expired on the land, he claimed that the building was now his so on December twenty, eighth, fifteen, nine, hundred eight, while the landlord was celebrating Christmas in his country home, a carpenter, and the Lord Chamberlain's men Shakespeare play. Company and their friends dismantled the theatre beam by beam and moved it across the river. The bradwell, so they were like. No, this building is not yours. The land may be yes. The lease expired buildings, not yours. We're taking it, so they totalled their asses over to Bridewell and built the globe. Not right away. They wait until spring. But like other theaters in its time, the globe was around wooden structure with a stage at one end, and covered balconies for the gentry galleries could seat about a thousand people with room for another two thousand groundlings, and they would stand on the ground in front of the stage of seen depictions of the globe theatre. I'm sure Everybo- everybody has and buildings. In those days the roof roofs were thatched correct, and so when I look at it. It just looks like a multistory barn. It sure does to me. It looks like a torch waiting to happen. There is some debate on when exactly the globe was completed, but the first performance for which a firm record remains was every man out of his humor. That's the first show that we know for absolutely performed at the globe, kidding so competition between the rival theaters was fierce. Every theater wanted to attract as many people as they could get you know for each performance so staging theatre productions got more elaborate costumes became more important, and so the props, and of course there weren't really health and safety regulations there no safety inspections for sure and on June. twenty-ninth sixteen, Thirteen, the globe theatre was in a performance of Henry the eighth and they set off a theatrical cannon. So it misfired, and it ignited the wooden beams and thatch ing, so because they didn't have fire extinguishers or the trucks water in many cases, they did have water That's what they used. Buckets filled with water that they ran to the river and got, and you can't thatched roof shits. You'RE NOT GONNA. It's not gonNA work plus you're spreading dysentery, so so that didn't work out and again. That is the day that the globe theatre went up in flames, according to one of the few surviving documents of that event, no one was hurt. Except for a man who's burning bridges were put out with a bottle of Ale. A couple of parties like that usually ran after somebody tries to light a fart. This is according to the life and letters of Sir, Henry Wotton, the theater was rebuilt the following year, but not long later in sixteen, Forty two, the globalist closed down for good by the PURITANS, apparently theater once again, not cool to to be performing in front of the public. It was just well. The Devil Trod the boards with the actors. That's right. That's right. So that is the fire of the Shakespeare's globe. It did survive past the fire. However, it did not survive those buckled hats. while. If you had a time machine, have you ever thought about work? One of the first places that you'd go, it'd be yeah. Where would where would that be I? Think we've talked about this before. I would go see dinosaurs. Sure I would I think. The first place I would go would be to see a Shakespeare play at the globe theatre in the late fifteen, hundred really, and then maybe like evil knievel when he jumped over the fountain at Caesar's. Okay, that's very specific I think I would I would Mesozoic era first and foremost? And then I think I would want maybe something pyramid. Sure I would want to be in the basement of jonbenet Ramsey's house Wait can, not, interfere do I. Get to interfere. To import you get to interfere. This is not a ray. Bradbury shortstop. Okay? No, you get to interfere. Oh, yeah, well, then my that's not I can interfere. Change my answer completely. Okay, but either way the first choice would be the Mesozoic. I got to see them dinosaurs that'd be at the globe theatre lighting my farts. Quick Reminder you guys are website box of oddities dot. COM has everything box of oddities related from our our merch. 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Henceforth the box of auditees commits to the telling of stories, stories of the strange, the bizarre, the unexpected we wish to offer our deeply felt gratitude and appreciation for your patronage. The box of ODDITIES DOT COM Twenty, twenty all rights reserved. CROMWELL's body was. Cromwell's body lay undisturbed. The cromwell the body. Oliver.

Oliver Cromwell Joe Cya Henry Wilkinson Steven Jay Russell Oliver Cromwell Charles England London Cromwell Europe King Charles I twitter Oliver Sidney Sussex College James Cox Gilligan Tov King Charles James Shakespeare luth Westminster Abbey Maryland
How Oliver Cromwell Got Executed Several Years After His Death

Ridiculous History

29:27 min | 1 year ago

How Oliver Cromwell Got Executed Several Years After His Death

"On the next Ron burgundy podcast. This is actually exciting. You got Mr Peter Dinka? He's Chang's impersonal poetry, actually. So a lot of people actually find poetry interesting. The sound machine away series thrown of games or game of thrones. Ron in any surprises. We can expect from Tylenol Lancaster curious. Iheartradio is number one for podcasts. And it's easy to see. Why? Find the Ron burgundy podcast on the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts. Ridiculous histories of production of I heart radio. Hello. And welcome to the show. Have you ever dreamed of toppling the status quo in your neck of the global woods? Have you ever thought of? Maybe starting a food fight in school, or you know, orchestrating a coup in another country. I feel like all of us have had these revolutionary or rebellious thoughts at some point. But how far does it go? You know, I've gone pretty far. My name is Ben we have come a long way. Ben just the two of us if we wanna look out on like a micro level, but on a macro level. Yeah. I think that the human species has come a long way, we certainly still know, by the way, we certainly still have room to grow. But certainly not quite running up on the kind of insurgency that let's say like a reign of terror like a Robespierre situation during the French revolution. Or maybe more of a Oliver Cromwell kind of situation like in the the old UK. Yes. Yes, it's true. And by the way, shout out to our own personal Cromwell super producer Casey peg group. Ben he deserves better than that. He does. He does. He's a you know, what you deserve to be Casey peg grow with no comparisons. No, equivocations you. Okay. With that. Casey. I'm great with that. Because it turns out Cromwell who was kind of like a Protestant Robespierre in many ways was kind of a monster. Well, his legacy is still matter of hot takes and controversy here today in twenty nineteen. Some people will say he is the father of British democracy. He got rid of the monarchy, albeit briefly, and then others will say no way, he's a war criminal. He hated the Catholics, and he led vicious military campaigns. But regardless of whether you are pro or anti-crime, well, there is no denying that. He changed. The course of history in England Scotland and Ireland let's let's learn a little bit. About his life. What do you say before we get to before we get this death spoiler? He's dead. He's dead dad is data's disco. I was wondering we're dead is doornail comes from isn't it from dickens yet? But what what made someone say, you know, what I think of when I think of death doornail, I guess it's just because it's an inanimate object. Yeah. But then the debt is table, but the alliteration key. Oh, dead as. See? Yeah. Is the dumbbell works, but door nails were much more prevalent in the days of dickens, perhaps. So yet originally all the the titles that dickens used in his stories had had the phrase doornail in them, Tulsa true. So after fomenting the parliamentarian uprising over the royalists in the English civil war Cromwell became the Lord protector of the Commonwealth of England in sixteen fifty three. That's also, of course, after executing Charles the first who was the king of the time. And he ruled over England Scotland and Ireland just for a grand scale of things time being what it is blip of time. Right, right. Because he assumed his soom the status Lord protector in sixteen fifty three. The monarchy itself was restored in sixteen sixty. So this is what maybe seven years, why did Cromwell has such a beef with the Catholics? Ben what a cre- questionable is see over Cromwell was born at the turn of the seventeenth century. And when he came into the world England was a Protestant country ruled by a king who believed that he had divine rights, meaning he was king because God had purposely made him king. This is kind of a thing with monarchs those days like the sun king, you know, like a lot of divine belief in that they were like the extension of God's power on earth. It's still is. I mean, how it's a very effective way to bully people into thinking that they have some sort of obligations serve you. Right. So Cromwell converted to puritanism in his late twenties. And he thought that king Charles the I was just to Catholic. He said he's this king is far too Catholic for me. He's a papist which. Was a smear word of the time. Many of Charles first policies such as levying taxes without the consent of parliament the made his subjects mistrust him. And they said, hey, you're not the kind of cultured monarch we like, you're one of those Taran ical absolute monarchs. Let's not forget this post Protestant reformation where the country was very much split it became largely a Protestant country, and then the kings that would come into power. They would either be heavily Protestant or maybe not quite Protestant enough for some people. But it certainly wasn't as popular in general to be super Catholic. There was kind of like a divide between the church of Rome and the church of England. Absolutely. So the stage was set for a civil war series of conflicts occur. King Charles is on the losing end of history is overthrown. He is executed of fifty nine people signed the death warrant for the king. One of them is Oliver Cromwell. And then they introduce the Commonwealth of England to replace the monarchy. I mean, quote, unquote, replace replace because Cromwell becomes Lord protector as we said, but Lord protectors pretty much still a king. It's a monarch, you know, the best evidence for that is that when Cromwell is done being Lord protector. His son takes up the job just to jump in here. Real quick. I was being a little bit purposefully hyperbolic getting the show when I compared all Cromwell to Robespierre who is known for decapitating human people in the streets with the famous eighteen Cromwell was a bit more known for his Thawra -tarian heavy handed rule than he was for bloody executions, but we will beginning some bloody executions in the story either way so between sixteen fifty three sixteen fifty eight or so he's ruling the UK has the same. Powers as a monarch, but he's called Lord protector. And he technically does it have a crown. I don't mean this in some figurative sense. I don't mean that he lost any power. You get with Mattamy, or whatever I mean that he didn't have the jewelry and here he's risen to the apex of his life in the beginning. He was just a member of parliament for Cambridge. But he became a puritan, and then later becomes Lord protector helped in no small part, by his brilliant military career, you use tactician he had fought decisive battles. So he wasn't out there doing mass executions, but war has no small measure of violence and while he was lured protector. He was in a controversial unsustainable place. Royalist hated him. The royalist were a faction of people who believed in. In the divine right of the king. So if you believe that God has decreed a certain person to be absolute ruler of land. Then you're going to equate the actions of anybody opposing king to the actions of unchristian nearly demonic forces note, I mean, so Cromwell was like a demon made flesh to these guys totally even though Charles the I was not popular because he had chosen to marry a French Catholic Princess he was still to those royalists the rightful monarch of the realm. So innocence, he replaces this monarchical regime with a puritanical Republic. But he puts in some ideas that seem very forward facing today and did not go over well at the time, which was he had this concept of being religiously tolerant and his contemporaries viewed that with. Suspicion especially residents of Ireland and Scotland what what we're saying here folks is that even when he was alive he was a controversial figure and today's story really really starts when he dies because the last few weeks of his life before he passes away in what was sixteen fifty eight the third of September, rents right? So right before he passes away. He is having a terrible time. He's getting sharp bowel and back pains has insomnia. He's freezing cold sometimes. And then just sweating hot other times. It's throat hurts. He's coughing. He's getting confused vomiting left. And right. He would get worse. And then you we get better. So we kind of ebbed and flowed, you know, and his doctors we're trying to figure out what was going on with them. They had no idea. One. We have one quote where his attendance have the sad apprehension of danger fairly vague. It really is that it's the foreboding quality. They had the shining about it. They said he might get better. At this point this starts happening when he is when he is almost sixty fifty nine years old and he dies suddenly on September third. Earlier this year an interview with Breitbart news, President Donald Trump said that in the event of a civil conflict in the United States. He believed the military and the police as well as civilian groups like the bikers for Trump would be on his side. Do you think more about the possibility of a second American civil war now than you used to if so you're not alone? I'm Robert happens. I'm the host of the podcast behind the bastards. And I've worked as a conflict journalists in a couple of actual civil wars. I started a new podcast called it could happen here to inform my fellow citizens and their friends and families about what they could expect of civil conflict where to come to the United States. So if you're worried about the possibility of a second American civil war, listen to it could happen here. Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. So he's died right problem. Well, has died and his son inherits the position of Lord protector for very very brief amount of time. Very brief. Yes. Year later. His son is overthrown by the army. The monarchy is restored. So chocolate up for the royalist. And Charles the second becomes the new king. What does he do after he becomes king is like a bygones be bygones situation that would have been above are real letdown. If that was the case, we want some blood, and we came here for blood, and boy will there ever be some blood. No, he declared everyone involved with overthrowing an executing the previous king enemies of the state, whatever you wanna call it and called for their immediate rounding up and execution, especially those fifty nine people who signed the death warrant. Yeah. Because I mean, you know, their names are on a piece of paper. They entities are out there. So it wasn't too too hard to get around in the month. This makes me think of so off air before we started this episode. We were talking about a strange moment in a lot of peoples financial history checks. We we used to do that to put our names on pieces of paper still so bizarre to think about like, you don't even have checks on our checks. I have emergency checks hidden away in my lair. And Casey you have subjects on the off chance. You might ever need one. Right. That is correct. Yes. As Casey on the case right there. Yeah. Casey other checks. I, you know, I we get some vanity vanity check. I I had superman ones. Yeah. I had. I had a couple of space ones. I believe as very indisp- ace and speaking of fantastic segues back to the point. Yes. Controls the second. Once once a specially to find in punt these fifty nine people who've signed the death warrant for Charles the first he catches many several or hained some are put in jail for life. Let's backtrack a slightly. He did just call for their trial. But I would imagine that something along the lines of a kangaroo court situation where I wasn't gonna you know, walk away Scot free. Right, right. And the thing is that as as we mentioned not all fifty nine people on that list were still alive when Charles to came into power. So he had this weird pickle in. Oh, do we prop? Prosecute the dead. Do let bygones be bygones. No, he says, no, we do not. And so he orders the bodies of several of the people of these death warrants to be exhumed. So on the twelfth anniversary of the death of king. Charles the first our buddy, Oliver Cromwell master protector. Whatever you call it master and commander, Lord, protect whatever was dug up exhumed for the purposes of, you know, make an show out of kind of reacting him. It reminds me of that. There was a pope story we day where they dug up a pope propped him up with his bones and the papal robes. Exactly, exactly. The cadavers see nod right after the death of John the eighth four Moses. That's right. So yes, Charles, the second has a lot of these people dug up and their bodies are exumed and for the. Less agrees offenders, they're just buried in communal burial pits. So they lose the honor of being buried on their lonesome, right? But all of Cromwell along with three other people get awarded death sentences, despite the fact that all recruit, well, John Bradshaw. Henry I written and Robert Blake are all dead the dead men given death sentences. So as you said, no thing they chain the guy up they hang them and chains at Tiber and in the afternoon, they hang him there for like a day and then as the afternoon wines on they take him down a cut off his head. And they put it on a spike of good head on a spike. It's it's such a statement piece. You know? Yeah. It's real it's real power move. Yes. Very much. So so they put this head on twenty foot tall wooden. Spike question. The difference between a spike in pike. It is a good question. A spy. Aiken pike, Stu little quick internet. Search here pike is to attack prod or injure someone with a pike while spike is to fix on us by occas pike and Spyker both verbs as well. So I'm thinking pike would be part of some sort of turret like offense or something like that. And a spike is more like a a whole a stick in the ground. I don't know. Yeah. A pike. Could also be a poll like a long pole that you use in infantry. Right. And then their turnpike's and turnpike comes from my car knowledge is coming here. Turnpike comes from the days of private roads. When a log would be physically placed across the road, and you had to pay someone to turn the pike or the long pole. Interesting. And I think spike is maybe just a little more of a generic term. And also as between tens Google rabbit hole. Which may or may not be interesting to you. A spike was also an old English term for an ear of corn. Oh, and. Corn beef is just salted beef. 'cause they would describe the units of salt used as corns. I thought it was pepper corns corned beef. Appreciate saw. Of course, you could put pepper on it if you want well, Ben through the magic of editing and time travel odd casting you have once again, proven me wrong. I'm not trying to go out to out to you just do it continuously because you're better than me. No, no, no, no one's bay. We are both. We're both on the quest for the truth. And no one is perfect. But you know, one cute statement in favor of our character. Our collective character is that we've never Doug someone up knocked off their head and hung it on a spike or pike. How long did they leave it up there? No way longer than seems humane than any of this particular humane in the first place, but this one stuck around as a tourist trap for decades. Yeah. Yeah. And people would pass the head around. This thing was around for twenty five years on that on that spike eventually taken down in for the next two hundred years, many different people take possession of this head when I first read got passed around. I picture people passing around the circle hotair who's much was a much larger scale version of potato like that. Or it kind of changed hands a lot. I believe for a time. It was in the possession of a failed actor who is also a kind of the town drunk and was rumored to have been a relative of Cromwell himself. This man's name was Samuel Russell comes with tastic AV club article about the subject that you can look up and Russell was not a particularly good steward of this artifact. Let's call. Yeah. Right. You can see the blue by blowers. We say pass by passive this in article on Alice obscure, the morbid journey of Cromwell's traveling head as as you were saying Noel. The guy who possessed the head Samuel Russell not the best guy. He was poor considerably in debt. He had a serious drinking problem. He would literally pass the head around at parties. Sam bring out the head, and he refused to part with the head people would offer money for it. But instead of that, you would just borrow money from people and multiple folks for one reason another said, we've got to get this head away from this drunk guy. So they continued offering him money of venture -ly a prominent Goldsmith and clockmaker named James Cox enters the story now, he's a smart fellow because he was playing the long game because he kept trying to buy the head off of him off of Russell knowing that even though he was turned down an exchange for loans. He was eventually gonna come to the point where Russell could not pay him back the loans, and then he would have the upper hand say, hey, I was all your debt, you poor unfortunate bastard, if you just give me the head, and that's exactly what happened. Yeah. Give me the head. He's able to flip it for like three times what he'd invests. It was. Twice. I think it was a nice profit. Yeah. Yeah. He sold. Cox that is sold the head seventeen ninety nine for two hundred thirty British pounds to three brothers with the last name of Hughes. They wanted to start their own public displays. So they got the head as part of other crawl while related items. They may have bunch of posters for the event. But then they found themselves in a bit of a pickle because they wondered whether the head was actually the head of Cromwell, and when they wrote to Cox task for chain of custody. You know, what I mean, Cox was kind of evasive. And so they thought is this guy selling us a counterfeit head. I mean, we've all been there right case Casey was just telling me about something like the other day. Yeah. I'm I'm not liberty to discuss that matter. It's an ongoing situation investigation. Recuse yourself. Yeah. You've been in by your legal team. Kind of this is not been Casey on the kick. So this this is this is a fish oil the cases, pending. So that's that's that's a different sound Casey is a man of many side hustles. Let's put it that way. That's true. That's true. I mean, we live in the gig economy. This episode of ridiculous history is brought to you by before breakfast. Hey, you know, how we're always talking about how we wish we have more hours in the day. Yeah. I seem to recall that conversation van. Yeah. Even just like a one extra twenty fifth hour, unfortunately, we haven't figured out how to do that. But we know that if you listen to before breakfast who slower Vander Cam can help you get a little more out of each day. Yep. Vander Cam rules Laura's the author of several times and productivity books including Juliet school possibilities off the clock and one hundred sixty eight hours that's a lot more than twenty four. These are the tips that have worked for her for people. She admires and that she's learned from feedback from listeners like you. That's right. Laura has studied thousands of schedules over the last ten years figuring out how to maximize your time your productive time. And if you have always wondered how to get the most out of your personal and professional lives than this is the podcast for you. You'll learn things like why tracking your time is a good idea. How to find more time to read this is one that I really need to learn how to find time to exercise in a busy schedule. That one's on me. How to make better small talk? That's XM portent, and why planning your week on Fridays is better so wake up with before breakfast every weekday morning just like that first Cup of coffee. It'll help you feel like you can take on the world one productivity tip at a time. Limit subscribed today on apple podcast the iheartradio app. Wherever you get your favorite shows. So what happens to from wells head? Well, here's the thing. There's a lot of conflicting tales as to what happened there. Some versions of the story that say the head it self was given a proper burial by loyalists to Cromwell, or at least those sympathize with his 'cause there's another version that says the head kind of disappeared writes, it's commonly accepted that the head was given a dignified burial in a secret place secret location, Sidney Sussex college in Cambridge in nineteen sixty. But the story is too good to let the facts distract from the possibilities. Right. Because as you said, there are people who are argue multiple things about one of the craziest craziest stories I heard was that it was secretly taken by a fraternal society. I question to Ben in this time where there wasn't a obviously DNA. A or any lab science at all. How could you confirm the veracity of a rotted shrunken head Leonard up like beef jerky win, you know, you know, you know, you just feel it in your heart. Hayes your heart. Okay. Have you ever been in that situation? Just well, we are about to have an amazing week MC cited. So what an ignoble end. This is not what the Lord protector thought was in store for him. He was separated from his grave. I then he was separated from his body and hopefully finally Cromwell divisive character that is has come to some sort of rest. According to the heads latest owner one Horace Wilkinson, he's the one he talked about the secret burial in nineteen sixty the head is still there today. And he announced that he buried it. In this location in nineteen sixty. Yes. Secret burial mine. Rear end. Yeah. Right. What about the rest of his body though ban? What of that? No, one knows not for sure there's some good ideas out there, drew, no one is entirely. Sure about what happened, but the most likely story, according to John Morris who has a Cromwell biographer is the same thing that would have happened to the bodies of a lot of folks who were executed on mass like this. And they were just thrown into a pit head on a pike body in pig tails, all the time soldiers lead to some other versions of the story include the idea that it was chucked into the Thames. And then there's a bunker story that come through a man by the name of Samuel Pepys in sixteen sixty four abyss peppis. Okay hippies. P P Y S. I just those fun to say, I I will say it again peppis. What did he say, Ben, this is I love the story. I wanna hear I wanna hear it from from the mouth of ban. Very well Samuel Pepys in sixteen sixty four claimed that Cromwell had swapped. Bodies of various dead kings from one grave to another with another story raising the possibility that it wasn't his corpse was decapitated after all. But that of Charles the first. But Charles, I already lost his head the first time around Manno and believe this base. Let's not let the facts get in the way of good story. We never do. This is a situation where in the fact is stranger than the fiction bit morbid. But we hope that you found the story of Cromwell's posthumous execution as strange as we found it. Stay tuned for our upcoming episode where we get even more morbid in grizzly more, bitter, more bitter. Yeah. Oh, it's bad. It's peak were bidded here going to have to trigger warning on that one. It's probably grossest nNcholas history we have ever done so far so far. Let's just say this. It involves very crude surgery do it during a very very specific period. Which one was it was the disco era. Yes. Aka the late seventeen hundred early eighteen hundred the first disco era. It was crossover a lot of people. Think of the disco era's like the nineteen seventies. But that is actually the fifth disco era. These facts think so much are super producer Bagra always and thanks to our research associate gave looser for a job well done as per usual. Thanks to Christopher haciendas. Who's just we like him? He's a pal. We're gonna have him back very soon. Thanks to Williams who composed theme and thinks to you. Thanks to think to everyone who took decent care of Oliver Cromwell's. We'll see. For more podcast for my heart radio. Visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. This episode of ridiculous history is brought to you by it could happen here is the second American civil war possible. How would it look and most importantly could use revive host Robert Evans of behind the bastards fame answers, these questions in tremendous terrifying detail in his brand new podcast. It could happen here. Each season. He'll take a premise more commonly seen and science fiction and explain how might be closer than you think to reality in. It could happen here, Robert mixes indepth research statistics and his own experience. Reporting from multiple civil wars around the world to paint, a vivid picture of a United States toward apart by conflict listeners are going to hear eerily plausible explanations for how war could start on the left or the right. They'll be presented with thoroughly research battle plans that explain how domestic insurgents could break the police and check even the vast might of the United States military. They'll also learn how life would change for hundreds of millions of Americans as the federal government crumbles before the onslaught of internal strife, listen and subscribe at apple podcast or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Oliver Cromwell King Charles Ben Casey peg iheartradio apple England United States UK Ron burgundy Cambridge James Cox producer Robert Ireland Iheartradio Scotland Mr Peter Dinka Tylenol Lancaster
Rewind: Was the KJV the first English Bible?

Andrew Rappaport's Rapp Report Daily

02:00 min | 4 months ago

Rewind: Was the KJV the first English Bible?

"It took the Rep Delia dish where we provide a quick biblical interpretation and is a ministry striving for eternity this week. We're GONNA take a look at the king. James version of the Bible. Many people have the false understanding of the king. James version was the only English translation at its time. That's actually not true. You see in the Fourteenth Century John Wycliffe completed the very first of the English translations of the scriptures only to be followed by the work of Coverdale in fifteen thirty nine when he created what became known as the Great Bible and followed by the Geneva Bible one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English it preceded the King James version by fifty one years and was the primary Bible of the sixteenth century protestantism. It was used by William Shakespeare. Oliver Cromwell. John Knox John Bunyan the author of Pilgrim's Progress. And it was the one that was brought over on the mayflower. This was the version of the Bible used by many of the English dissenters. And the soldiers of Cromwell's in the time of the English civil war. This was a widely used Bible and the Bible that was accepted at the time before Queen. Mary we'RE GONNA look at hurt. Another podcast the is. What did the King James Bible originally include? Well we're going to get into that tomorrow if you'd like to find out more about English translations check out our classes on the striving fraternity academy school of Biblical hormone is podcast is part of the striving for eternity administration for more content or to request a speaker seminar to your church but it's time for attorney Dot Org.

Geneva Bible King James Bible James Oliver Cromwell John Knox John Bunyan John Wycliffe Coverdale William Shakespeare attorney Mary Pilgrim fifty one years
Prime Minister vs. the police: why the Durham constabulary Dominic Cummings finding matters

The Leader

16:01 min | 4 months ago

Prime Minister vs. the police: why the Durham constabulary Dominic Cummings finding matters

"Hello it's David here. If you're a new listener to the leader can own a virus daily. Thank you for joining we're here. Every weekday from four o'clock subscribe doing shooting. You don't miss out on news analysis and interviews. Please give us a rating to and would be lovely if he could tell your friends about nap from evening. Standard in London. This is the leader killers virus daily. Hi I'm David Muslin. Another twist in the tale of Dominic Cummings and that trip to Durham. They said that cummings definitely has committed an offence. What they say is that he may have committed a minor breach of the health protection. Regulations Deputy Politic Gladys Nikola Cecil. Does this put more pressure on Boris Johnson and has never been illegal banned by any kind of relief and under Oliver Cromwell to make music together in our country in the whole history of human existence until now associate editor Julian Glover as the problems announces. Its return this summer. Why the country needs live music back taken from the Evening Standard editorial call him. This is the leader. Kuna virus daily for the whole thing. Pick up the newspaper headlines Standard Okuda UK slash comment in the moment. Please say dominant. Cummings trip to Durham might have broken. The rules It Cummings has always insisted that his dash from London to Dharam with his wife and child and their visit to power castle was not against the law. It goes of the rules. I think the The the rules made clear that if you're dealing with small children who could be that can be exceptional circumstances after that press conference in the Dallas St Rose Garden and he was given the prime minister's backing now though daren police say they're not so sure the Barnard Castle trip might have been a mining breach. They say but won't be taking any further action. Boris Johnson was already under pressure from senior members in his own party. Who feel the affairs undermining efforts to keep the country safe and uploaded Gladys Nicholas? Cecil is with me now. Nicholas what of Durham Police. Actually say they've issued quite a detailed statement and needs be read very carefully first of all they haven't said that Dominic Cummings differently has committed an offence. What they say is that he may have committed a minor breach of the health protection regulations in relation to the covert epidemic and this relates to a trip. He did With his wife and child to bond odd castle which is around twenty six miles from his father's estate in County Durham. And what Dr Police are saying. Is that if they'd stopped him. June this journey an officer would probably you spoke to him and likelihood advised him to turn to address in Durham. Where he'd come from on the other matter of whether he breach shoes driving from London to county tower the Dow can stab. You say they don't consider by locating himself to his father's premises that there was a breach. The police in an Oscar take any further action. They have taken a generally softly softly approach to dealing with offenses so generally speaking to people love than finding people Downing Street vay quickly made clear. That Mister Cummings would not be resigning. They put out a statement within minutes saying the prime minister has said he believes misty. Cummings behaved reasonably and leagally. Given all the circumstances that he regards his issue as closed now to say that Mister Cummings behavior legally seems possibly at odds with what term constabulary have said yes but this line might have been a minor breach. Doesn't entirely clear things up really. Doesn't it all leaves a bit of these a bit of a market feeling around this? Yes it's not entirely clear. Why term conceptually have used that phrase. It may be that because they could not know for certain how they would have responded such incident. But that's really left hanging slightly by the statement. Certainly Down Street sees opportunity to basically quickly to to move on again from this row. There's another interesting point. We should merge this morning which was even if mr coming not broken. The regulations howdy broken. The mole code what the public were expected to do during lockdown and very interestingly the Health Secretary Mattis Hancock was four times this morning on the radio with a he felt Mister Cummings had done quotes the right thing by driving from London to tower and he refused to say that so this seems to be some doubt about that in some ministers lines and the have been a number of quite senior Tory. Mp's suggesting that dominant coming should go certainly dozens of toy. Mp's spoken out many the move hundreds of emails from few constituents feeling that there's one rule for the general public and one ruling for the London elite Running the country and more and more of come out as days have got on Fortuna's concerns. We had to senior. Mp's actually warning this morning. That lives could be put at stake because if people decide that if Mister Cummings doesn't have to follow the rules they don't have to follow the rules then. The public health measures to protect the country are going to be put in jeopardy to certainly to a degree. And this came out before the Durham police statement. That statement change. Anything does that. Apply more pressure to the prime minister to do something not hugely at the stage. Only thing that would change now is if a lot more. Mp's came out and demanded that mister. Cummings go but both Johnson has made it very clear that he's got no intention of sacking his number ten top paid but the whole matter is is deeply damaging for the government. Not only does it. Overshadow the launch of the test and trace system. That went live this morning but boys Johnson is also announcing further Alexei Asian measures or is expected to do so today and yet the focus is still on this controversy though fuses to go away next really good news for London Next Week. The wigmore hall one of the world's Greatest Chamber Music Venues. I place I love very much is starting on Monday at lunchtime with a live concert. Stephen have a great pianist. Playing be broke on radio three so music making is coming back to London associate editor. Julian Glover on live music returning to the UK. Welcome back Nothing has ever stopped the problems when the bombs fell on the Queen's hall in Nineteen Forty One. They upped sticks and moved to the album hall instead this year. The threat is Coluna virus silence Britain's concert spaces but maybe not the problems the BBC's announced a cities of archived and life yes live performances with the ambition dip musicians in the album hall once more and maybe allow an audience that could mean L. Will play on an editorial column is Delighted. Would Corona virus? Do let's never did and silence the problems. That was the fear. Choirs a band. Orchestras parted opera has lost its voice. Jazz has gone. Rock isn't rocking. Pop isn't partying so it's good news that a problems of sorts will happen this summer. And it's good news. That live. Classical music is returning to London before then with the start of concerts at wigmore hall next week the government has said repeatedly that it wants life football back but suddenly we've heard less from ministers about music. They should remember it matters to and that it's their job to help make it happen a century ago. Germans mocked Britain as the land without music. We proved them wrong. Then the music must play on now associate editor Julian Glover's with me now and Jillian. I thought live. Music was dead. Culture must be dead. We have to keep it alive. We love it matters immensely. I get depressed allowed to say this. I get depressed to hear endless discussion of when football's coming back but we don't talk enough about the thing we've really lost from our lives which is live music live culture not just as entertainment but as part of the human expression of the joy of being alive so the good news is it's beginning to come back with getting in other parts of Europe places that have managed code better than we've done which is the entire world. Unfortunately I'm in other parts of Europe. It's been happening. Forbid I've been watching for the Munich Opera House these these extraordinary life concerts every Monday night. Well the big question hanging over. London has been all we to have a plum season the BBC's announced it wants to have the problems. It's going to start with recorded music and Brokaw show it on television but it aims. Get back by the end of August with live music in the role album. It hasn't set to details today and that's deliberate because it's pushing to work at what it can do rather than locking itself in but the plan will be to have live musicians and. I think they're hoping to get some people in. It won't be many but somebody will be there to hear it. I did see in that BBC press. Release that very careful. Insertion of the word ambition. It's our ambition to get into the royal allow but all it would be nice. Wouldn't would it make a difference if the only people there the orchestra themselves and new audience when Ns councilman the Great Singer? Begotten the Munich series of concerts. He ended it with a little speech after he'd song saying it's not the same without an audience and he's right. Music is about listening sitting still cheering. What kind of music? You're at a great rock comes. It's taking part. It's the people. Make the sound better next week. Really Good News London next week. The wigmore hall one of the world's greatest chamber music venues like a place. I love very much is starting on Monday at lunchtime with a live concert. Stephen have great pianist playing be broadcast on radio. Three music making is coming back to London. And it's brilliant news and let's say that at least some people can go to the Albert Hall. Had any get their Jillian. That's actually quite a tricky question. The transport issue is one of the things that these venues are worrying about. Because if people are told they can't come on the tube and the Congestion Charges Fifteen Pounds. Now maybe for good reasons. It's a big issue. Place like a wigmore hall a worried that on top of the sort of decline of in London life the loss of loss of travel Easy travel the fear of using the tube is going to put people off even trying to come so. They may reopen only to find the audiences. Stay away so I've written a column today about a remarkable man that I bumped into a few years ago. Andy Byford He's British. He's obsessed with transport he doesn't drive at. He's full of energy. He ran the transport system in New York. He's coming to London to take over running transport for London. He's GonNa be the boss of everything I he is the guy to do it. It's going to be a nightmare of a job. But he's got the energy to do it. There is one thing that needs to happen soon. Which is we have a social distancing rule of two meters quite knows. Why have I before me to be safer? Perhaps you know ten to be safer but anyway we went for two meters. Lots of other places. Didn't Spain I think has two meters. Germany has one and a half meters France. Somewhere between a meter and a meter and a half. It makes a massive difference public transport so getting that clarity is important. Johnson is currently getting the message. I know people have been telling him hasn't made a decision on that. The government doesn't make many decisions on anything at the moment. That's one of the big tasks transposes will have to do to show. It can be safe to have a meter apart to get people using the tube and the message we need to shift from. Don't use the Jubal buses unless you're a key worker to use it carefully as part of normal life and I've see on that issue of the two meters social distancing and bringing back to cultures for a second Julia. I've seen photographs of theaters. Who have ripped out some of their seats. You've got two seats then. A big gap than another two seats. And I've seen these thought that's actually a little bit sad also. I wonder how much tickets are GONNA cost. If half the auditorium Cardi be filled. Yes a heartbreaking pictures and of course those are not done at to me social distancing so be even tougher here yet. Can you imagine going to a rock concert where you have to stand alone and gyrate or miles away? Somebody else just not going to happen. I mean all this lunatic. I mean we have to be honest here. I mean none of it's got to happen soon as soon as you open a cafe shop every page normally. And that's what they should do. Because I'm a heretic and all of this I. I'm slightly doubtful. The public are ever social distance. We gotta get back to normal life but yeah they're going to pretend what they'll do. The start is show. This is what it looks like. At least get some people in there They haven't the seats away. They've taken out. They can always put him back. The the bolts will be on the floor to put them in. But we can't just wait until the mysterious vaccine arrives. Or until somehow guaranteed. It's safe to start to do things so it's really important. We bring this back because we can't just have these sort of Amat alive streets. It was very charming for little bit. The start of locked lockdown to see famous and not so famous people playing the oboe in bathroom. But that's not real music making. It's sort of desperate sad thing I mean just think about. It has never been illegal banned by any kind of rural even under Oliver Cromwell to make music together in our country in the whole history of human existence until now it has never happened before and we have to get away from that restriction as soon as we can and allow people to perform together. We can't just hang around that one day. Some committee somewhere will tell us. It's safe we've got to get on with it and that's SALITA KUNA virus daily. You can keep up with all the latest covid nineteen developments with the evening standard's lifelock which you'll find that standard the CODA UK. We also have morning briefings available at seventy and your smart speaker. Just ask for the news from the Evening Standard. This podcast is back tomorrow at four PM.

London Dominic Cummings wigmore hall Boris Johnson Julian Glover London UK prime minister associate editor Mp Durham Gladys Nikola Cecil Oliver Cromwell BBC Evening Standard Durham Mister Cummings Stephen David Muslin
The Desperate Young King Charles II

Noble Blood

33:14 min | 1 year ago

The Desperate Young King Charles II

"<music> a song that you love can't find anything about artist could have been huge twenty thousand tons of valuables garbage mixed together crumbling mansion images this both house all ten episodes of the podcast ephemeral are neatly labelled and easy to find listen to the full first season of ephemeral and subscribe on Apple podcasts the iheartradio APP or wherever you listen podcasts and learn more ephemeral talk show you're listening to noble blood a production of iheartradio and Aaron minke listener discretion advised in seventeen eighty six John Adams and Thomas Jefferson visited the battlefield at Fort Royal Hill in Worcester England. Adams was the ambassador to Great Britain Jefferson was negotiating trade deals deals with Europe and the two were political rivals but they had travelled together in order to see the place where the royalists had been utterly defeated by Oliver Cromwell and his army over two centuries prior Adams and Jefferson found the place deeply moving after all like Oliver Cromwell the pair had firsthand experience in waging war to overthrow monarch but to the shock and shame of the future presidents Worcester local seemed to barely note or care at all they live near the historic battle site and so John Adams delivered what he called an impromptu lecture to the townspeople do Englishman so soon forget the ground where liberty was fought for tell your neighbors and in your children that this is holy ground much holier than that on which churches stand all England should come in pilgrimage to this hill once a year to Adams and Jefferson Worcester represented the place where Liberty Loving Englishman had risen up to conquer a despotic would be king but less than a decade after the battle England had welcome Charles the second back to their shores with open arms parades and celebration elaboration he was homecoming son the merry monarch who became synonymous with indulging in women and debauchery those familiar with Charles the second tend to imagine him after the restoration of the monarchy as king thing in a flowing curly wig and surrounded by a fleet of Spaniels but just after the battle of Worcester he was a man on the run haircut short in ill fitting shoes always just an inch ahead of certain in death at the hands of parliamentary soldiers searching for him Charles would spend his young life doing whatever it took to win his crown back and avenge his father's execution even if it meant sacrificing religion friends and safety and dignity. How much would he be willing to give up in order to win back his birth rate for Charles the second if it meant being king the answer was everything I'm Dana Schwartz and this is noble blood? If Charles the seconds Father Charles the I believed lived in one thing it was the divine right of kings to rule Charles the I lived and breathed the notion that being king meant power bestowed upon him by God after all wasn't God who made him king in the first place and that belief was one he instilled in his young son from the very beginning remember son you were chosen by God to rule and your will is God's will that was the constant refrain for a young Charles the second in his father's court that and don't become a Catholic like your mother Charles the seconds mother Henrietta Maria of France had only been given permission by the pope to marry the Anglican King Charles I if she promised to be a force for Catholicism in Europe most of Charles the seconds childhood was Adila Ke- cushioned by the luxury of court even if that luxury demanded certain restrictions in ritual for eleven seven years his father ruled singularly until his taxes and continual dismissal of parliament ignited a rebellion the parliamentarians led by Oliver Cromwell rose up in civil war against King Charles the first who they accused of tyranny and treason even though he was only fourteen at the time Charles the second joined his father in the battles of the first English civil war members of the army noticed the young Prince's bravery the boy Roy who has already so tall with the striking dark complexion of his French Italian mother he stayed with his father on the front lines of battle on warships refusing to retreat to the safety of below deck fighting a more. More and more perilous war against Oliver Cromwell's new model army until finally everyone knew that the cause was lost and the prince would need to leave the country for his own safety. The prince's mother other the Queen had already left sobbing and calling out for her husband until their boat disappeared beneath the Horizon Charles the second younger sister and brother were left behind separated and hidden but as heir to the Throne Home Charles the second represented a massive threat to the new republic at the parliamentarians were building his freedom meant royalists could still rally behind him and so they needed him dead young Charles. The second exile began in Jersey an island off the coast of France where his host attempted to maintain the royal pomp and ceremony that the young prince have been accustomed to back when when he was the heir to a throne that still existed Charles the second would sit alone at elaborate banquet tables every night for dinner kneeling squires would offer each dish wanted a time while another servants carved a portion portion of the food to serve for the Prince and a third on bended knee offered a silver bowl for him to rinse his hands a cup bearer poured wine always tasting at first to check for poison and lifted a silver basin the under- the Princess Chin while he drank so a drop would never fall and soil his fine royal close. It was empty pathetic pageantry Charles. The second was a prince without a nation a teenage exile surrounded by hollow ritual that no longer had any meaning he had servants but no power after Jersey his exile brought him to Sicily and finally to France where he was able to join his mother in France France the prince who had battled on worships alongside his father's army was treated like a child his only income with pocket money given to him by his mother. Although later in life Charles the second would be famous for his lascivious flirtations nations and many mistresses as a young man he was gawky and awkward especially compared to the sophistication of the French court. There was a Princess Their Court Madam de Mon pennsylva- titled and Fabulously Wealthy and Short it should be a strategic match and the two were sat next to each other to feast to see Charles might be able to woo her later. Madame des Moines Panacea would recount the evening back to her friend who shrieked in laughter. The prince humiliated himself and Madame de Monte was humiliated for him he sat next to her so paralyzed with fear that he didn't utter a single word for fifteen minutes not long after that banquet Charles the second left France to stay with his elder sister and her husband in the Netherland hoping that the Dutch might be more willing than the French to help his father in the fight still raging in England uh-huh but it was too late the former King Charles the first was defeated by the parliamentarians and brought into custody awaiting trial. It'd be a trial for treason in the penalty was death Charles. The second went to extraordinary lengths to try to protect his father engaging in every flavor of diplomacy begging forging new allies offering ransoms writing to the new parliamentarian government government and all but begging for his father's life finally he made the ultimate concession Charles the second sent the new English government a blank sheet of parchment with his signature at the bottom a literal carte carte blanche immoral blank check. It said I will agree to anything to save my Father Cromwell and his government ignored an icy day. Hey at the end of January the former King Charles the I was brought to the scaffolding for his execution he put on two shirts before he left his prison cell so people wouldn't see him shivering in the cold and think that he was afraid <music> even as he walked the steps to his death Charles the I never denounced his faith or his belief in the divine right of kings in his final words Charles the second addressed the large crowd that had assembled all to bear witness to the regicide he called himself a martyr of the people and one final time he proclaimed his innocence but the crowd was held too far away and Charles the I was blocked by wall of parliamentary guards. The kings final address to his people went entirely unheard Charles the first lowered his head onto the block and apologized for his long hair in case it made the executioners job more difficult he gathered beneath sell cap then finally for the first and only time in British history. The executioner wrought his blade down on the neck of a monarch when the executioner. SNER held up the head to the crowd he was expecting cheers. The crowd only gasped he was very very quiet. It said one child the second heard of his father's execution execution he fell to the floor in screamed in agony. If Charles the second was going to win back the English throne he needed an army and his best hope was Scotland though the deeply pious Presbyterian Scotland had nominally declared Charles the second as king they refused to let him enter the country unless unless he pledged to accept Presbyterian Ism and spread the faith across Britain when he had once again become king that would mean Charles the second formally renouncing the faith of his Anglican father and the faith his Catholic mother he needed needed to negotiate fortunately for Charles the second he had a brilliant bargaining chip spectacular General Montrose who had fought valiantly for Charles the first and won several spectacular surprising victories for the Royal Forces Forces Montrose was loyal to Charles the second and readily agreed when Charles the second asked him to invade Scotland with a small force to attempt to raise the highland clans in order to challenge the Scottish government on his behalf Montross fought Charles privately continued his negotiations with the Scottish government until he finally agreed to the terms of the Scottish Nobles Charles wrote a letter to Montrose telling him that he was making him a knight of the Garter the most prestigious order of Chivalry that can be granted by a monarch it was as good as a kiss of death while mantras was still battling on his behalf Charles Secretly signed a treaty with the very people against whom mantras was fighting mantras was captured dragged through the streets and hangs like a common criminal not even receiving a nobleman death of beheading with an axe Charles the second gave up Montrose Montross his father's finest general a military hero but he got his alliance with Scotland after agreeing to uphold Presbyterian Ism Charles the second entered Scotland as their king he and and his men made their way from the coast into Edinburgh passing through the north gates in the city. What's that child's asked looking up an irregular shape on the gate it was twisted and blackened picked up by birds run through with a large nail? One of the Scottish guards answered him. It was one of Montrose arms hung up on the city gate as a warning and deterrent others Charles was silent the rest Thoraya you know he was technically King King in Scotland having signed the Presbyterian Covenant meant that that Crown was almost more symbolic than anything it had about the same power as a crown made a foil or a burger king paper crown a few hundred years too early see while his father there had a foundational faith in the divine right of kings to rule as granted by God himself. The Presbyterian Scots saw king as more of a magistrate than anything else. Charles was a king again but with no real king leanness us in Scotland the king was a man just like anyone else and like other men Charles the second was required to obey the strict protocols of the religion he was forbidden from walking about on Sundays and forced to sit through six hours first of Sunday sermons with the Covenant Charles had signed away his religion and his divine power but at least yet an army willing to go up against Oliver Cromwell in England and on September Third Sixteen Sixteen fifty they got their chance Cromwell and his men had advanced in a preemptive strike towards Edinburgh when they met with the Scottish forces in the battle of Dunbar the Scots massively outnumbered the Englishman and they also occupied the high ground leaving the English soldiers trapped between a hill and the North Sea all the Scottish army needed to do was wait them out but the Scottish general believed that England was already fatally weakened and so Scotland charged Cromwell watched with amazement the Lord hath delivered them into our hands. He said it was a decisive victory for England that put the entirety of southern Scotland Hartland under their control and left Scotland completely humiliated needing a scapegoat for the victory they forced their King Charles. The second to publicly declare that the outcome of the battle was God's punishment for the sins ends of his parents and his entire family. What could the young king do but agree? He was a king in name only a puppet for the Scottish Presbyterian Covenant Tres and so Charles the second swallowed his pride and did. As they asked now Charles the second path for winning back the English throne would require him doing it on English soil and so he and his small army of Scottish men and the English royalists he could gather along the way went down south to make their final stand against Oliver Cromwell at the battle of Worcester this time it was the English who had the advantage of numbers nearly thirty thousand men the largest army ever assembled rambled on British soil and Double Charles had been able to gather cromwell had predicted the movements of Charles and his armies and made a strategic decision to delay the charge three days so it would occur on September third sixteen eighteen fifty one exactly one year to the day after he had beat Scotland in the ground in the battle of Dunbar Worcester wasn't instant massacre for Charles the second and his army three thousand of his men were killed and another ten thousand captured deported off to work as indentured servants or worse as Charles and his close cadre of men rode away from the battle site. The king kept stopping his horse his father had taught him to always fight on the front lines. We have to go back Charles. The second set we have to keep fighting. His men looked at one another but only for a split second that was it. One of his men finally said the battle is over you. The parliamentarians needed Charles debt even though the parliamentarians and won a decisive military victory there were still those loyal to Charles and his longest he lived he was still a symbolic threat to the new republic. Almost no one in Charles's army had escaped from Worcester Cromwell's men had cast a wide net around the battle and they assumed boomed the king who had been on the front lines leading his army for most of the fight would be among the many dead bodies left when the fighting was over but by some miracle brilliant stroke of Luck Charles had escaped and so the would be kings the next six weeks weaving through the English countryside in an increasingly perilous series of near captures trying to make it to safety while the parliamentarian guards searched for him escape was a risky and dangerous prospect. The king was six foot two at a time when the height of the average Englishman was closer to five at six and he had an astonishing price on his head a thousand pounds he had a few allies a small network of England secret Catholics but anyone he meant could betray him and would certainly be tortured as to his whereabouts if soldiers discovered that they had been associated among that Catholic network were five brothers with the surname pendrill who saw a hot as a mission from God to protect their king against the enemy of Cromwell's protestantism one of the brothers Richard cut the king's hair so that it was short on top and long at the side in the style of a common laborer Charles I was trained in the local dialect given workman's clothes and shoes for King Charles the second who had up until that point only ever won the finest footwear the rough shoes left his feet bleeding and blistered thanks to his fight none of the shoes the pencils ahead on hand would fit him and so Charles was forced to slice open the size of a pair of shoes several sizes too small Charles would go days without sleep making escapes in the middle of the night to a state where he might be welcomed and smuggled in Charles was hidden inside secret priest holes were Catholics hid priests. Keep them safe from force conversions after the religion had been outlawed a captain named of all things William careless had been one of the final royal soldiers to make it out of Worcester alive he and Charles had made it to the Bosca Bella states where the pencil brothers were caretakers only to hear of an approaching battalion of Puritan guards careless knew that if he brought the king inside no matter how well hidden the houses priests tolls were eventually the soldiers but find him and so at careless a suggestion William pendrill brought out a ladder careless. I'm the king climbed high into an oak tree dense with leaves and stayed there for an entire day while the troop of Cromwell's guards marched beneath them searching the countryside for king who at that very moment was a dozen feet above their heads. The king was sleep in the branches when a pair of regards sat at the base of the tree taking a break from their search to clear the rubble from their shoes. Careless was awake and came to a terrible realization. His leg was asleep and Charles was lying hang on his leg if the sleeping Charles didn't move careless numb leg would cause them both to tumble from their perch directly onto the guards below an so covering Charles's mouth so he wouldn't yell careless. Careless pinched him and then pinched him again. Mercifully Charles woke up and quietly shifted his weight and the two remained safely hidden in their perch until the guards moved on after the king successfully evaded troops of basketball. Two of the pendrill brothers went with him to the estate of Moseley old hall the home of a man named Thomas White Greave there Charles the second was given his first proper bed to sleep in since he had escaped from the battle of Worcester. A family priest was also there a man by the name of Father John Huddleston who bathed and bandaged the king's torn and Athleti Feet Charles had been shown so much generosity and loyalty by Father Huddleston and by all of the Catholic Englishman who had aided him along in his escape that Charles Pledge then in there that should he become king of England again he would once again grant Catholics religious freedom. If it pleases God I come to my crown. He told Father Huddleston both you and all your persuasion shall have as much liberty as any of my subjects Charles stayed relatively comfortably at Moseley old hall for two days until parliamentary troops arrived on the afternoon of the third day Charles and Father Huddleston were quickly hidden in a priest hole but the troops tortured and interrogated their host. Thomas White grave convinced that he had fought with Charles at Worcester. Even though the truth was that he hadn't eventually after hours of interrogation the troops left the forces forces of danger were only closing on Charles faster the pendulum's brother-in-law had already been captured by English forces interrogated tortured and hanged but the entire time he had refused to give Charles up for the final leg of his journey Charles road with a woman named Jane Lane who had received a permit from the military to travel to Bristol with one of her servants in order to visit a family member if he made it to Bristol Charles could find a boat take him to France and so he adopted the alias William Jackson and road on Jane's Horse with her maintaining the charade that he was her servant anyone they meant when the to stop doesn't estate for Lodging Charles as William William Jackson was sent to the Kitchens to work as any servant would have been he was assigned to wind up the Jack that would be used to roast meat in a fireplace but Charles having been royalty as entire life had no idea how to do it. The Cook was immediately suspicious. What kind of servants are you doesn't know how to Work Jack? He Spat Charles thought quickly and came up with an excuse. His family was so poor. He said that they so rarely ate need that he had no experience with the roasting. The Cook was satisfied. The entire escape lasted six weeks and when Charles finally made it to Bristol he was able to smuggle his way onto a French merchant ship chip and make his way to safety right under the noses of the parliamentary guards. It was the most heroic experienced Charles the second would have for the next decade he was safe while he was abroad but he was also politically impotent relegated to attempting to beg for treaties with Prince's from surrounding countries who had little to no interest in his plight but then something happened a little less than ten years later Oliver Cromwell died on the exact anniversary of the battles of Dunbar and Worcester Cromwell's son Richard was milk toasts in passive and with no strong leader to take over parliamentarians recognized that the country entry was on the verge of civil war to stave off anarchy the leaders of the government had secretly written to Charles the second who had been living in the Spanish Netherlands Charles the second agreed to their terms of forgiveness and leniency for those who had fought him with the exception of those who had committed regicide against his father and so in sixteen eighteen sixty Charles the second was welcomed back to England he hadn't won the crown really this was if anything victory of waiting and circumstance but it didn't matter even if it was a role stripped of its power even even if he was a symbol even if he was puppet none of it mattered he was finally the King of England Charles would spend much of his later life recounting the story of those six weeks he had spent on the run too wrapped audiences it had been the only time in his life where he interacted with common. People lived by his wits completely free of Powell's ritual and formality they were weeks of piracy and adventure of death defying odds and close calls that became closer the more often the stories. We're told Charles the second would be an indulged king famous for his feasts and mistresses known for his flamboyant fashions in general hedonism and though he was a king parliament still retained. Gained much of the power that they had had in the interregnum when Charles attempted to pass a rule permitting Catholic worship as he had promised his loyal supporters who had risked their lives aid in his escape parliament instantly forced him to withdraw Charles capitulated. There was nothing he could do nothing he would be willing to do it meant risking his position the throne for which he had sacrificed so much to gain when Charles was on his deathbed suffering from organ failure and internal bleeding that even the most dedicated bloodletting efforts of the royal physicians couldn't care his brother. James came to comfort him. The Charles has had over a dozen illegitimate children. He had none by his wife and two James would be next in line for the throne. James brought his dying brother priest sire. He said this good man went saved your life. He now comes to save your soul. It was father John Huddleston. The very man who had once Bandage Charles Feet. He was escaping from English soldiers so long ago the King Charles had outwardly portrayed himself as loyal to the Church of England for his entire adult life he had secretly been Catholic devoted to the faith of his mother and if the people who had shown such courage in helping him escape before Charles second died the Father Huddleston performed the right to formally receive him into the Catholic Church Charles was finally free to be loyal to his true beliefs when he had nothing left to lose that might be where Charles died but they're still little more to the story stick around after brief sponsor break to hear more about Charles the second and his legacy <music> twenty six million calls connected on the battlefields of Europe doesn't mean anything if you do not have an operator number four minutes thirty three seconds that changed the course music history which is best understood feasts and his lease understood the twenty eight thousand seconds or ten episodes of the podcast ephemeral are all available now listen to the full first season of ephemeral and subscribe on Apple podcasts. What's the iheartradio APP or wherever you listen to podcasts and learn more at ephemeral dot show a lot of emails about all the time and usually when I look at a story I can tell them the first five minutes probably will happen but this is really strange in our asking people what's wrong? What's wrong and we're GONNA serve office with no explanation? Janey award was sixteen years old when she died under mysterious circumstances she was at a party at a cabin in the woods in the small town of Marshall Arkansas Order would be I'm Katherine Townsend and I'm heading back to Arkansas on a new case to find out what happened to Jamie Ward on September Ninth Nineteen eighty-nine when there's no justice done it hurts a lot of people in town listen to how and gone on Apple podcasts or on the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcasts available July twenty fourth in Sixteen Nineteen Astronomer Edmund Min Haley of Haley's comet fame named a new constellation in the southern skies with twelve stars Healy drew a mighty tree with far extending roots and a thick leafy canopy he called his New Constellation Constellation Robert Carolina Charles's Oak but this new constellation overlapped heavily with the Constellation Argo knavish the great ship and as astronomers map the stars of the area in the years. Here's to come they largely forgotten or ignored Robert Carolina such that now the Constellation is considered obsolete but just because it's no longer marked in the stars doesn't mean that Charles Trees Forgotten <music> This Day the Royal Oak remains a popular name for establishments frequented by the Labor's. The king had once spent time with English pubs. Noble blood is a co production of iheartradio Aaron Minke the show is written and hosted by Dana Schwartz and produced by Aaron Minke Matt Frederick Alex Williams and Trevor Young Noble blood is on social media idea at noble blood tales and you can learn more about the show over at Noble Blood Tales Dot Com for more podcasts from iheartradio visit the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows <music> television network decades of pioneering television broadcast once and never seen again. It was nothing else like.

Father Charles Charles Oliver Cromwell England Charles Feet Charles I Worcester Catholic Church Charles Robert Carolina Charles Athleti Feet Charles Charles Pledge Bristol Charles Scotland France Father Huddleston King King Europe Jersey Edinburgh
2.10 The Gloucester Petition

The Political History of the United States

27:18 min | 4 months ago

2.10 The Gloucester Petition

"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States. Episode two point ten. The Gloucester petition. Throughout the month of June sixteenth, seventy six events in Virginia head moved from a simmering discontent to open rebellion. The purchases and the governor had reluctantly acquiesced to the demands of General Bacon and his men mostly because they were at gun point, and it was either do that or die. By the end of June however conditions outside of Jamestown meant that big, and had to retreat from the capital as soon as bacon was gone Berkeley dissolve the Jude Assembly, back in Jamestown governor, Berkeley and members of the assembly were undoubtedly shaken by the events of the past month Berkeley's power had been tested in every conceivable way, and beyond not playing Charles the first two. Bacon Oliver Cromwell or in other words escaping the month with his head, still attached to his shoulders, Berkeley had seen nothing but a devastating series of losses. The immediate attacks were a somewhat welcome reprieve for those inside of Jamestown as it brought them time to breathe, then reassessed their position. I say somewhat because it is important to note that the attacks that drove bake it out of town, not exactly out on the frontier. The attacks occurred about thirty miles away from Jamestown. New Kent. To give an idea of distance. You can't is located about halfway between Jamestown and Modern Day Richmond. If you recall from our last episode, they can was elected from Henrico. County makes up the eastern half of Richmond. So the attack new can't really is just smack DAB in the middle of the Virginia Colony. This is of course, a huge concern to a lot of the members of the House of Burgess. As their teeth and plantations were suddenly in the line of fire. Either way though nobody was sad UC Bacon. Leave Jamestown yet aside from crossing their fingers that Bacon would be killed fighting the Indians. They recognize that they were not at the end of the rebellion, but rather just experiencing a brief pause and the conflict. They all knew them fully expected that Bacon was going to be back and that they were going to have to deal with a self appointed, general. Both Bacon and Berkeley fully understood that they had not had their final encounter. Both men knew that the other was working diligently on a plan for what would go down the next time that they met as it turns out. The Indian attack have been somewhat of a boon to both men. For Berkeley, the benefit was immediate the crisis in new Kendrew Bacon and his men out of Jamestown, before things can even more radical turn Berkeley remained the governor, and as I stated just a moment to go at his head, still firmly attached to his shoulders, making a where the Berkeley wasn't simply standing still also found himself a suddenly advantageous position. Well likely disappointed his time. Jamestown ended so quickly they get now found himself charged with raising an army to fight the Indians. Beyond that, however, this raid was not on some distant frontier, but right in the middle of the colony. This situation created strange bedfellows. Members of the House of Burgess lived in the area where the Indians had attacked. Now it was their families that we're facing potential mortal risk. Men who had just weeks before been signing acts basically at the insured now found themselves begrudgingly, giving been too big into fight the Indian threat. Beyond that these men were openly allowing big into conscripted into service, as well as providing him with the supplies that he would need to carry out his mission, well, Bacon was going to need to address the Indian threat something he planned to do with nothing but pure brutality that he was also now allowed to raise an army. Everybody of course knew that this was a very risky move. Suddenly they wasn't going to be walking around with some pitch for carrying rabble, but instead was going to be leading a bona fide army. This is a very tenuous situation for Berkeley and indeed the entire assembly, the primary objective than for both sides is going to be the recruitment of numbers to their individual 'cause. As Bacon moved county to county, the troops and weapons. He took four for the defense of the colony against the common Indian threat. This was a caused that the people were generally willing to sign up for knowing that their families and lead. We're in constant danger from the threat of Indian incursion. However it is important to note that not everybody here trusted Bacon, nor wanted initially at least to have anything to do with his actions in Jamestown despite that. However, there was really no mis understanding what was going on here. The assumption was an ultimately. It was a correct assumption was that the army being raised by Bacon was being done only under the pretense of fighting the Indians, and that will bacon was really doing was building his revolutionary army begin made his way throughout Virginia, seeking supplies and men. Among the Mim Bacon was able to recruit or servants and slaves not only did bake offer them escape, and some adventure in an otherwise tedious life, but he also offered them hope for a future. However did not come without controversy as many of the smaller planters were not super thrilled with the idea, a survey next to slaves, likewise begging was dealing with a serious concern from the small pleasures that as soon as they left a fight, the Indians Berkeley and forces which gobble up their land. So. There was serious hesitation to leave. Their land protected from both the Indians and the troops loyal to governor Berkeley. was able to counter with the fact that the Indian threat directly affected them, and that regardless of their decision to fight or not. The Indians were going to come. Plus he threw in the best motivator of all the promise of plunder as building grew his army. Berkeley knew that he had to respond. There was no doubt in Berkeley's mind that when the war ended, Bacon and his army was going to march on Jamestown. Of course, Berkeley was almost certainly correct about this as I said a little bit ago, everybody was aware exactly. We're all of this. Was Hetty therefore for Berkeley? He needed to move quickly and how his defense is ready. The last two episodes of this podcast have basically been a story of Berkeley making miscalculation after miscalculation, the guy seriously seems like he is just due to make a right call. Eventually Berkeley turned his attention to attempting to recruitment from nearby Gloucester. County Gloucester County was the richest county Virginia and a place, where Berkeley at least assumed he remained popular, and the people loyal, and really what better place Berkeley to go attempt to turn around his luck, Cher. He had made a few mistakes along the way, but these were his people. Certainly, this couldn't be another mistake, right? UNBEKNOWST at the time to the governor, he was about to make the miscalculation of all miscalculations. Seriously, this is going to be akin to somebody making the preseason pick of the two thousand seventeen Cleveland browns to win the super. Bowl right before they went sixteen. So what went so south in Gloucester County? Gloucester county on the surface was not going to be a place where you would expect to Funday lot of supporters for Bacon. Located across the York River from Modern Day Williamsburg Gloucester county was largely made up of those who had supported, Berkeley, and in turn had turned a huge profit, following the attack on New Kent. Basically everybody throughout Virginia accepted. The Indian threat was very real, and with something that needed to be dealt with. However. Responding to the threat posed from the Indians and siding with the rebel, Bacon, or not necessarily synonymous with each other, despite begging attempts to make it so in Gloucester county. This is going to ring true. The men there realized and agree that there was a neom problem and that response was required, however at least four now they were not wanting to become part of a rebel army against Berkeley. County therefore head decided to take third road under the command of Lawrence. Smith and Thomas. Hawkins and don't worry about their names. They're not going to be on the test. Gloucester was preparing for its own expedition against the Indians. They raised men gathered weapons and prepared for battle. They were willing to deal with the Indian threat, but they were going to do so. Without the need of General Bacon, the first problem however came in July one beginning arrived in Gloucester county, he was intent on gathering men and ammunition after all he had been granted the commission to do just this, and he was an officer, and this is what officers did. Baking came in collected weapons and goods much to the grid of Hawkins and Smith as well as several men who went off to fight with him. Though. About the potential dangers, citizens of Gloucester, county very reluctantly agreed to obey the governor's commission, because it ultimately was a commission from the governor himself. As soon as Bacon was gone, rubber, beverly and Philip Blood well wrote what would become known as the Gloucester petition? Both beverly and Ludwig were staunchly loyal to Governor Berkeley and we're anxious to bring the rebel Bacon to heal. The petition was signed on behalf of the inhabitants of the county. An issued a plea to governor Berkeley for help. Their petition detailed their woes and the fact that the rebel Bacon had stolen their weapons and men and treated them with deplorable amounts of disrespect. All of this makes perfect sense. These are these supporters of governor Berkeley, and they certainly weren't going to be thrilled about having their goods commandeered by Bacon, and his men or their farmhands taken away, especially, considering that they must have felt as though they were complying recall that they were at least trying to raise an independent force to deal with the Indian threat in new Kent. When the Gloucester petition arrived in Jamestown governor Berkeley must have felt pretty good to be reminded that he did how some friends out there. Berkeley recognize this as an opportunity to strike back as Bacon. If Berkeley can show Paik to be nothing more than a thief stealing from the good people in Virginia against their will, he could start to hopefully road at the popular support. The biggest had built for himself. Berkeley's felt like two seconds responding back that big, and had no commission, and that anything perceived to be a commission from him, was done a gun point and was therefore buoyed. Berkeley than immediately jumped on a horse and made his way out Gloucester county where he hoped he would be able to raise a force of his own to take down Bacon. Upon arrival, Berkeley was pleased with what he saw. People were loyal to him, and for the first time in what must have seemed like a while. He was among friendly faces. Berkeley's plan was to call the troops, and then head out to confront Bacon. Initially however, Berkeley doesn't say this instead. He claims that he wants to raise a force to go deal with the Indian threat. The citizens of Gloucester are okay with this. And in short time Berkeley was at the head of some twelve hundred men who were ready to go out and fight the Indians. So this is the part of today's episode where you are probably starting to wonder where this huge mistake by Berkeley. Here he is with twelve hundred troops under his command that is a pretty sizable force or sixteen seventy Virginia with his twelve hundred troops, mustard, and ready to write out to fight the Indians governor Berkeley goes ahead and makes that giant miscalculation that is going to totally shifting tides, and leave him very literally isolated standing in front of what he believed to be his army governor Berkeley gave his command go out, find beacons, army and attack. For the men in the ranks this was a moment where they all suddenly perked up and said Hey, wait a minute. What what did he just say? The twelve hundred men that Berkeley had under his command were there to fight the Indians. That's what they had been recruited to do, and that is what they were prepared to do. What they weren't ready for and ultimately what they were unwilling to consider is bringing arms against their fellow Virginians. They had no interest in becoming the leading wave of a civil war. Almost, immediately upon learning what Berkeley had in mind for them, the army simply disbanded. They weren't going to fight a war, and they certainly were not going to be tricked into fighting Berkeley's war. The men picked up turned around and went back home. Some accounts say that as the men walked away chance of Bacon. Could be heard. For Governor Berkeley. This was nothing short of devastating. It was a complete disaster. In addition to now finding himself literally standing alone deserted by his Army, Berkeley head just changed the course of the war. On some alternative timeline out there you can imagine a situation where Berkeley went out beats big into the punch, dealing with the Indian threat and proved that the Virginia government still has the backs of the people. All of this would work towards eroding the popular support for Bacon as Berkeley would prove that he's still willing to defend the colony. Unfortunately for William Berkeley that version of things never plays out. Instead what does end up? happening is the complete opposite. Berkeley had exposed himself as being weak men were unwilling to follow his orders or fight for him against the rebel Bacon. With the Indian threat looming Berkeley's actions clearly state that he is more interested in dealing with his personal grudge against Bacon. Then he is about fighting the Indian medicine protecting the colony. Finally he not just supported, but created a plan of action that was he virginians killing Virginians. All the worst fears that biggest supporters had regarding Berkeley or in a single moment confirmed and worse. The governor was working against them and had no qualms sending their neighbors out to kill them. They get upon learning about this immediately recognized just how we Berkeley was. There would not be a better time to strike. With that Bacon and his men abandoned their campaign against the PA- Monkey. Indians whom they had yet to find anyways they turned around and much back to confront and deal with Berkeley once and for all. It's important not to lose the much bigger point in all of this as a whole lot about the state of the colonial leadership in July of Sixteen, Seventy six when Berkeley hit asked twelve hundred men in Gloucester to come with him and take down the rebel Bacon, all he got was some uncomfortable muttering before the entire group collectively said yes, or no, Bro. We're not going to be doing that today. Upon getting word of this challenge from Berkeley, they can made basically the same request of his men. Let's turn around and go deal with Governor Berkeley. The difference however is obvious. Berkeley was left standing alone. Bacon Zeman turned around and began to March back Berkeley. That he had a massive problem. Besides the fact that the men had just left them standing there, he was likely instantly aware that Bacon wasn't going to simply brush this threat to the side, and indeed he is right bacon his on his way. Berkeley's interest therefore likely turned quickly back to how to keep his head and his body as a single unit. Berkeley wasted no time getting out of Gloucester. County, along with a small group of loyalist Berkeley fled the scene before they can get their stopping just long enough to pronounce the thing. You'll bake into an outlaw, not that anybody was really listening, but hey, it's important to keep up appearances. By this point knew that his prospects in Virginia looked pretty good at least in the short term. However. It is evident in his writings that he was still deeply concerned about the perception, the English back across the Atlantic would have. Dealing with an angry governor. Yeah, we've got that dealing with anger king. However, it was an entirely different matter altogether. In defensive his actions, baking would ride in July, sixteen, Seventy six, but the main cause of all the commotion between him, and Governor Berkeley was in relation to affairs with the Indians well hinting that there might have been a little bit more to it than just that. More, interestingly big and makes clear in his writings that he is fighting this fight, not because he is an opposition of the king, but rather he is fighting for the king. Berkeley had become corrupt and was putting the king's subjects endanger. Baking was just doing what was necessary to protect the king's subjects and ensure that Charles the seconds prerogatives Virginia were being carried out properly. There are a few reasons why Bacon would take such a stance. However, the most obvious is that he to do any key can pacify lending from intervening as I said, baking can deal with Berkeley and his followers, however the prospect of actual English soldiers, coming to Virginia to put down the rebellion, not think you. Wanted to be clear that he was at war with Berkeley. Yes, but this guy is the bad guy I'm just doing the king of service, and while we really have very little concept of what Bacon Thought of Charles the second one thing is clear. He has zero interest in this being anything more than what it was. Bacon was not looking for independence from the crown at least not quite yet. What begin was looking for was to escape from the petty tyranny of a local government. This wasn't an uprising against the English. It was an uprising against a single individual at his pack of followers. All of this comes together in the July Thirtieth Declaration of the people of Virginia. They can wanted to make his position clear and leave no doubt as to the causes of what was happening. Of course he paid lip service to the face reason for the rebellion, promising that he was still dedicated to destroying every single Indian that he saw. Beyond that, however what Bacon issued was a widespread denunciation of Berkeley and policies. He denounced the taxation system that had overwhelmed the colonists and brought attention to the fact that these taxes were levied under the false pretense of being for the public good. Berkeley and these small group of loyalist that stuck with him, were able to escape from Gloucester alive, however by this point nowhere in Virginia was safer them forcing them to leave the colony altogether to regroup. This means though for gene was now in the hands of Bacon with the funding at least done for the moment they it had turned his to actually running the colony. Gathering together on August third they can set at the head of a convention that was assembled to establish a new government for Virginia. Most of the men now being tap to establish the new government were those that had been officers beacons militia. In what would become known as the act of Middle? Plantation Convention, the new government laid out their grievances and their solutions. The first order of the day over was establishing their right to establish a government in the first place. Critically the bigger delegation had to establish that they were the legitimate government of Virginia. In. Order to accomplish this goal. They began by lambasting Berkeley. Immediately they blamed him for the civil war and claimed that by leaving Virginia. He had essentially a bed in his post and has the government. So much as the declaration of the people of Virginia, this was another chance for Bacon to Slab, Berkeley. Bacon understanding that even though Berkeley was currently often hiding, he still did likely commend deal of loyalty throughout the colony beyond those who openly supported Berkeley. It is a safe assumption that there were still plenty of other who would have seen. Bacon is doing nothing more than throwing off the existing status quo that they had all grown accustomed to. They can had to ensure that those under him were people who he could trust? And therefore he made the decision that all serving under him would have to take in the wilty. Now I'm not going to include the entire. Because honestly it is surprisingly long. However, I will include the full text of it over the website. Should you want to read it yourself? However as a quick summary, the first half of the oath is it enunciation of Berkeley with the second half being a pledge of loyalty to General Bacon. Those pledges include things such as serving loyally an if need, be joining an army of the common defense for colony. For those who refused to take the oath, the order of the day was deportation from the colony. Now. As with every oath, it is critical to consider that there were plenty of people who would have just taken the oath, despite being more than happy to see Berkeley return and hang the rebel scum. In a quote from the Berkeley Loyalist George Jordan. It is better to plunder. Then be plundered. I think it is important to point out before we go any further that despite cries for reform to the tax system, and making things more equitable. This should not be thought of as some kind of social revolution. We are still solidly one hundred fifty years away from the Socialist Movement of the eighteen hundreds, and even within that scope Bacon was no socialist bacon, absolutely believed in class distinctions. You would have seen no problem with people enriching themselves. His problem rather was that. The government under Berkeley had taken things to such extremes that put the colony itself endanger. Bacon fully believe that there were differences between the gentlemen and the planter class. However, the problems existed is that when the gentleman class gave all their wealth through continued and crippling exploitation of that planter class. They can was totally fine with self-enrichment, but come on. Guys. Cool it just a little bit. Well Bacon still dutifully place the fight against the Indians as the paramount objective in his rebellion, the second order of the day remain the lucrative art of wealth redistribution. So, what does wealth redistribution in the age of beacons rebellion mean well in this case it literally often meant seizing the hugest dates of those who had been loyal to Berkeley and then lose to their heart's content. The biggest prize came on August the eighth sixteen seventy six. On That day Berkeley's owners stated Green Springs was captured by bigots forces. Unsurprisingly Berkeley was in control of the largest stadium in Virginia I now it was in the has of Bacon and his men. The material wealth that had been set back to Linden with his wife was very quickly stripped out. As the summer of Sixteen, Seventy six move forward, the wildfire that was begins rebellion, threatened to spill out of Virginia and explode through the entire Chesapeake Maryland planters had faced many of the same pressures that those in Virginia had faced, there were these same complaints over the unjust enrichment of the ruling class at the expense of the planters. There was danger on the frontiers from hostile Indians that was not being adequately addressed as well as a growing general hopelessness from the planters. Like in Virginia, they increasingly, we're buckling under the oppressive tax structure for them, looking to their south and seen the success of General Bacon was putting equally revolutionary ideas in their mind. In Maryland there were suddenly loud calls to reform the imperial system, and to purge the corrupting forces. Well things in Maryland were beginning to heat up back in Virginia. Baking was pressing his advantage. Sending his two best lieutenants, Giles Bland and William Carper on a mission to capture Berkeley make it was hoping to cut the head off possibly literally of the Berkeley enforces. Fortunately, this didn't actually go great for Giles carver. Despite pittance to find the disgraced governor, they found themselves suddenly being captured by Berkeley Loyalists Philip. For Berkeley, this is basically the first good thing to happen to him in several months. With Bacon having to go off and fight the Indians in new kit once again, Berkeley, his chance for a comeback tour Berkeley made the decision that he needed to return to Jamestown if he had any hope of regrouping. In order to do this decided that it was time to make some promises of his own. In exchange for help Berkeley promised that those who rallied to his cause would be allowed to plunder those who had taken beacons oath. which does admittedly make you question if the guys who had signed off on the oath had plundered the supporters of Berkeley. Were they now going to go back and still back their own stuff? Anyway without plundering was going to be the order of the day in Virginia, regardless of who you supported. Also desperate for supporters Berkeley went a step further. Berkeley promised the servants of the men who took biggins freedom if they turn their backs on their owners. This does bring up another very interesting problem for Berkeley. As, it turns out very few servants turn their backs and began flocking to the Berkeley camp. Sure Freedom was the prize. However, the cost of guessing wrong was probably going to be more severe servitude or very possibly death. As it turns out despite the very generous offer, few servants saw Berkeley's being the winning horse in this race. Undeterred by the low turnout Berkeley Retook Jamestown on September seventh, sixteen, Seventy six. Things were looking dire for the governor, however, few rallied back to his cause, leaving him dangerously outnumbered in the capital, and despite the fact that Bacon was distracted by his battles of the Indians. Berkeley retaking Jamestown was not going to escape his attention for very long. Next time we will pick up with governor Berkeley, having just retaken Jamestown. We will see how Bacon response to that. And ultimately how these two men are going to battle over the colonial capital. Until then I. Hope you all have a great two weeks as always I hope you are staying healthy and staying safe. I will see you back here then, and we will continue our journey through beacons rebellion.

Berkeley General Bacon Governor Berkeley Berkeley Virginia Gloucester Jamestown Berkeley camp army Gloucester County Bacon Zeman New Kent Virginia Colony governor Berkeley. United States Richmond Oliver Cromwell Charles Gloucester
May 25, 2020: Richard Cromwell Resigns

Today in True Crime

10:15 min | 4 months ago

May 25, 2020: Richard Cromwell Resigns

"Today is Monday. May Twenty Fifth Twenty. Twenty on this day in Sixteen fifty nine Lord. Richard Cromwell resigned from the protectorate of England. Ushering in a new era of unrest. Welcome to today and true crime of podcast. Original today recovering. The fall of Lord Richard Cromwell the son of notorious English civil war leader Oliver Cromwell. Let's go back to the afternoon of May Twenty Fifth Sixteen fifty nine in the Chambers of Whitehall Palace Lord Richard Cromwell peaked out the upper storey window of the enormous building. He currently called home. He noticed the brigade of army officers milling about in the courtyard below. Then somberly. He turned back to his small writing desk to consider the document waiting for his signature. It was a letter of resignation addressed to parliament and he'd already summoned the Messenger on horseback for the delivery. Richard knew he would sign the document. Hence his call for the Messenger but he simply couldn't bring himself to do it yet he was still the Lord protector just as his father had been unfortunately he was not the Lord Protector. His father had been Richard did not have his father strong military bearing nor did he command the respect of the army leaders. Richard couldn't even leave his own house for fear of the soldiers below. They'd had him under house arrest for days and destroyed his royal seal to which meant that officially he no longer had the power to conduct any government business. There were already jokes about Queen Dick and tumbledown Dick Circulating among the rough military men. The whole situation had started when Richard tried to convene a new parliament after his father's death. Richard had wanted to bring together the disgruntled citizens and the powerful military but the two camps were constantly suspicious of each other. His parliament had not only dissolved under pressure from the army. It also incited further anger and doubt toward Richard himself. That's when the army had called. Its own parliament to order and placed Richard under. This wretched has arrest. Richard had always known the military leaders didn't trust him but he hadn't expected them to move against him so soon their boldness he was sure was because they considered him week unfortunately he was now equally certain that they were right. He inherited the title that now rested upon his shoulders and he couldn't bear the weight. Richard sat down at the desk and read over the abdication letter. It had been dictated by the army generals and the members of their new parliament but its terms were surprisingly appealing. They had agreed to absolve him of his debts. Which totaled close to thirty thousand pounds almost four million pounds in today's money that was a hefty sum. A sign of how badly they wanted him gone. They had also agreed to provide him with a small pension so long as he went into exile outside London after all they couldn't risk him returning as the figurehead for another revolution. Touting his father's name to garner support not only would he live but England would provide for him for the rest of his life. Not a bad deal anyway. He had little choice in the matter. It was time for Richard to resign and let the military and parliament govern England without him finally decisively. Richard picked up his quill pen and signed with a flourish. He added one final note writing. I love and value the peace of this Commonwealth much above my own concern moments Richard Cromwell folded and sealed his letter with wax and called for the Messenger. He was no longer Lord Protector. He was now simply a noble citizen. Who happened to be living off the government or so it seemed but unfortunately once. Richard relinquished his title and control. Things didn't go quite according to plan coming up tumbledown. Dick and England are thrown into chaos. Now more than ever self care and self love take top priority. Well podcast has an incredible new series aimed to brighten your days and renew your outlook on life. It's called daily quote and it's a quick two to three minute daily podcast for you to get inspired. By every day on daily quote will be given a quote meant to motivate and uplift. You'll also dive deeper into the context surrounding the quote learning more about its origin and the meaning behind it out of all the quotes featured so far. It's hard to pick a favorite but the words that probably stuck with me. The most are by poet and activist Maya Angelou so enlightening and so important whether you're jumpstarting the morning searching for that midday. Pick me up or trying to finish the evening off. Strong daily quote offers some of history's most inspirational quotes whenever you need them. Three hundred sixty five days a year. Follow daily quote free on spotify. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Now back to the story on May Twenty Fifth Sixteen fifty nine. Richard Cromwell resigned from his position as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England. He had inherited the role and title after the death of his father. Oliver Cromwell but Richard could not earn the trust of the military and members of parliament. The way his father had now after sending his official resignation to the transitional parliament. Richard anticipated a gentle exile with the government pension. After all that's what his enemies had agreed to. Instead he found himself broke and homeless. Richard had sworn to support the new parliament from afar but no functioning government emerged from the chaos left. In Richard's absence without a government. There was no pension lacking any support or money. Richard had to flee to France under a false identity posing as a man named John Clark. He stayed out of sight in the following years as he desperately avoided his creditors. Who were still looking for the thirty thousand pounds he owed. Meanwhile the British Army tried to install a new government in England but the people rejected a military centric rule. The chaos didn't subside until a few months later when the exiled son of Charles the I returned to England Charles. The second was immediately popular with the fractured government. And the people his father Charles. The I had been overthrown by Oliver Cromwell. Richard Cromwell's father Charles. The I had been a tyrannical monarch who refused to work with parliament and no hero of the British people when he was violently executed in sixteen forty nine. The people had celebrated but after the decade of turmoil the Cromwell's had caused suddenly. The old royals didn't look so bad. Charles promised to honor parliament if the monarchy were to return. He wouldn't repeat the mistakes of the past and exactly a year after Richard resigned as Lord. Protector in May Sixteen Sixty King Charles. The second took back the throne. Richard Cromwell quietly returned to England. Twenty years later he lived a simple life in Hartford sure until he died in seventeen twelve. He was eighty five years old and the longest living English ruler ever until Queen Elizabeth surpassed the record in two thousand twelve. Unfortunately Richard's impressive lifespan was not matched by an impressive legacy his attempt to lead his father was a failure instead. He's remembered as a son who inherited more than he could handle and sent England running back into the arms of the monarchy. He never escaped the sarcastic jokes about his name. Either to this day the history books know him best as Queen. Dick thanks for listening to today and true crime. I'm Vanessa Richardson. If you want to hear more about the fall of the Cromwell clan tune into the episodes of gone for the story of Oliver Cromwell's missing head. Today in true crime was created by Max Cutler and is a podcast studios original is executive produced by Max Cutler. Sound designed by Nick Johnson with production assistance by Ron Shapiro Carly Madden and Freddie Beckley. This episode of today in True Crime was written by Andrew. Messer with writing assistance by Nora. Battelle. I'm Vanessa Richardson.

Lord Richard Cromwell Oliver Cromwell England Lord Protector Queen Dick Charles army Lord Protector Whitehall Palace British Army Maya Angelou Vanessa Richardson spotify Queen Elizabeth Max Cutler Nick Johnson Commonwealth of England
Bizarre Mars - Best of Coast to Coast AM - 7/21/20

The Best of Coast to Coast AM

19:56 min | 2 months ago

Bizarre Mars - Best of Coast to Coast AM - 7/21/20

"Did, you know GEICO's now offering an extra fifteen percent credit on car and motorcycle policies. That's fifteen percent on top of what Geico could already save you. So what are you waiting for your goldfish to sing Biz as Carmen? Never been a better time to switch to GEICO. Save an extra fifteen percent when you switch by October. Seventh limitations apply visit. GEICO DOT COM for details. Hi, I'm Devon. Leary Carolina Barlow and we're here to tell you to dump him. Break up with your boyfriend, and we want you to listen to our podcast true romance every week where we talk about our love lives and the lives of others, please join our XS. Who We know will also be listening like Kyle Kyle. Are you there? Hey, babe, how's life? No, you look good though me. Oh my God saw. Please I haven't even gotten a haircut like three months. Okay, please help us pay for Carolina. Psychiatrist built by listening on the iheartradio. APP APPLE PODCASTS or wherever you listen to podcasts of. Now here's a highlight from coast to coast. AM on iheartradio. I WanNa talk about some of your other books for people who by Dr. Remember you from five years ago. You are as as bizarre as Robert Ripley and that take take that as a compliment by absolutely. What the what got you into the weird and unusual? I've loved I've loved it just really since I was a kid, I used to I used to watch Ripley's believe it or not actually all the time when I was a kid. And and I used to love buying the Guinness Book of Records when it was just sort of small thick paperback book, Black and white, and I just read that First Section with the human oddities and I I was just incredibly fascinated by Robert low and every year. There'd be like some different pictures. You know you didn't have the internet or anything like that to go look up stuff. So I check out the new images of Robert while low, and I was just so fascinated by this man who grew to be eight feet, eleven, and a half inches tall, and you always see him as my age at that time when he was ten years old, and he'd be seven feet taller whatever it was. And I just thought it was incredible so. so I was loved how the human by could just be so unique and different than people could thrive in all different kinds of ways so that just kind of got me into the role of sideshow and and seeing what people could do. with all kinds of different human novelties. Absolutely when I was in my early days of television news and Detroit. My nickname mark was captain bazaar, because I had all these weird stories that I'd look for and put on our newscasts, and that's what they gave me. They coined the phrase. There's Captain Bazaar in I had that moniker for years and years and years, and a lot of the things that you have done are somewhat strange and bizarre, but they're fascinating, aren't they? Absolutely yeah I I. I completely think they're just incredible stories. One that was really strange and bizarre was the book called the embalm head of Oliver Cromwell. Tell me about that. Yeah so that was a story I came across. I was actually looking to do a book about adventures of a posh posthumous adventures body parts. so just different kinds of body parts that lived on like Galileo's fingers. What happened with those and there on display now in Florence Italy. now researching enjoying down now it's like came across Oliver Cromwell's embalmed head. And in the story was just so remarkable, I scratched the whole other idea and I decided to write the memoirs of this head so basically in a nutshell what happened? Was Oliver Cromwell. Who was the Lord Protector of England? Ireland and Scotland in the mid sixteen hundreds during the English of a war, he led the charge to have Charles the first beheaded took over, so he ended the monarchy. And and then when he died. In the mid sixteen and hundreds he was embalmed, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey. He was then exhumed a few years later. when Charles the second restore the monarchy, so we examine the body hanged him and beheaded them stuck with some bomb head, a top of Westminster Hall and it sat there for twenty five years. You know and this wouldn't pike with A. Iron tip through his his skull, and finally broke off in the storm, one nights, and fell to the ground in the a guard, picked it up and took it home. And from there. Just Kinda got passed around for the next. Few at that point for next two hundred seventy five years, so the head basically travelled around England this embalmed head for three hundred years until it was reburied in nineteen sixty. So the book tells the story of those travels from the heads, perspective, interesting, take on a of all the stories you've looked at for all your books, and how many books you have, our now mark six in that includes the big book of Mars correct of all the stories. You've got out there that you've had over the years. Which one would you say is one of the most are. Well the crop had story is definitely up there. That's that's a strange one. That's right. And the other one that I really love is the one that got me started on Mars. which was about? A guy in the nineteen twenties he was a London lawyer and he was in telepathic communication, so he said with a Martian woman named humor. And when I stumbled across a story, I got so fascinated. I really wasn't like space guy or Mars. Guy Not that I didn't like it, but it's just wasn't really something I spent much time with what I came across the story. I got so fascinated dug into it and along the way I kind of learned all these other stories going on, and that's that's what Kinda led to the book. Now. Tell me about this. Martian woman I mean was this. Did he actually believe he was in communications with somebody like that? Yes. So this was. About nineteen twenty six, maybe a little bit earlier when he started. And he believed he was telepathically communicating with this woman again. Her name was humor. And she was about seven feet tall. She had big ears tall here. Kinda like Marge Simpson. There's a sketch her. This is how I know this or at least you know, so he says right, and she described Mars and quite a bit of detail for him, saying how how peaceful it was there and they did a lot of things like we did here. They have houses. They drove vehicles they they smoked pipes and drink tea, but they were very peaceful people and they were more advanced, and the men were much taller. They were maybe seven to eight, maybe nine feet tall. and so she was communicating with him and then. He wanted to try to reach the Martians with the radio tower with a telegram. So that time, the largest radio tower in the world's most powerful was in London. It was called the Rugby Radio Tower ran through the post office, and so he decided he would send a telegram tomorrow when it was not physician meaning that when Mars was closest. In its orbit's, so that would be about thirty five million miles away, so we thought okay. That's a distance. Maybe we can reach with our wavelengths and get a communication in a timely manner, so he arranged it, and he got the long distance rate from the post office, which I thought was kind of funny I think the post office. I have memos in the book from the Post Office. Talking about this guy, he seems perfectly sane. This guy was. He was some kind of doctor, wasn't he? Yeah. So he, he strongly believed in this. So? So the post office was okay with it, they didn't think he was a crazy man or anything. They thought that he truly believe this. And it was his study, and and it was also wait for them to promote their long distance rates. which was kind of I thought amusing for them. So they sent this telegram late one night in nineteen, twenty six, and and this was reported in these newspapers around the world. You know like new. York Times it was covering the story. It wasn't just some weird. One off type of thing is this was big news? and of course you know they didn't hear anything back and and he heard from Meru telepathically that you know they were saying up there waiting, you know they were waiting for their message and they didn't get it, and they were laughing at our own scientists, thinking that we just didn't have enough smarts the proper wavelength, and we were behind and so was upset by that. So, we try to get in two years later when marks was once again in opposition instill. He had no luck so again he was disappointed and Uber. Uberpool told him just go to sleep and don't worry about it. We'll keep telepathically talking to each other and his wife in the meantime was annoyed by the whole thing. She's like I. Don't know if this woman is and I'm sick of hearing. Enough of having this person come in in our room at night, right? So the whole thing is just completely shocking to me as I'm reading all these articles and finding out the story, and by the way a few years after that we, we had them open a college telepathy because she thought telepathy would solve all our problems. One of those problems being that the telephones weren't so great back then, so you wouldn't get busy signal right raiders having to deal with so it would really clear a lobby issues. That didn't work out too well, either, but along the way so as I'm learning about that and finding how. This is also surprising to me that this could be major news and why? You know. Why would he believed this to be true? And why would anyone else believe this to be a possibility? But as I'm studying this and learning more, I'm finding out how how many other scientists and legitimate scientists big names Harvard professors, you know heads of astronomy at various universities, and of course you know the smartest people on Earth Tesla Marconi. How does a strong belief in intelligent life on Mars and we're trying to reach Mars. So for this guy to have thought that maybe he had away. Maybe it wasn't quite as strange in context of what was going on at the time. That's amazing, but there were. A lot of people thought that there were things happening on Mars I think. A lot of the frenzy started when Percival Lowell. Thinks that he found those canals on Mars right. Yeah so low was he was a big? Big Proponent of it. He lectured and he wrote tons of articles and wrote books on it, and so, what happened with him, was he got the idea. Giovanni scuppered rally and an Italian astronomer who found these these lines, a whole network of lines on Mars Sous, telescope and eighteen, seventy seven, and he called them canal which really translate the channels, which could just be a natural occurrence. But it got mistranslated to canals, which was a whole different story because canals are artificially. And at the time. Roughly around that time, You know we had just finished the Suez. Canal, which took about ten years to build, and that was a major engineering feat, so scientists are looking at this whole planet, covering canals, and thinking Oh, my God, it took us ten years to build the Suez, Canal with our greatest engineering feats, and here you have a whole planet coverage of them. These guys must be all over the past. You know huge strong. You know so. They were kind of blown away by this. It's so personal level. He had always been into astronomy. And you know. He came from a very wealthy family ran textile business so he was sort of. You know expected to take over that business for the family, but he wasn't interested. So, he had gone away, did some studying in in Asia. You, know Asian culture and and got sort of involved in that. And when he came back in the early eighteen nineties, Schiaparelli was starting to go blind He was going to be able to continue his studies and so lowell things well. Here's a chance. Read for have scapula. Pass the torch to me. I can make my name. Is Lowell not by textiles, but by talking to Martians I can be the guy who does that, so we're we're you know, find them or makes that first contact with Martians, so he's got the money to do it, and he's got the desire to do it, so he moves out from his his home in Massachusetts to Arizona to flagstaff Arizona where he was sent scouts out to find the perfect location, and there he found a mountain where he could build an observatory about seven thousand feet and elevate. which would be completely away from from many city light's anything like that any interference to make his his observations lot cleaner and more visible. so was able to do that and built out. Observatory in eighteen, Ninety four, and from there he started sketching all the canals, tons of sketches of the canals, the various lines, and how they were changing over time or coming back through different seasons, and like I said lecturing about this, and then theorizing about what was going on, and his main theory. was that the planet because older planet? He believed it was so far advanced that it was now a dying planet, and so the canals were trying to distribute water from the polar caps all across the planet to help save these Martians and clearly he could see these canals in that era with telescopes right. Yeah I mean you could see these these lines on Mars, but know it was really. Later they figured out that this was really just an optical illusion. anything you look so far away. Can become a straight line even though it might not really be a straight line. I think it was liquid water. I think liquid water was flowing on Mars, and they just never know it. we'll find that soon hopefully. Yeah, absolutely, that's that's cool well. So as you keyed in on in by the way you're not kidding. This is a big book. It weighs about forty pounds does. There's a lot of information. How long did it take you to do? I spent I. Guess About about a year. Researching writing that's not bad. That's not bad, but. It's pretty intense once you got into it. Oh Yeah Yeah Yeah talking with various scientists at NASA and hearing all their their plans and challenges with really quite fascinating. Tell me about the Orson. Welles Broadcast Nineteen thirty eight. Because you think something else happened afterwards. Yeah so a few things with that so one is you know that's a story that that I always knew about I. Think I think most people are pretty much aware that that's the thing that happened in America. You know the the panic. everybody believing that Martians. We're really invading earth when Orson Welles did his world's broadcast on October thirtieth, and the apparently these people miss the disclaimer at the top of the show right? Yeah, yeah, they tune in late I think most people probably listening to Charlie. McCarthy the VENTRILOQUIST. Cuisine dummy I should say negative, Bergen his request, and I'm so. That's pretty good act to be able to do that on the radio as eventuality that. Could be a hit on radio. I mean I don't know how that worked, but good for him. Absolutely, so yeah like you said people tune in late and they missed it in Orson Welles. You know such a genius with the way he put it together repackage the H. G. Wells novel to play into America and to work with the medium by having all these interruptions. These news alerts during a you know, Orchestra Broadcast He. Yeah so it's, it's beautifully crafted. And radio still fairly new. You also have World War. Two brewing over in Europe. That's. Believable, the people, yes, it. All these breakthroughs are first of all aren't surprising. Because there were emergency breakthroughs happening and then everything we were just chatting about with these these headlines about intelligent life on Mars. TUSLA Marconi. who do you know all these all these different stories floating around for decades and so people? polly were shocked to hear that maybe something finally happening, you know having missed the disclaimer and not being familiar enough with the H. G. Wells novel apparently either so so they panicked so to me. It was very interesting to sort of get a better sense of the context of what was going on at that time to see why people may have. You know fled their homes. you know ran for their lives, and you know volunteer to help the police fight the Martians and whatever they can do. Some jumped off buildings and stuff tonight. Yeah, yeah I mean people did all kinds of crazy things with a true? True panic. so so it's really amazing to me. Is You know you you would think that after that happened? Everyone got clarified on what happened. You know like Oh. This was just a radio show, and and by the way Orson. Welles made the announcement a few times throughout, but they just kept missing it or they were too busy running for their lives to hear. Announcement. So you would think that something like that wouldn't happen again because that was pretty crazy. And I think I think the FCC puts laws in place to about like trying to fake radio broadcast or anything like that anymore. But it happened again eleven years later, which I found really surprising in Kito Ecuador. So. This was a small small town in Ecuador and a couple radio. deejays decided they to drum up some. Some publicity or attention for their station, so they thought hey, we should do that. Where the world's thing, so they did it all over again, so they did it again, and they did it so first of all they didn't at least have the courtesy that that wells did to say it was a dramatization. They just did it and like wells. They made it local so now it was the Martians were attacking a nearby village, and they had people impersonating like the local mayor priests. So they have all these characters playing like locals. You know freaking out. And so people again, they panicked. They thought it was real. the police were were rushing out to this village, I forgot the name of the village, but they were rushing to the village where the Martians were supposedly attacking help, so they were gone. And then once people found out I think they finally announced I. Hey, by the way you know this is, this isn't real. And so people found out they got so angry, and so they they banded together as a mob, and they righted at the radio. They attacked only, and they started like throwing fire and they set the station on fire, and because it was such a huge crowd, the fire department couldn't get there. They couldn't get through the crowds time. Fifteen people into the dying. Fifteen what happened to those deejays? I think one of them ended up. Fleeing the country and I think the other. went to prison if I remember yeah, their career. Career enders for them yeah. Yeah Listen Tomorrow Coast to coast. AM every weeknight at one am eastern and go to coast to coast. Am Dot Com for more? Hi, this is Leah Remedy and I am joined by Mike. Render and we are so excited to continue our journey with a new podcast called Scientology Fair Game Mike. When can people hear it? The first episode is airing on twenty, one July Leah and then weekly thereafter. Okay and for those who are not hoity-toity. That's July twenty first. Thank you listen to scientology. Fair game on the iheartradio, APP, apple, podcast or wherever you listen to podcasts. Hi Guys. Katie lowes here, actress, mom and host of the parenting podcast Katie's. A that helps women navigate the colossal changes that come with motherhood. You'll hear from resilient Mama's knowledgeable experts and me asking a lot of questions, it's real talk that offers real perspective on what it's really like to be a parent, so join me new episodes published. Every other Thursday listened to Katie scrape on the iheartradio APP or apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts.

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1.29 The New England Round-Up

The Political History of the United States

24:14 min | 10 months ago

1.29 The New England Round-Up

"Hello and welcome to the political history of the United States episode. One Point Twenty nine the New England roundup. Well here we are guys. Fifteen episodes was on New England and today we are going to finally wrap this up now. Of course we aren't really going to be leaving New England for all that long throughout the colonial period of the United States. New England is going to remain in epicenter of events. However for the sake of this season I needed to find a place to draw the line in the sand and this seems like as good a time as any be four we move on for today? I WANNA give a brief idea of where the podcast is going for the rest of this season after today. Okay we only have got one more episode in the main narrative next time we are going to jump in and look at the introduction of slavery into the colonies after that we are going to be ready to get into the review episodes. Now here's the good news. I'm a little bit further ahead on research and other things than I thought I would be at this point so we are not going to be looking at a long break in between the seasons like I hit originally thought at this point my plan is to take one week off sometime around Christmas and battle be about. How did we will have a two part review episode where we go back and look at all of the different things and try to draw some strings together and then we will jump right in to the second season so at at this point I anticipate that we are only going to have a one week break sometime around the holidays other than that the podcast will just keep moving to begin for today? I want to start by discussing Cassini events in England and how they are over in New England way back in episode one point thirteen. We had talked about the fact that when the English civil wars came Virginia had remained and a holdout for as long as possible against parliament and specifically against Oliver Cromwell. This along with re electing William Berkeley as their governor set. Virginia up very very nicely for when the restoration rose around in the sixteen sixties events. Were very different. However in New England Oliver Cromwell was appeared in? And let's not forget why all of the puritans left England in the first place there was widespread persecution of the puritans throughout the sixteen twenties and thirties. So many of the colonial leaders became colonists in direct response to the practices of Charles the first and more specifically his henchmen William laud the policies of of Charles the I n laud were the reason for the great migration happening and while I can't find a source specifically stating this. I think it is a pretty safe bet that when laud was beheaded in January wary of sixteen forty five there was not exactly a lot of colonists grieving his death even with the execution of Charles I I would imagine that celebrations were a a bit more muted than in the case with William Lod however there was very little love for Charles the first amongst the puritans in the case of Virginia. They found themselves on the wrong wrong side of the battle having remained loyal the house stewart however the effects were fairly minimal. There over in Virginia. When they're governor was forced to resign? There was little practical who affect in Virginia with New England. However the Connie had been built upon animosity towards law and the king? So this is where I tell you about the great battle between new New England in Virginia. Right after all New England Puritan and Virginia would remain aligned with the crown. Of course everybody would want desperately defend their honor right the at now. That battle never came and was never really much of a risk throughout the duration of English of wars as well as the English interregnum the a period where the nation was under the protectorate following. The fall of Charles the first and the ascension of Charles the second there was only a single skirmish in the English. Civil war fought in North America. It was in in Maryland near Annapolis and right around fifty people died. This is going to go down in sixteen fifty five on the ground. In New England itself there was no actual fighting or violence. The major tangible effect was a reduction in the population any decline in the immigration rate. As I mentioned just a moment ago the cause of the great migration was largely driven by the policies of William Laud puritans attempting to avoid his persecution decided that it was a great time to get out of dodge left their homes with around twenty five thousand finding their way to North America tap following the end of Charles the first period of personal rule and the establishment of what would become known as the long parliament aptly named because it remained in session until sixteen sixty pence was very very long. We see those who had been loyal to Charles Begin to get impeached and arrested. This includes men. Like William Laud the beginning of the Long March effectively marks at the end of the great migration to New England despite how stable things have begun to appear throughout Massachusetts and the rest of New England in all fairness things are still pretty rough rough given the choice pretty much anybody is going to want to remain in England as opposed to packing up and heading across the Atlantic as the threat of persecution diminished. The need to hop on a boat at emigrate across the Atlantic to New England was also drastically reduced on top of that. In addition to the reduction in immigration from England New England there was a portion of the population. Who believed that? This would be a good time to head back across the Atlantic the other direction and return home to England by the a sixteen forty head rolled around life in New England was at least becoming bearable however people were not starving in the colony was not overcome with illness and disease. Plus for a lot of colonist honest they had a good thing going in New England that they would lose if they decided to return back home. Well nobody. New England was preaching for anything that resembled a desire for independence from the crown. It's it's not like the crown had ever really exercise that much control over the New England colonies Charles. The I was busy throughout the sixteen. Thirty s not calling parliament and trying to raise he's funds. He didn't really have the time to worry about trivial matters. Like how the New England colonies were off effectively governing themselves. None of the puritans in New England would would have been all that upset though admittedly they were probably a bit surprised at the execution of Charles. The first they were likely thrilled to see a puritan England getting more of a foothold old but for those living in New England six forty they hit spent the last decade living in a puritan nation basically unchecked and largely unnoticed in that way there was very little pointing pointing returning to England for a period in haven when they already had one in New England. Some do go back there for to fight most chose to remain right there. In New England the period ends as devout as they were did not believe that piety and poverty went hand in hand the periods more than happy to make money and economic prosperity absolutely was a keen interest to them. So then how did the puritans go about making their money. Unlike what we saw down in Virginia there is never a point where a single staple crop appears. Tobacco is a crop that is going to completely define the southern United States and along with cotton are going to become the stables of that region tobacco and Conard are going to play significant roles in the history of the southern United States and ultimately the United States at large however the situation in New England is different. The primary Mary way that wealth found its way into new. England was from communist coming over from England in other words New England depended on the fact that the new communist coming over from England. Good brought with them. Wealth that transfer of wealth from England into the colony was initially self sustaining especially during the sixteen thirty s during the great migration. It for obvious reasons over this is an inherently unstable system if that steady flood of new colonists were to say dry up it is going to completely stall the economy to me as we now know by the time sixteen forty one arrives. The great migration was over that steady stream of communist dried up this form. Some of gathering wealth is obviously never going to be sustainable. And this wouldn't have been a surprise to anybody with the end of the great migration and immediate need to diversify. The economy of new league became a paramount concern. This as economic depression began to settle it at the end of the great migration. What initially emerged? Was He fishing. Trade the ocean right off. The coast of New England was already a popular spot for fishing. However the English Civil Wars had been a boon to the new englanders English fishing boats could not easily easily get off the English coast to fish with the ongoing civil wars? This gave the new Englanders a competitive advantage. The Communists would ship the high quality product to Spain vein in other parts of Europe. Well the low quality catch went south to the West indies to feed the growing slave population. Something that we will talk more about next time for or the PURITANS and economy based on fishing was great because hey we all like economic prosperity the problem however is that the puritans and the fishermen didn't really get along long. This is going to be a shocking revelation sailors especially those coming to North America to make money in the sixteen. Forty s didn't exactly have a reputation of high. Hi moral fiber guys like to drink swear and do all of the other unsavory things that sailors do. The periods were aghast at the behavior. And we're always careful not to let this unwelcomed profitable group disrupt their carefully curated colony to keep fishing from for me the one and only cash crop in New England and having that culture completely take over it was necessary for the puritans to further diversify the economy what emerges here is something that would become a staple of the New England way of life the family farm instead of the huge plantation system that we see emerging in the south new Englanders instead focused on smaller farms which brought dual benefits. I A small farm was great for personal sustenance. You could grow your own food which you could then eat yourself. The other benefit is that the remainder remainder of that food that you grew south that you personally did not need to eat was a great source of income. Well a small surplus food might not have been enough for any single person to get rich. When taken in the aggregate New England was producing large amounts of surplus that could then be sold? Him Bull was again. This was often means sold to to the West indies where the growing slave population put new demands on that region to produce food the crops for sale included every report beef barley and dairy products as well as things like timber tar and plant board by selling surplus from otherwise small family farms. The puritans were able to accomplish a couple of importing goals first and most importantly to them they were able to turn a nice profit which everybody was happy about second they were able to keep fishing and more importantly fishermen from taking over the economy and inevitably Indian their way of life. The small individual farm is going to become an important part of the fabric of New England life and is going to remain a characterizing feature of it moving on into the future this form of an economy is also going to lead to other developments that are going to end up being important in the long term. The large plantations in Virginia required huge amounts of labor. Tobacco is a labor intensive crop and required a large amount of manpower. The best way to you. Get that manpower. In the sixteen forty's was through slavery. In New England. Smaller personal farms were far less labor dependent. Most of the food was grown by the individual family with just surplus being sold back. These are not the massive farming operations and the need for slave. Labor was far less than New England than in Virginia. This isn't to say that slavery doesn't exist in New England because it does however it doesn't exist to the same extent that it will develop in Virginia nor is that as critical part of the economy the Economic Structure Virginia depended on slavery and in New England that just doesn't ring true now in all fairness the New England economy still was depended on slavery though in a different way well slave labor was not a huge facet of the New England economy. The West indies was a huge huge buyer of the surplus being created by the small farms as well as the be great fish supply where the primary consumer of the goods was the growing slave population. Shen if the West indie system collapsed the New England economy was going down with it over the remainder of the seventeenth century. We are going to see the economy of new linguine. Become more diverse as manufacturing is going to become a key component of that economy. Well this is not going to be part of our story for today. A continues with the general general trend that there was never any one single cash crop in New England but rather numerous things that will come into play having so much diversity. In the market meant that the new England colonies were more insulated from economic downturns and that ultimately they would not have the absolute reliance on a small number of things like we're going to see in Virginia Jinya as with the economy. We see that defense is something that is ultimately going to become a regional in nature as opposed to strictly limited to any single colony. The the defense of the colony would really become paramount importance following the quote war as for the first time the threat of local Indian tribes really hit home. Dangers of the date of crabs was not a secret before that of course everybody was acutely aware of the sixteen twenty two massacre in Jamestown and it is something that was always on on the mind of the colonists however as we've discussed before in New England there wasn't really a powered and or an open Shinkin out. There have been some early skirmishes impressions that we he talked about previously but there was never anything on par with what we saw in Jamestown. Even the events that led to the quote war look dubious at best as the coloniser New England appeared to be looking for a fight despite in overwhelming. If not troubling victory in the war new Englanders realized the importance of having something in place to defend the security of the colonies what emerges from this is the New England confederation. The New England Confederation was formed in sixteen forty three and was made up of Massachusetts Plymouth. Limited new haven and Connecticut as we discussed last week Rhode Island was not invited to the party. The New England Confederation does a couple things but before we go into those things I want to get out there and dispel any thought that there was any kind of centralized government here. So don't start thinking of this as a confederation of states or anything like that. It just wasn't the New England. Confederation was at best a week alliance in function. All it really did was provide a handful of solutions for inter colonial law relations and dispute resolutions as they came up. The confederation also did provide a framework for the colonies to have a the defensive alliance. Things really don't progress much further than that. However the New England Confederation will become important during the first anglo-dutch war in the sixteen fifties? He's despite Massachusetts declining to participate. And that it will become a very major part of King Philip's war which we are going to discuss in much much more depth next season for now I simply wanted to introduce that. There was a basic plan for the mutual defense of the colonies. And let you know that this was a thing next next season we will get to see how if functions in reality we have spent the last fifteen episodes in New England and now before we move on. I'd like to take the rest of today to look at some of the overarching themes and differences between Massachusetts and the other colony. We talked in depth about Virginia. The differences between the two colonies knees is immediately apparent by looking at the reasoning behind their establishment. Jamestown was founded. Because people wanted to make money there was flowery language to make make themselves feel better that they were going over to introduce the native populations to Christianity however the truth will always be the primary motivator was financial. Everybody knew that the Spanish were making a killing down. What would become Mexico? Those coming to Jamestown were looking for their fortune. The founding of new kingland could not be any different instead of a colony founded on the sole idea of making money. New England became a refuge. For those being religiously persecuted in England I I the pilgrims who had found themselves on the wrong side of the crown and later the much larger persecution of puritans in England leading to the great migration as those heading to New England were. We're trying to escape from the religious tension at home. Their goal was to form a more perfect place to practice their faith in the words of John Winthrop they wanted to create a city city on the hill. They wanted a place that all the other puritans could look at and be amazed at their purity. This however was always going going to be a totally impossible goal and is something that was doomed to fail before it even got started. Part of the problem is that there was just never one kind of puritan new New England we have beaten the separatists versus internal reform. Difference to death at this point. And I don't plan on rehashing it all again here. However this is just one of the many differences that existed amongst the different groups Massachusetts is the center of the New England Universe and would remain noticeably intolerant throughout the sixteenth thirties ladies and forties? This is something that would lead to further fracturing of the colony by the time we rolling to the sixty and forties we have gone from two colonies Plymouth Massachusetts Bay colony and have expanded out to include Connecticut. New Haven New Hampshire Rhode Island. These differences between the groups was going to make it impossible for for New England to ever become that city on the hill that winthrop Fultz so hard to establish England. Didn't look across. The Atlantic and marvel at the Utopian appeared in land on the other side in fact the puritans back in England hardly notice what was going on across the Atlantic. They were distracted by their own concerns. which was was not running off to create some puritan haven but was rather turning England itself into that period and homeland it can be argued that the English civil war effectively typically remove the need for New England? Altogether after all persecution in England was now theoretically a thing of the past. Both William Watt and Charles himself had been removed from power and then subsequently executed. England was in the hands of parliament which was by the sixty thirties. A very puritan body Oliver Cromwell. I'm all who was well on his way to becoming the Lord protectorate a term that he used instead of the suddenly out of vote. King was himself a puritan. We have seen the intangible effects of this as well in the colonies after the sixteen forties the immigration rate from England to New England slows. Down dramatically in this way Massachusetts and New England as a whole is going to fall short of that goal becoming a city on the hill however despite not accomplishing this in New England is going to become impactful in other ways that in the sixteen forties ladies are totally lost on everybody both in New England and England itself. I didn't touch on it much at the time but one of the most critical things that I see coming out of New England at this time. Was it educated population way back in episode one point four. When we talked about religion I had spent some time talking about how for Protestants? It's it was the Bible. Not The clergy that stood at the center of the world. Are Calvinism Puritans who were certainly in agreement that the Bible should be at the very core of the religious practices recognize that it was not enough for somebody to read the Bible to them but rather than they themselves needed to be able to read the Bible what emerges is therefore is a highly literate. Society Literacy requires education which is something that would become a central part of life in New England by the sixteen forty s there there were basic requirements in place that ensured parents made sure that their children could read and write grammar. Schools would appear become part of life for children in New England. Now at at this point the concert is being able to read the Bible however in the years decades and centuries to follow that dedication to educated population is gonNA have other effects. Perfect as well knowing that such a wide portion of the population could read and write. Is it any surprise that during the seventeen sixty s it is going to be New England. That descent begins begins to form towards the crown. When political pamphlets begin to proliferate you ended up with an educated literate population to receive those pamphlets to be fair there there are a lot more reasons? Why New England is going to become the epicenter political disatisfaction and eventually rebellion during the seventeenth sixties and Seventies? We are of course going to be addressing all of those issues as they come our way however very early on we see movements any direction that make this possible specifically typically with that high literacy rate ultimately the first twenty years in New England or thirty years. If you're in Plymouth can be defined by a handful of key characteristics characteristics. Well they did not necessarily become the city on the hill they did become self sufficient in a very short period of time they develop built their own legal codes and governments and while I remain very hesitant to say that they were doing anything. Outside of what was necessary. New England was operating more or less independently of England as we have discussed. This wasn't necessarily New England making early assertions of their independence from the crown but rather it was from the fact that England and was busy preparing for and fighting civil wars. They didn't have the time to mess around with a handful of colonies. Half a world away for people like winthrop Williams Hutchinson and Bradford. This allowed them the opportunity to put themselves into leadership roles and make society in the way they deemed fit. Well there is no talk of separation and we need to be careful believing that the colonies were producing constitutions the colonies were forging their own path. Breath it is also inputted understand that this is going to sit up conditions that are going to have very long term impacts for New England and for the future feature United States at large. Well there was no talk of separation in the sixteen forty s at all. Nobody was wanting more control by England. Would they were plenty happy doing their own thing and running their own government without having to worry about interference from the home islands. The relative independence that New England is afforded adhere. The very beginning of their existence is something that they are going to not only value but they are going to come to view it as a basic right through out the next few seasons and especially next season we are going to see time and time again. What happens when England makes attempts to regain some of that control over New England and spoiler oiler alert? It generally is not going to be something that ends well. Everybody was very happy being left alone and with that I'm going to give the new Englanders. Their wish and leave them alone. We spent fifteen weeks now exploring New England and I'm finally feeling ready to sit there a story aside momentarily at least a move forward however for those of you who just love the history of New England. We are going to be back often over the next. Several seasons as New England England is going to play such a pivotal role in our story. Next time we are going to take some time and explore the introduction of slavery into the Cool Neil United States dates few things are going to affect and shape the United States more than slavery and by the time that sixteen fifty rolls around it is slowly growing in the colonies. This as always. I want to thank you all for listening. We will be back here next time to discuss the introduction of slavery for my listeners in the United States I hope you all have a wonderful things giving and for everybody else no matter where you are. I hope you have a wonderful two weeks

New England New England England New England New England England New England confederation new Englanders England Virginia coloniser New England New England Universe Charles Massachusetts United States Atlantic West indies Oliver Cromwell Jamestown William Berkeley
February 20, 2020  National Cherry Pie Day |National Love Your Pet Day

The National Daily

02:00 min | 7 months ago

February 20, 2020 National Cherry Pie Day |National Love Your Pet Day

"This is the national daily welcome to February twentieth on the National Day calendar. Today we celebrate the love of a pie that never goes out of fashion and the friends. We love for better or worse more after the break from our founder. Marlow Anderson if you ever reason to celebrate every day why not share it with the world our celebrate every day t shirts in gear sparked conversations wherever they go and you never know where a good conversation can lead. You join the celebration. Nation by picking up your own feel-good wear on our website. National Day calendar Dot Com Oliver Cromwell and the eating of Pie in England in sixteen forty four clearly. The man had never tasted Cherry Pie. Meanwhile here in America George Washington famously chop down a cherry tree. But there's no word whether he made pie with the fruit or not in celebration of National Cherry Pie Day. Remember the words of the author. Tom Robbins who said let's get over ourselves by a Cherry Pie and go fall in love with life. They chew up our furniture they barf on our rugs and they wake us up at odd hours of the night for no reason at all and we still love them furry feathery or Scaly. Our pets are part of the family. So why not spend a little extra time with your animals and give them the love and the attention? They deserve on national. Love your pet day chewing up. Your favorite pair of shoes is just part of the charm. So what's on-deck for Tomorrow Anna? It's national sticky Monday. Oh yeah learn. More by following us at National Day calendar Dot Com or on facebook instagram and twitter and thanks for joining us on our journey as we celebrate every day. Same time tomorrow.

Marlow Anderson Oliver Cromwell Tom Robbins founder facebook America George Washington twitter Anna England instagram
Witches & Saints: Ann "Goody" Glover

Encyclopedia Womannica

04:55 min | 1 year ago

Witches & Saints: Ann "Goody" Glover

"From Wonder Media Network I'm Jenny Gamblin and this is encyclopedia woman case you're just tuning in here's the deal Reverend mather wrote than an was a scandalous old irishwoman very poor a Roman Catholic and obstinate in idolatry Robert Kayla a Boston merchant who knew wrote that Austin where fear of which is ran rampant leading accuser in her trial was none other than reverend cotton mather her behavior at her trial was like that of one distracted they did her cruel the proof against her it was wholly deficient up to witchcraft and was quickly arrested and officially charged with witchcraft a very serious allegation in sixteen eighty beamed and this month is all about witches and saints women have been celebrated and condemned for wielding spiritual power throughout able to find an interpreter and continued the trial still her inability to speak English was a mark against her you to Salem witch trials the one and only and goody glover little is known about and early life alleged heresies or supernatural abilities today we're talking about a woman whose trial would serve as the basis for many of the cases of the infamous sixteen ninety mystery this month highlighted women who made incredible contributions to and through religions as well as those who were charged and punished for could gain significant infamy for his actions during the Salem witch trials a few years later during her trial and was unable to answer questions in English though she apparently understood the language at first she was accused of speaking the language of the devil when accusers finally realized she was speaking Irish an was asked to recite the Lord's prayer during her trial which she was able to do an Irish and broken Latin but not an English being unable to prefer a man named John Goodwin in the summer of sixteen eighty eight John's thirteen year old daughter Martha accused and daughter of ceiling clothes say the Lord's prayer in English was considered to be the mark of a witch that belief speaks to the significant anti Catholic prejudice appeared in Boston as most Catholics like figures found during a search of her home and an account from Reverend mather that claimed and engaged in with the devil and his minions in her prison cell she was born in Ireland and moved to Barbados at some point after Oliver Cromwell's invasion of Ireland in sixteen forty nine it's not daughter supposedly suffered a mental breakdown as a result of the trial in nineteen eighty-eight grappling with the cities highly clear how she got from there to Boston but by sixteen eighty and was living with her daughter Mary impure it in Boston. I'm working as a housekeeper. The Goodwin children started acting strangely supposedly because of the argument when the doctor was called in he couldn't figure out what was wrong with the children so he chalked if the period like an would likely only know the Lord's prayer in Latin other evidence supposedly proving and witchcraft were small dollar dark history the Boston City Council officially named November Sixteenth Goody Glover Day in honor of from the family laundry and denied the accusation and ended up in a major fight with the young Goodwin children during the fight and and was found guilty of witchcraft and was hanged on November Sixteenth Sixteenth Sixty in front of a mocking crowd of onlookers special thanks to Liz Caplan my favorite sister and co-creator Talk to You Tomorrow Uh tune in tomorrow for the story of another remarkable woman from history all month we're talking about witches and saints and every weekday were telling the stories of women from throughout history and around the world who you may not know about definitely should each month is.

Boston Reverend mather John Goodwin Austin Ireland Salem Jenny Gamblin Oliver Cromwell Boston City Council Robert Kayla Martha Barbados Mary Liz Caplan co-creator thirteen year
Richard Baxter: Why Self Denial Is Necessary For Salvation

Christian Podcast Community

36:16 min | 6 months ago

Richard Baxter: Why Self Denial Is Necessary For Salvation

"This episode is brought to you by the Christian Standard Bible a Bible translation. You can teach from with confidence and share with your neighbor. Hearing God's Word for the first time learn more at CS BIBLE DOT com. This is true until you're listening to revive thoughts for. He takes away from God's essence or attributes and still thinks he believes in God because he has left him his name and titles does just as bad as those who set up an image and worship that instead of God every episode. We bring you a different voice from history and a sermon that they delivered. Today's sermon was preached by Richard. Baxter we're going back to the sixteen hundreds in England. Joel we talk a lot on this show about people who there's just not enough time to cover their entire life and Richard Baxter is definitely one of these people. I wasn't expecting him to be. I guess I hadn't really heard a lot of who he was and so I just assumed he'd have a couple of bullet points and it would be you know quick and easy to talk about him but he's not and he's actually a very hard to describe guy and what I mean by that is. I don't really know usually you can say Charles. Spurgeon was a passionate preacher Dietrich. Bond hoffer fearless. But I don't really know how what were you could attach to Baxter. He for example he wrote over two hundred books. Devotional 's he wrote a bunch of articles but he never really aspired to be more than just a pastor to people out in the field very very small church in a pretty small town. He was comfortable right there. Yeah he got involved in. Some of the biggest controversies very divisive. Time to be alive but he himself. He believed he was a peacemaker. But I'll let you listen to this episode and decide if you think he's a peacemaker. Yeah like what you said about him. Just wanting to be a pastor like that's that's something that I saw several points in his life. Where like the dude? He's just chill like he doesn't have. He doesn't have a huge agenda. He just wants to minister to the people but it was funny. Like people in you'll see people offer him something he'll go. I know I don't want that and the later. I really regret not doing that. Why didn't you do it? Strangely relate with that so in this sermon. We're going to listen to. He talks about the nine oneself. And I think you can kind of see it play out. Sheriff Shirt Yeah Richard Baxter like I said mid sixteen hundreds he was born in sixteen. Fifteen would die in sixteen ninety one in Oregon in England. He spent most of his life in England. He comes from a pretty poor family not a lot of money. He was pretty poor growing up in. He didn't get a great education until he was able to get into a school run by John. Owen John Owen. Who He's famous Puritan and we actually have an episode on him in the works that we're excited for. But he helped get baxter going. He'll get baxter a great education and got him real interested in things of theology when Richard. Baxter came to the end of his education with John John in school He's looking for places to further his education and John Owen told Baxter that he shouldn't go to Oxford and I'm not entirely sure why kind of get the idea that maybe John didn't think he was quite cut out for Oxford. But due to that advice heat he didn't go to Oxford. He continued to further his education through other means but he always in retrospect looks back at his life and kind of really regrets not going to Oxford. Yeah Joe that's one of those regrets. We mentioned earlier. We I was GonNa do this and then I didn't and now I wish I had kind of a lot of his story in the Sixteen Forty S. The English civil war broke out. And I'm going to just stop giant Astra's Cure Joel and I from America and I think I speak for both Joel myself when I say that if you couldn't tell by accents but I think it would be for both of us when I say don't understand the single English civil war. It's confusing a lot of our speakers. Come from this era around the English lower and we've dived into portions of time but it is still a very confusing for us in the twenty first century in America. I know I've even watched youtube videos. Like we'll explain the English civil one five minutes or less than you watch it and I still don't know what happened so at some point we're going to do some better research so we explain this to you better but the main point being the war broke out. And he Richard Baxter was like I condemn both sides. I don't like either. The two sides fighting which made both sides hate him even worse than being on one side was being against both of them so they basically kicked out of church and told them to set up shop in a different town. He ends up. Having a mini famous ministers. Spend time in the new church that he starts out It was considered a safe place for fugitives. One particularly famous man was John Bunyan and we did a sermon on him. A few episodes back and very famous guy at the time. He would actually see several battles. He would be a chaplain to the soldiers. During that time he was asked by Oliver Cromwell and I do not know much about it but I know he was one of the big dog so that civil war to get position but Richard Baxter rejected. It said I don't want to do that so eventually. He was brought to London to settle the quote fundamentals of religion in quote in London. But I don't know that they ever did to get sick in the middle this. He goes back home to his home church. And that's when he ends up writing one of his most famous books saints. Everlasting THE SAINTS. Everlasting rest and this being one of the most read books in the sixteen hundreds and that's during a time when people are reading a lot of books yet. Richard Baxter is also one of these guys that he got in a lot of debates. GotTa a lot of arguments but arguments all of the time to and tell me if you know somebody like this. You know someone who I would describe Richard Baxter. Someone who's sensitive to their conscious takes takes their conscious seriously and rarely thinks that other people are doing things the way they really should be doing or for the right reasons right and he makes that now so he's he's always kind of calling out people saying. I don't think you're doing this reasons or I don't think this is the way that that should be happening in. It leads to a lot of conversations and debates and I definitely know at least one or two guys in my in my life that totally meet that description. There's there's there's one story about Richard Baxter where he was having a debate with a guy about baptism in the ideas of that day around baptism and Dane gauged in this debate and the debate lasted from nine. Am to five PM and there ended up being three thousand people that came on looking like look really invested in this conversation. These two people were having and so much so that the sheriffs had to come and get involved to settle down the crowds because the crowds were getting so into it. And we're getting so lively that the type of person that Richard Baxter was. He's the type of person whose whose opinions are so interesting to listen to that. It can get three thousand people riled up all of a sudden right and not necessarily you know he's he's not coming at people with anger swinging hammers. This guy that he was having this debate with years down the road they'll kind of collaborate on some pamphlets and stuff like that work together a little bit and kind of endorse each other's work so it's it's kind of neat to see his interaction with the people that he doesn't always agree with a lot of time. Something else and you have to understand about Baxter. The the way he lived his life his style of church leadership and pastoral work would end up being honestly the blueprint for the way churches and pastors would run from that point on he. Kinda put out a lot of the ideas and people would go back. And let's do it like Baxter. Did it and one thing that he felt very strongly about was home visits. He thought this was just an incredibly neglected part of ministry. He said that he felt half an hour of just one on one time with a person or family would do more good for that person's spiritual walk than ten years preaching behind the pulpit would do for them. History was in a rural part of the country completely. They ended up completely. Outgrowing the church to keep renovating or remodeling to make more room for the attendance. When he when he got to that town it was a town of eight hundred families and just a couple. Maybe maybe just a couple of. We're going part time. When he ended up leaving there were six hundred full-time attendees and he had this weird line is kind of a classic Baxter. Almost we're at the end of it. He goes six hundred people. Come but I I would be surprised if even twelve of them were really sincere in their faith and it's just it's such an interesting just outlook on things. He's he's unique and the English civil war. You know we. We've talked about the English of were a little bit in the trail. We know that he again didn't aside with either side And it was kind of this turning point in his ministry where You get known for something one way or another right in after the war he really wanted to get people back together. You saw this devastation. That the war had caused in the disunity. And that's a big deal for him as this this unity being broken over the war so he wanted to bring people back together and he got pretty well known for it in was doing an Ra job at the Church of England asked him to become a bishop but he refused and that then made a lot of people really angry and he ended up getting his preaching license as it wasn't really a license but basically he was told can't preach anymore right if you had a preacher's license imagine that you're reaching license in air quotes. Yeah he just ended up on the on the wrong side of law enforcement. He ended up on the wrong side of of people in power and so he was getting shut down at events longtime in again he he turned on the bishop because he wanted to. Just keep preaching the way he wanted down preaching to the people who wanted to reach the small church and he wanted to kind of keep going where he thought God was using them. I guess you know people say we have bigger plans for you. And when he said No. Yeah people didn't like that and so now he's getting fined for you know miscellaneous stuff. His events are getting shut down by the authorities. There's a few different occasions where his books would be confiscated and he just took all of this kind of ran with it in stride when he preached. He said that he never felt sure if he would be able to preach again and he said he tried to preach every sermon as if it was his last and I love this quote here where he says that he like he was a dying man giving truth to dying man right so if at any moment like he's he's ready to leave this world he's he's just doing what he feels called the do in the time that he has left to help other people that are coming towards the end of their time. They have left right. This episode is brought to you by Liberty healthshare my name is matthew. Belus I'm with liberty healthshare. Liberty healthshare is a five zero one. C Three nonprofit healthcare sharing ministry a long way to say that we're a group of individuals who have gathered together voluntarily over a common set of L. Principles that share medical bills of one another. We do that without the assistance of any third party insurance or program. Healthcare sharing and liberty healthshare is not sure so people here that they say will. What do you do about largest and frankly? That's what we excel at and Christians use this as a way to express themselves in the realm of healthcare. So it's a way to really fulfill the law price to do as we are commended. The vital to share and mayor one another revert to learn more about liberty healthshare liberty healthshare dot org or call eight five five five eight five four two three seven. That's eight five five five eight five four two three seven in the end of his life. He'd sometimes preach But the law would hound him and he can never be in one place preaching for very long so maybe a guest speaker. Whenever somebody can have around for quite a long time I he could never get his own church again but the king at that time would die in a new one came to power and this last one he he let him off the hook basically kinda forgave him pardoned him of pretty much everything that was causing trouble and this this new king was trying to end wars divisions in trying to England past all of this stuff going on and so baxter was one of the people that got laid off now he had at one point sent over in that time he it's been eighteen months in prison over the course of those years he had had a time. And Baxter. There's one kind of problem we have to bring up with Baxter. And that is that. He chose to be a moderate and I think he chose it because he saw how the extreme way of life that he had seen in the other people had led to the English civil war and had all these bad consequences so he wanted to moderate. He wanted to pull back and he kind of sat down the road. The problem is people taking that path that he went down ended up people say basically he the seeds down that would lead to the enlightenment would lead to ecumenical. Ism would lead to all these bad things that would happen later on and much like the Salem witch trials. If you WANNA look at it this way that we talked about Joel and I and our revived thoughts deep dive much like the Salem witch trials kind of cool down the American spirit toward God. You could say that the English civil war kind of cooled off the passions of the people in England and they started to kind of go down a different road leaving that path and Richard. Baxter having lived through that he became one of those people. Who's kind of? Let's take this more? Moderate Road and other people jumped on that road and said well let's go even further and further until they kind of walked away from God in a sense but I think for Baxter. He just had seen the extremists of everything and he was trying to find a more. God centered path. That would bring about more of that Pinot the peaceful fruit of righteousness the fruit of peace and the fruit of being a peacemaker. He was really determined to just bring people together in unity. In a way that would reflect God because he had seen just so much of the disunity in his life. Yeah Yeah I mean and we talk about on the show all the time that we have this ability to have that hindsight twenty twenty right where we look at the effects that this person had in the following decades centuries rate and they don't know any of that at the time they're making decisions based on their environment and Baxter went through a terrible civil war and it's all terrible things and he made decisions on that and you know could did. He realize that his decisions would lead to different movements on the road. Maybe we'll never know what is heart is in what he desired for these things. It's really easy to look back on somebody into judge. Say See if he had just not done that right. We wouldn't end up here but you know we have no idea. He imagined his intentions for God were good. He seemed like he loved the Lord and loved vandalizing that breaching and I just think it's very easy to look back and go see that guy's wrong and I'm sure that one hundred years from now if we're all still here they'll be people looking back and go see this twenty first century Christians in America. Hadn't done this hundred percent this sermon that we're about to listen to from Baxter. He spends it talking about the things that we have to give up when we follow. God right too often. People want to have Christ but with none of the consequences and he talks about not wanting to give things up kind of really comes across as a sign of not being saved right because as hill. Say in the sermon. And make sense right. If you're a Christian that you'd WANNA give yourself up to Christ I will now show you some of the recent that self. Denial is necessary. I will prove it to you that it is no small thing and not the lofty standard of a few of the saints. Know it does his thing that almost have and will be saved. It is the essence of holiness itself. It is as impossible to separate holiness from self-denial as separating living from life. And if you think it strange that salvation should be dependent on such a hard duty and that no man can be a true disciple that does not deny himself even given his life when God requires it then I will show it to you reason one until a man denies himself he denies God and does not believe in Him. He thought love him and take him to be as God and I hope you will grant that no man can be saved. That doesn't believe in God or love him or take some I god he that will deny God and yet think to be saved must think to be saved. In spite of God the first article of our faith and of our baptism all Christian covenant is to believe in God the father and take him for our God and give up of ourselves to be his people but this no man can do without self the Nile. For by all that I have said in the description of it you may see that selfishness is contrary to God and would rob him of all his higher qualities and God would be no God self is the God of wicked men or the world's great idol and that the inordinate love of pleasure prophets and honor in trinity is all but this self love and unity and that in the militias trinity of God enemies. The flesh is a I thin foundation the world second and the devil. The third every man is an adulterer so far as he is selfish. God is not just a name for he that takes away from God's essence or attributes and still thinks he believes in God because he has left him his name and titles does just as bad as those who set up an image and worship that instead of God or that worshiped the sun or moon as gods because they somewhat represent his glory for surely name has as little substance as an image much less. Can you say it has more than the sun now? Selfish ungodly men will rob God and give his honor and desires to themselves but they will try to put off with empty. Titles they call him their God but will not have him for their in their portion andor joy and won't give him the strongest love of their hearts it will not take him as absolute owner. They won't devote themselves and all they have to him and stand with the Willing Mind as his servant they will not take him for their sovereign and be ruled by him and they won't deny themselves for him or seek his honor and interest above their own. They call him their father but deny him his honor they call him their master but do not fear. Him Malachi one six. They don't depend on his hand and don't live by law and for his glory therefore they do not take him for their God and can you expect that God should say those that deny him and what did thrown him. Those are is very enemies reason to yes more than this God will not save those and make themselves our own gods and who have rejected him. But all these on sanctified selfish men make themselves their own gods for an all the ten points before mentioned they take themselves the desires of God one. They do everything for themselves to they. Use all creatures for themselves. Even God himselves is recognized as only for themselves three a love their present life and prosperity better than God for they would be there themselves and live at some selves and not those that are not like them five they would have the creatures to be. There's and use them as a roan and not as gods six they must care for themselves and look out for themselves endear not trust themselves wholly upon God seven they will use things for themselves and their own conditions and never for anyone else eight they would rule them cells and be away from the laws and government of God nine they would be the rulers of all others and have all men do their wills ten and they would be honored and admired by all and half praise at -scribed them and if all this does not set themselves up as gods or idols in the world. I don't know what does certainly got his. So far from having a thought or saving such vile idolaters who stay in this condition that they are the principal objects of his high displeasure and the most deserving marks for his justice to shoot at and he is engaging employing them down and treading them into hell. Why should God stand by and see a company of rebellious centers? Sit Down in his throne or try to observe his sovereignty in divine rules. Would he leave them alone and then advance them to his glory? No he is resolved that he that humbles himself will be exalted and he that exalts himself will be brought low. And what Higher Self Exaltation can there be then to make ourselves as our own gods and therefore who will be brought lower than this reason three? No Man can be a Christian that doesn't take Christ for his Lord and Savior and no man. Without the self-denial can take Christ for his Lord and Savior therefore no man without self. The Nile can be a Christian and be saved. He who makes himself as an cannot follow Christ for Christ as a way to the father and not to Carnell no the business that Christ came into the world to do was to pull down and subdue this selfishness moreover whoever takes Chrysler Saviour must know from what it is that Christ myth save him and that is most importantly for oneself and no man can take Christ for his savior that renounces not self confidence and is not willing to be saved from the idolatry of Self Exaltation. No mankin take Chrisopher's master or teacher that doesn't come into his school. As a little child renouncing the guidance of the CARNAL SOUTH THERE IS NO ANTI CHRIST OR FALSE. Christ that is in the world that opposes Christ more am resists him in all the parts of his power then our karnal selves. It is this that will not stoop to his righteousness or to his guidance. Self is false. Christ our Savior of the world and its faults. God and therefore can be no salvation. Where self is not denied and taken down first reason for he who doesn't believe in the Holy Ghost and won't take him for a sanctify cannot be a true Christian or be Sade but no man without the self-denial beliefs in the holy ghost and takes him for his sanctify. Therefore without this self-denial no man can be true Christian or be saved. The very nature of sanctification consists in turning a man from himself to God it destroys selfishness and devotes his soul to God by Christ so it is beyond doubt that none but the south denying are sanctified but they truly take the holy ghost for their sanctify and truly believe in Him. So far is men are in love with the disease. It is certain they will not see the doctor reason five. No Man is a true Christian and in a state of salvation that Diniz renounces or reject sort of God but all men that don't have self-denial adhere. The word of God do renounce deny it or rejected therefore no man without South Nile is a true Christian or can be saved in the scriptures. We have eternal light. It Sam that make us wise to salvation a man that will be blessed must meditate in them day and night psalm. One three and it's not the. Here's but the doers of them. That are blessed but nothing is more clear and the Voice of Scripture calls out loud on all manton denied themselves and that the scope of it is to tear down South and set up God and Jesus Christ it is a very point in meaning of it for men to end to take down south and lower men in their own eyes and bring them home to God from whom they are in revolt reason six no man can be a Christian or be saved without saving grace but no man without self. Denial has saving grace for. It is nature of every grace to carry man from himself to God by Christ it is the work of Godly. Sorrow humbled proud man and break the heart of Karnal Self. It is the work of fate for a self denying soul to pass out for hope and life to Christ. It is a work of love to carry US quite above ourselves to that infinite goodness which we love. It is the nature of Holy Fair to fill our guilt and insufficiency and to suspect ourselves and dread the fruit of our own ways. Confidence does bottom us before God and hope itself does imply a despairing in ourselves. Thankfulness does pay homage to him that has saved us from ourselves and every grace have self-denial as half. It's very life or soul. So what is certainly no man has anymore grace. Then he has self. Denial reason seven they who reject the ministry and the fruit of all. The works of God are not true. Christians and are not saved for the use of the ministry is to call home centers from themselves to God use of every ordinance of God is to get or keep down Karnal self and exalt the Lord. Confession is nothing but self abasing and he must confess that will help the faithful and just God forgive him for he covers. His sin will not prosper. First John One nine proverbs twenty eight thirteen prayer as a confession of our own emptiness insufficiency and unworthiness and applying from ourselves. Help one another in baptism. We come as condemned prisoners for pardon as it were with ropes about our necks and strip ourselves of the brags of our filthiness by the blood of the land. We may be washed from our blood and our sins may be buried into the depths of the sea. In the Lord's supper renew the same covenant and the same renewed pardon and still fly from ourselves to Christ for life and reunite renounce our karnal cells by solemn cabinet as a people coming home to God so that never was any ordinance of God effectual and saving on the soul of any more so than when it brought them to self-denial reasoning. He'd that doesn't work sincerely and cannot go. Once step into the way of life is no true Christian but this is a case of all that do not have self denial for self is a principal ruling end and he that has either a false principle rule or end cannot be sincere in any of the means much less when he is out of all of these a selfish man is seeking himself in his very religion and is serving himself when he seemed to be serving God and indeed he does not do any service sincerely for God because he will make God is in and so he is an accepted resign. No Man is a true Christian or cannot or can be saved that stays on the depths of his natural misery still in his lap state but all men who stay in their natural softened snus do not change for to solve that they are beholden to and must be saved from it reason ten. No Man can be a true Christian and be saved that is not a member of the holy Church and the communion of saints but she will only find the salt denying there for every true member of the church has a public spirit preferring the church's interest to their own and suffering with fellow members in their suffering and having care of one another first Corinthians twelve but the self seeking unsatisfied. Person is a stranger to this way of life. Reason number eleven he that is led by the greatest enemy of God and his own soul is not a true Christian but so is every man that is not learned to deny himself for self is the greatest enemy of God and us. If you could escape your own hands then you would be out of danger. All the devils and hell cannot destroy you if you would not be your own destroyer. I reason twelve. Lastly it is the plane contradiction to be saved without self denial for as itself. We must be saved from both as our end and means and is our greatest enemy so to stay in self is still to be lost and miserable and therefore you are not safe so the case is as plain as a case can be but no man can be a true Christian or a disciple of Christ without self the Nile and consequently none without it can be the reason number three that he says is for self-denial beat a part of Asian. No Man can be a Christian. That doesn't take Christ for his Lord and Savior and no man without self. Denial can take Christ for his Lord and Savior. That sounds almost like he's just saying the same thing twice but think about it truly. Could you say it? Just imagine at work. My boss told me to do these different things. Did you do now? Now don't get to them. How long are you going to be employed? You're going to be fired on the spot but hearing that just goes what A. What a schmuck right. Well how can you say that? God is my Lord and Savior. I really love my do anything. God tells me to my Har- fully his. I'm I'm dedicated to God will do what he tells you in the Bible like deny yourself pick up your cross no. I don't that I kind of live my own thing but God is great Sunday morning for about five minutes. It's not going to be very realistic. And I think a lot of I duNno I. I am someone who came from a Christian home came from several Christian generations grandparents Christians and I do feel like it's kind of slightly. I don't know when you're raised in a Christian environment. When it's all you know I feel like there is a little bit of danger becoming Numb to donny of Christian life as opposed to someone who's a first generation Christian right now who came to know the Lord and college or something like that where they see the light and darkness. There's that difference to them. I think there's a wisdom and somebody who came later to Christ Sherry. No they really know what life out God is like right but I mean this is something that I feel like I struggle with to like the does my life really reflect this. You Know I. We had a Bible Study Group. That just went through James and James Hammers on that hard to as well as like. If you're faced is real it will result in real things that people notice that better tangible that they're they're works there are things that as a result of your faith being real in that needs to be something we take seriously. I know this isn't from the Seromba you put me in. James Abraham he brings Abraham Andrey Habit. I love it because as as the people for the worse. And Abraham is the father of the faith but he wouldn't have been the father of the head and put Isaac on the altar and Rahab is not the father of the she's the prostitute in. She had a bad job. She betrayed her country. She lied and yet she's considered faithful. Yeah because her heart was in the right place she was doing actions with her heart set on the right reasons and so God could use her and I back coming back to the sermon. You may not get self-denial perfectly. You may not live perfectly. But your heart's in the right place and you're doing something. I think Gaza going to move in your life a lot. More than if you go on the wayside the perfect theology or I'm no wait till everything is just right and then I'm going to move. I think God's not going to bless that second versus much thank you for listening to today's episode of revived facilities said was narrated by Vincent Silva. He is a native from southern new. Mexico now lives with his wife almost thirty seven years and five children in Boise Idaho. He's retired from the New Mexico public schools and also retired from the air force. He enjoys playing guitar and has a passion for God's word and witnesses every chance he gets if you enjoyed this episode of revived thoughts. We hope that you will share it. Tell other people about it and tell them what we're doing here at revived odds. Trying to bring history's greatest sermons back to life. We Joel and I cannot do this. If you were not telling others about the show we have seen the show continued to grow and it really is because of you sharing links on social medias and read it in facebook and all these different places that you guys do and it is because you are telling your friends. Your family members your pastors the people in your life about this show even just texting to them or message it to them or just dropping it as one of your favorite shows. It makes a difference. I promise you that this show is growing and it really thanks to you and we appreciate it and hope that you will continue to do that for us this is troy and Joel and this is revived thoughts.

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'The Mosquito': Cataloging A History Of Devastation By 'Our Deadliest Predator'

On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

48:00 min | 1 year ago

'The Mosquito': Cataloging A History Of Devastation By 'Our Deadliest Predator'

"This message comes from on point sponsor indeed. If you're hiring with indeed you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your short list of qualified defied candidates using an online dashboard get started at indeed dot com slash n._p._r. Podcast from n._p._r. He aren w._b._z. Boston i'm david folkenflik in this is on point by some estimates. It is responsible for killing upwards of fifty billion human beings. I said billion about half of all people who have ever lived. It has also been a leading force shaping civilization create in preserving world powers credited with dictating the faith of the roman empire cutting cutting short the life of genghis khan helping to fuel human chattel slavery and dooming scottish suffered three hundred years ago to cut a canal through panama. There's plenty of buzz is but you're not gonna see this killer facing justice anytime soon this hour on point the mosquito and it's deadly impact on human history questions about this miniscule insect and it's outside outside influence on civilization. We've got just the guest for you. Join us anytime it on point radio. Dot org are on twitter and facebook ad on point radio with us from aspen colorado is timothy winegarden. He's a professor of history and political science at colorado mesa university his new book the mosquito a human history of our deadliest predator timothy welcome to on on point. Thank you so much for having me timothy <hes> as i understand it your military historian that's one of the things that you focus a lot on on <hes> go right ahead so sorry military history. Yes an indigenous studies. My previous four books focused on aspects of a military history and global indigenous peoples and indigenous studies well. I gotta see your book really evokes an incredibly textured understanding of both those things they come together nicely here but what led you to the mosquito as the organizing concede around which to to to organize this book while i joke i live in colorado now but i ah born and raised in canada and the mosquito is generic to our culture and canada's hockey tim hortons but it wasn't <hes> one thing in particular it was a series series of events and research certainly some of my prior research dealing with military history really up until the first world war <hes> sixty to sixty eighty five percent of casualties on the battlefield caused by disease and then obviously in the ensuing waves of imperialism after columbus <hes> <hes> around the world and what's known as the columbian exchange which was the the transference of ecosystems in biology across the planet essentially reshuffling mother nature sure digits peoples across the world who were not had no immunity to these european diseases diseases smallpox to berkeley obviously obviously malaria and yellow fever eventually just cut a swath through indigenous peoples and in the americas. It's estimated that as high as ninety five percent of of the indigenous peoples of the americas succumb to disease in the two hundred years after columbus <hes> i want to <hes> you know one of the things that you talk about <hes> in the book in a number of instances in the way in which <hes> mosquitoes were a double edge sword if you <hes> if you will because it was something that clearly <hes> devastated invested indigenous populations in many ways and it was also something that at times kept <hes> invaders at bay right there was this incident that i had never heard erred never heard you know you hear about all kinds of european <hes> attempts at conquest and empire right the the portuguese the french the spanish the dutch the brits whatever the scots this. I'd never heard but there's this instance where you talk about that. The scottish adventures <hes> got a ton of money to go. Try to cut a canal through nicaragua. What were they up to what happened to them and what were the effects of that well. In the late seventeenth century <hes> in scotland up was obviously an independent nation at this time and it was coming through a severe famine economic recession <hes> and because it was independent it wasn't part of the english english mercantilist or global economic system so scotland wanted to penetrate those markets in their own colonies in the americas and so roughly a twenty five to fifty percent of all scottish capital was invested in this is what they call the darien scheme or in panama to start a colony money so boatloads of scottish settlers went to panama to set up this scottish economic colony <hes> to bring scotland. It's recession and they were absolutely cut to pieces and shredded by mosquito borne disease and the adventure if you will failed in floundered in scotland went further into into <hes> bankruptcy and recession so england offered to annex scotland which they had been trying to do for years england offered to pay off all the scottish debts if scotland would surrender its sovereignty and be annexed to england with the acts of union which occurred in so in a way <hes> scotland loss awesome sovereignty and the creator of greater britain was caused by mosquitoes in the jungle wiles of panama and of course forgive me i misspoke i said nicaragua meant panama and that of course for scientific the the adventuring and the the imposition of the canal by by teddy roosevelt in this country a little more than a century ago. I i wanna play clip. Now that indicates that this is something that has been taken seriously as a threat over the centuries and across the country's. Here's something from nineteen. Forty-three <hes> the walt disney company produced a public service announcement in conjunction with the federal government titled the wing squirts branding the mosquito as public enemy number one for willful spreading disease and working hours for bringing sickness and misery to untold millions uh-huh in many parts of the world. This tiny criminal is linked to the best of man in a cycle of disease transmission nations that could not exist without either man or mosquito each is solely dependent on the other while the existence of malaria cases of the dread malaria leiria in the u._s. Were largely contained by the early nineteen fifties but not really a joking matter. I mean this was a serious a problem for much of the country <hes> prior to unmasking asking we didn't know throat humanity what actually was causing the multitude of mosquito borne disease not just malaria but there's a host of others <hes> until the late eighteen hundreds in the early nineteen hundreds depending on which disease so for most of human history. We had no idea now the prevailing theory was something that hippocrates himself himself a champion which was the miasma theory that <hes> diseases were caused by noxious fumes or particles emanating from stagnant water and swamps which is tantalizingly close to the actual culprit which is <hes> you does that br- breed and live in these swamps but they they didn't you know point the finger it directly at the at the mosquito <hes> so until really d._t. The mosquito is a threat in the u._s. And we see that <hes> throughout american history from colonial times up until as you said that this roughly the second world war <hes> tell us a little bit about how the mosquito actually makes sick. I mean here's a small animal. That basically takes a little bit of our blood. How is that turn into something. That's a spread of such a in among many species is ability spread such deadly disease well to be fair. The mosquito doesn't directly harm. Anyone <hes> untethered from pathogen. She's she's harmless. He's annoying and <hes> <hes> certainly caused would still biting you get the itch swelling <hes> but it's the diseases that she vectors transmit transmits that causing endless bars ars of suffering and death unfortunately <hes> so her feeding. It's only females bite <hes> her feeding ritual is actually quite sophisticated and there's i make a long story short there six needles <hes> two of them think of it as a one of those electric carving knives you use at thanksgiving turkey these mandible signing going back and forth into your skin whether retract open that up a fifth needle the is the straw that that sucks the blood and six needle at the same time is pumping in <hes> saliva which contains an anticoagulant to prevent the blood clotting at the puncture site in that saliva is where the various he's diseases are contained you know we have heard about of course <hes> many diseases in africa and <hes> the ways in which <hes> that has has hit the populations of various parts of that continent hard and yet there and the very fact of sickle cell anemia in this country known as a devastating at times deadly deadly disease in some ways emerged as a protection against mosquitos explain how that worked early bantu plantation and yam gam farmers started to get to clear forest and jungle for agriculture and that brought them face to face with <hes> more lethal strain of malaria larrea <hes> called full sipa <hes> which is is the deadliest form of the five human malaria is that are transmitted to humans. It's the deadliest form by far. <hes> vivax is the other very common one so very quickly and it's actually quite incredible. How quickly natural selection takes over very quickly. They develop ella <hes> sickle cell which prevents the malaria parasite for from latching onto the red blood cells <hes> and sickle cell prevents you you know i is a shield against self super malaria but it's also a killer at the same time now sickle cell trait is when you acquire one sickle cell gene from a parent but not the other and usually you'd live to an average of twenty three years old but twenty-three is long enough to procreate and continue the human species a sickle cell disease is when you acquire sickle cell from both parents and that's essentially a death sentence so it's an imperfect and hasty evolutionary response <hes> which uh you know alludes to the fact that that for super malaria must have been such a pressure on on the human species in africa that it evolves as quickly in that is imperfect. It's both a savior a killer at the same time and yet your book you write that in some ways <hes> even as there was not only an imperfect but almost a lack of understanding outstanding about how such diseases work there was a sense that there were you know africans who were not being felled by diseases that were killing europeans in who are in africa and that helped to fuel in some ways <hes> the slave trade a t to the americas right within the broader columbian exchange when we start <hes> european start the plantations in the caribbean in southern united states and south central america <hes> coffee sugar is obviously a big one in the minds of obviously it's cheaper to use indigenous slave labor and not to be flipping but their local <hes> but they die off as they said and <music> upwards of ninety five percent of indigenous peoples of the americas from various diseases including malaria and then eventually yellow fever <hes> so <hes> in european indentured servants as well <hes> so africans were seen as a viable solution <hes> after the destruction of american indigenous peoples as a viable solution to to slave labor and fuel the economic prosperity of these european plantation colonies. We're discussing the mosquito familiar nuisance in the u._s. U._s. appeared global predator for millions around the globe and a shaper of world offense at times for good often for ill. Would you wanna know about mosquitos the diseases they carry a <hes>. Has your community ever been affected by mosquito borne disease. Are there events that you think may have been shaped by the mosquito. I'm david folkenflik in this is on point me. This message comes from an points sponsor indeed. When it comes to hiring you don't have time to waste you need help getting to your shortlist of qualified candidates fast with indeed post a job in minutes set up screener questions then zero in on qualified candidates and when you need to hire fast accelerate your results with sponsor jobs new users can try for free when you sign up at indeed dot com slash n._p._r. Podcast terms conditions ends and quality standards apply. A good book can transform you. There's a fair amount of evidence now that the more fiction that people read the more empathic empathic that they become novel exercises to enhance your empathy this week on hidden brain from n._p._r. It's the first episode of our summer series amis you two point. Oh this is on point. I'm david folkenflik. We're discussing the mosquito and it's consequential often calamitous effect on human life over the ages his you can join our conversation with questions. Do you have about this insects legacy. How have such diseases affected where you're willing to live or travel. Follow us on twitter facebook at on point radio with me. Timothy wind guard. He's author of the mosquito human history of our deadliest predator. <hes> you mentioned in the book. There's this one <hes> <hes> moment where you talk about oliver cromwell <hes> the british <hes> revolutionary leader during the civil war at that time <hes> who <hes> <hes> <hes> <hes> basically came down with mosquito related disease but refused to take <hes> the cure which was <hes>. I think quinine basically <hes> which was distilled in the americas but he didn't wanna do it from i guess it was because it was a spanish in catholic culture that it helped come up with it. If i'm not mistaken it correct <hes> it's an interesting story and it also hearkens back to the colombian exchanged malaria. Zika is an old world disease. I if you will that was brought to the america's in the blood of settlers and slaves and was quickly vectored by the anopheles mosquitoes in the americas almost immediately but the first is anti malarial was found in the americas in the form of the chinchilla tree or wine and then brought back to europe as part of this world wind of the columbian exchange <hes> but because it was found <hes> essentially spanish priests in peru <hes> noticed the indigenous peoples using it and there's some myth within legend associated with how it was discovered but <hes> it quickly became a hot commodity in europe but baller cromwell refused to have have is malaria treated with quinine because it was <hes> you know a popish remedy as a protestant. He was willing to take it it amazing amazing also think of not necessarily simply tropical disease. I guess in the same way that we think of tang coming from the moon <hes> sh- shot right <hes> in some ways the gin and tonic <hes> <hes> amish to this terrible scourge of a disease in efforts to treat a little bit tonic having quinine in it as well <hes> there was one anecdote you layabout <hes> among many about the ways in which <hes> the mosquito was used consciously in an active war. You talked about how in the uh i guess it was nineteen. Thirties benito mussolini had drained a key swamp. I guess near rome or something like that but that the nazis noticed that <hes> malaria had had had gone down and decide to weaponize mosquito. What did they do well. The pontiac marshes which surround rome have been historic shield shield for rome in a way they are highly malaria's mosquito and malaria hotbed and so with the rise and fall of the roman empire originally they shielded rome from from outside invaders which includes the carthaginians <hes> the visigoths the huns vandals in eventually malaria in is in the ponti marches and also across italy's starts to drain and sap the economic and population vigor of of the roman empire itself and so historically those ponting marches marshes have been a hotbed of history malaria mussalini prior to the war second world war drains the ponting marsh's successfully and malaria larry rates are absolutely slashed across not only rome but italy itself so when the allies are you know pushing up through italy at the nazi's what's he decided to re flood the ponting marshes purposely to bring back the malaria s- mosquitoes and it worked and there's a personal connection to to this story my wife's grandfather <hes> born and raised in western colorado <hes> fought in the second world war and he landed at anzio which was again purposely flooded flooded as a premeditated biological warfare to bring back malaria mosquitoes and he contracted malaria at anzio and then also the story gets even and more shocking is when his unit and himself liberate the dako concentration camp outside munich <hes> he gets malaria again for a second time in four more lethal little strain now dako was the head of the nazi tropical medicine program and they were doing horrific experiments with mosquitoes and malaria and yellow fever veron jewish prisoners <hes> so he contracted malaria again from one of these mosquitoes well liberating dako now he had no idea how he'd contracted this malaria until i sat down and talked to him in the in the spring of two thousand seventeen and told him you know these stories in in you know as a veteran and and he was ninety six years old at the time he looked at me riley and with his usual stoic expression said well that all makes sense. We're getting getting a bunch of calls now from people who are <hes>. I guess they've got an itch. They need to scratch. Let's talk about this joe zayas calling from newmarket new hampshire <hes> design. Thanks for joining us today by pleasure. Hello hi what's your question. I'm wondering i've i've always sort of taken some comfort in the idea whether it's correct or not that mosquitoes were an integral part of at least the food chain and my question is if we were somehow eradicate them completely would would that wreak havoc on on the ecosystem across the globe or or would they go quietly and life would go on without them. Thanks for that call aside before we get our answer from timothy wind guard <hes> the author of the book <hes> the mosquito a human history of our deadliest predator. I wanna play quote now. From the bill gates. He's been at war with mosquitoes for some year and is supported through foundation. A genetic engineering technology intended to completely eradicate some species of mosquito the ski though as he described four hundred summit back in two thousand sixteen these particular species of mosquitoes are very small percentage of mosquitoes and not key to alike bat populations or anything so i almost always show respect for people who think it's a scary thing to do <hes> <hes> i don't think it will be i think the way we're doing the construct <hes> will make it a very key tool for malaria eradication but how we get approval for that because it's a very novel thing is pretty open ended so predicting when that will get deployed i would deploy two years from now hasn't been and deployed yet. Timothy wind guard. I asked the question. <hes> is the mosquito part of our ecosystem is there a role plays as despised as it is as as destructive as it is or could we pretty happily vanish it and not miss it well to use the star wars vernacular. I think there's a balance to the force in any disturbance to the forces obviously has unforeseen consequences but it that that from the geneticist george lucas i take it exactly and as mr gates alluded to <hes> there's roughly thirty five hundred mosquito species and not all of them transmit disease so i don't i think anybody is you know promoting the eradication of mosquitoes across across the planet now the mosquito itself <hes> they don't aerate the soil like other or insects they don't edge ingest waste like other insects <hes> the males because they don't bite they their world revolves essentially round two things which is nectar insects so they get off easy in this pairing where the females are the villains <hes> so they do pollinate plants and actually got an email the other day <hes> from from a a botanist who loves orchids and he was saying that certain orchids species are directly pollinated by male mosquitoes so they do have a purpose <hes> in that regard but are the indispensable food source to other animals. We don't think so <hes> so there is that interpretation nation as far as getting rid of mosquitoes. There is the new crisper gene editing technology which has made headlines since it was unveiled in two thousand twelve and it's remarkable. I it's an amazing technological breakthrough in development whereby we can intrude on natural selection essentially and replace genes in the d._n._a. Of any animal we choose including human beings so what's being researched in labs across the world and funded by the bill and melinda gates foundation as well. There's two avenues to this. One is to crisper mosquitoes and to make their offspring essentially intially all males <hes> stillborn or infertile <hes> thereby potentially your bad accounting that select species of mosquito which mr gates alluded to in that clip <hes> the second avenue which is again supported by numerous foundations in research is that we crisper crisper mosquitoes with what they call a gene driver a selfish gene to make the mosquito essentially harmless so we make the mosquito incapable of actually during the diseases themselves thereby bringing down that specific disease but not necessarily exterminating that mosquito species andrea crisanto is a professor of parasitology at the imperial college in london <hes> he's carried out pioneering research that led to the development of molecular technology that can block the ability of mosquitoes transmit malaria. He described the promise this development during this ted talk in two thousand seventeen we develop these <hes> eh this genetic modification and the results were astonishing the gene spread very effectively the mosquito have lost the ability to abg and in principle these shows that is possible to introduce a genetic modification in few library mosquito spread into an entire population interfere with the ability to multiply and reproduce this is i think a changing moment in the in the time of genetics it sounds like science fiction but it may well be science fact <hes>. Let's take this call now from columbia missouri or a race calling raise. What's on your mind. Well on say something about the mosquito. You know our age our president age. We always think we know best and we know everything. <hes> and our decisions are are just really wonderful but mosquitoes do feed enormous numbers of animals hummingbirds alone dragonflies <hes> so it. Has you know they have a food purpose in this world. The other thing is mosquitoes have limited human population. What else does that except war. <hes> you know you you you look at what you do today. You're gonna pay the consequence tamar so they they crisper mosquito and then this this mosquito comes down with something while we don't know where that goes so the best thing to do is leave it alone and treat the disease when people have ah keep people out of areas that don't have the disease don't have malaria. Thanks for that. I appreciate that call and that perspective so let's let's put that timothy wind guard <hes> you know one of the lessons of your book. It seems to me is that it's almost like an accordion. Human expansion population in growth cook goes out and in and that until we were able to figure out how to prevent and to redress <hes> malaria and other mosquito mosquito borne illnesses this is that it really did serve as an incredible check on population growth <hes> yes and that's obviously a very touchy subject and there's moral implications that goes along with that as far as looking at the mosquito as mouth uzi and check on uncontrolled human population growth and obviously throughout our our history. The mosquito has been our our number one killer so certainly that's a a logical argument but not one obviously that everybody supports from a'moral standpoint because i mean it's easy to say when you're not affected in your own little personal bubble by malaria or yellow fever <hes> or dinky think so. It's a personal issue. I suppose on whether people agree with or don't agree with that i it comes down to <hes> where you live geographically quickly in the world and unfortunately some people are blessed living in geographic areas that are devoid of mosquito borne disease or have always been void void of mosquito borne disease and unfortunately other people are born in places of the world were mosquito borne disease is a common <hes> you know every day factor of of of life whether that be malaria filariasis or or dangi so i think the argument there that it's a the malthusian check on uncontrolled human population growth. I it depends on personal opinion. Wanna take call now from burlington vermont. Nancy go straight ahead. Hi thanks so let's go them. I this with my son david and and i travel around the world it was malaria but i heard the two aren't they had a radical look think about it too much further and then quarterbacks that's not bad thanks fever which was the most horrifying soon and i just want to talk a little bit about <hes> how really large part of the world thank you for that call nancy so dengue fever contracted by nancy's son david during a visit in sri sri lanka <hes>. How is that affecting people in in south asia and adjacent areas well. This is a i'll give a two part answer or to this or if you don't mind the first is that malaria rates statistics on the death rates from malaria. There's a wide wide range <hes> <hes> but generally speaking malaria rates have consistently been decrease since roughly two thousand malaria is the paramount killer so that is is a very good thing that mosquito borne disease disease rates are lessening because we're tackling malaria and consistently we see year after year the malaria area of death rates and transmission rates going down so that's a good thing on that side but on the other side <hes> what we're seeing is the emergence or the re emergence emergence of other types of mosquito borne diseases now. These aren't the prolific killer <hes> that malaria is but they're still nasty. Nasty diseases can kill and dangi is is is the largest reemerging mosquito borne disease on the planet <hes> i. I've read a bunch of articles that stated that four billion people people on the planet are at risk from deng alone. That's more than half the population. There's roughly seven point seven seven point eight billion people on this planet currently so so that's just donkey alone and obviously we're seeing <hes> zeka and west nile and even in the southern united states if the the right mosquitoes are are there which they are we're seeing domestic cases of the transference of donkey and chicken gunja in the southern united states now they're isolated and sporadic but but they're still occurring so donkey what in common vernacular what it's called breakbone fever <hes> produces some you know it's a rough ride <hes> of that virus and are these containable. You're saying these many people are exposed to these diseases that we know how to count her know how to prevent. We'll so far. The only these are the virus class of diseases malaria parasite but of the virus class we have yellow fever which <hes> there was a vaccine introduced in the nineteen thirties but donkeys zeka west nile chicken ganja the the long list of viruses transmitted by mosquito. There isn't <hes> <hes> vaccines for these so essentially it's controlling the mosquito populations <hes> while we're trying to discover treatment or vaccines for these other <hes> viruses and yellow fever is the prolific killer of the viruses but thankfully with the vaccine we see <hes> see a decrease in the amount of yellow fever globally now roughly thirty five thirty five thousand fifty thousand people a year still die of yellow fever so it's it's a tricky situation asian and i called the mosquito warriors mosquito warriors all over the world in labs and in the field trying to tackle this global and universal problem that seems to be spreading a within ed the emergency reemergence of sirte mosquito borne diseases specifically donkey zeka and west nile. We're discussing the mosquito and it's often ruinous impact on human life. It's nearly since the dawn of civilization. We're also discussing efforts to counter it. You can join our conversation. How comfortable would you be with genetic intervention to contain the mosquito. I'm david folkenflik. Oh conflict in this is on point <music>. Hey it's mighty host of n._p._r.'s latino u._s._a. Every week we bring you a mix of reporting diverse voices and coverage of current and emerging issues that impact our lives let the u._s._a. Is one of a kind featuring stories from the heart stories that make you think and maybe even inspire you to action. Listen and subscribe now. This is on point. I'm n._p._r. Media correspondent david folkenflik. We're talking about an insect that has been called humanity's deadliest deadliest predator the mosquito follow us on twitter and facebook ad on point radio with me timothy winegarden. He's author of the mosquito a human history of our deadliest predator. He's he's a military historian and also historian of the history of indigenous peoples. You know you make really broad and sweeping claims about the influence that that mosquitoes have one way or another upon <hes> upon trade upon <hes> the feats of indigenous people upon <hes> war about the successive wars about the failure of wars and things i i wanted to bounce this off some other folks who work in these fields from public health standpoint so my my producer colleague adam waller caller reached out to professors at johns hopkins school of public health one who's at the malarial research institute at johns hopkins marcella jacobs-lorena another <hes> <hes> endowed out professor of infectious disease the harvard school public health diane worth. They said this is pretty credible. They found this to be entirely possible. As we think of the great man or great person theory of history we think of sweeping demographic changes actually this may have been a major contributor all along <hes> and i was kind of at initially overwhelmed by by the influence and reach that you founded hat but it seems as though it's there. How surprised were you by all this. I think as i said earlier i had known about specific events relating to the mosquito certainly the columbian exchange indigenous people and a. and then certain wars specifically the american revolution before i started really getting deeper into the research but i look at history essentially as a as is a puzzle and the puzzle continuously expands and grows and pee wee all historians in from across the academic fields add pieces to the puzzle history is not on the artifact of inevitability and so i think what i was doing throughout the research was connecting more puzzle pieces to the larger puzzle and in from various sources in a wide range of research and sources and it became clear that the paramount impact that this tiny little animal roughly roughly the size and weight of a grape seed has had on the trajectory of our human journey human odyssey as the mosquito has been with throat or evolution throughout our existence as homo sapiens so i i think it's a matter of connecting puzzle pieces and the more research i did in the deeper. I went down the rabbit hole. The more i was able to fill in the puzzle pieces uses to create a larger picture. You mentioned the american revolution. Tell us about how the mosquito played a role in that well general clinton wasn't satisfied with the northern campaign because general washington refused to have a decisive battle so he switched the grand strategy of of the british british <hes> to a southern campaign in the final few years of the war and obviously that's where malaria mosquitoes thrive so these british soldiers that were predominantly only from northern england and scotland <hes> had no prior exposure to malaria or american malaria and what in history they call they weren't seasoned seasoned is the word frequently used compared to the the american soldiers so general cornwallis we see him zigzagging across the carolinas china's to essentially scape- escape malaria and he says this in his correspondence and he's ordered to hold up at yorktown against his own better judgement and when the french and americans lay siege to yorktown the british troops inside are absolutely shredded by malaria and cornwallis himself says <hes> at at the surrender a part of the reason for the surrender was that he had roughly thirty five to thirty seven percent of his troops left standing while the rest were either dead dying or laid laid up and sick with malaria on able to stand to post so in a way <hes> the mosquito is a is a founding mother of the united states. If you will and one one of the points you make throughout initially. I'm like keeps referring to them -squitoes as she i mean how misogynist we kind of be in thinking about the insects you like the female mosquitoes are doing doing all of the killing. Yes only females bite. They need the blood from humans or a wide swath of animals. They buy tons of animals to grow oh and mature their eggs. While the males as i mentioned earlier their world revolves around essentially nectar and sex so as they said the males get off easy in this relationship because the females do the biting and the transmitting of disease so they're vilified <hes> across the planet heavier burden born even in mosquitoes <hes> you have have also written about the fat you talked about a few minutes ago about the idea of four billion people being exposed in some ways to dengue fever but it sounded to me from reading your book and also from from reading previously to encounter in your book that global warming that climate change the disruption of of previously previously established temperature patterns is likely only to expand the spread of these <hes> diseases beyond what we've ever experienced sure and that brings us back to our star wars guru george lucas the balance to the force <hes> and so does our cold-blooded so their temperature dependent so if if global double temperatures rise or we see pockets of the planet <hes> rise in temperature mosquito species are then able to venture further afield from i'm their home base is if you will so we would see increases in mosquito borne disease in just as an example in the last twenty years canada that has seen a ten percent increase in mosquito borne disease so that's statistic <hes> is part and parcel of the whole argument about global warming and the spread or danger danger of the potential spread of of mosquito borne diseases to hitherto untapped of fields. If you will okay we've got calls coming in about <hes> the mosquito and modern day life. We've got one from lakeland florida tyler. Thanks for listening. What are your thoughts. It goes <hes> i was wanting to you. Bring the question back to <hes> the affects of crisper and i was wondering say if you were to edit the genes of one species <hes> -squitoes because he said there were many many types would that be able to then transferred to other species. How do you contain it within that species to other other species of mosquitoes have sex with you know different species of mosquitoes one you handle that the extent you can timothy one ah well for starters. I'm a historian not an entomologist but the simple answer is no because they're different species. You're putting in what they call. A gene driver a selfish gene into the d._n._a. Of that specific mosquito species that would be passed down the blood line to prevent that mosquito from veteran disease or or to have their offspring stillborn <hes> infertile or only male so in the simple answer is no would be gene drive that that is limited to that specific deadly species of mosquito and just to reiterate again of the roughly thirty five hundred mosquito species. The vast majority are naught vectors for disease so it would be specifically targeting these mosquitoes species that transmit the disease <hes> we want to. I'd like to play a clip now from dr gregory poland. He's director of the mayo clinic vaccine research group and he he gets at some of the concerns turns articulated warning of the increasing footprint of mosquito transmitting diseases in the u._s. Other than malaria in a world where there's global warming where there's massive global movement of people and airline traffic we are seeing more mosquito borne illnesses in the u._s. Only used to be in the southern hemisphere spirit. We're seeing dengue. Fever chicken gunja <hes> zeka. These are diseases. We did not have functionally in the u._s. In modern times now those sir making a comeback so the kinds of research being done <hes> one of the research on this award named laura duval. She's a post doctoral fellow at rockefeller university working on a method to trick trick mosquitoes in the thinking they've already satiated their hunger satisfy their hunger for human blood. She was interviewed in this piece by reporter. Dave huddleston of w s btv in atlanta divall wanted to understand why mosquitoes attraction to people is turned off after she bites you and eats a big meal of blood divall says the food coma is a good metaphor. They're using similar pathways to the one that you were. I would experience after we've had basically thanksgiving dinner so until duval identified the pathway that suppresses is the female mosquitoes attraction to people and found that diet drugs can turn it on the drugs wear off after about three days but researchers are working on making the drugs last longer so mosquitoes were would bite. Fewer people got a call now. We'd like to take from charlotte north carolina gene. You're on the air. What questions do you have for my guest. I there <hes> we have <hes> behinds in our backyard and we also have mosquitoes. <hes> i wanted to find out ineffective sustainable method for controlling <hes> mosquito populations. You know that are not going to harm arp pollinators. We're seeing all across the city. People now resorting to <hes> you know <hes> the companies that will come in and spray your yard for <hes> mosquitoes. So what can we do as a you know a cons- you know someone who wants to be outside but not be bit by a mosquito. This is the eternal human condition timothy wind guard obviously so you are not a mosquito scientist <hes> at the same time are there ways in which said on a on a personal level residential level people have had success. Ask warning these things off. I take from your book not so much. They've been a universal presence in a universal nuisance for our entire entire human journey at any given time. There's one hundred one hundred ten trillion mosquitoes across nearly every inch of the planet and you know people obviously throughout our history. We've tried to ward them off off as well and thankfully we don't do it by bathing and fresh human urine anymore like the egyptians did in the past <hes> but but generally speaking there's things that make people more susceptible or less susceptible to getting bitten but generally eighty five percent of what makes makes you alluring to mosquitoes hardwired in your your genetic circuit board <hes> so for example blood type seems to be her vintage of choice over types saying be <hes> deepak area on our feet are mosquito aphrodisiac <hes> <hes> the chemicals and bacteria in and on our skin which include a lactic acid and how much carbon dioxide and individual discharges all lures mosquitoes so the there's not most most of it is is is genetic and you know we've all doused ourselves in bug spray and indeed and if we miss that one tiny spot show find the chink in her armor and our achilles heel and have a snack so at the end of the day other than staying indoors. There's really not much we can do their part of our our our ecosystems they're they're they're part of our natural world and we tend to forget that we're one species on this planet and we share this planet with a host the creatures and animals you know timothy wind guard you. You write a bit about efforts to combat the mosquito you know when i was coming of age we'd read about d._d._t. He is one of those things that that american <hes> officials in american corporations kind of <hes> pushed on us as a way of getting rid of the mosquito spray that was used but had what a terrible <hes> poisonous environmental legacy. If i'm not mistaken that was part of rachel carson's <hes> work the the silent spring right and yet my recollection is that it's come back in vogue in some ways as as officials have tried to figure out ways to keep it from from expanding in the american south and in fact expanding to other parts of the country as well well obviously <hes> the research you know with the environmental degradation it's harm to other animals including humans not just the mosquito but put that aside for a second and just look at dede as mosquito killer it was a miraculous mosquito killer <hes> and it cut it slashed mosquito borne disease rates across the world <hes> but even by the time rachel carson publishes her seminal work silent spring in nineteen sixty sixty to what we're already seeing across the earth is mosquitoes that are resistant to d._d._t. And one of the things that that gets kind of mixed up and confused is is that it was the blanketing agricultural use of d._d._t. That caused the problems. It wasn't this <hes> surgical use of d._d._t. <hes> to specifically target mosquitoes with indoor residual spraying as an example once it became available to farmers. They just crop opted. Essentially they paved paradise joni mitchell says with d._d._t. And that was the issue <hes> not it's surgical small use specifically <music> as a as a mosquito killer so but at the same time what that fed was <hes> mosquitoes developing resistance to d._d._t. Before rachel rachel carson published her her influential work so d._d._a._t. They no longer feared the bite of d._d._t. And that's something that happens with our best weapons historically we've thrown thrown out the mosquito or malaria for for for that matter they shape shifting circumvent circumvent our best means of extermination <hes> whether that a. b. malarial drugs <hes> or d._t. As an example well i gotta say basically long <hes> long sleeve <hes> long pants long sleeve shirts. Don't really protect you. You know bednets work sort of but ultimately aren't doing it. Insecticide on its own may not do it. You know that that d._t. D._t. may be one of the few things that surgically us could help. You're saying the mosquitoes that have survived are the ones that are stronger more resilient against a._d._t. Well like any other species. They want to survive in procreate so they adapt evolve and evolve in order to do that. <hes> just as we did with sickle cell for example we see that as part of our own natural selection in africa so the best weapons we've thrown at both at the mosquito and malaria they've been able to circumvent to continue continue to survive in pre create which is obviously something every species wants to do so before we wrap up. What's the best case scenario for us in our coexistence uneasy uneasy often <hes> losing with with the mosquito what what makes sense to do what they hope to. We have all this <hes> again that depends hands on personal stance or personal beliefs but obviously you know i'd like to think we could aratu eradicate mosquito borne disease. He's but not necessarily eradicate the mosquito and that's certainly something that the bill and melinda gates foundation is funding and the world health organization in the c._d._c. in numerous national national and international bodies and ngos across the world so <hes> i mean i guess that's up to an individual an individual's own opinion in and and you know they formulate their own their own guidelines moral codes well you can read the book folks. It's called the mosquito human history have our deadliest predator and you decide where you come down on it. We've been talked with timothy wind guard. He's its author also professor of history and political science at colorado mesa university. Thanks so much for joining us. Thank you very much. You can continue the conversation and get the point podcast at our website on point radio dot o._r._g. And you can follow us on twitter and facebook on point radio on points produced by anna bouwman justin downli lean a modest monaco sonal saxon poli james ross alec schroeder grace pattern adam waller with help from alex recent sydney wertheim our executive producer looser is karen shipman meet. I'm david folkenflik. This is on point.

malaria david folkenflik americas twitter fever scotland united states facebook colorado colorado mesa university professor of history africa quinine timothy winegarden Boston oliver cromwell nicaragua george lucas
Wedgie Diplomacy: Bugle 4083

The Bugle

47:29 min | 2 years ago

Wedgie Diplomacy: Bugle 4083

"This is the bugles. Bugle audio newspaper for visual world all to the people live in Dublin, please welcome these. Pulo. Thank you. Welcome. Welcome to the bugle. Live is very hard. We here in Dublin, this is the seconds and final nights of the bugle European soul. We were insulted last night's. Dublin, two nights. Doubling up quite literally coming to you, live from the club here in Dublin, and also doubling up as issue four thousand and eighty three of the bugle as we were in sulphur last night's and we are in Dublin's night and Chris, you'll journey from foods to Dublin tonight up how to complicate Diane? Yes, because generally it would take, I mean, in layman's terms, not very alone, but. We had a slowing procedural glitch where you attempt to do partial self off ATs possible control as a four year old girl. Well, I mean, you know, I mean his his daughter possible photo looks just like me. Suddenly the attendant, the Reiner checking didn't agree with that statement, and I don't live near offered and four trains later and an emergency meeting with my wife where we swapped passports several hundred miles away from where I was supposed to be and then go another train and then another flight. And then another taxi I'm here. You are, what you are applauding is a man's painful recovery from his own incompetence. So you took your daughter's possible. YoM Kennedy. So these our journey today. Yeah. It was like it was really simple. So what we were supposed to do start their there, their host to be so so easy. And instead of going up and down of guns of from here to there. Then over there. Couple of times here of complex, we'd places. Come from Stratford of going through swamp dick apple. I'm now I'm here, we go. Bitish his might. Hero absolute. I'm really Zoe. So welcome to issue four thousand eight through no doubt. We will touch more this lecture to goes of the show if I am Andy Zolt someone as you well know. And if I were you all be sitting where you are watching and these Altman live on stage speculating on what he would be doing if he were you. Small world, isn't it small world? This is the first bugle show ever to take place in a Dublin, Ireland's see a country that is still going to be in the European Union. Come April next year. Already. Technically, we leave you on the twenty ninth of March next year. If everything goes according to plan, admittedly that is currently the biggest. If since Rodion Kate pulling started projecting the titles of his poems up onto the night skies above Gotham city. Twenty nine months diapers to leave the European Union. Let's the nursery of the battle of Touton in fourteen sixty one in the English wars of the rose his which was the single bloodiest day of fighting in the entire history of the British Isles says, twenty eight thousand people were killed at about out in a single day of hand to hand combat, and you just have to admire the logistics of that. I'm above all the work rights of youngsters back in the fifteenth century to get out there, get their hands dirty and get the job done. I don't think all pampered millennials would fight. They take one look at the battlefield Sinar that's not familiar, sit at home on their PlayStations tweeting shit. I mean, we have to in out of poles Bulgarians to kill each other just. King job done. So. We'll recording this on the eighth of tribal twenty eighteen. Congratulations. You have just cheered the anniversary of the assassination of Korean empress me on the on by Japanese infiltrators in eight hundred ninety five. You people in wanting to stabilize he's politics. You've changed the beginning of the first Balkan war in nineteen twelve. You've cheered Germany. Annexing western Poland. In nine hundred thirty nine taika side island taika side. Too soon. Always some sections of the bugler going straits. Going where. Correct. This week in the been a lifestyle section, including helping you with the biggest problem facing young couples today, dog or baby. So. Who here is who here is, comes plating starting a family. No. We've, we've clearly priced them out. Who here is contemplating a dog. That's why all species is doomed. So we're gonna help. You decide if you'll contemplating whether to have a dog, whether to get a Togo Pavee, we will help you decide we're going to do dogs versus babies in fourth, catch agreed to fund, which is the greatest species category. One impact on history. Babies very negative impact on history. Babies have produced amongst others Benito Mussolini, Kim Jong Il set Blatter celebrity female, Hungarian sixteenth seventeenth century, serial killer Elizabeth bathroom. All will. Once babies, none of them was ever a puppy dogs by contrast of never started a single war, though it is rumored that Genghis Cohn trodden and a dog shit when he was fourteen and never really come down, but that got really be blind on the dog. And of course, of course, it western history and politics was heavily impacted an impulsive way by dog tannin and the Musco hounds the seventeenth century cartoon dog pugilists who's who. Founding ethos one for all and offer one. Let of course to the foundation of the British welfare state under Clement Attlee. Babies, no dogs. One category to -bility to respond to basic instructions had two babies. They off king useless, two dogs ability to God house dogs by no means perfect, but babies next of kin, useless. No Boettger is put off by sweet facing a bit of dribble three delta dogs, long-term cost. Well, who here has children. And who here is worried about the cost, putting their children through university. Who here has a dog who is worried about the cost of putting their dog through university point, prove just four Nilton dogs. If there is a message from this bugle it is get a dog not baby. On the. Who this week firstly representing the toss southern hemisphere, all women and people who hates fin leg pink birds. It's so wonderful allies He was. Hello? Hello handy. How are you all feeling in yourselves Marley. I, it's been an exciting day. Chris was still dementia Portland dimension. That's he's still for identity fraud and trying to himself off as a female infant. Most able to on the lookout for people trying to smuggle children out of the country. I don't think they have management systems in place for adults who are trying to smuggle themselves out of the country disguised as babies as a bad disguise. Chris, you didn't even shave guard recommended, no matter how much you scream and shit yourself. You will never again, look like baby did do that quarter. So I in Dublin, it is is my first time in Dublin, I'm very excited to be here. My mom was a massive Irish fan. She did her master's thesis on on kind of folk music. And so basically what I'm saying is I'm related to someone who respect your culture. I'm Jewish. So I'm fine. Neutral. Also joining us today all the way from doublet about ten minutes walkaway. It's still wonderful time, you know, talking. Thank you. Sounds like it's going pretty well on the. I don't think it's going well enough to get the European residency. You crave though. Sure. Poultry and Fleetwood did well enough in the Ryder Cup Laos to. They can come in JK Rollings out of push you and banks still not sure. I saw his picture shredding itself last week. I'm like, what does that remind me of? Oh, one of these Oltmans gigs. Surely. The ticket holders before one of my gigs. He got one point two million for doing it. So ROY, I think we're ready for four top story. Talk story this week. We're all being doomed. A new u. n. report on the environment. No one told us the urgent, an unprecedented changes on to keep off famous planet. One of the most famous permits in the history of the solar system less to just one point, five degrees of extra bonus. Hotness all in layman's terms with Alex, y'all bugles environmental correspondent. Yes. Indeed, apparently the world's governments are nowhere near on track to meet their commitment to avoid global warming of more than one point, five degrees above the pre industrial period, massive, immense transformation. The way the world's population generates in Jesus transportation in gross food will be required to limit the global temperature, which would mean some fundamental changes in how we live our lives and some concerted long-term. Sorry, I've got something on Instagram. This is the problem is very difficult to see. This is a real threat. We're all worried about dying, for example, too many bees, but we rarely think about the more pervasive in universal threat of dying from not enough bees. Global warming up to two degrees would destroy ninety nine percent of coral in the world. While the one point five degree rise, which is the current lowest target would leave up to a whole one hundred percent of ten percent of coral alive. You know, that says to me, Andy, we are so incredibly pasta to clock. There's no way this story story turns out with as much choral as there should be, and you might say, and who needs Karolyn to that. I would like to tell you a story about the dunning Kruger effect. Do you know the dunning Kruger effect? I don't, which basically makes me an expert. Because these. Billion people depend directly or indirectly on coral reefs for their livelihood, but to be Frank at this point, I don't think we need to worry about the humans. Neem, oh, I'm worried about nemo. Apparently the Coen brothers, directing the new Nima film. It's. It's going to be pretty bleak. So the saunters using data from over six thousand research papers of walnut is devastating, consequence. I'm they would say that scientists. Because it's easy being a song just isn't it when you have to deal with facts, have to win elections or sweet. You not shareholders justify your own hawk carbon lifestyle choice too much out yourself. Twelve years. Bugle has been going eleven years, and I can't remember anything from before. That's on the isn't sports. Paul from the birth of my first cricket lls. The president of the Marshall Islands. Hilda. Heine said, every country must increase the mission of their existing targets on a spokesman for the industrial world responded Sewri the war wounds. Marshall Detroit from him. I'm doing my bet for my carbon footprint. I mean, I see what could happen potentially, just if he levels rise, it could inundate my Infinity pool turn. Literally into an Infinity pool. Known as the c. I've already from Pat point of view downside, my dugong to amount of t. I'll be getting rid of my right on vacuum cleaner at some point in the next year as well. These are the commitments we're going to have to make. There's always hidden victims. Mass poverty. That's another one. The problem with this because people we keep criticized in in the industrial, you know the the western world for not doing enough to prepare the world for the impending environmental apocalypse. But you know, we have been preparing other parts of the world for mass poverty for centuries. Now. They really should evolved in the to it if they can read more Darwin. Droughts. Another potential consequence. You here droughts hair on interrupted cricket. I mean, the bowling is going to become very unpredictable though, isn't it? If the, if the cricket decrease becomes to cracked? I say that as someone who has watched, oh, one test match. Thank you. Arlene the cream. Isn't there a cream for correct? Kris. Family show Alice Emily. Yes. Mass poverty you kept talking about, we have in this country. No one goes to mouse anymore. I think we do need some perspective on this because what is this one and a half degrees centigrade out really that must gets this in perspective. The current average temperature on this planet is fourteen point six degrees celsius on Venus, the average temperature is four hundred sixty two degrees celsius, and yet where the ones being told that we have to do something. Amount of carbon dioxide earth nor point north, four percents. But apparently we've got a king cut down Venus ninety six point, five percent carbon dioxide makes me being sick and you know. And do you know why Venus gets away with it without any criticism? Because Venus is a lady planet. Conseil in these days. Can you. Don't wanna be accused of temperature shaming lady planet. Can't even tell Venus, she's holies badly. Belly with committing historical sex offenses anymore. Let alone off getting plenty on dates being sick. Most not make a cold Uranus joke. Well, there was a kind of curious inconsistency abouts humans as a species at the moment because we keep making binding commitments to help our planet die more quickly. And yet at the same time, we are piling billions of dollars of research into how to conquer the aging process. Now on very confused about this, Alex, you all eternal life correspondent. Yes, Andy end in living forever news, I will survive. I will survive as long as I know how to love. I know I'll stay alive by know how to love. I may know how to manipulate nanoparticles to destroy senescence sales. I am going to live forever for some speculative science turns into real science and rewrites. My jeans. The guardian has published an article discussing cutting edge research into the causes and possible cures for aging, mainly focused on medicines that promised to clean up senescence zombie cells that hang out in your body. As you age generally talks a fine you and making long running, but slow moving popular television series in your organs until you die. If these medicines work, we could all live for longer in the promise of eternal life is a great promise until you think about the fact that the people who will live forever the same people as having stupid uments on your social media platforms right now. The other day I saw a man doing with a stranger that gender neutral toilets, male oppression because women would come into men's toilets and quote, put lipstick on all over the place. Dive you, would you like to live forever? I mean, it's not for me to say, but I think it was Gallaher who said, maybe I don't really want to know. How your garden grows. 'cause I just want to fly the that is one of most of juice lyrics from live forever. Your how your garden grows is obviously a reference to pupils who will continue to grow. If we do live forever. The planet will will no one will die. It will just be standing around on then between us just take Bush's of Pugh STAN. STAN. I mean, if it is a little garden, surely learning how to fly would give you a better perspective, kind of a bird's eye view on the garden situation, but army whereabout hairy, we're like bird's nests effectively flying round above its, I think I'm happy enough at this age. Ain't nothing but a number, but it's also a very accurate barometer of how old you are. Fine. These things are relatives. You know, remember when I was twenty one of my friends once made out with twenty five year old and we were like, that is so disgusting. There are might drop off. You learn to taste of death. Was that a. I mean, personally, I think it's it's useful to look at those animals to do live for a long time. None of them seem that delighted today. You've got those enormous tortoises. You know what I mean? Who you would think like you met captain coke. Darwin, just like golf. The Greenland, shark is another one to be between three hundred and five hundred years old. How they worked as I have no idea what so ever. Maybe an old newspaper was found inside was. Looks absolutely miserable. Freezing of warms up there. Someone will be happy for climate change right there. The Greenland, shark. Hopefully you might die one of these days. Roy's well thing it's time now that we should talk. We talk more about s- Arlyn's first bugle here in Orland gimme Jay. If you're if you're Irish. Here is not Irish. And. Mostly mostly female response to that. They come here for the hot Irish man. Roko we all do. Preach. Because all I'm, I'm as you as you will know, I'm from England and we we shares elements of of a vow past clearly, and I went to a rather traditional English private school, and it is fair to say, that's the history of Ireland was not the most assiduously taught subjects as generally isn't in any English school. Not has in common with, for example, any other thing we might be embarrassed about from history. And in fact, I have the school textbook of the history of oil and for English schoolboys here is especially all tall. All always taught about Arlanda school. It was quite nice. Then something went wrong with the potatoes the end. So. So. So david. So it went to very, very good school in many ways, but it did lead me certain gaps in my knowledge of the world, for example, lead the entire history of our land and the other side of the British empire left me with gaps about, for example, how to rewire a plug how to change the tires on a car, how to talk to a girl, what to do to a goal once talked to it. Do they need feeding. Do they mos-. So huge gaps in my knowledge of the world, albeit that I was able to express those gaps in grammatically perfect Latin. So. David, couldn't you for ignorant Englishman? Please explain a little bit about the history of land. Chris. Could you put on a YouTube clip called Irish music? Saad. Arlon was founded by footballer Stephen, Ireland, three thousand. See. Ireland's indigenous people where the leprechauns or lip rati-. Nobody's ever called them, but they died out tragically owing to the fact that they were all male. I'm never existed. Nothing kills the people off quicker than never having actually existed your next major character in Irish history. On the said, Patrick the patron Saint of strangers taking shit behind the wheel in your front guard, and it's highly is commemorated its for one day around the world. Saint Patrick. Got rid of all the snakes and so thorough was he got rid of any archaeological evidence of the might ever have been snake island. Around the first millennium. So the arrival of the Vikings and they're so unlike any Scandinavian people I've ever met today, it's like one day the most woken up on gun, hey, you know, let's not drive in pillage anymore. Let's invent social, democracy, and Kia and LEGO, and our ha. Then nothing happened in Irish history for six hundred years till the arrival of Oliver Cromwell in sixteen forty nine and he. He absolutely wreck the place. Although seen as a modernizer in Britain still seen as today in our land, he is seen as a channel side, Ken. Taito puts of. Who calls the population drop off that some expert put his high as eighty three percent. Presented population. Thanks, Cromwell barrel of rancid weiner's, excuse me of occasionally visit the British house of parliament where there is a statue of you to take shit. Just in front of Cromwell was eventually defeated by Conor McGregor the bottle of Crumlin. In eighteen proper twelve. With his rallying cry, you'll do nothing can prick. But McGregor was in turn defeated by Queen Victoria out of out in Las Vegas for he had motivated her by criticizing her family, her nation and to religion. Wean Victoria loved Arslan and left us with her greatest legacy. The shop Victoria's secrets on Grafton street short for Victoria secrets was that she wished she just she'd done more to prevent the Irish common eighteen forty five eighteen forty nine. He's like, shooting fish in a barrel in front of these. Ireland is always loved to craze from nine dancing to yoyos from Gottschee to Qatar, schism. They tend to come and go. They say, you only play this town twice in your career said the pope and Dublin on his recent business. One on the way up. Great to be back and the eleven people in the crowd jiggled their rosary beats and shook their little bags, although nominally Republic Arlanda is still a mystical place ruled over by Enya. I've never met Enya, but apparently you can recreate the feeling of meeting her if you put your Peens lady p.m in Dyson Arab laid. If you feel something crazy in the air listening to this podcast, that's I rish presidential election, mania. Or some reason. A reason nobody can quite remember Arlen the teasha or prime minister and a president. The president is a non-political role. The idea of which is that you do gigs the prime minister doesn't have time to do such as shaking hands at the rugby on apologizing for institutional atrocities. The prime minister has. The runners and writers have a symbol for this once every seven years event. And what a group does the incumbent Michael d Higgins. Tiny wizard poets who negotiated the tricky events of the last seven years with aplomb. He hosted the queen's first ever visit to Arlen without giving her a wedgie. I'm commemorated the Tina of the nine hundred sixteen rising without mentioning that he'd love to give the Queen alleging job done, so he should got to do it for another seven years and everyone wants them to with the exception of five people. Five other candidates who are running for its job does no reason to mention the other candidates because you'll never hear of any of them again. The Feis just say that most of the three out of five have been dragons on Arlen dragons, dead. They look like they're only running for president for a prank. They lost with one of the lots, the Gulf club. The other two are ladies and they hate science. Michael d Higgins will definitely win and he'll have another sweet seven years in front of him. Whereas main jobs will be to commemorate this Tinari of the war of independence in nine hundred twenty nine thousand nine without giving the Queen of wedgie on the centenary of the civil war in twenty twenty two without saying he wants to give Michael Collins slash aim endeavor. Leira a wedgie, see it's one hundred years and we're still not over us. Oh, lund's. Who said comedy, educational. No one ever suggested that might we form some kind of. Seems in this type introit tried. No, we count because you hate those bloody Europeans putting their towels at the morning, trying to straighten your bananas, they're not your bananas, Sunday. Brochure. He's totally one of the most important phrases in the entire vocabulary of parenting, but it's also something you should remind yourself to do almost as often as you Ramon yourself to listening to the bugle. Both are unquestionably the most important of you'll die. If you want to stay healthy quick knows and their team dentists, designers, his focused on helping you take care of your mouth, better mounds. One of the most famous facial features in the history of humanity with good reason. They have a range of us foreign excessive. For example, the air or chin quip will also help you strive towards Denko to consistency that built in time helps you clean for the dentist, recommended two minutes with guiding pulses to Ramon you when to switch sides. And my favorite Bates also comes with a mounts to suctions Rajon mirror that is truly spice. Whip stops just twenty five dollars. And if you go to get quick dot com slash bugle right now you'll get your first refill pack. Free with quip electric toothbrush. I refill free at get quip dot com slash bugle LSU. We've been. The patriarchy correspondent. What does that meet? Make the patriarchy. My daughter said to me a couple years ago, she said, you'll too silly to be a patriarch. In women news. Now, Kevin has been confirmed as the next US supreme court Justice by the Senate of a highly. Pantoja. He's behind you doing on ethical things. Remember we'd put this behind us. He's been confirmed offer highly confirmation process in which he was accused of, depending on what side of the opinion fence you youthful larrikin ISM slash attempted rate, delete as appropriate. The investigation into the accusation by Dr Christine blazey. Ford has uncovered many facts about Kevin. Ah, let's about his behavior than about what a weird. We tantrum boy, he is. He behaved like what we in the legal profession would call an absolute sukey dumpling. Anyway, the investigation established that Kevin either did not commit the, is it still a crime if you do it in party and. He's been confirmed either because people don't believe he did it, but they believe he did it, but don't think it's relevant. They believe he did it, but don't can't. They believe he did it, but have done worse. Things themselves in our pre covering that in order to avoid establishing an unfortunate precedent regarding accountability for behavior that happened in the past. The past is a different country, Andy and like everything from a different country. It should stay in that different country and not come here and start taking our jobs. Interestingly pre covering, you're a right wing approved method of assault prevention for women going out at night. Although women women news LSU women in Sahlins correspondent, yes, indeed, women in science news. Now in the wake of Donald Strickland's winning Nobel prize. We minds to professor Allesandro strumming who recently presented an analysis to an audience of predominantly young female physicists in which he claimed that he had proved, women will less capable at physics than men. As as a physicist is important to note that professes streaming is also an expert in biology, sociology, gender, and how to talk to women. I mean, and this is the kind of anecdotally based unscientific called sociology, gut feelings, gender, normative stuff that is pervasive. For example, people keep telling me that men better than women at math, but try getting accurate self measurement of pain assize out of a man. You absolutely. Absolutely cannot. How big is your pain, a sir. Sir. Exactly. Point is proven. More than sixteen hundred scientists have so far signed a statement condemning the remarks profess Jermiah who has stated that physics was built by men, which you know to give him credit is fair. If you agree with the statement that most things will built by men, which is a true statement. If you start counting when a building is being built from the second floor and ignore the foundations of the building entirely. I don't know if you know this any, but people seeing men seem particularly bad at history. Often choosing to forget, win talking about men's role in history that most of history women were being used at unpaid labor for the intensive grassroots dusk till dawn twenty four, seven hand cranks labor of literally keeping everyone born alive, warm clothes, clean disease, free, and fed, not to presume to explain history to men who historically better at history. In economics gems, not to presume to explain economics historically bitter at it. Can this men the most women. Pre industrial revolution didn't have the leisure time to worry about the masculine of flouting around waiting to fight someone and that is because women were good enough at physics to understand the statistical distribution of body, mass differentials, not to presume to explain domestic violence statistics, two men who historically better at domestic violence. I don't know most most scientists done by men, ninety percent of science that was accepted in the sixteen hundreds has been proven to be false. Ninety percent of that science was done by men and one hundred percents of those male scientists dead, which I think proves something. Though will be the, I don't want know what 'cause I'm a woman, not good at that stuff. Personally. Well, if you've bouts of fighting over the weekends and no doubt very excited about it here in Dublin, the Pfister Kathy Conor McGregor on the Russian Ruffy an Easter. Gumma of the deck, Estonian damage, dispense overcame the Irish injury inflict a winning in the fourth round of the fight and what a dramatic fight. It was to gain an early advantage as he ripped mcgregor's left leg Sunday from his himself and feasted on a wolf the full. Before McGregor. Ford is back into things by scooping, the prefrontal cortex out of the Russians brine voice his undefended Izhak it with a picnic spoken smearing, victoriously all over his extravagantly tattooed. It's. The Russian did not say that lawing down on Sutton, nine inch length mcgregor's spinal cord out from between two is the rustic vertebrae Russians, powerful once again, proving decisive just as it had in his previous title, fight against the polish Mexican star. This love Hernando cruise versus Lipsky who. Who've had two ventricles along out the same way McGregor desperately tries a fight back by minting going of spleen with his trademark power blitz grapple, but the the Russian sealed victory exploiting mcgregor's, visceral fair of nonsense poetry by reciting stems from Lewis Carroll's Jabba Wookey goes goes McGregor. It's crunch his own throat clean out of his mech with a primal wall of frustration, living vulnerable to them finishing off with signature seven, twenty rotating trustee would slaying McGregor with double pirouetting ice pick to the skull before setting to join Wickham. Terrific. Performance turf it out. Wonderful. Wonderful, wholesome, sporting entertainment for all the family, but sadly spoiled off to the end of the bout. Where. Lick doubts his cage and attack mcgregor's own. So rawal no idea why I love. I really do like I love cage fighting. I don't like watching the fights about Baruch. Like watching the men who do the fights talking about the fights before and after the fights, because these men who get paid to talk. Genuinely my favorite guy in the history of cage fighting, unfortunately, deceased his name, Kim, Bo slices anyone heard of him. Yeah. His very big man, no hair on his head. Just here understood to these hair upside down. He quite famously punch demands ill in a fight. And the interview went up to bows off to the fight and said, so Kimba. Punch this man's ear off. I didn't think that was even possible in Kimbe slice replied. Anything's possible. If you dream. Great to be here if ROY next door for the museum of ours literature creek. Well, it's not open yet, but it's not opening, but it will be. It will be, it will be, we'll be clearly needs to be opened because on two, there were two bills for outside one. One thing they museum of literature and one saying the same thing, but very badly spelt so is really very much needed. But. I have a friend who is. Studied literature here in Dublin in fat, and he was absolutely obsessed with all these great figures of literature and tell me some of them. Interesting. Backstory, some of them, some of them really did much while they were writing. One of the great figures virus. One of the great things about Jerry studied at Trinity College share in this city to make ends meets by selling knock of cheap imitation, Christmas, do in pillow sets. She made decent money flogging sham you'll bed kit. Interesting guy would Mike own breads, very absent minded always drifting thinking about what he was going to ROY. Next one time he pulls up completely measure out the ingredients, put the metal biking trial in the sky, but then completely admitted to the water flour and yeast white tin forgot DOE. One of the great. One of the great worse than Cromwell. One of the. One of the originalists into name actually, interestingly, to inspire himself, but you decide to have some control on whether it was monocled around the ankles, wrists and with linked metal rings, the links were whether should be smaller, might evolve in copper, stay was indecisive, but eventually he would make change choice. You're that one was a little bit overlong convoluted. They went to, he went to, he went to went to a sexual. And he was explained things you could buy expensive. On the show attention to buy them. You can rent them what you Lisa. None of fame artist writing it in the late nineteenth century flash new vehicle by very powerful burden castrated bills to be presides. So no reason ever to stop even when traffic invented. Nothing could make me slow down in this thing. He said, I'm an ox go. Why Holt. Used to ship in little worker insects, specially specific corny constructed from soil taken from the capital city of China. The imported on Beijing earth nest. Anyway, moving. My mind was so obsessed with ROY. Does he spend money on their books used to fund is have to make selling body parts on the black market, particularly digits of people's hands with a discount for a quick sale. He was known to say, do you wanna thumb swift. And he also tried to sell elect join amount. He wanted to say one for his wife scheduled elect clearly to masculine. That's a women's join said that's obviously and brazenly a man that that's a shameless Heaney. This is how you get yourself posthumously. I mean, you see them coming from Soviet our way. A nuclear bomb with a parachute on it. You know. Best coined. Used to keep yourself mentally having to glosses of war-torn breakfast table one, regular one, very salty will it's random down it one week, seven days in a row. He picked. He picked salty of the next Monday. Got the one again. Would you believe Andy Seitz? Eight in a row bra and. Run. Traveled, nine hours for this. Eventually run on money giveaways, get rid of his collection of nineteen seventies American thriller movies. They was somebody was giving away other Chuck it in the bone for helped him out. The OMON bomb for carry gives the charity shop Joe's Bernie Shaw. Hi. What does it feel like to be the best in the world at a sport? No one else is playing. Perhaps you could tell me. I mean, I will say this feel like hurling right now. As a bit rich coming from an Australian. Australian rules, football, very similar to Australian rules, immigration. In that it is violent and aggressive despite being colossal amounts of spice. Best to end the puns things go and think about what happened on going to both apologize and then right now, and then. I think some of you might be annoyed by this. You may be cheese. Is that is the end. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. Coming appreciation full the Christopher Columbus office times, Chris. Purdue. All the way for months, the voile on the. Orientale Alice fries. Dumplings own, oh, talking. We all been on good. Radio, Toby across promotion news about a new project from friends at ninety. Nine percent invisible. It say all of what we were all schools of interest is produced. Longtime ninety, nine percent, invisible producer, very good, nine digs into how that is on clothing affects us everyday. The stories will link FEMA tickly from one to the next topic pockets enough pockets. My favorite of a bit of clothing, especially one with a lion shirts and punk style. If you carry off of the loss to in one outfit only say, good luck. You've been here all six episodes of articles of interest on ninety. Nine percent, invisible, all more interested club. Radio too. Ex-.

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175: How to DOMINATE in Leadership. Lessons and Guidelines From Bernard 'Monty' Montgomery

Jocko Podcast

2:29:40 hr | 1 year ago

175: How to DOMINATE in Leadership. Lessons and Guidelines From Bernard 'Monty' Montgomery

"This is Jaakko podcast number one seventy five with echo, Charles and me, Jaakko Willink. Good evening echo. Good evening. Twenty three October nineteen forty two eighth. Army personal message from the army commander. When I assumed command of the Eighth Army. I said that the mandate was to destroy Rommel and his army, and that it would be done as soon as we are ready. We are ready now. The battle which is about to begin will be one of the decisive battles of history. It will be the turning point of the war. The eyes of the whole world will be on us watching anxiously which way the battle will swing. We can give them their answer at once. It will swing our way. We have first class equipment. Good tanks. Good antitank guns, plenty of artillery and plenty of ammunition. And we are backed up by the finest air striking force in the world. All that is necessary is that each one of us every officer and man should enter this battle with the determination to see it through to fight and to kill and finally to win. If we all do this. There can be only one result. Together, we will hit the enemy for six right out of North Africa. The sooner we win this battle, which will be the turning point of the war. The sooner we shall all get back home to our families. Therefore, let every officer and man enter the battle with a stout heart and the determination to do his duty as long as he has breath in his body. And let no man surrender so long as he is unwanted and can fight. But saw pray that the Lord mighty and battle will give us victory. B L Montgomery Lieutenant General Eighth Army. And that. Is a note written on the eve of the battle of Alamein which ended up being the turning point of the war in North Africa and General Bernard Montgomery, commonly referred to as Monte defeated the desert, FOX, Rommel, one of the most respected generals. In all of history, really in Monte was a actually a controversial figure, and I think he got more controversial the more famous. He got he fought in World War One. He was a soldier. He was gravely wounded by a sniper in the battle of e praise. He was shot in the lung. He was in such bad shape that they actually dug a grave for him. But somehow he pulled through he recovered. He served the rest of the war as a staff officer. And he was actually very critical of the of the tactics and of the strategy and of the willingness of the leadership to accept such horrific and heinous levels of casualties. So he was critical of that. And after the war was over he served he stayed in the army. He served in Palestine he served in India. And then in nineteen thirty nine, of course, there was more war. And he was in command with third division. He went to France and us actually pretty worried about going to France. He didn't feel super confident about it. And he returned home with the rest of the British forces that were driven off the continent continent. From dunkirk. And you know, they're they were able to refit to be able to go out and reengaging he headed to Africa next and the Eighth Army was pretty beat down. At that point. When he showed up though, he turned around their morale and made them believe that they could win and won the first major land victory of the war in the second battle of El Alamein. From there. He helped the invasion of Sicily and the ille-, and then he commanded all forces all ground forces on d day. He commanded all the ground forces. So that was obviously a massive operation. He planned and led. Operation market garden, which was the invasion of low countries. We've covered some of those battles on this podcast because it was not good. It didn't go well, and he was kind of a guy pushing that, but he was able to redeem himself from that during the battle of bulge, which we've also covered on this podcast. So you know, he had some ups and downs, but mostly ups, so what was the controversy or what's this kind of tainted image of him? First of all some people saw him as being arrogant. And some of the people that some as being urgent were Americans Americans like Patton and Bradley. And I mean, let's face it. If you're talking about for sure patent. We're not talking about a guy with a small ego. So you can imagine that when you have a clash of egos that can be you know, you can get some professional jealousy and whatnot. Even sir. Winston Churchill said that Monty was and this is a good quote in defeat unbeatable in victory unbearable. So there's another an anecdote about him where he was asked to name three great generals. And he said the other two would be Alexander the great and Polian. Meaning he's just all top of the list. So he may have had may have been a little bit egotistical. And and and I think from what I've read about him. He lacked lacked tact. And later on in life was kind of contract. He was controversial as well. He was very critical of American tactics in Vietnam. He said that America had no clear cut objective in Vietnam. Which you know, I'm critical of the tactics in Vietnam. I think it's pretty safe to say that there should have been more clear cut objective that that obviously made some of our military leadership in America angry. I don't know if I would argue against those statements. He he oddly enough spoke, positively about the Chinese communist government when he was older he he publicly supported apartheid in South Africa. So these are more things that people sort of sort of tainted his image. But besides all that he is still known as a. As a as a tactician, and there's plenty of support from his troops and his men that that loved him and were ready to follow him anywhere. And there's some people that say even that he acted arrogant. It was almost like a show that he put on to kind of unify his troops that this was Monte. This was the great guy. And we're just we're we got look what Monte did, you know? So. There's that he wrote a lot he spoke. He wrote. Well, we've got some great. Some documents that he put out and I won at one. He's got a ton of he put out one of them. I'm going to read it's very it's a very interesting piece in and so he wrote this after Germany had surrendered and the British occupation forces were in place in Germany. So you've got the Brits there in Germany occupying the country, you've got the German civilians who have been defeated in war. And here we go. To this message the Hugh O ten June nineteen Forty-five Germany, personal message from the commander in chief to the population of the British area in Germany. You have wondered no doubt why our soldiers do not smile when you wave your hands or say good morning in the streets or play with the children. It is because our soldiers are obeying orders. You do not like it, nor do our soldiers. We are naturally friendly and forgiving people, but the orders were necessary, and I will tell you why. In the last war of nineteen fourteen which your rulers began your army was defeated your generals, surrendered and the peace treaty of Versailles. Your rulers admitted that the guilt of beginning. The war was Germany's. But the surrender was made in France. The war never came to your country. Your cities were not damaged like, the cities of French, France, and Belgium and your armies marched home in good order. Then you're rulers began to spread the story that you're armies were never really defeated and later they denied the war guilt clauses of the peace treaty. They told you that Germany was neither guilty nor defeated. And because the war had not come to your country. Many of you believed it, and you cheered. When you're rulers began another war. Again after years of waste and slaughter and misery. Your armies have been defeated. This time the allies were determined that you should learn your lesson. Not only that you have been defeated which you must know by now. But that you your nation were again, guilty of beginning the war. For if that is not made clear to you and your children, you may again allow yourselves to be deceived by your rulers and lead into another war. During the war. You're rulers would not let you know what the world was thinking of you. Many of you seem to think that when our soldiers arrived, you could be friends with them at once as if nothing much had happened. But too much has happened for that. Our soldiers have seen their comrades shot down their homes in ruins, their wives and children hungry. They've seen terrible things in many countries where you're rulers took the war. For those things you will say, you are not responsible. It was your rulers. But they were done by the German nation every nation is responsible for its rulers. And while they were successful, you cheered and laughed. That is why our soldiers do not smile at you. This. We have ordered this. We have done to save yourselves to save your children to save the world from another war. They will not always be so. For we are Christian forgiving people, and we like to smile and be friendly. Our object is to destroy the evil of the Nazi system. It is too soon to be sure that this has been done. You are to read this to your children if they are old enough and see that they understand tell them. Why it is that the British soldier does not smile? B L Montgomery field. Marshal commander in chief British area. So obviously that message was produced in German and in English and spread out amongst the population. I thought that was pretty awesome outlook. And he also spoke and wrote a fair amount about leadership. And I think when you look at his writing in his speeches, you can see some of his. Some of his peculiarities some of his personality shines through sometimes. The end I want to take a look at some of that some of the things that he wrote and the first piece is called military leadership. And it's actually from a speech that he gave at the university of Saint Andrews and fifteen November nineteen Forty-five. It's like a transcript or maybe it's his notes. I'm not sure which but it's. It's written as if he was reading it. So. Here we go. Let's go to this book military leadership. I've come here to Tate to talk to you about military leadership a subject, such as this must enormous times seem somewhat remote from this quiet gray walled city by the sea. Today. I have to try and equate the definition of military leadership as I see it to the lessons of the past. And to the experience of the present I propose to limit myself in this talk to hire leadership the command of armies or a group of armies and not to consider the quality of leadership at lower levels. What I say about higher leadership may well have certain application to leadership of a brigade or a company or a section of men. There are however certain differences in leadership at lower levels, and I do not propose to take up your time by discussing these today now you'll see as he goes into this covers all these talking about that all the time. I'm not sure even why he he did that. But he talks about the the entire chain of command throughout this speech. Military leadership is a subject, which is always interested me. And during this war. I have had some opportunity to put my ideas to the test. I have found that if you aspire to lead soldiers, you must take a close study of human nature for that is the raw material with which commander has to achieve his end. If you neglect the human factor as a leader, you will fail the personal relationship between a commander and his soldiers is an always has been one of the most potent single factors in making four success in war. If a commander has the complete confidence and trust of his men. There is nothing. He cannot do nothing. If a commander loses the confidence of his men he cannot succeed. That's a bold statement right there. That's a bold statement right there and something that I talk about all the time. And there's two there's two words that I use interchangeably. I should I should use them. More interchangeably more often. I talk about relationships a lot and the word that I should use intermix with that fifty percent of times trust because to me trust and relationships is kind of the same thing if you don't have trust you don't have relationship if you don't have relationship, then you don't have trust. But they do have different meanings. Right. So it's important to me to establish that. And the reason that I bring that up is because if you're in a leadership position, and you're breaking the trust that you have with your men that is going to be a real problem. So you could say well, you don't have a good relationship with them. But you could not have a good relationship with someone and they could still trust you you could not have a good relationship with someone and you hadn't broken their trust. It's going to be hard. If you break your trust to have a good relationship when but the. Key factor. Here is trust and confidence of the men. Back to the book. Now, let us consider on what a man's power to lead others is based is necessary. I to define one is meant by leadership. And this is where this gets a little interesting, I suggest to you as the definition of the word leadership the will to dominate together with the character, which which inspires confidence. The measure of a man's ability to lead, I think is twofold. So the first part of the definition of leadership in his mind is the will to dominate which is which is which is talk and you're going to see where he kinda counters that. And he talks about he talks decentralized command, he talks about everything that I believe in. But you know, I don't talk about. Hey as a leader. It's first and foremost that you have the will to dominate other humans. Right. That's that's not. In fact, I think it's a kind of a negative quality bought that being said. If you have someone that doesn't mind not winning not dominating wealth, and guess what? They're not gonna put forth any effort. They're not gonna make things happen. Like force of will. I talk about that all the time. You you have to you have to have the force of will to make things happen. Sometimes you just have to make things happen. They're not going to happen by themselves. Anything that's anything. That's gonna come. That's good in life. It's not gonna happen by itself. It's not gonna wake up, and it's they're like like an Easter egg. That's not happening. No. You gotta go out. And you got to make it happen. Okay. Maybe you get an Easter egg. When you're six years old. Once you're twenty six years old. There's no Easter eggs common to you know, you gotta make them correct. Back to the book. I it lies in his will to dominate the men and events which surround him the will to drive himself and his men to the limit of their powers for a specific purpose and the refusal to allow anything to divert him from his aim. Again, you're going to see where that sounds so strong. It sounds unbalanced. Right. It sounds. It. Sounds like he's outside the dichotomy of leadership. He's going too far in one direction being extreme like nothing, you're going to refuse to allow anything to divert you. Okay. So does that mean the menu get everyone killed? That's what they did in World War One. He didn't like that. But you're going to see where he balances out these statements later. Second lies in the strength of his character. Whether good or evil to inspire others to place their complete trust and confidence in him and his ability to lead them with success, and to enthuse his men for the task in hand this ability of a man to inspire confidence and others and to create enthusiasm is a spiritual quality. But it is not. But as well to remember that this quality need not necessarily be for good. The evil leader has equally the ability to inspire confidence and others and in history. The evil leader has often at any rate temporarily prevailed. And he counters that at the end to there have been many with differing with different types of characters character who have inspired men to fall them I propose to choose three great captains of the past. And examine briefly why these men were leaders and how they lead their men and how as leaders, they succeeded or fails. So he's going to go into a little case study a couple of pages here. I will I consider Moses. He was already old when he was called to lead the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. His task was an immense one he had first to inspire his people to cast off the yoke of the Egyptians. This was no easy matter. Israel had been living for about four hundred years as slaves of the Egyptians. They had lived in the Nile delta a bad climate in one which tends to sap up energy and initiative. But they lived where food was plenty ass- while all around were desert's, which could barely support life. Moses must have had to overcome. The most tremendous initial inertia to persuade Israel to launch out into those desert's with all the risks of famine disease and the necessity to fight his power to inspire and dominate his fellow men must have been of a very high order now. See that's where I I don't look at that as domination of your fellow, man. You're I look I see the inspiring part. But I'm not looking at. Hey, we were looking at dominate. I see his angle, right? I see I see where is coming from. But and maybe that word, you know, words, change words, morph morph overtime. Maybe that worked dominate that. He's using maybe maybe had less of a sting to it. Then you know, fifty years ago possibly having to sting. Seventy years words, change the words change over time. But. That's what he's saying. But things were kind of hardcore to write back, then you know, like longtime ago, they're just things in general where little bit more blunt. Yes. So maybe the. They were pretty sad even this time. Yeah. Yeah. I don't know. I'm not I'm not one hundred percent. Sure. I'm not one hundred percent. Sure. If he means the word dominate the way, we think of it. The way I think of it apparently not. I mean, it seems like there's a little bit more to it. I guess well when he count and you'll hear him counter. I guess that's what maybe makes me think. Maybe he means it a little bit less severe maybe because he starts to talk about the balance of this dichotomy because let's face it. Hey, okay. Let me ask you this question here. This is going to make it releasing if I was a type of person that was like, a I'm looking to dominate you come with me into the desert where we're going to have to live with his we're going away from the Nile river, and we're going out to this barren area where there's not a lot of food, and I'm going to have a domineering personality. And I'm gonna be all over you everyday. How enticing is that not very not very now if I was inspiring, and I said, listen echo. We're gonna you're out there. We're gonna train we're gonna come back. We're gonna get our revenge. It's going to take some time. But we're gonna make you like that. That's different right. Yeah. So yeah, you know, what? Now that I'm thinking that it would dominate like. Oh, what's the word of Dom? And you know, what it could be? Yeah. I should have studied the Molly before we got on this podcast. I apologize. You know, what it could be though picture when you have a good leader that dominates the room. Right. Right. Right. Yeah. How's it? If thing let's kit you? Yeah. You know echo came in for the meeting. He just dominated that. We're only did great. Right. That's a positive thing. So maybe he means it that way. Unfortunately, he talks about dominating the wheel of right? He talks about dominating the men and events that surround him. I don't know. Actually doesn't talk about dominating the will. So maybe that's what they mean. Maybe he means just like this dominating presence. All right going back to the book without a doubt, Moses realized that when he led Israel out of Egypt. They were useless as a fighting people they'd been slaves for some four hundred years. He therefore set to work to train them for the task and to forge the weapon, which would conquer Canaan. It's interesting. He talks about the training of armies as forging weapons forging his weapon. I think that's a pretty cool analogy, I believe that Moses intentionally kept Israel for forty years in the desert for two generations in order to breed and train a fighting race capable of undertaking. The task of conquest which lay at hand. And in that forty years he taught them gradually how to fight and conquer. He took meticulous care over their training. And it is most interesting to note his refusal ever to risk any failures into action. This is interesting, and he brings us up quite a bit. So Moses Moses didn't take any risk where he thought he might fail. We read of him soon after leaving Egypt asking if he might lead Israel through the country of another people on being refused permission. He marches round by another way. But later when the same situation arises when Israel is better trained to fight. He leads his people straight through the middle of that country and destroys his enemy utterly. He was a good judge of what Israel was capable of doing. And what Israel is not capable of doing. And as a result. He had an unbroken record of military successes. He had the wisdom and the insight into human nature to realize that the best way for leader to gain confidence of his soldiers is to give them victories. If a commander gives his soldiers victories. They will follow him anywhere. But Moses was not permitted to see the few fruits of his own work. He sinned by claiming as his own powers, which did not belong to him. And for this sin of presumption. He was forced to hand over to Joshua the final conquest of Canaan. For which he had so well trained, the children of Israel. So they're he wraps up on on Moses. I think and he kinda refers back to this point later in the in this book is the fact that you gotta be you gotta you gotta push for victory. Right. You gotta push for victory. And this is. It's almost like risk aversion, right, which I'm not a fan of and you can't be risk of of verse. But you've got to be calculated. Back to the book in the next section. He is going to talk about Cromwell. He just referred to him as Cromwell Oliver Cromwell Cromwell who was an an English. Statesman. But he was a soldier. This is like in the sixteen hundred sixteen twenty's he was a hardcore puritan and he organized military forces in the when the civil war broke out sixteen forty two. He was the deputy commander of the new model. Army he defeated the main royalist force in sixteen forty five. And then he commanded campaigns in Ireland and Scotland in the sixteen fifties. He was. He was kind of over the top. I guess you might say it's always eat. I mean beyond that he he mass. There's an Irish massacre, you know, in that spiraled into a war for of years. And an ultimately as a politician once he kind of got done with the war part. He became a politician. And he really didn't do a great job. So that's just some kind of highlights of Oliver Cromwell. But here we go back to the book. I next proposed. Consider Cromwell another leader who went to wage war only when he was over middle age. He was over forty when the civil war broke out. He started a civil war in command of a troop of sixty men and then commanded of that troupe. He fought at Edgehill there in spite of the parliamentary superiority in men and guns and a free fervently held. 'cause he saw the failure of his own side to seize the victory, and and he saw them escape defeat only because of the folly of their opponents this gave him much cause for thought. Superiority in men and equipment was clearly valueless unless something further was added MRs part, did I kinda got fired up for what was needed. Also, so besides guns. Good superiority in men superiority and quip -ment. What was needed? Also was the leader who would forge the weapon out of the enthusiastic material available and would then lead it with vigor and determination determination to achieve his military. And so once again, we're talking about what leader can take this good leader can forge a weapon from men. He saw to the nature of the weapon required, and how it could be forged. So he started to understand the the men as a weapon and how you could forge this weapon properly, and he set himself to task to the task of building a force after his own principles based on a high fighting spirit spirit. Good discipline and a sound knowledge of tactics. It was to be a force which would have have complete confidence in him as their commander. So this guy saw this situation where they almost got crushed the parliamentary forces were so disorganized that they couldn't even take advantage of it. And he saw okay. This is my opportunity, and those are great lessons of love it. When you learn the lesson that you didn't really have to pay for they'd happen. Sometimes happens in MMA. Sometimes we guy wins a fight because something you get lucky in the end, and you get home. We've got the w but we also got to learn a great a great lesson. Happen to in combat all the time you come back off and operation for man, if we would have gotten hit at this particular moment, we had security was down. We were not paying attention. We didn't have this flank covered. And by the grace of God, we didn't get contacted from that area. But we can't let that happen again. So sometimes you learn a lesson even though you didn't have to pay for it. And that's what it sounds like happened here back to the book he said about his task full. We are told on the furious zeal a fire in his belly which compelled him which compelled to others to follow him. He had complete confidence in his ability to gain success in war. He saw the way in which he had to train his men to fight and the few essentials which would ensure success provided his men had the right fighting spirit. Edge hill was fought in October sixteen forty two with Cromwell as a captain of a troop of horse sixty strong by January sixteen forty four. He was a Lieutenant General second in command of Manchester's army of the eastern counties. The leading cavalry commander on the parliamentary side and the one outstanding commander in the parliamentary army. So he made a rapid transition. Now, we'd gets into this on well was not a likable, man. He was quick tempered believed in rigid discipline and constant training. And he drove his men hard. But he believed with a blinding certainty in the righteousness of his 'cause he enthused his soldiers with its righteousness, and he was convinced of his own ability to succeed to achieve success in battle. This is one of those things where. You know, when you hear that people that Monty was a little bit. Like lack tact is one of those things where I think well, did he read this? He read about Cromwell and study crumble and say, well, look, no one like Cromwell who it's okay, you could still be a good leader. You don't have to be liked. In fact, Leif will tell the story. There was a guy that was was leaf was teaching a class two young seals. And there was a seal officer that would come in and say, you shouldn't be liked if you're in charge. They would sit in the back of the room and think to himself. He's this is not good because that's not true, not true. Now, it's probably true that what the guy was trying to say is listen, you're not always going to be popular for your goal. Should not be to be like, which I agree with. But to say, look, you're going to be hated by your troops. That's just the way. It is does wrong if you're headed by your troops. You probably doing something wrong. Yeah. And to say that if you're essentially the what the guy that leaves talking about if he's saying if you liked by your troops. You're doing something wrong. Yeah. That's true to what it feels like. So so I understand that fought as well. Like, hey, everyone loves me. I must be doing a good job. It's no actually if everyone just thinks you're there, buddy. That's problem. So that this may have been what this officer was trying to teach to the to the young officers that that lay was in charge of instructing. I'm sure he tried to was trying to say the right thing. Perhaps he wasn't articulating it one hundred percent in the most clear way with a guy. 'cause just so, hey, you're not going to be liked where officer true, not true and not good. If I have if I look at us he'll tune and the seal platoon doesn't like their officer does not a positive sign that does not mean. That guy's a good leader. Now is also not a good sign. If all the soup tune everyone loves him that doesn't mean it's good good platoon either. So you can be loved, but you're not doing a good job. You can be hated. And you can beat a good job at you're probably not gonna be able to pull off doing a good job. When guys like you. They're not going to put forth any real effort to to make. You look good is basically what they're doing. Yeah. At the end of the day, obviously seems like it's just not that cut in dry. No, you know, no. Back to the book and he did achieve success. He had no failures into the commander has a righteous cause and gives his soldier success. He will gain the complete confidence of his men. And then there is nothing. He cannot do. But the power. Which his prowess in the field had one for him led Cromwell to seize the reins of government for himself. He became impatient with the inefficiency methods inefficiency of the parliamentary government of those days. And he compared it unfavourably with his own ability as a soldier to give a media decision and to see it take shape at once in action. So he took over the government anyone thinks to move real quick. But unfortunately. But as in battle, he had been sure of the correct course of action so in the political field he was on many occasions uncertain and perplexed during the period in which he ruled England he tried out five different systems of government and all failed. And at the end, he was governing alone and much more absolutely than ever Charles had attempted to rule internally he tax that people more highly any disregarded parliament more brazenly than Charles never done, and he interfered with the personal liberty more Toronto Asli. In Ireland, also his harsh and cruel policy left a lasting hatred, which the centuries have not quenched, but his rule was not wholly unproductive. He made the fighting, sir. So he did accomplish one thing he made the fighting services the finest in the world, and he gained for England of voice in the affairs of Europe such as England had never had before. So he was not a good government to leader. Many of his triumphs abroad were transient in ABS in a unsubstantial and much that he attempted at home disappeared when he died, but his work for the navy and its initial steps toward the creation of an empire planted a foundation from which much has grown so. He got a good impact on the military, but his governmental his governmental leading abilities or all that strong. The third grade captain, I suppose to I propose to consider is Napoleon a leader driven by selfish and evil. Ambition is interesting. And not like the other two in pursuit of a great ideal. Unlike the other two he was a soldier by profession trained from his youth in the profession of arms, even as a very young boy in a military academy. He was clearly a leader he wished to dominate and he did dominate his fellow men there. It is not when sounds a little stronger that's a little bit more like what I think of dominate. Again, unlike the other two heroes at a very early age to a high and independent command at the age of twenty six he took command of the army of Italy and army inferior numbers and equipment to its opponents and semi muteness from latte lack of pay yet within a year with is inferior weapon, which he reforge to his liking. He fought brilliantly brilliantly successful campaign in northern Italy. And imposed piece on his enemy. I liked that imposed piece on his enemies. From the moment of his arrival with his army. He dominated his troops both generals and soldiers and inspired them with confidence in his ability to give them success of that ability. He himself had never any doubt. And in his own self confidence lay much of his power to inspire confidence and others behind this dominating self-confidence, however, lay Napoleon's ability to see in any military problem. The few essentials on which success would depend. He had the great power to simplify any problem. And to see what details were important, and which were unimportant. There you go. That's prioritizing execute and it's simple both in one big rule. Right. You gotta know what's important. You got to prioritize the importance things, and you got to keep everything simple. I got I got an Email from Sarah Armstrong. Sure. Talking about podcast one seventy four trying to be a five. Oh, trying to be a five oh in all categories in. She basically emailed me and said, hey heads up. I used to try and be a five oh in every category. Even in categories that didn't matter. So that, you know, give people heads up, and I was like well. Yeah. I mean, I've talked about I've talked about that. I talk about it with clients all the time. But I talk about on the podcast swell. When specifically I talked about it saying, I don't know if you remember, this example, I said a black belt in jujitsu like they don't care you're grabbing their sleeve, and you're getting all crazy. They don't care that doesn't matter. If you're a white belt. Someone grabs your sleeve, you're freaking out meal. But if you're if you're a black belts like, okay, if you're a good leader. And there's some some some issue that guys are complaining about snow factor. Don't care. And then there's some issues that come up to you. Okay. That's important. I need to address that. So this is what he had the ability to do. What is essential? And what is not? Yeah. And that's that can be kind of a tricky one because you know, some some things are super small super small, but at the end of the day that might be kinda important. Yes. You know, like you can sort of predict you're like, hey, that's small. Sure, fry could see that like continuing and growing, you know, for sure I'm thinking all you have to do is monitor it two dozen grow. Sometimes you have to put in check for sure sometimes you have to destroy something you remove it. And she'll it. Sometimes you can't worry about it. Because it's not important. It's you gotta figure which one of those out like if your employees say, you're a boss. Your employees comes in one minute late. Let's say comes in on time every single time like, but right now he has to get there at six six on the dot every single day. And then like one week on Monday comes in at six one. That'd be problem. One day. No. It's not a problem. You you might wanna throw a little Matt. Right. Little something. It's not nothing yet. The so little something. That's right. You know, you might say something like along this to I'd say. See what happens when you cut it? So close every day, you're already a little you missed it by a minute, bro. Exactly. Right. That's throw a little little just let them know. You're watching. Yeah. Just like you said like some things teeny. But I'm not gonna give am I gonna give it due to written counseling because they were one minute late. No, right. 'cause the guys looking for different jobs somewhere 'cause he doesn't wanna work from day spas. But at the same time he's at six so one he's like cool. The next day. He comes in at six o'clock. We'll say next day. Then the next Monday comes in at six to two now. It's just one more minute, right? Got to put it in check. Yes. So you just a little something. Same lake some things they seem small, but you keep take a broader view like, hey, kinda important. Yeah. This is goes back to the troop shaving in the Soviet troops stopping shaving this is it does this lip Reese lope of a lack of disarray slip. Yeah. But I can tell you this if you're focused only on these little things, you might miss the big picture, which was Sarah's point if and I responded, I said, hey, I totally agreed with her talked about some of the bell thing. And then the boss thing. And then I was like n by the way because this is something I've talked about. The floor in my garage. Jim is not clean. It. It gets a two point. Oh on cleanliness Ottawa. Outta what five out of five? Maybe even gets a one. I think one. Maybe it's not bad. However, however, it gets like a one point five because it's not it's it's not it doesn't have actual dirt on it. Right. It's just got speaking. It's just got a chalk and sweat stains. Yeah. Dried up utility, nothing lead glass. And you and I said it would take twenty minutes to a half an hour each day to keep that thing at a five point. Oh inspection ready level because what you've got to get in there space, basically power-wash that thing daily. That's where you're at. So I'm not power-washing that thing daily. Why don't it? Why is it? Why is it not clean? Not important. Do I I have I actually have a vacuum in my garage that I. It with sometimes I hit it every two three days. That's a lot different than breaking out than than pulling the mats out power-washing him in the alley and then bringing them back in. That's a that's not even half an hour. That's like a that's a serious. Evolution. That's a serious evolution. So is it worth being a five point? Oh in Matt cleanliness garage. Jim the answer is no they answer is. No, it's not worth it need to lower that on the priority scale. Now, do I have big chunks of dirt. And and dog hair piled up and debris. No, it's completely debris free. But there are some sweat stains on it has been there are the remnants of getting after sir, right? Which is kind of conducive can be weight is. The standard. Then generally speaking, not just an application to your garage gym floor to like everything it's like little things. I mean, just the basic little little framework to establish depends on the thing. Yes. So but what so you can go. So you go fundamentally then so what is it like if it if it gets in the way, even if this much if this little millimeter gets in the way of the overall objective, then it's relevant important. Well, no, then we just have to frame it. So that we're not whether we frame it as a waste of time like how much effort or you're gonna put into that. No. If it's not if it doesn't get in the way, if it no if it gets in the way, then I'm putting too much time. If it gets in the way of my strategic goal, it's to bump putting too much time into okay if solving this problem out. Yes. Yes. Okay. Okay. But the existing of a small little problem if it's if it's get gets in the way. So like, then it's a problem. Right. That one hundred percent. Yeah. So if. Like like the guy coming in late. Right. Let's see all my garage floor. There was chunks of rocks underneath the mat-su, and they made it uneven, and it was like slightly hazardous for me to be moving around on it and it interrupted in my weight's rolled around. That'd be problem is it's it's affecting my strategic goal was mats are getting picked up. The rocks are getting moved the floors getting leveled in order to go. Yeah. On the on this levelness, my Matt's get a five oh, perfectly flat. They're good to go. There. Do not interfere at all. But they got some getting after it stains on them. It is. Okay. Going back to the book having grasp the essentials of the problem and having inspired his soldiers with confidence in himself and with high morale he knew he could not fail. Napoleon? However was always as much politician as a soldier. He had a great love of intrigue and of diplomatic bargaining and his contempt for his fellow men and his passion to dominate them and events led him to aspire to greater things. From the time he became first consul political rather than military factors influenced his decisions and his failure to reconcile his political aspirations with what was militarily possible finally led him to the disasters of Moscow and the peninsula from which no recovery was possible. Started playing that political game started making his military decisions based on what he wanted to happen politically. Now, what did these three men Moses Cromwell and the Polian have in common without which they would have not achieved success, the most outstanding similarity was that they dominated their fellow men. They were all supremely confident that they could. And would do what they set out to do. It was quite simple to them quite easy. And success was absolutely certain this certainty gave them each the power to inspire others to follow blindly and to the limit of their strength and this inspiration and power to enthuse others immeasurably increased the power of their forces to achieve whatever was asked them. That's called confidence right there. That's what that is pure confidence. Isn't it? Isn't it? Interesting. When you see someone that's Oltra confident, and like, not not not even overflowing into ego. But they're just really really confident and. And p people follow people will will be like, okay. I'm on board this this. This person's in the game. They believe it. Unbelie I believe it do. You know, I've seen situations where people are so confident that people are falling even though the wrong, you get you get that occasionally with a with a seal platoon. You get some experience guy that was super confident. And he actually wasn't that good or didn't really understand tactics to well. Age knows what we're doing. Yeah. He knows I've done this million times. That's it's an old, by the way. That's a red flag. When somebody when somebody counts on their number of times or their experience. And that's the way we've always done it. I've done this million times. That's a red flag. The reason that they're using those statements is because they don't have an actual answer. So one of the new guys. Hey, hey, Bassem. I'm not really sure why we'd why are we assaulting through the target from this area over here when it make more sense to and he goes, oh, look a million times is our doing it. He just think yourself so you don't have an actual answering. You don't have an answer as to why you're you're just throwing that out there as a easiest thing for you to do. So if you ever find yourself saying because this is how we. Always done it. Or look I've been doing this for twenty eight years. Yeah. Yeah. And you know, you you don't have a good answer. You're all that could work against you to be honest with the been doing this for twenty eight years, and then like that day the person figures out a way better way of doing like dang Bo you've been wasting your time for twenty eight years. Yeah. Yeah. It could definitely work out bad. It could work out bad because you're not listening to anyone else you're not taking input. And then you end up making a bad decision. From what did these men get their supreme confidence in their ability to achieve their purpose in battle? I think they got it from their ability to see their problem in its simplest form. I totally agree with that to see the few essentials necessary to the successful solution of the problem. And to see how those fuel essentials could be achieved. This is why. So I I I'm always talking about qualities of leadership the ability to simplify I'm sure you've heard me say this a thousand times if you have the ability to simplify things that's a great asset to have a not everyone has it or not everyone has the same level of it. Some people are good at it. Some people not so much some people just straight up complicate things. Once they grasped the essentials of the problem. They never lost sight of them and never allowed a massive detail to submerge what was essential to success poem. Don't get caught up in the little details of things that don't let those things drown out. What the real situation is. For all military problems are in essence simple, but the ability to simplify and to select out of the massive detail, those things and only those things that are important is not always so easy. So. To keep things simple. Each of these men had the power to dominate other men spirits to inspire their enthusiasm and to convince them of their own ability to achieve what was asked of them. This moving of men spirits this power to ensues could only be done and was only done by their personal contact with their men all my three examples were in close and frequent contact with their troops. They were well known familiarly known to them and took frequent opportunities of talking to their men. So again, this is where that the thing. I I spoke of earlier words like he kinda he kinda comes back on a you gotta be this dominating. For somebody's talking about you got to get out there and talk to your troops. You gotta be really truly personally known to them. Napoleon Cromwell certainly in very possibly Moses too were known to their men by nicknames and used this familiarity to help their purpose at the same time. Each of these leaders knew well what the soldier was thinking. And what he wanted most. And they made always careful study of the human factor. Now, it's interesting because. You know, Monte, he's known as Monte everybody called him Monty, and that's his nickname and that low breeds a little familiarity, and like I stole naming a unit renaming a unit when you took it over I stole that from David Hackworth. I wonder if CRA I wonder if Monte stole this nickname idea and gave himself that nickname right pack worth took it from Monte. Well, no Hackworth. Well, actually gets Hackworth everyone just called hack hack. Hey, everyone called me Jaakko like everyone. It's funny. Someone said everyone in the chain of command. The people below me in the chain of command. Call me Jaakko in the people above me, the chain of command called me jock, Oklahoma Jaakko. So that that was kind of cool. But it was just like coincidence. I don't even know why. But. Hackworth? He didn't really I don't think Hackworth gave himself a nickname. Yeah. Let's face it, the Hackworth other than Hackworth in as as general muka Yama told us he had the best nickname of all time, Mr. infantry. That's the coolest nickname ever. Considered a nickname. I think it's short for your get is. Yeah, there are certain names that have an official shortening of you know, like Richard and Rick or Jonathan on Robert and Bob, Bob. Yes. Exactly. Kill William and Bill. Okay. So what hack is unofficial right? It's unofficial. So it's sort of it goes into the realm of actual nickname got just shortening of the name. Yeah. That's the, but I I think I we can research this all it's not coming to me off the top of my head. But pretty sure everyone called hack hack like up and down the chain of command. Although his soldiers back in the day, probably called him, sir. That's more normal for Vietnam. Dang, cutting engineer nickname, no free. So you can't do that. We can't give your nickname to yourself. No. But you can I'm sure there has to be a way to sorta engineer the environment. You could say, hey, how's it going? But isn't that? I mean, if you would have to be established before that if you just start like if I just start saying, hey, I'm dragging nowhere. If you check into a military unit or no one knew you. And you're like, hey, what's up on dragging boy? But that was no that wouldn't work. No. If you said, hey, my my name is, you know, frag mob or whatever. These made up your dick name, all guys. Call me that. Yeah. I went one time. I hooked grenade. It rolled back in you know, yet. True, though. Like that means problem, if look if you hooked a grenade in a thing and someone called you fat mom from then then on then boom, someone give you that nickname Hucker grenade. It does whatever it is. That doesn't what? You know, you can't really do that. No, nickname yourself. No. So even if you introduce yourself if no one knows you introduce yourself. Okay. I'm dragging boy. But I just gave that name to myself today. And but and they sure they'll call you dragging boy. But if one person finds out, oh, you just gave yourself. Oh, yeah. Yes, sir. Real. So how do you do it though down near you? Don't you just gotta let it. That's what I think is important. What's important here is that familiarity is an ally the familiarity is real yes, that's the difference. I know how you doing how it's not. It's not one hundred percent, you it's more allowing nicknames to be seen on like, you know, some people their name. I don't know for just for example. Hypothetically exemple like, let's say, hey, my name's Jonathan and then you know, in a casual conversation. Hey, John what's up done in? Then they'll be like, hey, it's like, no disrespect it. But it's Jonathan like they put the whole thing. Maybe the John's Mormon official one. But like if Hackworth would've said, hey, it's it's Hackworth not hack, then he probably wouldn't have the name hack. It's true. So when someone bus out nickname for you, you just gotta let it fly. Well, I'll tell you in the teams when they bust out a nickname for you. If you protested it's gonna stick even there you go. So you could essentially in theory fake activity protests. Exactly, right. They'd see right through that. Yeah. We're different again. Now Jag ass. You gotta be sneaky with it. I guess all right. Okay. Back to the book if a leader neglects the human factor he will fail. No man can lead others. If he does not know what they are thinking and feeling so again. We got Monte here who kind of talks like he's all aloof and everything, but he knows you gotta know your people, then you gotta understand people. And then he goes on a little shift here. No leader. However, great can can can long continue unless he wins victories without victories in battle. All else is useless to what then is success in battle do in his great study of Marlboro. Mr. Winston Churchill says, very truly. And so here's a little quote from Winston Churchill, and this is interesting. He's talking about the Duke of Marlborough who was. A another guy in the sixteen hundreds at fought in the war of Spanish succession, this guy. Never lost a battle. Apparently, an interesting use the Duke of Marlborough, but his actual name was John Churchill in. He is actually I wanna say the great great baby. Great. Grandfather of Winston Churchill. So this is Winston Churchill's blood died. And is what Winston Churchill says about his great great. However, many great grandfathers, and I think that's right. The success of a commander does not arise from following rules or models that doesn't come from following rules or models. It consists in an absolutely new comprehension of the dominant facts of the situation at a time and all the forces at work. Every great operation of war is unique. What is wanted is a profound appreciation of the actual event. There is no sure road to disaster than to imitate imitate, the plans of bygone heroes and to fit them to novel situations. So there you go. This ability to to absolutely comprehend this new situation and to not try and force not try and force a rule or a model to to work for you in a certain situation. Back to the book. This indeed is true for a no war for in war. No two situations are ever the same. And each situation must be tackled. As a wholly new problem to which there will likely be a wholly new answer, you need only to look at the beginning of this war. And to and through the trust putting the magic no line here. Indeed. Was there a failure to appreciate the new and change technique which had risen and one which rendered such fortifications in themselves. Wholly useless. To win victories, certain qualities are necessary. And I will mention four which were possessed in greater or less by all the great captains of history. These are the knowledge of the technique of making war. So that's interesting because Churchill just said, look, it's not using this previous knowledge, you gotta be able to apply it what at the same time. Guess what you've gotta have the knowledge of the technique of making war next to the ability to see clearly the few essentials that are important to success, next, courage and mental robustness and lastly, a well balanced judgment. He kind of goes through these and a little bit more detail now. The manner in which war is waged varies from age to age. And with the advent of each new weapon, it is a constantly changing constantly evolving thing, he who aspires to high command in war. Must thoroughly understand the main principles, which will dictate the manner in which the battle of the of his age will be fought. He also must be constantly on the watch for new ideas or weapons which will affect those principles the speed of change in military science during time of pieces often slow and many have consequently allowed themselves to be lulled into false sense security, which has been rudely shattered on the outbreak of war. So guess what you've got to have open mind. And you've got to pay attention. The knowledge of how to make war also implies the ability to train troops. Every great commander has himself had to forge his weapon for the task in front of him. Moses, led the people of Israel for forty years in the desert teaching them how to fight and he forged the weapon to conquer Canaan. So also Cromwell and Napoleon they forged their own weapon for the specific task in hand. Improvising and inventing as they went along. So as to develop new tactics to deal with the new problems with which in their day. They were faced. So got to study war. You've got understand how to train your troops. Continuing on. No man can be a great military leader unless he has the ability to cut through overlying difficulties indices, clearly the few essentials in any problem which with which he is faced in any problem. There are never more than a few essentials which are vital to that problem. That's a pretty bold statement. And it's also pretty true. If these big problems, guess what there's only a few things that are truly essential now as you solve the first couple of central ones. There's going to be the next essential problem. This is prioritized next cue and kind of simple to yes. Like, they're both wrapped together in this thought. These must be grasped out of the massive details and must never be lost sight of if in battle a commander loses sight of the few essentials that matter he will suffer defeat. So when you're getting distracted by these other things you're going to end up losing. But to see the essentials, clearly he must not himself get to immersed in detail. Every great commanders had a chief of staff whose main task was the mastery of detail, thus leaving his master free to tackle essentials of the problem together with those details and only though those details which were vital that problem. Boom. That's it. You cannot get in the weeds. You cannot micromanage. You cannot look at a plan all day and expect that you're gonna see something that your troops. Didn't see who are doing the planning you need to step back. You need to elevate yourself. For though, there is much detail in which the. For though, there is much detail with which a commander cannot and must not bother himself is interesting to note that every great commander has always concerned himself with certain of the details of his problems. Napoleon and Wellington are too. Good cases in point, no man can rise to a high command who is not the quality of courage. The highest form of personal courage is required. Rather in the leader at the lower level who has to plunge into the turmoil of the battlefield so. Yeah. If you're in the front line troops, you need even more courage leader at the higher levels has develop his quality of courage into a mental robustness, which can withstand the mental stress and strain with which he will be assailed. He must at all times. He must be able at all times to take a dispassionate view of the good and bad fortune, which will assail him. Breed that one again, he must be able at all times to take a dispassionate view of the good and bad fortune, which will assail so get bad. Things are gonna happen. Good. Things are going to happen. Don't get all excited when you get all excited. You got to be dispatched, and you've got to detach. You can't let your emotion start getting crazy. You have to detach. He must not allow himself to be distracted by events or to be led astray from his main purpose by some glittering prize. He must at all times, maintain an unbiased view of the situation and in battle. He must be able to judge the true value of the mass of good and bad tidings, which will flow upon him. Stay detached stay level headed by does. That of like when like, you know, how you get the the husband or the boyfriend or whatever that like, you know, does something bad. I don't know flirts with a girl or something like that girl. Girlfriends all mad, and then so the guy goes in buys her like, a necklace, you know, to say sorry can like that. Right. Where don't get all caught up in the glittery stuff because you know. No, that's not what. This is like this echoes saving up to buy a house in any saving up. And he's like, okay. I saved, you know, eight hundred bucks last month twelve hundred bucks this month, save nine hundred bucks this month. And all of a sudden, you see a a new car with rooms in in with has rims. You can get it. You can lease it in all you need to lease. It is. You know, four thousand dollars MU and you like know what how many? As the shiny new thing that just took you off your main goal. Yes, does has nothing to do with girlfriends. So by necklaces Perron. Perron? I think yours is a better example for I think, so here's wasn't even an example, you missed the point. Okay. I'm trying to think of where it would be. Oh, yeah. I mean, so if you're gonna talk like a girl that was saving for a house, and then she's all cool necklace. That would have been a good example. Let the flirting girl with the distraction from the boyfriend. No, that's that's. Here's Hollywood trying to connect the dots on though. Her mission is to evaluate whether or not there's the good boyfriend straight up the and then so the boyfriend he does some stuff that's fundamentally bad cheat center. I dunno whatever. And then, you know, so she's sort on that mission. She's sort of making the evaluation, then boom, she gets distracted by the sparkling necklace. Boom. She goes back to them, blah, blah, blah. Saint still bad. I'm not quite not quite I mean, good good effort. Good effort. Moving on every battle resolves itself. Into a toss up between the wills of the two opposing commanders unless he is mentally robust. A commander will not be able to force his will on his opponent. It is well for a commander to remember that no battle was ever lost until the commander thought it. So. No battle was ever lost until the commander fought it. So. A commander must have a well balanced judgment to balance the dichotomies here both from the battle situation and in his dealings with his subordinates. This is straight up dichotomy leadership. He must okay now, he must see the battle situation as constantly shifting interplay of forces. And he must instinctively know when to be rash and win to be cautious. Boom. That'd be balanced. He must weigh up the situation both at the moment, and as it may develop in the future, and he must so fight his battle that the enemies. Reactions cannot upset his plan. And although he's trying to force his will on his opponent. A commander must know. Wind discretion is the better part of valor his desire to dominate his opponent must not outweigh his judgment of the actual possibilities of the situation. Yeah. Yes. You got to be aggressive. But you can't be foolhardy. That's what we're saying here. This is the dichotomy of leadership his judgment must always be well balanced. And if it is so and if he has good information on which to base, it he can so force the battle his way that the enemy will be forced to conform. He will. In fact, have wrested the initiative from the enemy. In his dealings with his subordinates. He will also require good Jit, judgment and sound knowledge of human nature. He must choose his subordinates. Well, those with whom he is in frequent contact his senior generals must know personally. He must know personally. And well, he must be able to judge when to drive and win to persuade when to be stern when to give praise for all men are different in each requires handling it a different way. So right there. He just talked about the dichotomy leadership. Right. When Dr in winter persuade when to be stern when the be give praise gotta balance those dichotomies, the three leaders whom I have concerned considered succeeded so long as they kept in their mind. They're clear military, purpose and were not deflected from it by any other considerations. But there is always the danger that other and especially political considerations will be forced will force the hand of the soldier and lead to some action, which is militarily unwise. Many battles have been fought for political and not for military reasons, and these have been the graveyard of many a soldier's reputation. The soldier is the servant of the statesman, and is therefore bound to be subject to political pressure. He must be strong enough to resist such pressure whenever it conflicts with his clear military purpose. Few statesmen will force the hand of the soldier the soldier very bluntly says if I fight as you wish me to fight I shall lose the battle if I fight in my own way, and in my own time, I shall win the battle. So there you go. That's what you gotta do. You gotta call it. Like, you see it. But the soldier must be prepared to be very blunt, and he must be prepared to stake. It's whole reputation on successive, given adequate resources and a free hand. And he also must be prepared to be very firm and to refuse to be forced to do something which he considers is not capable of being done. So there you have it fueled think something can be done. It's your moral obligation to say, no. And of course, you have to weigh that with the fact that if you don't do it someone else might and they might cause even more damage. So you have to weigh that that conundrum. Back to the book in history. The military leaders frequently been tempted and as frequently succumbed to the temptation to aspire to political leadership. The whole training and experience of the soldier makes him less rather than more fitted to be a politician to this is this is an interesting contrast the soldiers trained to take direct action down certain well-defined blinds and has in his hand military machine which responds immediately and with precision to his touch the politician is trained in subtlety in debate in weighing up the conflicting interests of his supporters, and usually has to compromise the governmental machine is much less precise. And exact than the military and is not as rapid in action. Even in highly skilled political hands. Now in war if commander compromises on essentials. He fails. Furthermore, the time factor forces the commander in the field to adopt the best expedient in the time available, which is usually short the politician on the other hand is seldom forced to give an immediate decision rather. He delays in order to find out the right an accurate answer, and he avoids any temporary expedient. One seizes time by the four lock in the best expedient the other procrastinates in order to ensure that what he does is exactly right now. I think you I think this gets taken to the extreme in both cases. Could you actually even as a military leader you wanna away and make sure you're you wanna you wanna wait long enough to make sure you're making a good decision. And I think in the political world they go to the stream of they're just going to never make a decision. I'm gonna make a change. Therefore leader who is primarily a soldier when he meddles with politics loses his clear and simple military purpose. He no longer sees the essentials. He is at sea in a political world. We read that Cromwell in politics was muddled and perplexed working slowly in deviously to a policy, which he did not clearly see. And again that he was confused and distracted. So though, he kept the political power in his own hands during his lifetime much of what he built fell to pieces the moment he died. So also Napoleon as long as his military purpose was uppermost in his mind, he succeeded, but when political considerations dominated his policy the desire to impose his will on Europe led him to undertake military operations, which it was beyond his power to achieve. The qualities required by a soldier. And by politician are in fact, almost at opposite poles and only a few men in history of possessed both kinds of qualities there have not been many soldiers who have made good politic. Politicians, nor many politicians who have made great soldiers. Now, the only thing I'll say is that being in the military is very political. And you even in this time, I I'm not gonna make any distinction that oh, it's more political. Now, it's not the old Mugabe old books about World War, Two all kinds of politics. Politics. Politics going on inside the chain of command. So Adam, I'm not sure why he the much. Sure why he he sees that great distinction between you know, there being. No like, there's no political things. No political games being played in the military. There certainly is certainly is. And there always has been and always will be it's a group of people then group people are going to do the little political maneuvers look out for themselves. They're gonna try and make this happen. And you know, that's that's they're going to have an agenda. You gotta learn how to negotiate those politics. Whether you're in the military, whether you're in the civilian sector doesn't matter. Before we leave the past. It is. I think interesting to note that great military leaders have on the whole been few. There have been many generals of good average ability, but few who were really great in the study of those who are great. It is interesting to note two things I required a war to produce them second that a number of them prove their greatness after a very short apprenticeship this suggests that the art of war at any rate in the past though less so now is a relatively simple art, and that the qualities which make a great commander are inherent rather than acquired interesting. He's a little bit more saying, hey, you kinda born with it the character and more especially the will to dominate and lead his fellow men is given to few but given that power to lead the ability to gain success in war can be acquired. So you can get better at it. A man may, cultivate, the qualities of a great beater provided that he has inherited him in sufficient degree the character and the will to dominate. But unless he has those inherent characteristics. He will never become a great leader, however long. He studies the art or the craft of war. Is one of the phenomena of military history that events invariably produce the man age has little or nothing to do with it. The opportunity may come sooner to some later to others Napoleon was twenty seven we conquered northern Italy. Wolf was thirty four when he captured Quebec at the end at the other end of the scale Marlboro was fifty two when he first rose to a high and independent command. An Abercrombie conducted a short, but brilliant campaign in Egypt at the age of sixty eight at the end of a long lifetime in the careers of great generals. There's always been this aspect of chance opportunity comes at different ages. And in different circumstances. Some have been luckier than others some perhaps never had the opportunity to prove their ability. So that's where he wraps up so much for the lessons of history today. The problems of military leadership are much the same as they always have been I propose to tell you. Now, some of the things that have guided me in leading armies which have been entrusted to my command. I would say I that a leader must very clearly know what he wants himself. He must see his objective, clearly and must go all out for it. He must let everyone else know what he wants. And what are the basic fundamentals of his policy? He must in fact, give firm guidance and a clear lead. It will be necessary for him to create what I call atmosphere and in that atmosphere, his subordinate commanders and troops will live and work to do this. He will have to take a very firm grip on his military machine. From the top only in this way. We'll his force acquire balance and cohesion and so develop its full fighting potential history has many examples of a lack of grip being taken by a commander with the result that he failed to develop the power of which is forced with Cape was capable. And so met disaster. Sweep gun. This is Monte. You gotta take that firm grip. And again, it's very strange because he comes off so strong like that. But here we go. He's gonna counter it right here. Having laid down the basic fundamentals of his policy. A commander must complete must place complete trust in his subordinates and must give them freedom to carry out that policy within the framework, which he is laid down. So this decentralized command? He must be prepared to decentralize and to trust his subordinates to use their own initiative on all matters of detail ever. Listen to that. Don't worry about the details. The commander of selfless stand back from the detail. So we can see clearly the essentials of his problem and make sure that the correct action is being taken on those essentials if ever commander allows himself to become too greatly immersed in the unimportant details of any problem. He will fail to see the essentials clearly detach stake. A step back elevate yourself. It is obvious that he must be a good judge of men and a good chooser of subordinates. He must also have the drive to get things done. No commander will long remain in the first rank unless he achieves success. The biggest single factor for making success in war is morale. A high morale is based on discipline self respect and the confidence of the soldier in his commanders in his weapons. It is a Pearl a very great price and without it. No success. In battle will be achieved. A high morale is in fact, a measure of the confidence of troops of their commander. That's an interesting point. Right. How do you have high morale? It's a measurement of how confident the troops are. So when the when when the troops are confident or the or the employees are confident in the boss morale is high when they're not confident morale is low and by the way with low morale, you're not winning. Continuing on. There is no book of rules, which will help commander to gain the complete trust and confidence of his men. Each commander will adopt his own methods and say the ones best suited to his own personality. Suffice it to say that he must be known must be known personally to them. And that's success. In battle will produce quick results. All soldiers will follow a successful general. No commander, however will gain the confidence of his troops unless he is known and well known to them they must often see him. And if possible hear him, speak, a commander should take every opportunity of talking to his officers and men it will repay him. According to his worth gotta get out there and talk to the troops. There are other factors also which have a big effect on morale. The home front. And the battle on the front nowadays are as as never before very closely linked to gotta gotta keep that morale up. You gotta make sure everything's going. Good on the home front as th-. Imagine. What it's linked like now, this is what he's talking about World War Two World War Two. Hey, we're very closely linked because I can write a letter that's going to get to my wife nine weeks from now right now, we got brothers on Facebook live. Knightley? Continue on just success is a great stimulus to morale. So nothing lowers morale. So quickly as failure. Therefore, there must be no failures great and lasting harm can be done to morale by undertaking operations for which the troops. Concerned are not ready are or trained in which they are likely to end in failure. I have therefore made it a rule to limit the scope of any operation to what can be achieved successfully. So again, the sound super risk averse and. That's that's that is, hey, I'm not going to do anything that. I don't know we can achieve it. Then again, how often do you want to be rolling the dice Wh-why, not say, you know, what? Well, let's give it another month. Let's train a little bit more. What do we have to do this right now, you know? And I certainly think that there's times when you have to take risk, and you're going to do some things that maybe you don't know if you can get away with in. There can be times where you're forced into that position as well like year being attacked, and hey, we can I'm not sure if a flag is going to work, but we can either sit here and get attacked and get flanked by them or we can go and flank ourselves like, let's let's go make this happen. So I think we need to make sure we don't take that route that comment to the extreme because that can be a bit much, but considerate, considerate, deeply. And I think probably the reason why this this is probably one of those points where you know, he said in the beginning of this. He made the premise that. That, hey, this is a this is this is for army command, right, or at least divisional command. We're talking you're in charge of ten thousand people. Or more. So what he's saying? Maybe I guess it becomes more acceptable of a rule. You don't wanna risk ten thousand. You don't want to risk an entire arm. Your entire division on something that you may. Or may not be successful at right? Maybe we need to reassess. If we're not sure we can make this happen. Maybe we need to reassess. If we're going to go forward or not. Another thing that today has a big effect. On morale is the standard of medical care. Which soldiers can expect. So you got that. And then we get to a commander must make a very close study of human nature, the raw material with which he has to deal are men, and it is important to remember that all men are different. What a commander makes of the human material at his disposal will depend entirely on himself. I have found that every division which has fought under. My command has added different characteristics. Each division was good at a different type of battle. And it is vital that the commanders should gauge what type of battle is best at and make sure that each division is at the right point when required. So even in the quote, uniformity of the military, the half differences, they're human beings, and those those differences are reflected through whole units. The difference between divisions is based partly on the individual individuality of the commander of the division and partly on the type of men of whom the division is composed. I found for instance, that some divisions were outstandingly good at the breakthrough attack. But we're not so good at the deliberate set piece affair. Some divisions were best at night some by day for a solid killing match certain types of men were better than others. And so on. Each division develops in individuality of its own which I consider a high commander. Must study. I was in the airport, and I ran into a dude from South Africa who is in the game kind of big time and. He was talking about he sits gas. I can't do it on their accent. But he was saying that he had he worked construction he was a construction guy and he had a crew and he gave his crew a name. I should have asked him what the name of the crew was. But I didn't. But I'm sure they gave him he gave them some kind of name. And he was like he was just sold pumped. And he goes, I read it in Hackworth to and then I I did it could you did it. And he goes it really worked made. It was all fired up could you can change the personality of something you could change the the personality of a unit like that. You can do it works. In the same way all generals differ in must be selected for the job in hand. No, two jobs. No to problems wherever the same in the character of the job must be matched to that of the commander selected to undertake it one of the most important functions of a commander in ward is to make sure that he has the right man in the right place to tackle the job in hand. So think about that when you're in charge of a team when you're in charge of a business one of the most important things that you do is put the right people in the right job. Some people are sensitive to that. You know? So when I'm like, hey, hey, Bill. I'm not giving you this off. I'm giving it to echo in Bill gets mad and frustrating. These things echo doesn't deserve it, man. We got to have a good enough relationship and trust that when I say, hey, build this ops. Not for you. I'm giving it to echo that. He goes. Okay. Cool. Let me know what's coming down the pilot. You know, what I can get ready for let me know how can support. Yeah. That number remember the movie major league, Charlie Sheen. Come on yet. I remember the I don't think I ever sat through that whole movie. Oh, actually, you know, what I think I asked you that before I think you said the same thing. So there's a spart where it Casal, Charlie Sheen. Right. He got his glasses. He oh, yeah thousand we were talking about last time. So as far as major league goes the movie major league, still, Charlie Sheen. He had all this crazy power in speed in his fastball. But no, control control. Then they find out whatever he can't see that good. They give them some glasses. He brings it all together. They start winning on this stuff. Right. So he's starting the other guy who was starting before him seems Harris older guy. But you know, the basically the more like he's consistent. He's not like legit like, Charlie Sheen. But he's consistent, you know. So they're about to play the fast forward. They're about to play the game keys and rain in the big game or the series. It's like this big deal. So the general manager Lou calls, Charlie Sheen. What was his name in the movie, Charlie Sheen? Doesn't matter doesn't matter. Anyway, calls Charlie Sheen to the back of the bus. And he's like, hey. I'm going to start Harris against the ANC. He's he just has a better reputation against them. And, you know, more more experience whatever, and then Charlie Sheen was like, yeah. In whatever's best for the team, and he left, and they'll sort it. So he was good with it. Now, the movie goes on and he's not good with it. He expressed himself like he was good with it. And he said the right things. But later on he goes on like goes drinking by himself or something then he winds up hooking up with like one of his teammates wife in those. That's a whole nother story though. Don't actually care about any of this. But. That part one. That's name Wild Thing. Rick one Fago but same deal though. Right. You gotta get the right guy. Yes. And of course, he nailed it. Even harass. You know, he does. Okay. You know? And then they bring Rick Vaughn to the close out the game, whatever to win. So there you go bomb went back to the book back through the book. If a commander thinks that all men are the same and he treats the mass of human material accordingly. He will fail. The soldiers of today have different standards and require more enlightened handling the than the soldiers of bygone days. This is again, where he starts to you realize that this guy, even though he tries to come across all hard. He's actually very thoughtful about understanding humans. Back to the book. They will no longer follow blindly in unquestionably to an unknown end today. Therefore, a commander must ensure that his troops. Always know what they are being asked to do and how that fits in with the larger plan. I have always in other words, they got know why they're doing what they're doing. I have always insisted that before a battle. The essentials of the plan are known right through the chain of command. And finally down to the rank and file the troops. Must know. How commander is going to fight the battle in what part they are going to play in it. This must be explained to them by word of mouth for that counts. Far more than the written word. And then when the battle has been won and the troops e that the battle has gone as the commander said it would their confidence in the high. Command will be very great. This confidence is beyond price. The problem with that statement is puts pressure on you to stick to a plan. Does get flight that that make you all it's going to stick with it. Because I want everyone to think that it went the way I want. I wanted it to go. No don't just stick with the plan. If it's not working, it's not working shift. Commander must watch carefully his own morale a battle as a contest between the will of two opposing commanders, the one whose heart fails. When the issue hangs in the balance will lose the battle. A commander in fact must throughout radiate confidence in his plan and operations, even though inwardly he may not be too sure of the outcome. One of those other things, you know, people talk about transparency right transparency. Guess what? And it's like, oh, yeah. There's a book there's all kinds of book about transparency like, oh, you got to be fully transparent with everyone. No, actually, sometimes if I'm a little more nervous about what we're doing. And I started to show that everyone's going to be nervous about what we're doing and add seen yet. They can up and sometimes to where like like how you mentioned before like some people can't take the truth. You know, like, so like if there's certain shifts going to be made or certain like rules going to be implemented, or whatever, you know. Like, hey, we're we're gonna move. We're going to demote this or we're gonna move this person out of this department because he's just he's he's era. He stinks or something. Like, he has his irritating. Everybody, you know, kind of thing. Okay. And he'll be he'll just do just as good a work down here. Where he's by himself. Exactly. Right. You know? And it's like, hey, hey, we're going to shift you over here. And he's be like cool. Like why though like I'm done to do it? But why DB transparent? Maybe maybe not. But you run their own keep reading. The the good thing to do would be like, hey, man. Hey, bro. Let me ask you if I had built you're hanging on my nose. Would you want? Would you would if you had a bugger hanging out your nose? Would you want me to tell you? Everyone says. Yeah, of course, cool. You stink. That. That's good. Yeah. What about stately geeze on the mat? Yeah. Right. Somebody's gotta let them know. Bro. Got washed that thing you might need a new G? Yeah. You know, some people they have this old ratty, the smell is imbedded in those things I had geeze like that was like you wash it, and then you wash it, and you take it out. You put it on for four minutes. And you all you gotta throw this thing away. This thing stanks. Yeah. That's true. That that would be a better way to do it that way and say, hey, why don't you move to the beginner class? Go drill. Over there. Go work with the grappling dummy over there. Like, no, that's not cool. You need to tell a brother. Hey, man, stinking. Do you need to wash your geek show key immediately? Yeah. So this is this is one of those things where if you if you need to talk to right? Even in that situation, you do need to tell the truth. You know, you do new say, listen, man. I don't know what's up with your. Hi, jean. Some work. So what if the company is taking this massive, financial, hip and layoffs coming gene, great up you lay off one guy left two guys DB transparent. Like, hey, guys. We're taking a massive hit were laid off a bunch of people. Will ya not in that case you have to say, hey, listen to this. What's going on? This is where we're at. And we're going to do our best and the best way we can do is his by buckling down hard and working hard. But right now, it's going to be tight gonna go through tight quarter right now. We had to let go to guys we're going to try and maintain what we got. But I can't promise you anything. Right. You gotta be. Yes. Yes. I'm going to be truthful. Maybe it is better to be transplant. Most of the time. It is most of the time. It is what we'd what it's in this situation. What we're talking about is key if you lack confidence in what you're doing. All right start to reveal that Chilean in. That's not good. And you know, there's there's now let's say, let's say echo. Let's say I didn't think you were cognitively capable of doing a job at the next level. I might not necessarily tell you that. Because that's something that you can't necessarily change. You can't go home. Take a shower and get smarter. Right. Doesn't work that way. You can't put on a deodorant. And now, you're smarter that doesn't work. It's be smelling bad is not is not necessarily a bad problem because it's something that can be fixed. But if you if you aren't smart enough with and we have a we have a situation. You can't really I mean, you can study you can work, but you're not gonna get smarter. Right. So it might not be a great idea for me to say. Well, you know, I I decided not to you know, you're not getting promoted Billy because you're you're dumb. He's just a smart. Yeah. You here's the deal, man. Just straight up. You're not that smart. Right. So I couldn't put you in charge of anything because because you're not smart now. That's different than me saying, hey, listen, man, six months ago. I was k listen man, you need to start paying attention. 'cause what you're doing right now, if you're gonna move up, you got to really know, you it's gonna take some extra studying, look, I'm not the sharpest tool in the shed. And I I know I have to work hard at making this stuff happen. Do you look at your do you look at your manuals at all? Have you been studying your manuals, you need to like dig into your manuals and really know this stuff if you're think you're going to get promoted you're not going to get promoted unless you know, this stuff like the back of your hand you need to get in the game. So if we've already been through that whole thing, and you actually got up the manuals, and you tried and you didn't make anything happen. We'll guess what? Hey, man is just not that many opportunities at this next. And by the way, there's another kind, of course, of career course, that I have thinking for you. You know? So let's talk about that. You know, what I'm saying fully some that some that requires large biceps, I think is going to be your area of expertise. Thanks check. Going back to the book in order that he may keep clear of unimportant details and thus have time for the quiet thought and reflection. A higher commander must work through a chief of staff and thus avoid having to deal separately with the heads of all branches too far as I'm aware the British army's the only army which was which does not adopt. The chief of staff system in my own experience is quite possible to is quite impossible to exercise high command successfully in war without it. I have adopted a chief of staff system myself throughout this war and could not have succeeded, otherwise, so you gotta have someone that's going to handle things for you a little things, you know, I was talking about the the senior enlisted guy, you know, like a platoon chief or an a task unit or in a platoon or company in army company. The senior enlisted guy Iowa said was the action arm of the commander. So when you need something done. I don't have time to go. Do it myself. And if I go do myself when I've lost the bigger picture. But if I have something critical, you've got the senior enlisted individual that has the most tactical experience has the most authority the most respects when you say, hey chief that building over there hasn't been cleared yet. I don't know what's going on. Go clear that thing in Neil say Roger that or the platoon sergeant or the company I arch it those guys should have the experience in the tackle expertise. And then be utilized as the action arm that can make things happen. Now. That's not exactly what a chief of staff of is. It's actually quite different. But it's similar in the fact that you can't get sucked into the weeds. And if you've if you're the commander of of a division, and you're in the weeds all the time, you don't have you can't see what's happening. And it's the same thing in a business. If the if the CEO of the business is running the business daily, he's not looking up and out. He's looking down in and that's not going to allow him to make for see. What's coming down the pipe in the future? And that's pretty much what it says here. No officer whose daily life is spent in the consideration of details who has not time for quiet thought reflection can make a sound plan of battle or conduct large-scale operations. The wise commanders the one who uses a chief of staff who sees very few papers or letters himself. And who sees that? The majority of reports that are made to him are verbal and short. Only in this way, giving himself plenty of time for quiet reflection. Will he be will he keep himself mentally fresh incapable of producing the sound plan operations, which will defeat his enemy for the plan of operations must always be made by the commander, and he must not be and must not be forced upon him by staff by by circumstances. Or by the enemy. That's pretty important. Why are you allowing the circumstances or the enemy to dictate how you're going to do things? That's not a good call. Commander must decide how he will fight the battle before it begins. He must decide how he will use the military effort at his disposal to force the battle to swing the way. He wishes it to go to be able to do this. His dispositions must be so balanced that he can ignore enemy reactions and continue with his own plan until he is certain of success. He's got to strive to read the mind of his opponent to intimidate have enemy reactions to his own moves and to take quick steps to prevent any enemy interference with his own plant. Again, this is a little bit sketchy to me because now we're talking about. Hey, I'm just driving forward with my plan. No matter what I don't like that attitude. I wanna be flexible I'm gonna try and stick to my plan. But I'm going to be flexible. This. This is one where you man, not on. You know, f- this is this is one of those things where. Sometimes I would get guys that would there'd be a little change. They come up with a plan. They spend all this time planning for mission. And then it'd be the little change. Maybe they're getting ready to go out some imagery comes in. And it shows something little bit different. Or maybe they get some Intel it's little bit different. And they decide they're gonna they've already planned. They've already rehearsed. They already know what they're doing everyone's kind of walk through. And then aside they're gonna change their whole plan because some little thing, and I would say man, don't change your whole plan. I get you wanna make little adjustment. You wanna take a little fire team and have them. Make an adjustment ticket squad. Make him do something. That's that's okay. Don't don't try and rearrange your whole plan. You've already rehearsed you have to unrehearsed, you know, heart. That is if the unprogressive your team that is really hard to do. So sometimes I use this is actually one of those things that that slowly I don't really talk about very often because but I used to used to be in the combat leader. Brief I used to give it used to say don't fall for six percent advantage over the enemy, and what I meant by that was and I used to draw target up on the on the dry erase board and say, okay, you're going to take down this target. So you come up with a plan. How do you wanna just want to do? And I was all set up on L base maneuver. Okay, cool. You're getting ready to go out and do this. And you find out that there's an outhouse. Over the berm over here. And there's a chance to o'clock in the morning that the guy could be in that outhouse. What do you want to do? And some guys would completely change their whole plan completely changed their whole plant. Meanwhile, we're launching in two minutes or eight minutes or twenty minutes. They've planned this. They've rehearsed it, everyone knows what their job was the whole team came up with a plan together. I mean, it's like a it's really in their brains, and now they see this little detail because there's a chance that at three o'clock in the morning when you hit this target that the the guy that you're looking for is in the outhouse. So we're gonna change our whole plan to make up for this tiny percentage chance that this guy's even in the outhouse. Not a good call. Can you break off a fire team that's going to maneuver to a position where they can at least keep an eye on that one house. That's fine. But don't change your whole damn plan based on this little six percent chance at the enemy might do something you didn't expect or no the the enemy that something is very unlikely of happening. It's not that you didn't expect it things that you don't expect. That's why you have contingency. Plans which is like, hey, when we fly in if we see any other out buildings that we missed on the imagery, we have a fire team designated to go, and you know, get is on those things from highground. Okay. Cool. That's agency by that works. Going back to the commander here. He is gone always to be very clear. Thinker and must aim to be always one move ahead of his opponent. I actually prefer to be about five booze. To do this. He must simplify the problem. Whenever a problem arises. He must think out the few points, which will form the framework of the solution. The few things that will really matter so long as the solution to the problem is based on those few things that really matter. The solution will be on the right lines solid. Solid. You have like this just this pathway, and as long in the path at the end of the pathway is what you want to achieve as long as you're doing things that are on the pathway. You're you're getting there. We start doing things that are off the bath way. We got a problem. Sometimes you gotta look at your your subordinates and say, hey, it's not even on the path the direction that we're heading because it doesn't seem like it'd make. A commander must at all times exercise personal command that is to say he must give must see and give full. Verbal orders or instructions to his subordinate generals on how the battle is to be fought operational command in the field must be direct and personal. No written order can ever be the equivalent of a direct. Verbal command. Interesting, and I've my standard is I do both. I do both. I say echo. Here's what we're doing. Hey, do you understand this? Do you have any questions? Cool. And I send you a message. That says, hey echo. This is what we talked about. This is what you're doing making. Sure you understand. If I can I'm going to do both if you normally do one. Yes, verbal is better. Most of the time. A commander must therefore understand how to give verbal orders to his subordinates. No, two generals are the same each require different treatment each will react differently by exercising. Personal command commander can exert a far greater and more exact influence on the battle and the confidence which will grow up between the commander and his generals will be of great value the whole chain of command can thus. And only thus be built into a United team who strength is based on mutual confidence and understanding. Relationships. That's all relationships is what he's talking about. Right there. When the whole army is built into one great team United in working all out for a common purpose. The result is terrific. Success in war is due to good teamwork by all members of the fighting forces and to the correct use which is made of all members by the team of the team by the commander and his staff, but failure in war is always due to one of two causes to faulty command or too bad staff work and sometimes do both. I can think of no instance, where the failure has been due to a failure of the fighting, man. The British fighting man will always do what is asked of him. But you must make sure that he understands what he is asked to do. And also that it is within his capacity to do it. If your team is not doing what it is. You want them to do the first person? You should check is yourself. If you're giving people complex orders that they don't understand. There's no possible way. They can execute those plans. And here's how he closes this out. Finally, I do not believe that today a commander can inspire. Great armies or single units or even individual men and lead them to achieve great victories, unless he has a proper sense of religious truth. And he must be prepared to acknowledge it. Into lead his troops in the light of that truth. He must always keep his finger on the spiritual pulse of his army. And he must be very sure that the spiritual purpose which inspires them is right and true. And it's clearly expounded to one and all. Unless he does this. He can expect no lasting success. But you gotta believe in what you're doing. For all leadership. I believe is based on the spiritual quality the power to inspire others to follow. And this spiritual quality may be for good or may be for evil. In many cases, this quality has been devoted toward personal ends and was partly or wholly evil, and whenever this was. So in the end it failed. For leadership, which is evil while it may temporarily succeed always carries within it the seeds. Of its own destruction. That's it. That's that's a solid one leadership which is evil while it may temporarily succeed always carries within it the seeds of its own destruction. And that is a theory that I fully believe in. And I mean, I believe in it on that level. On that. Hi consequence level, but I also believe in on a on a much less dramatic level. And this is something that you deal with every day. And that's this the leader that is looking out for himself, but leader that puts himself above his team that leaders eventually going to fail. Even though they may temporarily succeed same thing they may temporarily succeed, but eventually they are going to fail. That's what's going to happen. And I will tell you something else. That is true. And that is the opposite. Is that of that? And that is if you are doing the right things for the right things for the right reasons. Then you may temporarily fail, but you will have the seeds for victory. The seeds for victory. And the reason that I say seeds is very specific. There's a reason why I'm saying that is because seeds are not guaranteed to grow. But just because you have good intention doesn't mean that you're going to win doesn't mean that you're going to cheat victory. It means you have the seeds for victory because once you plant those seeds, you have to water them, and you have to nourish them, and you have to protect them from birds, and from squirrels and from vermin, and you have to work if the plant those seeds, and then you have to make those seeds grow. And if you do that. And you continue to do that. Then. You move forward. And you're doing it for the right reasons in the end you are going to win. And you know that that middle section of this. Monty went pretty deep talking about morale, and he has a whole nother. Section here that I've got on morale. But if it going to save that for another podcast since we're all ready to ours. Do. Until then echo, Charles. If we want to keep our morale high. If we want to nourish the seeds want to protect them. Sure. And we want to do the right things for the right reason. Always so that we can win. Yes. Dominate are. We are we doing kind look at a dump they were look at a dominate possibly look at a dominant. When I look at it dominate, man. No. But you've gotta you gotta be able to. We'll probably come. We'll revisit that word. But yet full will do the full study of that word in dig deep at a minimum. It means we're going to dominate I'm gonna Ave it's got dominates the room in a positive way. At the extreme. It's like this guy just has a dominant personality promise, how often do you see with personal the dominant personality that rubs everyone the wrong way all the time dominant like domineering yet? This guy's got a dominating. No one wants him on the team is you can't get a word edgewise. That's why I question the use of this word. Now that being said, and I can see this. I can see this just because someone has the will to dominate, and it's strong doesn't mean that they sit there and rub everyone the wrong way. Because if they really had the will to dominate what they would do is back off and allow others to step up and allow others to have their say allow others to try and lead and to actually lead if they were really going to play the game, they might have the strongest will to dominate, but they don't act that way because they realized that that's counterproductive to actually dominating. You you look like you're confused. I mean, not. Yeah. I mean, I don't know check it out confused. But the I think that if. I feel like there's just a there's a more general broad use. Or meaning for that word. That's what I think. So I think you're right. That being said, it could also be if you have somebody that has a strong incredibly powerful will to dominate, but they realize that that is a brace. If and it is not the best way to actually win in a situation, they will module late, and they will tamper that will to dominate. So that it best serves the accomplishment of the mission and therefore best serves their domination. The and I dig it, you know, it just does feel at this point right now feels like that might be kind of a reach. It's like that thing that I talked about at the muster of. Of what is what is leadership? And and I talk about how like leadership is winning at all costs. And there's been some people that say would for winning at all costs seems like a bad attitude, but the whole because you put a clip like that for an advertisement for the muster in a little muster clip. You put me going leadership is winning at all costs. Right. And there was some of that comedy commented on our on the echelon front extreme ownership Facebook private group that you know, I don't know if I like, this is seems a little bit that doesn't seem like a good attitude. And you know, I replied that. Hey, you have to hear the whole thing. That's that's only a few seconds. Because what it goes on to say is if you really want to win. Then you'll compromise. Then you'll make exceptions then you build relationships, and you'll take a back step, and you'll put your you will subordinate your ego of the biggest thing, we will subordinate your ego because you'll put the mission above your own personal will to dominate you'll you'll subordinate your will to dominate so that you can actually win in the long term in the long game yet. And it's important to remember. If you hurt the whole speech or the whole segment will say is that. Yeah, you talk like a lot about where like this like battles. And then there's the overall victory and like this all this stuff. And sure there's the the dramatic parts when you're like nothing's going to get in my way. But yeah, like you sacrifice so much where? Okay. So when you say win at all costs, it kind of this is what it sounds like. It'd be just hear that line is going to get him on. It sounds like even at the cost of light half, my men or something not only that. But in the corporate worlds all just step on anyone. I need to read all. Send bad product out to the consumers, and I don't care if they get hurt or I don't care if it's I don't care whatever I'm just gonna win area like that. Yes. That's what people think. Oh, yeah. So in that guy's defense. It sounds like that. But again, the whole speech really really one of the main actually the takeaway if not anything is like winning. What is winning like, y y you know, if I lose half, my men, it did you really win. I think you actually say that for sure no that's well nominee that because it's not a victory. But also, how can you carry on with your mission? You can't you your mission incapable. Now, I've actually putting I'm actually putting that I'm gonna I'm gonna bright that down capture that and I'm going to redo it for f- online one that Dr that part. Yeah. You know? So that way people can understand what winning at all costs. What what the means what I'm talking about? Yeah. So we'll put that on E F online. If anybody wants to check that out. If you don't know what that is. Yes, online is interactive leadership training for my company echelon front where we travel the world teaching companies businesses organizations about leadership in the course of doing that. We eventually got to a point where a we couldn't service all the people that wanted our service and be some of the companies that we could service we couldn't service all their employees because they have fifty thousand employees, and they wanna have everyone get trained by Sean front so talking to Leith during a board meeting. Yes. So life, and I were surfing. I said brother we need to figure out a way to scale this stuff. Sure hand, we you know, I I said, let's let's look at doing something online and life was initially like. Which makes sense, by the way. Yeah. For sure. No. And I I I wanted to explore it. I wasn't like all in out of the gate, but I was feeling pretty good about it. Because I'd seen some stuff Leif really hadn't seen anything. You know? He basically seen will use to get trained online in the navy like for some just the most ridiculous sort of things that send you some online training about. If you get a DUI, this is you check this box. If you think you're going to be in trouble. Just really not the best training, and that's kind of what lay had in mind. But eventually we decided to take a look at it. And once we looked at it. It's like, oh, man. This the capabilities unbelievable to do interactive training and all that stuff. So we invested in it. We did it. And now, we've got this thing, and we're using it primarily we use it primarily for our for enterprise clients. So when national on phone is working with a company, and they go, well, what are we gonna do with our other fourteen thousand employees are we gonna train them. Well, here you go now. Now, that's what they're doing their training through that great feedback and. You know, the the decision was well, you know, there's not everyone is in a big company, and so maybe some of the smaller companies or just individuals because because sometimes you look at some of those people come to the muster and they're paying their own way to come the muster obviously and their their companies not supporting it, but they want to improve. So that's why they're there at the muster. Well, it's the same thing with e f online some sometimes you might just do it on your own because you want to become a better leader. A why not get the experience of the echelon frontier. The principles in practice. You get to try them. So that's that's what it is. So anyways, where we add modules every month like new training. And so I'm gonna put the what is leadership and the winning at all costs thing on there. So people can listen to what that's really about. And what it really means. Yeah. That broader views important in my opinion. Also, what's important in? My opinion is the ghee you get for jujitsu when you're doing this his thing when you start your through and you put on a key. You don't have any basis for comparison. You understand how important that is. If you want to put on a straight jacket when you take a drive around the block. No, correct. Sometimes you have to. The need to do. And that's what it'll feel like if you buy one of these other geeze. Yeah. Sometimes anyway, so the gay you get is origin. You get an origin g many selections on their to fit who you are. And also, there's jeans on there. Yes. There is yet. I say origin jeans, major America American Denham American dental, and they don't have our live. Well, you need to order a pair then. Oh, all right. Maybe we'll get some. Okay. All right there. You there live. They are awesome highest quality possible every detail go if you wanna find out what because the genes there right now, the price point is one hundred twenty four bucks. That's a lot of money for a pair of jeans. I understand that. If you buy two pairs is ninety nine bucks each. Here's the deal. If you wanna know why they cost that much go onto origin BJ, Jay Facebook and watch Pete's video where he breaks down the details in the genes, you can see the whole thing why every little detail is covered. Denham pockets belt every little thing is done perfectly to the next level. And so they're more expensive. They're also more expensive because we're just kicking it off whence. We get once we keep building him. We'll get more efficient. So yeah. Eventually the price gonna come down. If you can't afford right now, I meant school. Let's go I get it do genes have the whole situation of the first dish while they are technically right now, you can get I I the dishes. Yeah. But they'll be like a first batch mobile for run. What do you call? I is live right now. Yeah. Go first the dish. But you ever seen those like designer jeans that costs like three hundred dollars how they're made. This is where if you see people that are scraping them with Roxy. No, no, no. It's because I've seen this. It's worse than that. So they get like regular jeans, whatever, and it's a certain color and just Denham from wherever, and they, you know, this factory in a forget where, but you know, a factory a factory in China. I think is China Pakistan India, and there's a, you know, these little kids that are nine years old exposed to chemicals. Yeah. Yeah. What I saw the one I saw on it was more team than that. But nonetheless, they're like super like, they're like three hundred dollar jeans or to figure something like this, and they go and the way they're made them. Like, how's how's that even worth three hundred like the they cut the genes like normal, and it's like denim. You know, whatever, and then the doom like, and they put like this steam on them. And then they send it to the next person next station in the factory next station has this like it's almost like a like a fishing line on what do you call a wheel to mater, look abused? Exactly. Right. And it spins on the jeans, and it makes it look a certain level of abused or or whether to what do you call them district mistress? And then it goes to the next little station, and the and this person had the stations student every single one same thing put, you know, next station. The next station has like a little another thing to help it kind of do it. The next section folded. And so I watched that thing with Pete, and my point, and I'm like, oh man that makes sense. This all makes sense. This is deep. You know, there's good made me wanna get one, obviously. But I thought back to that factory. And I'm thinking man, how was that worth like three hundred dollars or whatever for that thing you such a throwaway process? Like when you know when you see it and feel it. So I dig it now, and they are made in America, by the way for sure they're made in America. They're made in Maine there the cons from America is died in America twelve and in America. And the price point is is more expensive than what you're gonna pay. Any? Hey, you know, I don't want you to go out and spend your last dollar on this pair of origin jeans. No, man. But if you want to help out, and you want the best they are the best possible genes, you get if you want them than cool, that'd be cool. You don't but don't need to freak out. I'm not give freaking out on my end. We're trying to make good. We're trying to make good quality products and are real mission as long term mission bring manufacturing back to America, we want these we want to get these genes down to a price point. How do we do that increase the volume make more of them? They'll be economies of scale will be able to lower the prices for. Sure. Absolutely. You know, what we talked to some gene people denim people. They they wanted us to charge three hundred dollars for these genes. Yeah. Because they're like, well, you know, these are wait. What did they say? They were premium. Yeah. Premium jeans. But there was another word to anyways. You know, there's there's people that pay that kind of money for jeans, not one of them. Yeah. No. I don't know. But is either way it? Well, the good news about the whole situation including made in America. They do have other stuff. So and at men haven't talked about these shorts. So and I don't know if you notice what I wear all the time. But the only thing I. Where is the shorts only one year straight up? I mean, unless it's like, you know to train or something like this. But like just around is only the origin shorts of shark sharks. Or whatever you have like six of them. It's like the same thing. So I'm sure it's like, you know, if you go through your routine like the store, they're like brother scope, where's the same shorts every day? Well, one of them has agreed logo the the black logo. Either way. These are literally the best shorts in like ever made that I've put on straight up. Yes. So you can get those go, Charlie. They go Klusman Mary L bigtime in. That's for real though. Were you also said that about their there's jock? Well, you know, those are the most comfortable for sure in and. Well, you know, what let's show you what I tried on joggers. Ridiculous. The whole idea to sounds ridiculous. You don't have a jogger what do you? Call physique. Yeah. What do you need? What's the jobs on skinny news? I I don't know that I can put my finger on what exactly a jogger physique is. But I can tell you that. I don't have it gets confirmed that. Yes. So don't worry about the jugglers if you're Jaakko, but if anyone else those joggers are factually the most comfortable, jogger sweat situation. Close. In is currently currently got some supplements to joint warfare krill oil disciplined, disciplined, go we were on Skype or or the business Skype call today, and Jason gardener was on. And he you know, you can you have a little video. Well, my little video on a no which one Jake no little video like Skype Skype. This video competent teleconferencing. Yeah. What garners like like pulls out his bottle of discipline going out opens it up and like takes one in Jason super animated. Yes. You know? And he gets this big wires smile on his face because he took a couple hits of the discipline. Go anyways. So we got that give you need to get in the zone. We also have mocked mint mock peanut butter milk vanilla gorilla the darkness chocolate. And now live. Strawberry. Strawberry slayer mo- strawberry slayer. All right. So let me tell you. Get that. Strawberry. Just straight up. Get that strawberry. That thing is a desert. Dang, okay. So we like, I don't know how well, it's it's the the the kids the warrior can mock, which strawberries, awesome, the chocolate's good, too, strawberries, awesome. The chocolate's good, too, strawberries, awesome. And I think I just was telling Brian. No, hey, man. I don't care just put a bigger scoop in or whatever just redo Kate it, but you know, he's like no it's have more protein. It's adults, blah, blah, blah. And somehow he made it it's actually it's actually better on at least as good might be Saint a lot. So good, dude. It's so good. It's ridiculous. It's a straight up desert. It tastes like a milkshake straight up. If you mix it with milk, which is what I mix it with it tastes like a strong berry milkshake, it tastes better than a strawberry milkshake. So if it's so good. It's ridiculous. You go blind taste tests. You got all the protein that you need here you go. Then you have blind taste, right? You gotta imagine. Because you know, the difference. I get it. So you have a cop. Were you can mock strawberry adult. We'll just we'll just say mulk strawberry. Right, which one? Are you going to choose which one? Are you you you? I think I'm gonna go for the adult. I thought you were gonna throw a Haagen-Dazs. Strawberry shake. Here's the deal. I'm not picking the Haagen-Dazs. It's too much. It's too much. It's too much. Yeah. That's kind of why I didn't say, and it's not even it's ninety too much in a good way. It's too much in a bad way. Right. So you don't wanna drink it and the strawberry mulk, you're like just pounding it. Yeah. Three actually feeling good about things of interesting. All right. Well, I'm gonna try that one. Because I have actually I think he might is shoot. It puts them in the mail. Just it just came out. I have not tried it yet. But we'll report back hundred percent Jonker white t as well. Yes. Don't forget about that. Don't get you don't eat thousand pound dead lift which is no big deal to some people to me. It's kind of a big deal and the store Ganic, by the way. So, you know. Organic certified. Check also. Yes, we have a store Jaakko has a store. So I made videos fun of about it with nothing like super depth. But you know, I got all our friends trading partners are people. No, no Oliver. No. It's got good arm locks. Yeah. He's actually been like I mean on top of great McIntyre. He's been kind of my main training partner recently, the past few months. Yeah. The main. So him. Yes. No oliver. Greg mcintyre? Greg train is in there. We got Nadine Nadine fell Belgium Nadine. Tim ford. Did I say Greek Makati Greg's all here there? Yeah. Oh, you got Dave Burke good thing, you could do days in their Jamie's in their Jamie. Yeah. And then the kids can we say whose kids there? There's some kids in there. We'll just say there's some kids in there. Yes. The not my kids are not equa kids. But they don't like his you their warrior kids. We know kids hundred thousand percent. Yes. So. Yeah. Needs in their team's there. Anyway, the the point is they're suffering this cool fun video Jaakko store. You wanna you want something get or if you like something get something? Nonetheless, Jaakko store dot com is where you can get the shirts that say disciplining them if you want to represent in the wild on the path house this when I was this was a while ago. So my my I had an extra shirt later on. He was a size medium for. That's what you were. It's funny. You're gonna say that. Anyway, I'm taking pictures for this. You gotta take pictures for the products right for the store, and for whatever reason the size medium. That's the best looking size. I guess for pictures. I don't know nonetheless, take the beach may have it laying around. Right. So my wife is like, oh this extra shirt. And can I give it to like, one of my friends or whatever? And I wasn't. I had no use for the shirt at this point. And I said, no because I don't know if their friend is like going to represent, you know, I don't know if the friend is on the path what if the prince not on the path they're wearing that shirt. That's you know, it's different. There's more to it. What it feels like you seem saying true story? Nonetheless. When you are on the path, and you wanna represent in the wild. You just go to chocolates dot com. I was at the Joe Rogan show. Sure before twenty four twenty and San Diego's with Peter teeth, and we were with a bunch of other dudes and Peter Attiyah was reminding me that on Twitter. Somebody had said, hey Jaakko. I wasn't in the seal teams. But I want to show support to the seals. Is it cool if I wear like a navy seal Trident on my hat for t shirt. In. My response was. I was in the seal team's for twenty years, and I don't wear a seal team hat or t shirt. So what does that mean? Yes, or no. That means. No. Yeah. Hell no, right because. Okay. So coincidentally me and good deal. Dave Burke, we're talking about the exact same thing. So I forget how we end up talking about it. But I was like, hey, what's the what's the because he gave me his uniform. I was doing something with it for video wasn't. So I don't know for whatever he's wind up talking about what can you wear like what cannot wear what's off limits on this thing. And he told me is like, you know from stuff in. But I don't know. So you have to explain it to me. And that's essentially the scenario he painted. He was like, you know, how like the navy seals like they have the Trident like you can't just put on China. Like, if you're not that you bring the tried it here. But let's say for whatever reason you read, I can't just grab it in like kind of put it on even as like for fun. Kind of off limits. And then so he made the comparison to jujitsu belts to like if I grabbed your black belt and put it on. Granted you're kind of my friend. I could never let let's say I wasn't listening. I wasn't even a white Bill. It sales like even like a purple belt and my instructor who wasn't necessarily personal friends with. But that was happening be my instructor. I can't put that belt on. What if what if you forgot your belt he was injured and he was on the sidelines like I'll just wear mine. Yeah. Would you wear it? He would never do that. But and with funniest burp brought that exact scenario up different colors, though. So he good question. Hey, just where mine into blue belt. He said he's in the guy. He was training with. I think it was a blue belt that who's training with us aka I have an extra one. You don't have a belt you need a belt to to you know, and stuff like that gives them his blue belt. Dave Burke, said out of respect for the guys like, you know, suggestion. He wore it. But he did not feel good about it at all. I think that's kind of the deal where some higher belt gives you know, what I used to give guys it like in the. If they started trading, I'd give them a a piece of one inch to tubular nylon green, which is just like to tie the belt. Do you? Remember Cameron you ABC right Cam. Yeah. Cam good. You get sued by the way, wrestler and strong. Yes. So he came to my is the guy, you know, Cameron came to my house in tamed the beast. You know, the, you know, what that is with kettle bell tame, the beasts you get the forty eight kilogram kettle bell, which you don't have one that big said, do you don't have a name. So I have one. But before I had those he ordered one and he was like in between houses at the time. So he so he ordered had it sent to my house. He gets it. He comes to my house. First time he's ever picked up a forty eight kilogram hundred six pound kettle bell. And there's a thing called taming the beast, which is you do a press. With that kettle bell. You do a pistol with that kettle bell. And then you do a pull up with that kettle bell the first time he ever did it. He did he did ready for dinner on all right up. Like, no, warm, just boomed just did it. Yeah. And that's played a lot because he's not a large like I'm bigger than he's like a what one ninety five. Yeah. Manley's even maybe one nine year might give them like one. Nonetheless, yet, saying a lot less the point. I bring him up is because the first time he ever trained because I trained with them before I was like, oh, this guy's probably at the time two years ago. Those us about this guy's probably like a purple belt too. So, you know, whatever returned with him one day comes in in the geat. So I'm like, oh, she you know, that little parties that kind of like, oh, yeah. You know, let me confirm. We don't want to. But he has a piece of that green. Around. And here's the thing. It doesn't just stand out because it's like, it's kind of darker, whatever. But you see new guy come because he's sort of you know, how when you come and train for the for semi some classes kind of like most of those people they kind of are. Exactly, right. But this is a new guy. I knew who it was. So I was like looking I'm like, okay. That's obviously a military piece of equipment out of. It was funny to looks on everyone's face the league this like they're kind of looking at each other way. Can you? The whole world gone crazy. It's really funny. But that's how rigid the belt situation is though why you can't just grab guys belt, and as I know people not specific people. But it would stand to reason put it that way. It would stand to reason that even as a joke, if I grabbed like, you know, it's funny as a joke, I've been like here just wear mine like some people, you know, I've just been giving people my black belt like, oh, you know, like a like a blue belt or probably here. He just where mind and give it to me like flick awkwardly awkwardly make them do it. That's the dynamics of that before. I really do. Jeff Glover he came down here. And did a seminar music hanadova built. I was like, yeah. You can use mind. And I was I was actually worried. At one belt. I've only had one belt my whole time like one black belt, and I was worried. I Dane I mean, not that. I thought he was gonna like steal it. But I just was afraid. Oh, you know, he'll he'll put in his bag and next thing. You know, it's in Santa Barbara. And the next thing, you know, I'll never see my belt. Get my special belt. Yeah. I was there for that day when he did it because I wasn't here though. I wasn't here that was more. I was here and I had to go, and so I didn't get to. But he he hung backup. Jeffey Glover took care of. I took a picture of him that day all really my belt. He is wearing your belt pitcher, and he's doing this. And that picture ended up being used for a bunch of different. That's of cool, then my belt made it kind of famous with Jeff if you notice like the belt is a little bit long. It's fun. Oh, yeah. Because I'm thicker than he is. Yeah. Will you have like a what you know, the belt comes through three. Yeah. And he's he's easing one for shirks fifty five there. It is still don't do that. Don't guy diet seal team to who's a. Just incredibly well respected guy in the day. Had he had I had two sons, and he was giving them like a like a hat like a seal team two hat or something that had a tried and on it or he had an old one that he was going to giving to his sons. Okay, I'm not gonna wear this in. It's too old. And he made them cut the TRITON off of it. If they wanted to wear. I was like, yes. Yes. Yes. I dig it. And there's all those kinds of things, you know, like if even on a loot super lower level like, you know, if you made it through some little thing like I dunno like one of these Spartan races. Something new only get this shirt or hat. If you did it, you know, and even then there's a little I mean, it's it's way more loose for sure. But you know, like your wife puts it on or something like that. Yeah. Man. I know I know my present in that state wrestling champion. Yes. Gets up there. They're buying those shirts and sweatshirts. I got read about what if you came home in your wife had your trading on. Why would my wife just because she's trying to represent just take it from her? No, actually, there's a thing where there's a thing. Where like seal we'll give his wife like a little necklace with a tried to on it. Yeah. Okay. You know that sort of their why? So she doesn't take his no, I don't think she'd be trying to take his. But I think it's just, you know, little appreciation. Yeah. Fully, but no. But no my. We went to knows what's up. You know, my wife does not one of those. I know she didn't make sense. So that's kind of how it is. Right. The shirts from Jaakko store kind of. I mean, not to that level. But I put it this way. If I see someone wearing representing I know that they're representing. I know they're on the path food. They're they're not just some guy who person or whatever that's not in the pay doesn't seem like that. Oh, they're definitely in the game yet her. Sure. Yeah. There definitely in the game sweat shirt bull. There you go. Also subscribe to the podcast, if you haven't already, I know seems obvious. But apparently, it's not as obvious from what I gather on the less subscribe. If you have an idea, and by the way, if you get a piece of gear supports the podcast is that important will is it important depends on what you mean by important. So yes, yet, I mean pointed let people know that the one additional bonus. Of representing is you're actually helping out the podcast support. We're going to get a new table, by the way. Which has been wonder this way. It's ridiculous. Echo. Charles's table is one of those things where like an apt punishment would be you had to bring this to your house as your dining room table for a year. Oh god. No. Yeah. Yeah. Would you even this is a good day? You know, the picture looked nice. All right. So we're going to get a new table. If you buy tee shirt, we get a new table that that's not gonna fall down and all that. But we appreciate that support to and when you're subscribing to titled the warriors podcast the warrior could broadcast is aimed at kids. But I promise you that Jake has lessons for everyone in also we have a kid a warrior kid named Aiden and he's making soap here in California. Irish oaks ranch dot com. If you want to get some some soap, some Jaakko, soap, so that you can stay clean big. He has a new one to trooper trooper so different has a robe on it. So a he's five fifty cord, by the way delays reserves for sure. Yeah. Yeah. That's some good stuff, by the way, also YouTube. We do have a YouTube channel. If you're interested in the video version this podcast. You wanna see what this table looks like we table. It looks okay. Nonetheless, you can see how wiggly all the books. Yeah. If you're interested in the video version of this podcast, that's can find it. Also some excerpts on there. If you don't wanna watch the whole podcasts at once, you know, some excerpts on their little lessons that you may have found important in kind of revisit those also psychological warfare. Everyone to ask for an alarm clock. With my voice on it. Telling them to wake up or whatever, that's psychological warfare soundtrack, the psychological for album on I tunes or Google player. MP three platforms, and there's a bunch of things on their of me telling you the right thing to do. And why you should do the right thing. So check that. Also, check out flipside canvas. My brother Dakota Meyer is making art that the right work. Yes. It is. He's making art and putting art on canvasses and vinyl posters that you can hang up and you can remind yourself the discipline equals freedom. You can remind yourself that all your excuses are lies that that's. Really good. Because a lot of people were and we have posters pressure on you know, the store, but this is a little bit. It's like want maybe like three or four levels better. And, you know, a poster poachers buzzer Couva, like, of course, you hate them in your Jim what this is likes level. Yeah. It's like a level or the most goals. Yeah. Flipside com flipside, canvas dot com and also support Dakota Meyer for crying out loud too. Yeah. Big time also on it on it dot com slash Jaakko. This is where you can get fitness gear. Kettlebells? I recently posted a picture of my newest kettle Bill storm trooper which I saw that picture. Was good pitcher. On it posted it as like a picture on their thin. You made it big ball. Huge made. My dad picked him one hundred dollars. No. But you know, nonetheless it happened. But yeah, you can get you know, kettlebells on their some rope. Some battle ropes they got some good like immunity supplements to that's the one. I actually have been religiously taking this shrimp tech, immune jerk, you gotta take down. So if you're doing travel nonetheless a lot of good good stuff on there on it dot com slash jock. Have a little book coming out called away the warrior kid three where there's a will. It is available for preorder right now. If you want to help me, and you want the book, please pre-order it. So that I know how many to print I failed miserably when it came to Mike in the dragons, Mike in the dragons, I didn't make enough. I ended up having a scramble to make more. I apologize. We got him to everyone by Christmas. But it was it was not smooth. It was a little bit of a nightmare some total failure on my part. This time way the warrior kid three where there's a will check out that book pre-order it now it's coming out may twenty eighth by the way. So we're almost there, but I can make more quickly quickly enough to have them ready for you. If you preordered anyways, also, they way the warrior kid and Mark's mission those the first two books in that series. Mike in the dragons best book ever for little kids in the history of ever. That's confirmed by the way and the field manual the discipline. It goes freedom field manual. That's a book about how to get after it. No matter where you are in your life. It's a great place to start. What didn't keep you to start on the path or to keep you on the path? The audio version of that is on I tunes Amazon music, Google play extreme ownership. First book, I wrote with my brother Leif Baben, the dichotomy leadership is second book. I wrote with my brother late Baben Ashland on front. That's our leadership consultancy we solve problems through leadership. That's what we do. Go to Sean front dot com. The muster may twenty third and twenty fourth sold out done. That's in Chicago September nineteenth and twentieth. In Denver that one is going to sell out. So is Sydney December fourth and fifth. If you wanna come to the monster, extreme ownership dot com. That's where the details. Are they're all going to sell out all of them have sold out and all of them will sell out. So if you wanna come. Get on there and get registered f online are to talked about that the e f overwatch is where we take leaders from special operations from combat aviation, and we place them into companies that need leadership inside their organization. So. You don't always want to hire someone just because they've been working in some industry for a long time hire someone that has leadership capability and then get them up to speed on the industry. These guys are proven combat leaders. They can step up and take you to the place you need EF, overwatch dot com and. View on a cruise with us hardcore, by the way, hardcore cruzi, which is my recommended level of cruising from time to time rest between sets we're on the interwebs, Twitter Instagram and on Facebook that I was going to like you didn't you? Anyway, I'm at echo Charles and chocolate that Jaakko willing on all of them. And thanks to all our military folks out there that are on the frontlines of freedom standing watch and thanks to police and law enforcement firefighters paramedics EMT's dispatchers correctional officers border patrol secret service. In all first responders who maintain vigilance twenty four hours a day three hundred sixty five days a year to keep us safe here at home and to everyone else out there. Remember some of those lessons from field marshal Montgomery. Remembered cut through the overlying difficulties and see the essentials. What you need to do. And then take a dispatch in it, a dispassionate view of good things and bad things that are going to assail you. In use your force of will to keep getting after it. In until next time. This is echo and Jaakko. Out.

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SYMHC Classics: The Bawdy House Riots of 1668

Stuff You Missed in History Class

27:07 min | 1 year ago

SYMHC Classics: The Bawdy House Riots of 1668

"He was near as Robert Evans. He the host of the podcast behind the bastards his launching a new show called it could happen here. Every season. He's going gonna take a premise. That's more commonly seen in fiction and explain how it could be closer than you might think to coming true in. It could happen here Robert is going to make indepth research statistics and his own experience. And in this season. He's going to draw on that experience. Reporting multiple civil wars around the world to look at the idea of a second American civil war. Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the I heart radio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Happy Saturday everybody this week on this show. We talked about the fifteen seventeen evil May Day riots. And we mentioned at the end of the episode that riots among London's apprentices became something of a tradition in early modern London. And here's the episode where we've talked a little bit more about that. It is our February twenty sixteen episode on the body house riots of sixteen sixty eight enjoy. Welcome to stuff you missed in history. Class a production of heart radios. How stuff works? Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Tracy v Wilson. And I'm Holly fry possibly the weirdest thing that I've ever learned on this podcast. And that includes having done a podcast about people who turned into soap after they died in early modern London. When apprentices had a holiday the thing to do was to go knock over some brothels like that's not star thing right now. And I don't knock over like like sling for robbing them. I mean knock over like literally pulled him down. And today, we're going to talk about one such riot. And it took place during Easter week of sixteen sixty eight. Although this particular riot was a lot bigger and a lot more complicated than just the normal apprentices having a day off tearing down some brothels, which was the thing that they like to do so heads up today's podcast is not explicit. And we are not going to talk about what goes on in a body house. But yes, parents and. Shire's body house means what you think it means. So today's show is maybe not for the youngest of the listeners. So as Tracy suggested lots of people rioted at London's brothels in sixteen sixty eight not just apprentices, but apprentices are cited again, and again is making up the bulk of the crowd in the story. So we're going to take a moment to shed some light on who these young people nearly all of them young men were for a few hundred years in England apprenticeship was a seven year indenture that combined both work and instruction and originally people had been apprentice to the master of a guild came in quite a bit of prestige and was kind of a systematized organization for apprenticeships, but by the seventeenth century when we're talking about today. London's guild system was really in decline and that meant that the apprentice system was showing some strain as well what had been a really prestigious appointment directly with the master of a guild was instead moving. Closer and closer to just flat out unpaid servitude that did not come with many advantages, and this is probably why by the mid sixteen hundreds a lot of people work with were quitting their apprenticeship after two or three years, even though they hadn't really finished. You can look at charts of the average of how long people stayed in their posts. And there's a precipitous decline between your three and four. If people had the opportunity to get out of their apprenticeship they did. Although people came from all over England to apprentice in London, most of London's apprentices were from the surrounding area the farther away, you got from London. The fewer people went to London to be apprenticed. And most of the apprentices were from relatively affluent families at least once who either had or could borrow enough money to make an initial payment to a master in exchange for taking their son on as an apprentice. Once that money was paid in the apprenticeship actually began though, apprentices usually did not. Make any money of their own because they were being paid in instruction and experience not in wages is sort of an extreme version of the unpaid internship. They also had very few freedoms they needed their master's permission to marry socialized to go to the theatre to tavern. Basically anything fun in sixteen sixty the average age of an apprentice was seventeen or eighteen. So with all that in mind. It may be a little less surprising that he popular pastime among Linden's seventeenth century. Apprentices was the brothel riot on holidays, particularly Shrove Tuesday, which is the last Tuesday before lent apprentice frequently wrecked Linden's brothels between sixteen six and sixteen forty one. There were twenty four Shrove Tuesday brothel riots that we know about that's twenty-four full-scale riots in thirty five years and in case the name Shrove, Tuesday doesn't ring a bell oaks might know it better as fat Tuesday or mardi gras. Yeah. It's absorbed or celebrated in a lot of different ways all over the world. But strove Tuesday is is what people were Moseley calling it in England at this time. During a brothel riot. Rioters would use tools like staves and bars to literally pull down buildings and this naturally caused a lot of property damage and displaced anybody who'd had been living or working inside the damaged or destroyed structures, regardless of what your personal feelings are about brothels a lot of times, these are people who did not have any other option for supporting themselves. So they would be out of work in homeless after the riot. And in spite of their popularity in terms of having a pretty consistent customer base, brothels were not popular from a religious or social standpoint, plenty of people visited brothels, but plenty of people thought brothels were a sinful scourge on London sometimes these worked out to be the exact same people because brothels in spite of their popularity were viewed as CD and immoral the apprentices who tore them down. Didn't usually get a lot of harsh. Punishment? They would see a small fine and a short imprisonment if anything the general consensus was that apprentices doing a good thing by destroying the city's brothels. So when it came to this Shrove, Tuesday, riding tradition English political writer James Harrington called it and quote ancient administration of Justice at Shrove tide. The sixteen sixty eight riot on the other hand was exceptional. It was much much bigger and instead of happening at Shrove Tuesday before lent. It happened on Easter Monday after lent was over and it lasted for three days. The property damage is much greater and the perpetrators faced much much harsher punishments even harsher than might be expected by the increase in the size of the riot. And we're going to talk about the sixteen sixty eight riot with more specificity after we pause for brief word from one of our fantastic. Sponsors. This episode is brought to you by God Zillah, only one can be king long with the king Godzilla king of the monsters is the next chapter in Warner Brothers and legendary pictures cinematic monster vers in this epoch new story. Godzilla is pitted against some of the most popular and terrifying. Monsters in pop culture history when three ancient super species rise from the depths of earth vibe for supremacy. Members of the secretive government agency monarch fight against the odds as Godzilla clashes with mothra Rodin and godzillas ultimate nemesis. The three headed Ghidora will this be the most epic theater experience ever as the clock? Runs out. The ultimate question is do we fight to defeat these larger than life monsters or do we join Godzilla in hopes of saving our planet and the entire human race. Or will you just have a ton of fun. Starring Kyle Chandler Academy Award nominee VERA for Miya and Millie Bobby Brown in her cinematic debut, Godzilla king of the monsters storms into theaters may. I. On Easter Monday sixteen sixty eight which fell on March twenty third of that year. Rioters armed with simple weapons, like polacks staves and iron bars. Started pulling down the brothels and poplar in London's east end and yes fans of call the mid the midwife that's the same poplar aware that show is set according to historical accounts. These writers were apprentices. They probably included other people to though, poplar was home to lots of sailors and many of them were currently at home without a lot to occupy their time. Having been recently released from service after the end of the second Anglo Dutch war which went on from sixteen sixty five to sixteen sixty seven the first brothel to be struck belong to Damaris page who is known as quote, the great Bod of the semen by which we mean men who worked on the sea or sailors not the other possible interpretation regardless these rioters organize themselves into regiments each one had its own captain. And it's it's. Colors. Green was particularly popular one of those captains was named Peter messenger. Which is why sometimes these riots are referred to as the messenger riots on Tuesday similarly, armed rioters spread through London targeting the district's where the city's highest concentrations of body houses were located at least five hundred people were involved in this second day of rioting and pulling down buildings. This is win. The crown got involved to try to maintain order a letter to the Lord Mayor and Lieutenant of the city was sent in the name of king. Charles the second ordering the watch to be doubled. And for two companies of militia to be mustered to suppress the riot famed London diarist Samuel peeps. Wrote about it in his diary for the day of March twenty fours at Whitehall. He said there was quote, great talk of the tilts on the other end of the town about more fields among the princes taking the liberty of these holy days to pull down body houses and Lord to see the apprehensions, which this did give to all people at. Court that presently order was given for all the soldiers horse and foot to be in arms and forthwith alarms were beat by drum and trumpet through Westminster and all to their colors and two-horse as if the French were coming into town. I remember reading a lot of people diary in like literature class. I feel like they left out. All the funny parts, I do too because I did the same and it wasn't until much later in life. Where I was like there's good stuff in there. This really entertaining this bit in particular made me laugh every the whole time I was typing it in their Tuesday's riots led to arrests and some of the riders laid siege to Finsbury jail where they believed their compatriots were being held. They did not actually find any other rioters in the jail, though. But for unrelated persons did manage to escape in all the chaos the rioters were more successful in their goals at the new prison in Clerkenwell, which did have some of the arrested Rier rioters being held there. And they were broken out. Peeps. Also went out with his friends to see the riots in action on Tuesday, but they mostly found lots and lots of soldiers and people who were vexed that the soldiers were going after the apprentice. Is he repeats a couple of times in his Tuesday diary, entry overhearing people say, quote, it was only for pulling down the body houses. He also notes that this whole event apparently perplex king Charles the second if the body houses were such a scourge on London so much. So that people supported pulling them down. Then again from the peeps diary the question, quote, why why do they go to them? Then as a side note. I mean, we established earlier in the podcast that this strove Tuesday brothel riot was a kind of a tradition. So why would king Charles the second be so perplexed? A lot of those riots had happened either before he was born or while he was in exile in France after the beheading of his father, Charles the first so it's possible that he this was the first time he had really experienced firsthand or heard in more detail about this idea of the London body house riot I like that he can't see and grasp the to face nature of humanity. In many cases. I'm like, oh, Chuck come on. You have a conversation with Charles the second about the duality. Then on Wednesday, a very large group of rioters the exact numbers are unclear but it was probably in the thousands continued to attack ruffles around more fields. The rioters started threatening to pull the palace at Whitehall down and chanted things like, quote, we've been the servants. Now, we'll be the masters in another rallying cry was reformation and reduce moments. Oh, this rioting continued to vex the crown and the court at Whitehall peeps. Wrote about Wednesday's riots in his diary as well. And here's what he wrote, quote, the Duke of York and all with him this morning. We're full of talk of the Prentice is who are not yet put down though, the guards and militia the town have been in arms all night and the night before and the practices have made fools of them. Sometimes by running from them and flinging stones at them, some blood has been spilt, but a great many houses pulled down and among others. The Duke of York was. Mighty Mary at that of demars pages. The great Bod of the semen and the Duke of York complained merrily that he had lost two tenants by their houses being pulled down who paid him for their wine licenses fifteen pounds of a year. So just to recap at Duke of York is upset that his tenants. The bonds who pay him for wine licenses have been displaced by this rioting. But not really concerned about them. Just his income. It was on the inconvenience and loss of income to himself. Yeah. It was on Wednesday that the militia guards and even the kings lifeguard dispersed, the rioters and arrested many of the apparent ringleaders happening concurrently with the last two days of this riot were the publications of a couple of pieces of satirical writing. We don't actually know who wrote them or whether they were the work of the rioters or not we don't really have a sense of whether the people writing these deteriorate things were working with the rioters or opposed to them or exactly what. In terms of the writers themselves was going on. We can't accurately say whether these particular writings reflected, the views of the rioters, but they definitely were reflecting the views of some people alive at the time who were involved in all of this. So they shed some light on sort of what people were thinking out in London the first which is presented in. The form of a petition was known as the poor whores petition. It was purportedly drafted by the displaced Boggs who's brothels had been pulled down and it came out on March twenty fifth which was the Wednesday of the riot it lampooned both the women who worked in the body houses and lady castle main or more properly Barbara Villiers duchess of Cleveland who was the notorious and married mistress of Charles the second. This photo petition was highly critical of both the king and his mistress. But it also contained a plea to lady castle main that she would try to protect all these displaced women from the body houses after all goes, the logic of this writing new are one of us lady castle, Maine. The two satirical writings that followed were both in the form of a letter from lady castle main back to the displaced broads. They're identical except for the first paragraph, and they go onto lamb Poon, both lady castle main in the Anglican church. There's a lot of criticism woven into both the petition and the response. They criticized Charles the second for keeping a mistress. They criticize lady castle main for being Catholic. They criticize the Catholic church for earning an income from taxes on brothels, and they criticized the archbishop of Canterbury for purportedly keeping a mistress of his own. And it's these same themes of religion and hypocrisy that may help to explain why this particular riot got so very big and why their response to it was so much bigger. And we're gonna talk about all that after we pause for brief word from one of our fantastic sponsors. I can't believe it that Gerald is presenting the quarterly budget report with finger puppets. Look here comes a one point seven percent decrease in fixed overhead NO, everybody. No. I can't believe how easy it was to save hundreds of dollars on car insurance. Geico. You dope projected increase in organic three revenue. Believe it. Geico could save you fifteen percent or more on car insurance. While London's previous rope Tuesday brought the riots had been punished with what was basically a slap on the wrist, the sixteen sixty eight riots ended with a great many people being brought to trial. It's unclear exactly how many people were prosecuted for participating in the riot only seventy seven of those who wound up in court were actually identified by name either in the records or historians having all the pieces together since then, but very little is known even about them. Fifteen ultimately were indicted for high treason Damaris page turned state's witnessed during the trial with the court being very careful to avoid mentioning precisely what her job was so that she would appear credible in the account. She gave of destruction of property and many of the other women who had worked the destroyed body houses on the other hand wound up being prosecuted in the aftermath of the riot and a punishment that was acknowledged by the high court and other people surrounding the case as just incongruously harsh four. Of the men who were convicted of high treason were hanged drawn and quartered. This was by far the most extreme punishment allowed under the most severe interpretation of the law. It was far far greater than how body house riots had typically been handled in England. There are lots of possible explanations for exactly why the crackdown on. This specific riot was so extreme one described in nineteen Eighty-six paper on in the historical journal is by Dr Tim Harris, then at Emmanuel college Cambridge. And now at Brown in his interpretation, basically is at the riot itself was more about dissatisfaction with the restoration than it really was about the brothels and that the rioters were so harshly treated because of that political and religious undertone. So when extraordinarily brief recap of the restoration when Charles seconds father was executed in sixteen forty nine. Oliver Cromwell came to power at which point England became a Republic. Charles the second fled to the continent and Cromwell remained in power until his death in sixteen fifty eight than in sixteen sixty Charles the second ascended to the throne at which point the monarchy was restored. That's the restoration. There are entire books about the restoration. And there was a whole lot more that went on behind the scenes, and what we just said. So that is an extremely quick summary for those of you who don't remember or never learned that in a lot of historical accounts, the general description of the restoration was that Lennon was really really in favor of Charles the seconds return. There had been demonstrations against the army and in favor of Charles is the monarch in the years before the restoration actually took place. Some of that agitation was as much about religion as it was about the monarch some of the people who were pressing for Charles the second return to England were hoping that he would allow a greater degree of freedom of religion, the religions that diverged in some way from Anglican teachings like Presbyterians, Quakers, Baptists Methodists and Unitarians among others were all. Handed is dissenting or nonconformist religions, many of London's apprentices were adherence to one of these non-conforming denominations instead in sixteen sixty Charles the second still an exile issued the declaration of Braida which was one of the last steps before he was restored to the throne. He wrote this statement, quote, and because the passion and uncharitable -ness of the times have produced several opinions in religion by which men are engaged in parties and animosities against each other, which when they shall hereafter unite in a freedom of conversation will be composed or better understood we do declare liberty to tender consciences, and that no man shall be disquieted or called in question for differences of opinion in matters of religion, which do not disturb the peace of the kingdom. And that we shall be ready to consent to such an act of parliament as upon mature deliberation shall be offered to us for the full granting that indulgence. In other words, people would have freedom of religion provided that their opinions did not quote, disturb, the peace of the kingdom, and among those opinions apparently disturbing the peace of the kingdom were various nonconformists Quakers and Baptists in particular, frequently wound up in court on charges of quote attendance, at a nonconformist conventional Harris also cites this is the reason why this huge riot took place after Easter instead of on Shrove Tuesday as had been so common in prior years. Even though the declaration of Braida hadn't really allowed the nonconformist the practice of their religion freely. At least there had been a period of relative laxity in terms of the enforcement of religious conformity. The great plague of London in sixteen sixty five and the great fire of London in sixteen sixty six had both given parliament, plenty of other things to worry about and some of the laws governing religion had lapsed. But in sixteen sixty seven in sixteen sixty eight bills that would allow. Loud, Presbyterians or religious freedom. Started circulating in parliament thous of Commons was really deeply opposed to these though and the proclamation on the matter that Charles the second ultimately signed on March ten sixteen sixty eight during lint less than two weeks before the riot began was instead about enforcing obedience to the existing laws not about allowing greater religious freedom. This also circles back around to those satirical, petitions and letters that we talked about before the break one of their themes England was willing to tolerate brothels, but not religious nonconformity which seems awfully hypocritical. Some of the chance and rallying cries that they use during the riot the ones that were about a reformation also have a lot more religious tone to them than being about wanting to strike down. The sinfulness of abroa- fell running parallel to this crackdown on religious nonconformity was also a crackdown on theaters in London and a running theme. In this increasing criticism of theater was that the were no better than brothels. And there was a lot of just hateful rhetoric that was using all of this. So this stoked dislike and disdain for both the brothels and the theaters, and as we said at the top of the show, Lenin was full of sailors that were recently released from service as well as overworked and mostly panelists apprentices who system of apprenticeship was quickly disintegrating. So there's some degree of separation and drawing conclusions in all of this. Some degree of interpretation of what people's motives might have been men. There's no smoking gun. None of the rioters left a journal saying, I'm really upset about my religious freedoms. And so how about in the guise of a brothel riot? I make that demonstration like there's nothing documenting any kind of thought presses like that. And there were also no court documents. It's explicitly saying that the writers are being persecuted because of religious nonconformity. Although it does seem like there was some fear that people who were dissenting in some way. We're also going to work with Cromwell's existing supporters who were still around to try to overthrow the monarchy. So like a lot of events in history. This one was definitely a confluence of a ton of different factors and influences without one clear single explanation that just explains the motives of everyone involved at the same time. Oh history. You're never simple. Yeah. I wish I could remember where I wish I could remember where I stumbled across just the words. The brothel ride of sixteen sixty eight like I was doing work on something completely unrelated last week. And then the that that series of words was on my screen somewhere. And I went well, okay. We got talk about that. Yeah. And and then I fortunately was able to find enough information to talk about that. And then when I tried to reset retrace my steps to figure out where I had originally seen reference. Do it. I could not find it. So I don't remember. But that's a riot. Thank you so much for joining us on this Saturday. If you have heard an Email address or Facebook, URL L or something similar over. The course of today's episode since it is from the archive that might be out of date. Now, you can Email us at history podcast at how stuff works dot com. And you can find us all over social media at missed in history. And you can subscribe to our show on apple podcast, Google podcasts the iheartradio app and wherever else he listened to podcasts. Stuff you missed in history. Classes a production of I heart radio is how stuff works for more podcasts for my heart radio. Visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Do you love music? Are you a fan of movies like Star Wars back to the future? Harry Potter Jurassic Park and more than the soundtrack show is made just for you. I'm David w Collins joined the each week as I break down the best moments in our favorite movies, TV shows even video games and talk about why the music makes each of these experiences, unforgettable listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

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August 27, 2020: John Miltons Books Burned

Today in True Crime

15:51 min | Last month

August 27, 2020: John Miltons Books Burned

"Today is Thursday August twenty seventh two, thousand twenty on this day in Sixteen Sixty King Charles. The second commanded English poet John Milton's books burned in the city of London. These events inspired the outspoken and controversial. To complete his epic poem. Paradise lost. Welcome to today in true crime a cast original. Today, we're covering John Milton's book burning and the events that caused it after a brutal civil war that led to the beheading of his father Charles. The second return to the city of London to reclaim the throne. But he was back with a vendetta and John Milton a committed Republican with a knack for spreading anti royalist propaganda was at the top of his list. Let's go back to August twenty. Seventh Sixteen Sixty. For Weeks Milton's books had been seized by the king's men all around the city raiding parties scoured bookshelves snatching anything with Milton's name. Now, on the night of the twenty seventh, the spoils had been dumped in a pile in front of the Old Bailey courthouse Dave were to be burned, but the fire wasn't just about Milton and his alleged offenses towards Charles. The second the flames had been sparked nearly twenty years before in sixteen, Forty two. That year the civil war broke out in England King Charles. The first claimed it was his divine right to rule. But Parliament was inspired by ideas of democracy before the turn of the decade Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell led parliament in overthrowing the Monarchy Charles. The I was captured placed on trial and found guilty for trying to L. pulled in himself and unlimited and tyrannical power to rule according to his will and to overthrow the rights and liberties of the people. So he was beheaded. Meanwhile his son Charles. The second fled to France, for refuge it was during this time that forty one year old John Milton gained a reputation throughout England. He publicly advocated for regicide or the killing of kings, and he opposed the illegal bond between the church and the crown. So in his pamphlet called the tenure of kings and magistrates, Milton attacked church ritual governance, and tried to oust false idols which the church created and the King's image. Essentially, he believed the crown had tainted the sanctity of religion. Milton was outspoken about other taboo subjects to his seventeen year old wife Mary had left only a few months after their wedding and Milton hadn't seen her in years. So Milton penned the doctrine and discipline of divorce which advocated for the legalization of separation. He also detested public censorship Milton's controversial propaganda game the recognition of Oliver Cromwell a leader in parliament and two months after the king's execution, Milton was appointed as secretary of foreign tongues. His job was to dictate letters to foreign nations act as a translator and an intellectual hand which was remarkable considering John Milton was soon to be permanently blind after what was most likely chronic glaucoma. Unfortunately, Milton's position along with the English republic was short-lived after Cromwell died in sixteen, Fifty, eight, the government collapsed royalists regained their momentum took back power and asked Charles the second to return to the throne. So in May of sixteen sixty. Charles the second road back into London triumphantly as part of his restoration agreement Charles the second demanded a standing army and permission to kill any officials responsible for his father's. and John Milton was one of those people. Before Charles the second even issued the execution list with Milton's name the poet went into hiding to this day. It's a mystery where Milton spent the next several months or who helped hide him but in. June, of that year Charles the second called for Milton's arrest he also threatened anyone who might be harboring the fugitive Charles the second vilified Milton publicly turning the people against him. He even suggested that Milton had been struck blind by God, in an act of divine retribution. Over the next few months, Milton's book started to disappear from public libraries in August of Sixteen Sixty Charles the second issued a proclamation declaring all books by John Milton be handed over to authorities those who were once loyal to the Commonwealth. Handed in their copies of Milton's work succumbing to the reality that the republic was dead. Royalists rated doors and stationer's shops were books were bound and published. They took anything with Milton's name on it. primarily, Milton's treatise of civil power which had been recently issued for publication. Royalists invaded the homes of Republicans who may have been hiding copies. Then on the evening of August twenty, seventh sixteen, Sixty Milton's books were brought to the Old Bailey courthouse in London there they were burned in a massive fire pit by the local hangman. Milton. remained hidden in the shadows of London as his life's work went up in smoke. But the events of this day had already been prophesied by. Milton. In his work areopagus mccaw when he wrote as good, almost kill a man as kill a good book. Coming up. John Milton's arrest and his authorship of Paradise lost. High listeners here's a series I. Think you're really GonNa like we all know that medical professionals are trained to give exceptional care. But what about those who use their skills not to heal hurt in the new podcast series medical murders you'll discover a disturbing diagnosis that not every doctor wants to extend your life. Every Wednesday medical murders introduces you to the worst. The medical community has to offer men and women who took an oath to save lives, but instead used their expertise to develop more sinister specialties join host Alistair Murdoch as he examines the formative years and most. Of History's most infamous killers dissecting their medical backgrounds with expert analysis and professional insight provided by practicing md Dr David Kipper you investigate a wide range of heinous healthcare workers like the general practitioner believed to be the most prolific serial killer in modern history or the dentist who led a double life as a hitman or even the doctor and gang member who mixed deadly potions for unhappy housewives to use on their husbands when it comes to these true crime stories the only thing the doctor ordered is murder follow medical murders free on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts. So I've been playing this exciting mobile puzzle game called best fiends I've been playing for almost a year now and up to level three, hundred, thirty, one of course I didn't do all that myself. My kids love to play beans to I like to play because it requires strategy while the game is casual, I find the puzzles challenging and fun. So I try. To find time to play every day I like the bright colors and visual design, the game and the characters are super adorable. Best fiends treats the game like a service. So there are new levels, challenges and events every month the best part you don't even need an Internet connection to play don't miss out, try it for yourself and see if you can beat me. So, engage your brain with fun puzzles and collect tons of cute characters. Trust me with over one hundred, million downloads. This five star rated mobile puzzle game is must play download best means free on the apple APP store or Google play. That's friends without the our best beans. Now back to the story. On August twenty seventh sixteen, Sixty John Milton's books were burned in front of the Old Bailey courthouse in London royalists watched as the parchment crinkled and turned to Ash. John. Milton stayed in hiding well aware that King Charles the second had him on a shortlist of traders. If Milton was found, he'd be executed. But. Two days later, the king passed an act of free and general pardon. This excused anyone from the death penalty who committed crimes against the monarchy during the civil war with the exception of murder piracy rape or witchcraft, which was good news for John, Milton who was merely guilty of spreading propaganda. So Milton came out of hiding shortly after but that didn't stop Charles the second from finding and arresting him that Fall Milton was sent to the Tower of London where he spent his fifty second birthday in prison. Luckily, his incarceration was short he was released in December of sixteen sixty, but the experience inspired Milton to complete unfinished works. Milton spent his days tiptoeing around the monarchy fearful that any wrongdoing could lead to another arrest. Milton, knew that King Charles. The second would regress England back to its former state meaning the monarchy and the Church would reunite as one indistinguishable unit because of that he struggled with his commitment to God but he also knew his God would want him to rebel against tyrants. So Milton penned his metaphorical version of the story of creation in an epic poem titled. Paradise. lost. The ten thousand line poem begins with the journey of Satan referred to as the traitor angel who's been sent to the underworld after rebelling against his divine creator. So the train Joel plots his revenge by tempting man with sinful desires nineteenth century poets like Percy. Shelley. saw. Version of Satan as a kindred spirit the true protagonist of the story who Milton clearly road in his own image. While the poem is a metaphor for standing up for your beliefs rebelling against evil and the satisfaction of redemption. It's also about love in Milton's interpretation of the tail eve gives into her temptations just to be with Adam and together they fall from grace. It said that, Milton, would wake in the middle of the night with full passages in his mind which likely kept him up until morning until his scribe arrived to help the blind author pen his feverish dreams. Paradise. Lost was completed and published throughout London sixteen, Sixty, seven Milton who'd become a political and social pariah was resurrected with the publication of this poem. The story was well received amongst royalists and puritans alike in October of that year royalists Sir John Denham poet and surveyor of the King's works marched into the house. Of Commons in his hand was a copy of Paradise lost. When members of parliament asked what Denim was reading, he responded the noblest poem that ever was wrote in any language or in any age. In the centuries to come others praised Milton for reinventing poetry and removing what he called the troublesome and modern bondage of rhyming. Today Milton continues to inspire some of our greatest works of fiction including Philip pullman dark materials trilogy. PULLMAN says, no one not even Shakespeare surpasses Milton in his command of the sound, the music, the weight and taste and texture of English words. Pullman like many other admirers of Milton's says, he's attracted to the poet's. And complexities ironically, it's those same audacity which nearly killed the author three, hundred, sixty years ago yet without them history might be void of some of its most iconic pieces of literature. Thanks for listening today in true crime I'm Vanessa Richardson today and true crime is of park cast original. You can find more episodes of today in true crime and all other podcast originals for free on spotify not only does spotify already have all of your favorite music but now spotify is making it easy for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcast originals like today, true crime for free from your phone desktop or smart speaker to stream today in true crime on spotify, just open the APP and type today in true crime in the search bar, we'll be back with a brand new episode tomorrow in true. Crime. Today and true crime was created by Max Cutler and is a podcast studios. Original is executive produced by Max Cutler sound designed by Dick Schroeder with production assistance by Ron Shapiro Carly Madden and Aaron Larson. This episode of today and true crime was written by Lori Gottlieb with writing assistance by Abigail cannon I'm Vanessa Richardson. Killer. deranged. Doctors mad scientists don't forget to check out the new podcast, original series, medical murders. Every Wednesday meet the worst. The medical community has to offer men and women who took an oath to save lives, but instead use their expertise to develop more sinister specialties follow medical murders free on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

John Milton Sixteen Sixty King Charles Charles London Milton Old Bailey courthouse King Charles Parliament Sixteen Sixty spotify England King Charles Oliver Cromwell England Monarchy Charles Sir John Denham Lori Gottlieb murder areopagus mccaw L.
Colonel Blood and the Theft of the Crown Jewels

Ridiculous History

49:45 min | 10 months ago

Colonel Blood and the Theft of the Crown Jewels

"This episode of ridiculous history is brought to you by better air. Did you know the air inside. Our homes is five times more polluted than outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem. Microscopic allergens pathogens that live in our beds counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier by better air can better air uses environmental probiotics to remove those microbes from your home. Suit can literally breathe better learn more better air. PROMISED DOT COM There's a sixty day. No Risk money-back guarantee plus save twenty percent when you place your order today go to better air promise dot com and start breathing better at. IBM problems inspire us to push the world forward. That's why so many people work with us on everything from city traffic to ocean plastic. SMART GLOVES PROBLEMS IBM. Let's put smart to work visit. IBM DOT COM slash smart to learn more ridiculous histories. A production of iheartradio Welcome to the show ridiculous historians. Thank you so much for tuning in to another heist ICED episode. They love a good heights. Yeah Ocean's eleven movies Ben You. Heist films are divisive. But I love the formula. They are formulaic. You know. And you're a big Fan of the whole ensemble of a heist crew are giants. Yes the thing you asked new friends you like. Who would you want to be? I always say the Bagman. Even though I don't really know what the Bagman does. Sounds like a cool title. Who would you be Ben do you? Did you even go so far as to cast yourself or just something you just ask of others. I'm Noah by the after your knoll. My name is Ben Bullen and I typically ask people just to keep partly. It's way to get to know people but also it's a way to know in advance what someone feels their set of skills would be in case. You're ever in this situation. I of course asked our super producer. Casey Peckham what his highest position would be. But you know what maybe we should ask just while we're here since we're all film Buffs Casey. What do you think of heist films in general? I think it's great. Anytime you have like a solid genre grounding like that and you can just fill it up with like interesting cool funny people or whatever like the oceans movies I think it's a blessed so I'm Emma. I'm in favor of Casey. On the case I agree. It's nice to have the predetermines stakes setup and then everything else is just sort of built around that So everyone's got a job to do there. Sometimes disagreements. There's all kinds of bumps in the road that happened along the way and then you've got the are they going to pull it off or non not stakes in place. Today's episode is more about an individual less about accrue. It is one of my personal favourite names in historical all confidence men and there is a crew involved at some point at something. Yes today we were exploring the strange story of Colonel Thomas Blood and the crown jewels crew called the blood boys or the blood bags. You know. I you know they had a couple of different names for a cruise. He ran in because as we will learn Thomas Blood's life involved Messing with a lot of strange controversial. Dare I say disreputable groups groups at times. So what do we know about this. Thomas Blood Guy. Well I'll tell you one thing we do know You know when people say oh the crown jewels of something. Oh that's the crown jewels of cars or the crown jewels of you know go bars. Or whatever north of Vinyl Hammer Pam exactly. Well how about stealing the actual crown crown jewels of the crown jewels and that is what our boy Colonel Blood had his sights set on We will get to that. That was kind of his His coup de Gras. But it took them a long time to get to that. He was born An Irishman in county meath in sixteen eighteen. His his father was a blacksmith of some note. and he you know he was. It was a pretty but I wouldn't say wealthy family but upper-middle-class solidly upper upper. Middle last last FICO merchant class. Yeah and he was also well connected. He had a grandfather who lived in boy. The folks from Ireland go ahead. Stratus is an advanced killing the boy castle. Kill the boy shirt but maybe it's entirely wrong. Who knows I never know what these things killing a boy castle? He lived in a castle his grandfather did and and was actually a member of parliament's and the English civil war broke out in sixteen forty two. This is when blood who has not yet. A Colonel Story in and of itself is when blood came to England in one to fight for Charles the first but as soon as he figured out that Cromwell was going to win he flipped he switched sides a he joined the round heads because he wanted to be. He wanted to be on this successful side of history plus they had the better haircuts. They had the rounder heads. I guess in Sixteen Forty Eight. He married a Miss Whole Croft in Lancashire and shortly after that he went back to Ireland he had become an officer during the Cromwell Ian Army and instead of getting paid for his service in the army he said. Just give me grants of land and let me you know become A member of the landed gentry people suspect today that he was involved in some sort of espionage during the civil war. But you know. Oh that's still kind of a rumor anyhow Charles. The first is defeated. Sixteen fifty three blood becomes a justice of the peace and he gets what he wanted. Get's that large estate for a little while just to the peace being something of like a notary or a a a a junior. Yeah exactly yeah so not exactly we A A super high position but still working his way up right. Yeah it's a good government job you've got an estate. Things are looking pretty good for our pal. Tommy blood I I like that nickname. Manila's Tommy Blood for it feels like a nineteen eighties. Hair metal band new. We should not blind and make it sort of early two thousands rap name and then we figure Out what his mid arts mid odds. Yeah his two thousand ten's name would be because that's when we get into the little or the young. Yes that's right uh-huh yeah that's true youngblood. It's been done. Yeah to shame. It's all been divan young. Tommy a little Tommy blood anyway way. So as a justice of the peace things are looking up for Tommy Blood Charles. The second returns to the throne in sixteen sixty and our voy blood loses all of his lands. She loses his estate. He flees to Ireland with his wife and son is this because he found himself on the wrong side of history. And this In this case yes very much so in sixteen sixty three he developed a plot to kidnap. a man by the name of James James Butler Aka the duke or Monde Who Was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and lived in a castle Dublin Castle to be Precise Casey. Can we get just a little bit of your favorite light heist music. This is his first provable. High up so we have the espionage rumored Bud God as we saved with do. Pomona is his first documented heist. Okay so got music playing. Here's what happened Don. Some sort of disguise gets his Together and they tried to force their way into the castle in this disguise but of course like every highest bill. Something goes wrong to goes awry. They were found out somebody snitched. Somebody let the batteries out of the bag as Ben would say and Everyone except blood Likely because he turned tail and ran. was arrested And there are some really I love it. Reads like Stock Characters Order Order Mr Two of the The known disguises in question were the quaker and the priests right because as he is high tailing it and the rest of the gang including his brother or brother. brother-in-law lackey Are Getting arrested blood. Waker that draft laws name his lackey. Yeah L. A. C. K. I. E. was a different different times so I don't know but lack long on the no right. Yeah it is. SISTER MINION was probably. They're exactly and henchman right so he he is running away. He dresses up first quaker and then he changes it and dresses as a priest while he's escaping to Holland any he hides out in Holland I'm I picturing something very similar to the film in Bruges right they had to. It's a fantastic Crime movie where to kind of on the Lam criminals end up hiding hiding out in a very idyllic little town and Bruce in Belgium yet and actually Casey nine. Almost I think we almost ran into each other. In in Brussels zek wreck. We literally stayed around the corner from each other like not. Not You know figuratively around the corner like actually on the map around the corner within within a day or two of each other I was there to see stereolab concert and I was only there for like a couple of nights. Maybe just one night and Yeah after I got back I was like. Where'd you stay in? Looked on the map and I was like. Oh my God we literally next door. So that's our shout out to Belgium. It's lovely place. Do Check it out. Check out the comic Strip Museum but be ready for some problematic art anyhow. Colonel Blood's not there. He's in Holland because he has a price on his head. In England his brother that we mentioned lackey was tried convicted and executed on the charge of high treason cheese. And were they were they after. They were forcing their way. Into this castle there is going to kidnap this guy for a ransom presumably. Yeah presumably for ransom and this is strange because we see that blood Thomas Blood it has a lot of different links remember out the top of the show. We said that he rolled with a couple of different crazy. Controversial groups raped. He was involved with a lot of groups that are hostile to the government even though he was also working at different times for the government so he was almost like a secret. Anarchist is trying to bring down the system from within. Yeah yeah he's like a double agent. His whole life is a series of decisions to go. Whichever way the wind leads him? You know what I mean. He's he's very much. Self centered is very much trying to get ahead. I don't think he has a lot of deep seated A loyalty he'll switch besides when needed. He's opportunistic. He eventually returns to England. Even though there is a bounty on his head any gets a new name And he says he's he's a doctor and he begins practicing. Medicine is new name as a real mouthful. A LOAF ISLA. ehlo would be a good wrapping him. It would not he blood and a loaf a Y L O F F E hundred hundred you pronounce Alaw maybe a loaf. What nationality do you think that is after checking out a a little bit of the etymology? Here it's not certain as a very disappointing outcome Ben. It is but you know that helps him with his man of mystery bit that he's doing although I don't really want a mysterious doctor. If I go to a doctor I want them to be pretty transparent. Absolutely you want a good paper trail. Yeah a doctor's documents. Well what happens next. What happens after he returns to England? purporting to be a doctor. He goes for the Duke of Ormond again like he didn't learn his lesson like the guy. He's in an incorrigible Ocean's twelve as as a as a as a one thousand nine hundred thirty mother might say to a child Exactly yeah he re- goes for the same heist heist a second time. The one that got his brother executed or by some accounts brother in law But Yeah since sixteen seventy seventy Colonel Blood comes back around this time. He has a plan to hang the duke. This time. It's personal that must be it. It's almost maybe for revenge Vanja now that now that you killed by brother because he tried to kidnap you prepare to die so he goes for him he he actually goes gunning for most literally with a pistol and and He takes a shot at him. But he's he's pulled from the jaws of death at the last minute And escapes unscathed. This is another interesting Z.. Little detail because we start getting some conflicting stories like is he an assassin at this point is he in it for the money There's an account That says the claims that he was actually acting on orders from George villars. Who was the second Duke of Buckingham so as possible? There is some Duke. Beefs going on here and that Our boy colonel blood was just kind of caught in the middle of it. I mean obviously for some money. But the Duke of Ormond son accused via the second Duke of Buckingham of employing blind to a perpetrate this kidnapping and an attempt on his life And is believed by some stories. That blood was also as you conjectured Ben. I'm acting in a pure Revenge that that that's sweet dish. That is best served cold apparently And for the murder of his brother and the way his gang got completely screwed over. But again you know like he had coming he did it to himself. What is he like blaming the guy for protecting himself when he's he's literally attacking him Trying to to steal him away. It's a little you know. It's that kind of thief mentality now. We're like no honor among thieves and all that right or you know I should do whatever I want. But if other people have a problem with it they're automatically jerks we should put out. We're getting a lot of this information from a great right up From the Clare County Library so do support your local library. cleese's do and then they offer a final possibility which is even more political is that he was planning on holding the Duke hostage until he agreed to restore the lands that were stripped from him when King Charles the second came into power. That's right and all of these. May you know the thing that's interesting about. All these guesses is none of them are mutually exclusive. We said he was born in sixteen eighteen. What what interested did me about this second Heist Keiser hoped the music was playing during the second is Is that during this time. He's fifty two years old. It's sixteen seventy seventy is born sixteen eighteen and now we get to the real the crown jewel of the story which in this case is about the crown jewels also because just like any good heist film Tommy. Blood says he's going to do one last job. When lasts up to this point point? It doesn't sound like he's had much success Well maybe I you know I admit me. We Are Cherry. Picking a little bit of His less successful things but the Duke of hormones keeps getting way you know what I mean. That's his Road runner. He's he's got a Wylie coyote thing going along with that guy. Yeah and much like Wylie Coyote. You know the trick is when you step off the cliff. You don't look down right. I don't know how that applies here but it's just something I always think is worth mentioning. It's a good metaphor for life. Yeah Yeah I have mentioned in the Salvador Dali episode which has not come out yet. You did indeed did. Oh we're jumping. Around their time. People people will find out Yes check out our check out our two part episode on Salvador Dali Disney. That's coming out to doozy. We just plug their own show in the middle of show. Yeah but it's a two parter for the holidays they'll get through. It's a fun one. It's a story that I knew nothing bows and keep a lookout for it. It's got some multimedia aspect it'll be rewarded. Let's pause for a second because there is a nother crucial ingredient to any good heist. What's that Ben? It's a good meal beforehand healthy meal. You gotta be well-fed With fresh healthy ingredients to give you the energy need to pull off these kind of elaborate crimes. uh-huh Yeah Yeah Yeah. You can't do capers. Well on an empty stomach cheated. Capers been recipes involving capers. That's right and whether you are or a criminal mastermind or just someone who loves cooking hellofresh. America's number one meal Kit will give you seasonal easy recipes and premeasured ingredients delivered right to your door. It's true you'll have everything you need to get a heist worthy dinner on the table in just thirty minutes say goodbye to endless grocery store trips and take off. Food's got time for that when you're planning heist of the century stealing the crown jewels or whatever other high level target your after hellofresh Scotch. Cover my friends that's right. They have twenty plus seasonal chef curated recipes each week And there's something for everyone. Family Recipes Callard smart Vegetarian their menu a new series like hall of fame and Craft Burgers. You know I m still. I gotta say a mixture this before. But I'm still so impressed by that salsa and those Poblano Tacos you know. I think I'm GONNA reorder those. Actually yes and something that I enjoy hellofresh that I can absolutely apply to that same Kiwi sauce that you're talking about is finding new ways of using ingredients that I might never have bought on my own and then I just started to incorporate them into my repertoire. Yes hellofresh is fantastic. Fantastic we're speaking from first hand experience. But you don't have to take our word for it. You can try hellofresh today. Get nine free meals with hellofresh afresh by going to hellofresh dot com slash ridiculous nine and using the code ridiculous nine. That's nine meals free with hellofresh by going to hellofresh dot com slash ridiculous and then use use the Promo code ridiculous nine. That's the number nine not spelled out so here we are one last job. Tommy blood decides he's going to steal the crown jewels which are stored in the Tower of London. As we know is like you know usually described described as being impenetrable some version of that. You know guarded to the teeth all of that. What does that say to the teeth ever wonder about that means the teeth? have guns really really tiny. Guns guns were originally vented for teeth. Okay that's straight seahorse teeth Ben. Yup that's also where that comes behind guns. Yeah Yeah it's very It's etem apology. That is so true. You shouldn't even bother checking winning to bring back straight seahorse teeth. Never left your right. We've had people I've had people tell me that in real life now people I know no. It's just come up to be on the street and said something restrict seahorse teeth. Does that happen to you on the Internet. Sometimes they do it on the Internet on our facebook community page ridiculous story plugs. Are we going to stay. I was doing this story story. So it's April may May sixteen seventy one making Tommy blood about fifty to fifty three years old. Here's the thing. Britain's original crown jewels I have been melted down and sold back in sixteen forty nine during the rule of Cromwell but with Charles the second taking the reins of the country back he had had decided to get some replacements and he spared no expense so they had a crown that diamonds tons of other gems on it that a golden orb and a the gold sector would have been items that would have been used during ceremonies and such on the the the King's head you know and then put back in the tower. Yeah Yeah Yeah we could probably do a story on that In its own right because it always seemed weird to me the choice of Jules who says I need an Orb orb is it like the sun is meant to be like holding the Sun. An orb is like the sceptre right. That's the thing you know. It's it's literally it's like a ball that has little cross on on it in some cases Yeah was that for you. Just hold it. Yeah it's just for the look weird like will Smith with cigars in that Miami Song it's just for the look I don't get it. He just bites it. Yeah So these things are beautiful and as you said older. They're only taken out during Ceremonies of great import. Otherwise they're stored in a basement in the tower of London and they have a guy whose entire job is just to watch these things things. His name is Talbot Edwards. He had one job. Yeah exactly. He is a of an older veteran and he shows the jewels to the tourists in exchange for a small fee. And I gotta say it doesn't sound like they had their best and brightest on the job I I. I'm not trying to be ages here. But he is described in this history dot com article as being essentially a retired soldier who is allowed to supplement his wages by Giving tours of the jewels for a small fee And so he is. He's the keeper of the jewels. And I'm guessing there's other guards in place But at the the time this was kind of a new thing Oliver Cromwell sold the old ones. Because he is shooed all the glitter and trappings of this kind of exorbitant wealth. He was much more of an austere kind of monk like monarch. He also thought that they stood for quote the detestable rule of kings. And he was not about that. So after through Cromwell's died and Charles the second came into power. He spent thirty two thousand pounds on the new ones and they were made of solid gold. They they had hundreds of precious stones diamonds Encrusted there was absolute. Playing before blaming was even thing And then blood. He kind kind of had a bit of A. What's the word code kind of like? Even his attacking of the of the Duke of Ormond seemed to have been rooted in some sort of ideology alleged depending on which story you believe but he thought that the showing off of the crown jewels in the spending of that money was import taste and he wanted to teach. It's the king a lesson. It wasn't so much about the cash so he claimed. Yeah it's not about the money it's about sending a message. There's one extra piece of the story here that I think has a nice symmetry to almost all of those jewelry pieces from the reign of King Charles. The first that were you no melted down in the tower of London reemerged as currency and these melted down jewels transformed into coins. Were used to pay the same army that defeated the king hears Colonel Bloods Log Cod. Regardless of what his ideology May Have I've been there was rationalization may have been. We do know what his plan was. First he makes friends he pulls the You know like I'm really tight with everybody else named Ben. He manages to befriend this guy. Thomas Edwards this is also the man in charge of guarding the jewels. He's alternately known as Talbot Edwards. Were Thomas Edwards so Edwards lives on the ground. But you know as we said he's allowed to make a little money on the side charging people but he's not what's specifically paid for his work. He's volunteer which is not what you want for something this valuable anyway. Blood goes back to his normal IMO. He disguises is is himself a as as a vicar an Anglican clergyman and he hires an actor to pose as his wife. So they go to the Tower of London they pay Talbot Edwards few the Crown Jewels there behind this metal great in room protected by this reinforced forced door and then his quote unquote or as you would say no. His wife fakes. A sudden illness and so- Edwards being not a piece of garbage says. Oh No are you okay here Come to my upstairs apartment taken some air you know lay down collect yourself yeah. He's kind of Patsy in this story because he seemed like a a kindly old gent who was again just trying to supplement his pensioners income with just given even tours. You know I mean. It's it's a shame that he he got taken in by this ruse so as you said in his good nature kind kindheartedness He allowed the Supposedly ailing woman to rest in his apartment. By the way he lived in that upstairs apartment with with his entire family and blood. Thanks this This kindly gentleman. He doesn't steal anything. Is this the only thing yet. And then later he came back with a gift for for Talbott's wife it was four pairs of white gloves then Following that several weeks later the colonel created created this entire kind of back story he really ingratiated himself into a relationship and actual friendship with Edwards in his family and started visiting there frequently And you know Ha- at this point you know. Every time he would visit he would take a look around and get a sense of the the exits and entrances and all of the weaknesses and really really earned. The trust of this couple and really Some conniving stuff and he he says he says you know Edwards. You and I. We're buddies you know my wife. I mean your wife I got some gloves we love hanging hanging out and I want to be honest with you. Your daughter's not married and in our day and age. That's really weird so I have a nephew a few who's also a little weird and also unmarried so why you know what we help each other out a little bit and get these kids hitched up Edwards says. Oh what a fantastic idea yes. Please bring the nephew over for a meeting as soon as you can. As soon soon as convenient and blood says Oh yes absolutely. And then he leaves and he He starts looking for a nephew because the one thing about about the story he was telling Edwards. was that this nephew. He described does not exist now. So may ninth sixteen seventy one. It's about seven in the morning. Blood blood gets the Tower of London. He's got his crew together. Here's here the members of his crew. His son also named Thomas. Who's going to pose as the nephew? Fu and then. Robert Perot Richard Hollowell and William Smith each of these three men. I think the sun is well had strapped apt. Yeah they were strapped. Their pistols at daggers. And then blood was still dressed as a priest. That's so cool or a person rather he hid a wooden mallet inside his robes. So he's kind of like you remember. How in Tombstone Doc Holliday? Has the shotgun trench coach. He's pulling that kind of move. which to me just is the image of this is fantastic? CONNICK was this mallet a weapon. He was GonNa Bonk people with his mallet or was it like a tool for for breaking and entering. Both he he just he he was a BA who needed a hammer. Gotcha so all the while. Smith is waiting with a gang of horses Near the entrance to the tower The Tower Gates. And that is when Perot Thomas the son and blood the leaders still posing as the Parson go and meet with Talbot's Of course introducing his son as a nephew in question and Perot as a family friend or something and says hey okay got a fun idea or waiting for your daughter to come round Why don't you give us a tour? You're the tour Guy Right. Give us a tour. Give us a little peak at the old crown jewels. And he's like I. Yeah I do keep the Jews. Yes yes here here. Follow me please. And these unlocking the door and as soon as the tumblers click doc as soon as the doors unlocked blood and his cronies gag. Oh Gag Talbot words. This guy's seventy seven years old. They throw a sack Zac over his head down. He tries to fight back. And that's when blood takes out his mallet. And as you said Bonk's crap out. So He's gagged black lack bagged and yeah in the Noggin and he is so this makes him lose consciousness just for extra Just for some extra bells and whistles a blood also stabs this old man in the gut but as we'll come to find blood is very bad at killing people people so this guy is bleeding out and the robbers tear off the great member that metal great we described earlier protecting the gills and then they start trying to Refashion the stuff to make it easier to take away with them. So the kernel uses his mallet and slams on the imperial the crown until he makes it like a flat plate and then his son who is not super intelligent begins trying to saw the sceptre in half because he can't fit it in the bags they brought you dumb ass right. Well I think like time and a place you know at that point you're at the level of heist where you have to think of your time management. That's fair but I love how this whole thing feels like a Quentin Tarantino Film Tarantino. If you're listing just make this scene you don't have to make the whole film. Everything starts to hit the fan as it were right. Yeah Yeah Yeah. Yeah Yeah So Perot is not going to try to flat and stuff. He's not going to try to break this. After he takes that royal or he just stuff sit sit down his pants. Jimmy's it's just hilarious. Is that a royal orb in your pants or are you just happy to see me right. he was probably pretty pretty happy at the time But hollowell member. We haven't mentioned hall while Smith's outside Hollowell has been serving as a lookout and he pops into the room and he says Talbot Edwards Son has unexpectedly returned home. He's upstairs looking for his father and so the thieves all try to get their stuff together and run away but remember we said Tommy. Blood is bad at killing people. Right as they're running away Talbot but Edwards seventy seven year old Talbot Edwards he wakes up he slips off his gag and he starts screaming mud. Treason the crowd new stolen. So it's like the alarm going off right. Is there exiting the bank. Yeah yeah it was absolutely An absolute ship show. It's true. Who's the shouting murder? Treason Talbot Edwards Talbert Edward. So He's been he's been. noggin slammed came back. He came back. He's been gut stabbed. noggin slammed and he's still sounding the old man wheezing alarm. Yes he wants he regains consciousness. Yeah yeah well. That's that's a shame For for the crew. But obviously they had coming because they didn't have to stab the old guy in the gut even have to Basham and is knocked out was gratuitous it really really was especially I mean. It's adding insult to injury because they really. He seemed like a kindly gentleman. And they really it just wormed his way into his good graces and then literally stabbed him. Not even in the back in the front and Yeah it's just makes me sad so what happens next ban. They're they're they're on the Lam they're running. And the the the bobby's are in hot pursuit. It wouldn't have been bobby's other would have been like palace guards or some some of of a might have been named Bob Roberts. Maybe there were several. Maybe they were. Bobby's so Talbot Edwards Son Guy Named why Edwards. That's the That's the soldier and a military engineer from Sweden. A Martin Beckman are running after blood. Blood Hollowell Perot Smith and blood. Son Thomas are making a dash to get to the tower gates. They drop the sceptres. They're running things are going bad and blood still dressed as Parson and by the way I cannot overemphasize this he turns around. He draws his pistol and fires at the people chasing them. He wounds one of the guards and this distracts people long enough for him to make it to his horse until he gets snatched. He gets tackled before he can climb into the saddle. So so that Engineer Beckman that we mentioned Just totally knocks him to the ground and then in a matter of minutes. Most of the other outlaws were rounded up and the crown jewels which had been you know distorted and deformed are recovered and colonel. Blood finds himself dragged back inside the tower of London in chains. Hey this just in. It's officially fall. Means a lot of things to a lot of different people changing colors time to break out. The pumpkins begins break out the football. Most importantly break out my friends at truly hard seltzer truly has only one hundred calories but as five percent sent in only one gram of sugar per container. It's that can't miss drink of the seasons of pickup and try truly heart Seltzer today. The truly drake what you truly want this just in it's officially fall and that means a lot of things to a lot of people. The leaves are changing colors super breakout the pumpkins breakout. The football and most importantly breakout the truly hard seltzer. See truly has only one hundred calories but it has five percent. ABC and only one gram of sugars per container. Can't miss drink of the season. Tried truly hard seltzer today. Truly drink what you truly want. By the way Talbot Edwards was promised a reward the crown. They said they were going to give him two hundred pounds. Yeah I mean that was gut stab as this also. A Very Tarantino esque thing reminds me reservoir. Dogs gets gets shot. The garden spends all movie bleeding out in the back of a car. That's kind of what's going on here but you know. At least he sounded the alarm and Colonel Blood did get his comeuppance more. LS But here's the thing blood new. The king had a reputation for identifying with You know a very bold acts of of defiance in a weird way. Yeah you wouldn't think that about a king but he was a fan of scoundrels and figure that he could Kind of weasel. It'll his way out of the news As as he'd been known to do in the past yeah and there's this great line it's very Tarantino. Aaron Tina asks his jailers are in roughing him up there asking questions we're doing with the Jules we got you this time blood. What made you do this? What was your plan? What are you gonNA to do but blood refuses to answer any questions instead? He says he says that he refuses to speak with anyone. But the king himself And weirdly enough The king gives him that audience because when he say now you know as we just said he knows that this could work that the king would have this interest and he lays it on thick right he becomes a real con artist. You know and in says I'm in all of the Majesty of the King and Keep Charles Kinda dixit sort of appeals to his inflated Ego. Yeah he's the one who spent all his cash cash the king on on these replacement crown jewels and he was basically saying. Oh I had to have them because they were just so you know it was Honestly I did it like out of respect. Act really flipping the script man. What an interesting con- you know what this weird because there's a there's a penis joke in here? What did you catch edged? No so one of the things he says he's talking to the king and he says you I once plan to shoot you with a musket while I spied you bathing waiting river. But I lost my nerve fibers in all of Your Majesty right what we have to be careful because it's fairly show really. Yeah Yeah but that's what you say it. It's Charles is like oh you old. So and so and then blood says and also you know those crown jewels Jules probably were worth Hundred thousand pounds. I would say much less EMBIID's blows my mind because you would think When when blood devalued these crown jewels by say I don't think they're worth one hundred hundred thousand pounds? Well like six thousand pounds. You would think that would have done the opposite like you know. He's is trying to appeal to the Kings Ego inflated sense of Self Worth Yeah all of that stuff and he's the one who sanctioned these crown jewels to be purchased for so much money But in fact the king was amused by how audacious this rogue was in claiming you know that the jewels actually worth far far less yes absolutely bonkers and counter intuitive and it makes no sense. There's another there's another I would say substrate of narrative it appears to Charles the second shocks everyone he gives Tommy blood a full pardon. He gives them land in Ireland. Where five hundred pounds? A year and people are still baiting why he would do this. A lot of the early accounts said well you know. That's how the king is he. Just he thought blood was A bloody good time. How many likes to you know he liked to stories? It was like a was into that version. The Ted talks and he said good shoulder boy but we now think. Think that because Thomas Blood who is a self appointed colonel by the way he just SORTA started calling himself that people think that because of blood's history and espionage is being Aaj he may have been working as one of the chief operatives of Charles the Second Court member. We said that the Duke of Buckingham may have hired him him to kidnap or attempted murder. Some folks Charles. The second may have been aware of this and the tower heist might have been an inside. Job Bob wait a minute. What's hice Music Casey? And so the duke pulled some strings possibly on bloods behalf and some scholars dollars would even argue that Charles. The second because he was cash for visit was short on funds that he was in on the scam and plan to take a cut of the loot. My question is would there have been something akin to an insurance policy on something so valuable in those days or was that is insurance appearance in that way more and more of a modern concepts you know I. I am not aware of that. We could do history insurance. That would be really fascinating. A really boring we give fascinating because of the early days of insurance and then the wildest things wherever insured but at this point Just guessing I would say there wasn't yeah I would think so too but it's It just popped into my head but so instead of like getting a cut of the insurance money he was literally going to get a cut of like the fenced loot in theory here so this is like why was he so cash for because he was embroiled. In different wars and restoring the throne was a Was a dangerous endeavor than it wasn't a cheap one. They make sense and by the way an insurance didn't really start in the United States until seventeen thirty five and guess guess who is involved in it. Ben Franklin Dam road right go bends so Just comparison for anyone who lives in the US this heist is like breaking into the Pentagon to steal something. Or what breaking into Fort. Knox if there's any golden old Fort Knox and then getting caught and then going to meet the president and the president is the guy who put the job together and sort of you know. Does that Monty Monty Burns steeple with their hands and says you know what. Let's just tell everybody that. I think you're hilarious. Usually go to prison. That'll fly. Yeah usually I usually go to prison. But we're GONNA give you we're going to give you some land Out in the Caribbean Or you know out in Someplace on the coasts someplace. Nice and then we'll give you five hundred bucks a year. How's that sound? Is that real been. What's that the thing that you just laid out? I've just comparing the two situations nothing to see here right I mean it really. I don't know it's it. Comes to conspiracies as we know from the other show that we want you to know. They're often very difficult to prove. And the term conspiracy theory often thrown about as sort of A. What is it called? Ben Self A thought terminating cliche exactly so the idea. When when you refer to something in these terms it belittles it to the point of rendering it kind of inert and that's the hope But very often conspiracies are very real and this one sure seems to hold some some sand. If this is what happened it makes absolutely no sense that the king would have gone so light on the guy who Literally killed the the old man in charge of guarding the crown. Jewels tried to steal them. Stuff them down there pansy now absolutely defiled every aspect of these precious items and then just claim that he was charming so he gave him all this stuff and let him go completely and also it's the king so people are going to be hard pressed just to go. You Know Your Majesty. This kinda stinks. You know. There's there's something rotten in your reasoning. No one's going to say that. So it seems teams that Charles. The second found more value in Thomas Blood as a living political operative than he did as as a prisoner or an executed criminal so he probably let him go because he was useful as a spy. An enforcer an an informant however he still was taking inside work freelance espionage and in sixteen seventy nine things soured with his pal. The Duke of Buckingham. Who is probably the guy who kept him out of jail if not setting them up for these heist in the first place? Blood apparently says something being bad about the Duke's character and so the Duke says give me ten thousand pounds to make that right because USA besmirched my good name and then blood becomes ill in sixteen eighty so the duke never gets his his ten large and blood dies on August Twenty Fourth Sixteen ecksteen eighty at the ripe old age of sixty two. There is one footnote for this which is so crazy. He died deeply in debt. He did not die a wealthy not man. He hadn't been in the best of health for while. But the problem with being a double agent for your entire career that eventually people don't trust you Noel. How little did they trust this guy upon his death he was trusted about as little as a human person can possibly be trusted in the they? The authorities actually dug up his body to make sure that he was actually dead That he had not faked his own death to avoid going to debtor's prison. You know he was that much of a shady character So he was in fact reburied in his headstone. Supposedly really read here lies. The man who boldly has run through more villains than England ever knew and there is a nineteen sixty sixty seven comedy satire called the jokers that involves sealing the crown jewels. I think there is an episode of Sherlock. That's already where we're he not steals the Crown Jewels Benedict cumberbatch company. Bribe that yes that one and the guy that plays Moriarty I i. I love very. I didn't care for his Moriarty. You didn't like him. There is a lot. Yeah Great. Great actor he's in He's in fleabag. He plays a priest and fleabag and he's also in that episode of Black Mirror I I enjoy this moriarty though but that's fun teacher and more US growth growing up For some reason I was taken with With John Goodman vehicle what do Gavril do you guys remember that one. It's It's about John Goodman. Plays a guy who likes bullying or something. And then there's this huge mishap in the English Royal L. Family and he becomes the king It's it's you know fish out of water comedy but that's that's what I always associate with royalty in England because I was just a sucker for that song and John Goodman and John Goodman if you're listening I think I think you are fantastic actors. Well I'd love to see you play Moriarty. I'd love to see someone play. Thomas Blood like Casey not does not sound like a narrative that would be ripe for an action in film. Yeah I think it'd be a lot of fun I'll tell you who's crown jewels were actually stolen And the perpetrators escaped on a speedboat. The crown jewels of Sweden belonging to King. In Carl the ninth and Queen Christina. They also had a royal orb and were stolen last year in a pretty incredible heist Almost like the type you'd CNN. James Bond movie again with complete with a high speed speedboat chase and I do believe they have been recovered but the British crown jewels have thus far not been attempted to be Lifted since this daring escapade which I want to see as a height like the baggers as a producer right the just just we take the heist film formula. We're talking about in the beginning. We make it a period piece. Maybe we embellish a little bit. Give Hallo Perot and Smith. Their own kind of specialties. Soltys or something completely priest come on man with a mallet in the robes. I don't know if it's the coffee. Or what but I think this is fantastic. As a matter of fact I gotta go work on the screenplay right now if it hasn't already happened. Thank you so much for tuning in everyone. We hope that you enjoyed this installment palment of of ridiculous history on historical heist. Thanks as always to our super producer. Casey pegam thanks to Gabe lose Yay thanks to Alex Williams who composed this wonderful wonderful music. You here at the beginning and end of the show face to crisscross. Yoda's here in spirit. Jonathan Strickland here some sort of lingering ghoulish we asthma and We thanks Richard Casey Program. I think we have. But because he's the best and hey I'm just seeing an ad come up for a new grand theft auto. DLC called grand theft auto online the Diamond Casino Heist. We are not being paid but it looks pretty cool. If you're in a high sti stuff Yeah also also thanks to gene Chandler Duke Rural. Oh I got some weird news unrelated anything you guys I beat Sky Rim like not just the main quest what I've done everything everything dude I. I know one hundred percent completion. I guess I got like the stones you know you have to collect this twenty four stone the weird mask I get the whole thing. That's pretty cool. Yeah I don't know if I told you I I quit playing the game because my save was too old and The I I had advanced to a point where I was. I had no business being because I had not left up enough so I gave it up but it was a fun game. Maybe now enough time has passed. That can do start fresh because it is a really fun game it is it. Is I guess you know not you say. It's such a buggy game. I probably don't have a one hundred percent completion because Bethesda. This is the Tories that. But you're you're more of a fallout guy right. I am indeed so let us know. the story of Thomas Blood and the crown jewels better video game. Better as a ocean's eleven heist filled we'd like to hear from you can find us on facebook you you can find on twitter. You can find us on instagram. We've got our community page ridiculous historians of course you can also find us as individuals. I am at Ben. Boland olen on instagram. Stay tuned because I will be on some adventures tunes. Check that out if I meet clues early on Instagram as how now Brown. We'll see you next time for more podcasts. From iheartradio visit the iheartradio apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows this episode of ridiculous history is brought to you by better air. Did you know the air inside. Our homes is is five times more polluted than outdoor air air filters can't get to the root of the problem microscopic allergens and pathogens that live in our beds counters and other surfaces but the probiotic purifier. By better air can better air uses environmental probiotics. Remove those microbes from your home. 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Colonel Thomas Blood Tommy Blood Charles Talbot Edwards Duke Colonel Blood Hollowell Perot Smith England Tommy Tower of London Perot Thomas Ben Thomas Blood Guy Precise Casey Ireland Tommy Blood Ben You producer Oliver Cromwell Quentin Tarantino
Casket-a-go-go, Part 2

Invention

50:04 min | 1 year ago

Casket-a-go-go, Part 2

"Radio your favorite brands like beats Sony Bows and more that's right noise cancelling headphones keep your music clear from the outside world true wireless you know Robert High Quality headphones very important to me I wear my headphones all the time and so you got to have the best and best buy has the latest in Wireless welcome to invention a production of iheartradio the threat a threat that emerged during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries particularly in England well particularly in the UK and also in the US we thought we bring you plenty of reprehensible material today we're going to be continuing the coffin journey now last time what did we look at it I think it was mostly about we're talking about grave robbing here in grave robbing of course was not a new thing in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries grave robbing has pretty much always been around a value that would be needed in the presumed afterlife in the next world weapons or magical items things that would aid them we're dealing with that was the the main necessity was the mother of those inventions however one of the key things we're GONNA talking about here concerns differ yes but but I think generally speaking most people associated with with the UK and that is a fear of the resurrection assists right so the last world Egyptian tombs for example many of these were robbed during their time these centuries to me we follow almost immediately after they were seized merrily when we're talking about grave robbing in the ancient since we are talking about stealing vaginal valuables that were interred the dead Things we discussed hey welcome to name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormack and we're back with part two of our coffin ago go fast here invention it's October of course the creation of these tombs were also involved in opening the tombs backup to get the goodies out yeah I mean it's a good side hustle if you're involved in the the secret away of the dead King's golden treasures you can also make a nice make a pretty penny resurrecting that material bringing back out more about animals in the ancient since right right you didn't dig your grave deep enough and so of course scavenging animals sniffed it out dragged it to the surface and consumed all the tasty anatomist who needed human cadavers especially for hospitals and for teaching centers so medical science was advancing at a blistering pace but so roaming drunken resurrection EST ruled the came to rule the night digging up fresh bodies delivering them to the anatomist earning their pay and the people who were afraid they'd be buried alive and inventions on how to get around this problem yeah yeah that was the primary anxiety the those but here we're talking about the body itself and now generally speaking you know if if if we're dealing with something stealing the body itself generally we're we're thing episode was all about the problem of you being stuck in a coffin when you WANNA get out right today's episode is going to be more about you being taken out of a coffin when you WanNa be left in yeah old often I think sometimes the implication is that maybe people who were involved in the burial of ancient Egyptian rich people in Faeroes or were maybe involved in the because we've had grave somebody or something has been willing to dig those grades up right some of our oldest tombs for instance the tombs from the ancient but in so here's here's the lucky thing for these enterprising resurrection EST corpses at the time belonged to no one the big gray area here because again generally speaking through throughout most of human history if someone was going to dig up the grave digging it up for property they weren't digging it up for the body itself right look to some tales of the ghouls and I think there is especially more modern tales tells it emerged poster eighteenth and nineteenth centuries let's yeah Oh of course mythical ghouls right graveyard lurking creatures that would eat corpse flesh yeah and it is interesting how I think they're we needed bodies to chart their way into the medical future they already had access to executed criminals and the destruction of the criminals corpse was considered a the last episode you know valuables that they were going to the were so important to them that they were a part of them and should therefore remain with their bodies or perhaps something but we could make a very important distinction here between removing the body from a tomb and just removing all the goodies from tomb right. Yeah I mean anatomist there's an increase in demand the other thing is criminal justice reforms leading to fewer executed criminals so that's a decrease in the traditional supply the the breaking of the tomb because better who has the knowledge right sometimes these gangs would even use fake mourners to dissect for primary research human body but also a lot of it was just for education it was for like you know teaching for surgical colleges and that kind of thing exactly Al Fayed indeed but this wasn't enough this was not enough to meet the demand right because you had multiple demands for one thing you would need fresh corpses grave robbing or a grave opening like so first of all I was reading that it seems to me around the seventeenth and eighteenth century in the UK especially the several different trend enforcement to figure out the rest right but so a quick note on the relative respectability and legality when comparing body stealing versus grave robbing men is relatively minor if you were caught stealing body as opposed to steal in grave goods into thorndike's just often turn a blind eye to what was going on I think also oh I think the criminality of it is sort of a gray area sometimes and there are different gradations of respectability that seemed to be involved with different types of mhm sort of lonely men doing the lonely work of graveyard scavenging but at times this was like a full blown criminal organization yeah but also well I don't have time to worry where the bodies come from I have important work to do if the body comes I'm just going to pay the standard rate for it and I'll just leave they even operated in gangs acting on tips again coming back to that idea at times that those involved in the burial of the dead or sometimes involved in why of bodies that these these colleges can have and then the third thing is sort of a a sort of permissive atmosphere like penalties were sometimes we're not hungry they weren't looking for a midnight snack so what were they looking for well they were working on behalf of science boy or more specifically they they worked in the employ of he's stolen for medical education research even if the people stealing the bodies were like I'm not stealing any valuable stuff from the graves yeah I was thinking about this out so you know having when I read about resurrection in the past I kind of just thought of like okay just bumbling drunken criminals or most resurrection men would actually remove the body but leave the grave goods if there were any even often I've read that they would take the clothes off of the day the judge say you got caught or two in anatomist it was not a very good defense to the common people do like to say look I only stole the naked body I left the clothes ED person and put the clothes back in the grave and this sort of distinguish them from common thieves but while that distinction might have been important to time I think have may have changed the demand for certain technologies like I think most Christians today who believe in resurrection or afterlife believe in the resurrection of and they would war against each other for the for the gang gold it was the freshly dead flesh like sometimes they would I was reading they would desecrate yeah the the body of the king a king is his later dragged back out and and and treated in some manner that disrespects it yeah immaterial soul rather than the physical resurrection of the body though I think you can quite plausibly argued that the ladder is more directly what is described for and that all sort of combined to make body snatching and especially lucrative trades a one of them of course you already mentioned is the need from medical colleges to remain intact because that's the body you're GonNa be in when Christ returns yes that's a really interesting way that changes in religious beliefs over the body of a of a deceased loved one prep someone of status would be dragged out and stripped of its of its belongings and dragged away in the night the whole family hangs out with pitchforks in protects the grave but I think most of us can agree that would mess with your grieving process but people did do things ah didn't steal the gold trinket you left with him so many regular people of course were furious and horrified at the idea that their body or the body of a relative indeed essentially desecrating the individual through the act was this after the monarchy came back to power they get Cromwell's body out of the ground and they said well he escaped punishment in life but will life yeah exactly and you know another thing I thought about too is okay so look the primary one of the primary fears here's just kind of like the the the appalling notion public execution of his corpse and the the long running display of his head or at least you know some people some people wonder if that was actually the skull of Cromwell else to stand guard at your grave now one thing is that if you are just worried about having your body stolen as opposed to the theft of valuable grave goods yeah the the other thing to keep in mind too is okay what sort of you know not to be too judgmental but what sort of individual you likely to hire to stand yeah well let's say that you die somewhere around Edinburgh and the you know early eighteen hundreds and you are incredibly concerned that your body is going to be yanked out of the grade are day and night in the cemetery watching over the grave of your loved one there's a very strong possibility that this sort of individual is the very sort of eight another graveyard that bear gang wasn't actually dealing with though is the sort of the domain of another gang to try and get that gang cleared out with the fears of the the fears of Resurrection is kind of combined with fears of the ghouls and And I think all of that will make more sense as we proceed here but these resurrections you didn't have to hire a guard for forever until the end of time if you hire a guard like the Scottish medical colleges and the unanimous don't these people they're not going to be interested soon the epistles Paul and the New Testament and yeah I think it used to be a more common belief that like I need my dead body I need those bones those are what's going to come back to life rave goods but before we do that we're GonNa take a quick break Robert you know much like the one ring in terms of The end of the resurrection of the Body Bodily Resurrection that some Christians and believe in the idea that it is important for the body buds it turns out best buy has the latest in wireless audio your favorite brands like beats Sony Bows and more we're talking full over the ear noise canceling headphones Lee Day they know all this stuff inside and out upgrade now at best buy dot com slash headphones all right we're back so yes we've discussed the you turn your music up and keep the Noise Out Bluetooth powered true wireless ear buds to give you a clear sound fit comfortably without all the hassle of liars and fresh you can just hear from the guard right now another solution would be cemetery wide security right so you get fences walls locked gates but these options of course wouldn't work so we're GonNa talk about inventions for individual burials specifically to prevent the theft of corpses and the theft of that's sometimes yeah I mean I guess in way would give you something to do and where to focus right your emotions of course if you had the money to do so you could also hire individuals l. been replaced but at any rate there was this legacy already in England of of desecrating the body and and and in the things about the body and so you only need to guard the body for as long as the body would be fresh basically I don't know exactly what counts as fresh but it often seems all the time wouldn't be available to everybody if you were rich you could lock your family's bodies inside a secured crip to revolt but I think most people you know couldn't afford the IT in a rotten multi year old corpse they wanNA fresh body with Oregon's and living anatomy still intact so that they can dissect it to learn things about the body threat the resurrection EST may be coming to steal our freshly dead bodies away so that they can sell them to Adamus what do we do to protect them. We've already discussed the possibility the bodies from being stolen by the resurrection men or the Resurrection Ists they're not vampire traps despite the appearance their trap the dead down in the earth all I'm high quality headphones have become precious to me over the years I kind of can't live without them and if you don't have high quality headphones it is time to upgrade your headphones or you also have to think about this in the in the within the legacy of the disinter of the former Lord protector Oliver Cromwell and the the puck and the subsequent and who would be eager to accept a bribe from the resurrection EST gangs themselves so yes or maybe your guard just has a side hustle as a resurrection tangle or snag affray It's truly wireless sound you have to experience for yourself do you have any questions about any of that well hey you can talk to a best buy blue shirt on the ground prevents you from digging down to the coffin you could have other ones that are just pretty small and snug and fit over top of the coffin but it prevents you from just breaking the coffin open end take into some good for nothing medical college to be dissected in front of a bunch of students what can you do to prevent this well first thing of course you could do is just I have seen these in the United States I like to walk around old cemeteries and while I can't say for sure I'm almost positive I've seen them in old southern cities like in Savannah Georgia this may have consisted of only a window of a few weeks and also it's whatever the market will bear whatever they can then turn around and sell to an anatomist of the most are the cages that are often put over air conditioning units in our contemporary world for the very same purpose we're discussing here to prevent someone age the purpose is to prevent human bodies from being disinterred and so they're partially buried wrought iron cages that fit over top of the coffin preventing anybody from the posting guards now we're going to get more into the hardware right so have you ever walked through an old cemetery and come across what looks like grow from walking off with said air conditioning unit these are known as more safes and this is one of the main interventions that was invented to protect about the state of my body like one way to to try and keep this from happening as to say look my body I'm going to let it make sure it's plenty rotted before it's buried you know or or if now I've read in multiple sources that more safes are mostly found in Scotland and of course that would line up with a lot of other stuff we were reading about body snatching being Jaren Charleston South Carolina. This is I don't believe I have seen one in Atlanta and I've I've walked around Atlanta's cemeteries a fair amount is that there would be anatomist present right so I've read that these are most commonly around Edinburgh around London around Philadelphia places where there would be it's possible I've missed it but it does make sense I mean you again you would need to be most concerned about grave sites that are located in large enough areas you've got aren't bars in the way now with some of these mort safes again you benefit from the fact that what the anatomist are looking for fresh corpses so again the more making it up now another thing about Mortenson now of course they came in multiple shapes right you could have bigger mort safes that are sort of like a big boxy cage that is partially buried a particular historical problem in eighteenth and nineteenth century Scotland I think especially like around Edinburgh or you know there's a lot of medical college stuff going on there but I know a lot of urban legends about this apparently especially in places where more safes are common they were invented in the early eighteen hundreds in the design is pretty simple they're essentially just a metal case taste would not necessarily have to be bought and kept in place in perpetuity you really only needed it as long as it took for the corpse to become unappetizing to it's task wrought iron animal cages half buried protruding from the earth the well if you haven't used at least look pictures of these because what they remind me can out or even the whole body should be live for that purpose but this was this would have been an extremely radical idea at the time yeah I think it reflects a a sea change all the time the anatomist getting these bodies maybe didn't ask a lot of questions about where they came from rice that there's sort of plausible deniability uh-huh I like I'm a professional in cultural attitudes towards anatomy and medical science and medical education and all that kind of stuff yeah because that would obviously be another way to cut out the resurrection of the conflict that emerges where those two worlds neat because Oh totally yeah because one thing that also comes to mind is like if I if I if I really didn't care ludicrous and horrific turns in the late eighteen twenty s there was one famously awful incident that resulted in well you could say it came and one. Such anatomist was the Scottish physician and scholar Robert Knox who was an esteemed member of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh and not actuary services at the time being able to just say snip off certain extremities from dead bodies that would be obviously obviously of lesser valued safes in the early eighteen hundreds legally able bodies are in very short supply but Edinburgh in the medical colleges and the unanimous still need bodies for science that's right I mean who yeah who better to get the tips from and stuff like if you've got a guard on your payroll you don't even have to stake out a fake mourner at the funeral to see where the bodies are going it's like his peers would range payments to have bodies brought to his dissecting room and it seems like many of his other peers he again didn't ask a whole lot of questions about where any seven hair became annoyed because one of the people living in the House that where he was renting out the rooms died while owing him four pounds and rent it's buyer so you could put a more safe in place until your putrid and then you dig it up or dismantle it with the tackle system and then it can be reused on another great clash of cultures this new the new science the new anatomy versus the more supernatural ideas of what our body is for you know and this is key learning taking place that where where a dead body might come in useful I wonder to what extent to this is like ultimately it's a com were born in Ireland but by the eighteen twenties they both emigrated to Edinburgh and Scotland and in eighteen twenty seven hair was working as the keeper of a Public Lodging House this man to deal directly with the anadromous right and and then some individuals likely did that I'm guessing but they would have certainly been the exception to the rule yes and they're there when animus than a full dead body but still may be of some value right you know and we see some of this certainly today we live in a time when plenty of people will will donate their bodies so that year burke also showed up in the house I believe he was originally lodger there but they sort of got together and started collaborating and in November of eighteen are things that can be gained certainly for the for the medical world or other people's lives and livelihoods than those organs should be paying people for dead bodies might not necessarily mean bring us already dead bodies they can just mean you need to show up here with a dead body how it got it dead I don't know yeah I mean especially if there's a premium on freshness which the you know there is exactly so over the next year Burke and Hare with me assistance from their wives apparently murdered fifteen other people by luring them into the lodging house and then suffocating them and selling their fresh bodies to Robert Knox in Pencil or so you can see how one might begin to get ideas it's almost kind of like the the Cobra problem the economics that we've talked basically from the direct pressures of the dead body economy so this stage due to legal and technological restraints like the introduction of more where I'm going to make sure my body is mangled in such a way that it will be a little use to the unanimous but obviously people bearing the dead you know they've still were very concerned punishes body and even it's not comical now right and of course it's not just the English this there are other examples from other cultures where up into little pieces so I will be of no use to the anadromous yeah but then again I'm not sure that's always true because I've also read accounts of sometimes people working in and he didn't know anything about this he was not involved in the murdering of these people but it's still essentially ruined Knox's reputation and evidence of this is captured in they came from let's just assume that the cadavers are legit so here into the story come to dudes named William Burke and William Hair yes wchs the scheme was uncovered and they were caught I think on Halloween eighteen twenty eight apparently hair turned state's evidence he he testified against Burke Science when they die or they're you know they certainly make sure that they are organ donors like people realize to varying degrees that they will not need a body once they are dead and if they're often quoted children's rhyme from the time if you heard this before Robert I'm not sure let's here okay up the clothes and Dune the stair been the WHO's with burke in hair and hair was released for testifying against his accomplice and Burke was hanged and of course that that means that burks body was likely than used by anatomist Predessor creating it in any way right well you could leave instructions like Frederick Japan in the last episode who is make sure they cut my heart out so I don't get buried alive it'd be other advantages to dealing directly with the anatomist such as voiding what I'm about to talk so the trade in dead bodies at this time also sometimes took burks the butcher hairs the thief knocks the boy who buys the beef oh that's good that's the whole story encapsulated right there but less we unfairly single them out the anatomist I just mentioned and then they go so they got seven pounds for the body that's a nice profit they were owed for they got seven four it or they got more than seven I think seven townsend right it's not actually an incentive to get rid of all the cobras from the city it's just an incentive for people to bring you Cobra to raise cobras etc right so an incentive and in order to recuperate the back owed rent burke and Hare came up with a plan to sell the body of the dead tenant to local anatomist Robert Knox again the anatomist body trade happened over the years in Britain and in the United States apparently from the name William Burke one of the two murderers here A person who was Oh yeah yeah if he wanted to be dissected actually to prevent being buried alive here you can come at it from the other hand and say I don't WanNa be dissected so instead cut me and with the idea of getting the the body in the grave before it decomposed before the you know the signs of death were really apparent and and certainly not that it probably was I don't know that detail but I I can't imagine that irony did not have Burg said in his confession so he was like Okay Knox was in your buds eliminate the hassle of all those wires it's truly wireless sound you have to experience for yourself so hey go out and do an upgrade now at best buy dot com slash headphones silence stuff to blow your mind before you put a price tag on on Cobra's it's going to change the way people interact with Cobra's it's GonNa Change the value of cobras loan birkenhead were not the only people to figure out the scheme if you need a fresh dead body you know you save yourself the digging and you just murder people similar murders for the murdered so that their corpse could be sold to a dissection room was said to have been birkt Oh wow such a grisly an episode from history now one thing I think we we might skipped over was we mentioned Burke having been hanged his body would have likely gone to the anatomist as well that was of course national museums Scotland from around eighteen twenty from a village called kings kettle in fife and it's basically a huge block of wood with an iron horse hugh shape bolted onto it and this ironhorse she would fit around the neck of the cadaver locking it in place inside the coffin so for resurrection as loops happened and if you think about it that doesn't really make a lot of sense like that introduces all kinds of unnecessary difficulties into your body extraction routine on nearby and then dig a horizontal tunnel into the side of the head of the coffin break a hole in the side and pull the body out laterally rope around your neck and tries to pull you out you just stay firmly stuck in place because of the iron collar unless your head comes off if this is one of those situations though where if they get temperature somewhere at the head of the coffin they'd either dig down a narrow tunnel near the head of the coffin and they would break open through the through the roof of the coffin this policy against exactly this kind of removal the solution is kind of ingenious I think it's called a coffin collar I was looking at one example in the collection of the either way that this common method was roper hook around the neck and then pull the body out leave the coffin in place and there was a further invention that was an insurance the lid of the coffin and then throw a rope around the neck and hold the body out either through a hole in the coffin lid or sometimes they would do a thing where they would dig a tunnel safe if you could afford it but even if you couldn't think about it even if you have a relatively limited means you can think of ways to make digging up a coffin extremely difficult something you will see. The resurrection is digging all the way down like digging a grave size toll and then prying open the lid of the coffin that is not usually what had the original legitimate route to get fresh dead bodies was from the bodies of condemned criminal right and then but then what happens if you're not hanging as many of your criminals right that far like they've essentially already desecrated grave you're just essentially putting in a safeguard to keep them from profiting from the desecration or just that's going to reduce the number of legit corpses and that is just going to grow the demand for illicit corpses brought up by the resurrection how about throwing tree branches into the ground as you as you fill the earth back in right this would make it like trying to dig through routes the king would be extremely difficult so like digging a grave digging a fresh grave is is is in some intense work right and then even re digging a grave where the at least throwing in big stones as you fill the grave back in this makes the digging up very hard so there were a lot of things you could do and then if you think about it even if they haven't done that and it's just normal breath filled back in you'd have to dig out a lot of space like you're saying to get the lid open so instead resurrection had a method where they would break open and has been loosened for you that's still quite an endeavor Oh yeah I mean one thing is that sometimes there could be structural defenses in the ground this is something people occasionally thought of put a heavy stone I know I want to briefly turn to resurrection EST techniques physically techniques like what did they do to get the bodies out you often if you see a scene like this in a movie lab on top of the ground that's a one simple raises old school Grave defense against US Gavin Predator right if if the family could afford it maybe a more taking off your entire body yeah I mean maybe you wouldn't care if somebody's already dug down in desecrated your grave as long as your body stays put now maybe we should take break and then when we come back we can discuss a really interesting invention that has many supposed benefits one of which is the supposed ability to thwart grave robbers but but has a lot of cool features to all right so of course our sponsor today is see by GE lighting. I have not made the smart homes which Robert I'm wondering if you can sell me on it yeah I can give it a shot I mean you're definitely not alone but once you realize just how insanely simple it can make your life it's almost hard to justify not switching it allows you to connect control and automate your lighting with a full suite of smart products we're talking the ability to set lights to your schedules you never have to come home to a dark house for example ability to set in turn on automatically to the perfect brightness every morning ability to control your lights and appliances remotely through your the other hand present them with a cast iron Victorian Mecca suit that contains your body an anaerobic environment and allows visitors to gaze at your uncorrupted face through please when it comes to the state of their corpse right on one hand were squeamish about the prospect of decay or squeamish about things being done to our body after we die but phone and the ability to set the perfect scene with the touch of a button and this can all be reality with C. by GE smart home products to learn more about transitioning you just talk about the Fisk yes let's talk about the scheduling enjoyed this one so humans are really hard glass face plate for all eternity and they get a little creeped out yeah sounds creepy yes maybe that's just me well I feel like I'm Fisk eighteen forty eight patent for the Fisk airtight coffin of cast or raised Metal Aka the fisk money the so good we the home quickly and easily into a smart home visit C by Dot com that's C. B. Y. G. E. DOT com all right we're back are you ready I'd say by the way the inventors full name not just Almond Fisk Almond Dunbar fisk so good if that name hasn't been pilfered for fictional purposes by others but he really he represented a new concept on the iron casket and certainly was able to to market it and sell it. I'm really Leaning into the the craziness here but a lot of people did not think this was creepy as discussed but some people do think it was creepy even at the time wrote about it Oh yeah this was the case of almond prevent the decay of the contained body on principles well understood or if preferred the coffin may be filled with any gas or fluid having the property of preventing future for fisk early designs included decorative shaping of the outer metal with patterns that quote simulated the folds of drapery and a strong Egyptian air to it. Oh Yeah I was reading in a book by Marcellus Oregon William Haglund called Forensic Taffeta me the postmortem fate of human remains from mental scrolls and flowers again all iron or cast metal on the outside yeah when I look at them it looks like something that that were hammer forty thousand spaceman action so wow so you stave off the U. Stave off rotting by either sucking all the gas out of this point of this product what are they advertising from the patent itself Fisk writes from confident of this description the air may be exhausted so completely as entirely a to a great number of individuals. I tried to find some sort of ballpark estimate for how many were sold I was not able to find it but but in and of course once there sold there under the ground usually unless they're accidentally on earth later as some have been but at any rate I was a successful product so like what's the main selling CRC press nineteen ninety-six and the authors here really emphasized the parallels with the mummy tradition the coffins were mummy shaped you'd imagine like a if you've seen a moment preservation impulse here kind of like with mum affiliation going on yeah the the primary idea here like the primary selling point was that this would protect the body from swift decay things in this first of all there is a glass face plate there's there's a lid to be pulled back the lid and you can see the face the corpse that was key that was like a freshness guarantee of some kind you're really missing out now I should note that almond fisk did not invent the iron casket there were already iron caskets in US going back as far as eighteen thirty six that like one of the cool things here is that essentially you have this this cast iron casket you have the steam punk casket and indeed this is the age of steam hey from seepage from from vermin that might get in and and start messing with the body and more importantly allow the body body to be transported a a preserved or in this case contained within a special vessel and this was this is a major thing for people you know you're dealing in again vast distances away from home away from the place that you would prefer to be buried is that your corpse may not survive the trip back if it is not somehow team an iron steam iron have enabled people certainly in the United States the time to travel vast distances but the thing about traveling alien looking oh we are not you know we're not elaborating too much here like you can you can look up images of this it does have increased means of travel inventions have enable people to travel greater distances live at greater distances and then your body dies when it's across the continent there just name no cast iron jar that you're in or you can fill it with what pickling fluid or something you can Brian your body and I do want to stress too greater distance which indeed was one of the reasons for the rise of modern embalming practices in the US as well. Oh Yeah but I've seen it too commented on yeah you can look in and see the face and see it as not to Kate and then likewise when we talk about it being looking like a mummy looking like a sarcophagus and being a little trapped in there in the sealed iron casket one of the really interesting things about this is that there are a number of these that apparently were used Canadian macro monger would be buried in you know it has that kind of like Gothic but also semi Egyptian feel to it but so there's some kind of like she's a kind of a I think I went to it when I was a small child so I have no memory of it but it's like a museum of sort of a Museum of oddities got a lot of fun like stuffed and mounted heads all Tennessee version of the Museum of Jurassic Technology sort of I guess but but it was a case where somebody was wrapped it's the same type of shape arms folded over the chest the wider at the chest the figure narrowing as it approaches the ankles with the bulge in the feet poking up working a field and they hit something in the field and then up comes this casket according to an article at Atlas Obscure up which highlights places where you can in radiation emergencies and I noticed that it it touched on what seemed to be a standard fact of sealed metal caskets which are by the way far one of the body inside but apparently the this company denied this stating that thousands of their product had been deployed without explosions and that none had been deployed in Chicago about is if you're transporting dead bodies across long distances now that you've got trains and stuff like that wouldn't there also be hygiene concerns and stuff yeah exactly getting into the CPI more expensive option for burial purposes according to that to Alice obscure article which was written by Alison Meyer Your your standard reading the US Department of Health and Human Services Radiation Emergency medical management a website they have an article on management of the deceased does it actually preserve the body right now on one hand it doesn't have to preserve the body very long because these were designed to go in the ground once they made it in the American south for instance there's one there's an actual specimen of the fisk casket can be seen at the Pink Palace in Memphis Tennessee with this may be no bringing it home it may have to be buried there in California not remake the return trip to say you know the Carolinas will another thing I would wonder this is even more important if say the individual died of an illness such as cholera raise the caller is not like dripping out on whatever yeah exact- train car you've got the body on it's like sure but would you know you might want to inflate that number when you're mentioning in the press I guess right but also I mean I can see that there might be something to this the idea of ceiling something give it to some it was a little disturbing in eighteen forty nine fists workshop and showroom burned down and fisk himself was severely injured in go and actually see one of these caskets. There's another one in Tennessee at the Museum of Appalachia in Clinton Tennessee Martin that for road trip now of course this was this was bird to would in cases of radioactive remains metal caskets and coffins should have a quote seal that releases pressure from inside the casket and retards entry of groundwater well yeah I mean you'd want it to have some kind of if you must have a sealed casket I mean again the the reasons for having that or not the following year but You Know Ed discussed that doesn't mean the casket wasn't a hit like the company continued to sell them after his death back home so he just needs to last long enough that the customer can be satisfied that's their loved one inside the casket they can perhaps be identified and then you can just have an however is reported in eighteen fifty eight by the Chicago press there was an accusation these airtight caskets could explode due to the breakdown disability that a sealed cast-iron casket would explode now one thing you probably wondering though is ultimately did this casket work assuming it didn't explode like they the manufacturer stated his scale distribution in the eastern United States and even after his death and also after his presumed burial within one of these the company continued operate got when there is a thing decomposing inside this is this is a problem today with modern lock in the freshness coffins. Yeah in fact I was I was looking around about this and I was us now now we do that is an inch of thousands of of the product but I don't know to what extent we can you know trust the the marketing yeah how would they know for sure well I mean they and potentially they that alone had ruptured the container but they also said quote the coffin contained a moderately well preserved skeletons in anatomical back in emotional needs of mid nineteenth century Americans as well as the recent technological advancements allowing for the standardization mass production and large in the vermin. Yeah I mean it's it's one thing to transport the body but then you have to you're gonNA shit if you're GONNA have to deal with all this foulness farmwork construction etc and I was looking around and according to a two thousand and six find chronicle in the two thousand ten article a take casket was just going to run a couple of bucks this one would have run you between seven and forty bucks you get a lot for bucks back then though so is expense while the competency you'll have been compromised allowing water into the case it is not appear to have caused any significant movement of the bones or artifacts is it common to note whether the pubic hairs in the right place I mean it's it's just a statement on what's there and what is what is rotted away etc oh was still intact but it was no longer transparent so you can actually see through it anymore the casket was damaged when it was unearthed again by accident so sell their product eventually with the JIP- Shen elements the more alien elements of the design somewhat relaxed especially when the company was sold to crane breed and company early super clear but but it should be able to burp right because they're going to be gases released from decomposition and Yeah I can totally see the they have

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