11 Episode results for "Old Niro"

Feb 12, 2010: University of Alabama Shooting

Today in True Crime

12:05 min | 6 months ago

Feb 12, 2010: University of Alabama Shooting

"This episode is brought to you by click up. Get more done in less time. By replacing all of your unorganized work apps and bringing your tasks stocks goals chats and more into a single shared workspace. Click up is here to help you crush your goals and help save you one day every week. Guaranteed clicked up his free forever. Sign up today at click up dot com slash spotify i. Today is friday february twelfth. Twenty twenty one on this day in twenty tem university of alabama assistant professor. Amy bishop shot six of her colleagues at the colleges huntsville. Campus fatally wounding three welcomed today in true crime. A spotify original from podcast. Due to the graphic nature of this killer's crimes listener. Discretion is advised. This episode includes discussions of school shootings and murder. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. Today we're covering the twenty ten school. Shooting by amy bishop. After being evaluated for a tenure position bishop was denied a renewal to teach at the school for the next academic year. However there was little to suggest that she wouldn't simply move on and pursue a career at another university. it was mid february at the university of alabama huntsville. The spring semester was just starting to ramp up again which meant that amy. Bishop was back to teaching her classes. That friday the forty five year old biology researcher and assistant professor instructed her anatomy and neuroscience lectures actual. The faculty meeting that followed was typical for a week day. Bishop join twelve of her colleagues inside a conference room at the university's shelby center for science and technology. In fact her fellow professor deborah moriarty would recall the gathering as so laid back as to be almost mundane as talk about budgets scheduling events. Peter don there was little to hint that something violent was about to happen but about an hour into the gathering the calm was shattered out of nowhere. Amy bishop jerked out of her seat. She pulled a handgun from her purse and proceeded to open fire on the room. Bishop i shot the woman leading. The faculty meeting then took aim at numerous others around the table. The conference room was windowless and the sound of gunshots. Echoing inside became deafening. Amy bishop continued to fire at colleagues in the room. Turning the gun on deborah maury already herself the professor clung to bishops leg pleading with her to stop shooting when bishop attempted to shoot moriarty the trigger clicked. Her gun had jammed giving moriarty of fleeting window for action. As bishop tried to toggle the trigger loose moriarty crawled into the hallway. Bishop followed her. Still fumbling with the gun. Thinking quick moriarty sprang back into the conference room and shut the door. She and her fellow faculty members then barred the door with another table and wedged a refrigerator against it for extra weight. Meanwhile others in the conference room who were not critically injured tended to those who'd been shot as they called nine one one. It appeared that no less than six faculty members were wounded. Time seemed to stand still within the barricaded room. Deborah moriarty later recalled the entire incident from the moment bishop began to shoot until the door was barricaded. Probably took less than one minute. However brief there were grave consequences next will discuss a troubling event that was later tied to amy bishop's in february twenty ten. Hi it's vanessa from podcast. They say there's someone for everyone a soul to share your secrets with a companion to grow old with a conspirator to commit crimes with starting this february on spotify learn about the lethal and legendary lovers. Who fought the law in the podcast limited series criminal couples. If you've ever referred to your best friend or beloved as your partner in crime this exclusive series is for you beginning february. I join me for a collection of unlawful love. Stories from shows across the podcast network. Discover the extreme beliefs of cult leaders. Tony and susan. Alamo enter fred and rose. West's real life house of horrors and experience the madness and motives of the san francisco which killers fall for the most famous and feared pairs in history in the spotify original from podcast. Criminal couples. Enjoy two part episodes every monday. Starting february i follow criminal couples. Free and exclusively on spotify. This episode is brought to you by university of maryland global campus. Get a fresh start towards the future. You want with the credentials. You need by earning a degree or certificate online from university of maryland global campus. You g c has over ninety degrees specializations and certificates in career relevant programs. That means you. G c is ready to help you take the next step. Whether you're continuing your education or just getting started working toward your goals you g. C offers an accredited state university education online courses that worked with your schedule virtual advising and lifetime career resources to guide you along the way and even no cost digital materials replacing most textbooks. You know where you want to go you. Jay can help you get there. Take your first step at you. Jc dot edu slash podcast. That's you. I'm jay c dot edu slash podcast now back to the story on february twelfth. Twenty ten forty five year. Old niro biologist. Amy bishop arrived a routine faculty meeting with her university of alabama huntsville colleagues about the minutes after the meeting started. She pulled a handgun from her purse and fire on the group after she fled the conference room bishop discarded her bloodstained jacket and weapon in a bathroom. She intended to slip out unseen and meet her husband outside the shelby center but was intercepted by police outside. The building bishop was then arrested and taken into custody. The shooting critically wounded six of bishops colleagues. Killing three it was a senseless as it was ruthless and many wondered what prompted the usually reserved scientists to turn violent. It didn't take investigators long to uncover a vital clue according to the new yorker a police chief from the boston suburb of braintree. Where bishop had grown up called huntsville's sheriff's department the morning after the shooting. His warning was grave. The woman you have in custody. I thought you'd wanna know. She shot and killed her brother back in. Nineteen eighty six according to amy's mother. Judy bishop when amy was twenty one. She accidentally shot her younger brother. Seth as judy told. Amy been home visiting from college and mistaken seth for an intruder. The family had experienced a break in their house the year before and amy's father purchased a shotgun for security. Amy raised the loaded shotgun but stopped short when she realized it was only seth arriving home from running errands but when she attempted to unload the gun. Amy accidentally shot her eighteen year. Old brother killing him. Amy was held in police custody until that evening. Boston police indicated. They believed to be an accident. Supported by a medical examiner's analysis of seth's gunshot wound though the incident likely caused. Ptsd shock. amy. Bishop didn't receive counselling or psychiatric treatment following her brother's death. When bishop later married and became a mother. Despite the appearance of normality it became clear that she was prone to explosive behavior. She reportedly lashed out in public on various occasions. Even physically assaulting a stranger pancake restaurant whose family was seated before hers bishop was also known to dismiss graduate students in her lab that she was supposed to be advising some acquaintances believed she was growing arrogant and resentful this increasingly erratic behavior coupled with reports that bishop had grown bitter and isolated after being denied tenure led investigators to believe the shooting was a demonstration of retaliation and anchor as bishop awaited trial in prison. The case of her brother's death was also reopened in june of two thousand ten. A grand jury indicted. Amy bishop for first degree murder of her brother shortly after she was indicted on multiple counts including capital murder and attempted murder for the february twelfth. Shooting though bishop initially pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity she ultimately pled guilty and was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole bishop tried unsuccessfully to appeal the ruling and while she later express some remorse for her actions as nbc. News reported in two thousand fifteen many wary of bishops sincerity one survivor of the huntsville. Shooting cited it as a ploy to reduce her time in prison to date bishop continues to serve her sentence in an alabama penitentiary. Thanks for listening to today in true. Crime i'm vanessa. Richardson today in true. Crime is a spotify original from par. Cast you can find more episodes of today in true crime and all others spotify originals. From podcast for free on spotify. We'll be back with a brand new episode tomorrow in true crime today in. True crime is a spotify original from cast. It is executive produced by max cutler. Sound designed by john boorda with production assistance by ron shapiro. Carl matted and brusca kovic this episode of today in true crime was written by mackenzie more with writing assistance by air and land and fact checking by cheyenne lopez vanessa. Richardson hi. it's vanessa again before you go. Don't forget to check out the new podcast. Limited series criminal couples from apocalyptic cult leaders to bank robbing bandits to married mafiosos. These couples give new meaning to till death. Do us part. Enjoy a two part episodes every monday. Starting february i follow criminal couples. Free at exclusively on spotify.

Amy bishop amy bishop bishop huntsville moriarty university of maryland global Bishop tem university of alabama shelby center for science and deborah moriarty Peter don amy deborah maury university of alabama Deborah moriarty Amy Old niro shelby center seth vanessa
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

Political Scandals

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Hi everybody. It's kate. I wanna take a moment to tell you about another podcast show. I host that. I really think you'll like it's called dictators. And every tuesday we delve into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders in earlier seasons. We cover dictators. Like joseph stalin. Idi amin and vlad the impaler now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hear a clip from part one of our episode on niro. He was a young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip in one here the full episode follow dictators free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts and here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace. As emperor caligula made his way into sister agra pena's chamber it was mid december and thirty seven c e and. She had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy. A boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius the last thing khalil and needed was a sudden challenger but put on a smile and greeted the new parents who colella preferred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still caligula was tainted at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. Caligula said. the boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. What china didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators a spotify original from par cast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all up assode of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artists placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering that burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december. Thirty seven. c collegial is rain was already becoming a dark time. for rome. illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for colonialism interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father guinness curricular was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies. His only allegiance was to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way guinea's ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily guinea's died sometime in narrows third year of life which left niro firmly under the influence of his mother. Agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story we have to get to know agra pena. I was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until colella exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily when caligula was assassinated just four years into his reign his often mocked uncle claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So in claudius invited agra pena to return from exile. She set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentleman encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Missile lena valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her but it. Suddenly the emperor was newly single early sources maintain that mess selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. it was time to start grooming nero. To be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage narrow needed a more classical education nobody cared. If the emperor could sing like a bird he had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients leadership has. The boy grew seneca with china's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor. Seneca saw potential in euro. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle. Kalibbala or a thoughtful empathetic augustus. The aging scholar have lived under four emperors already now. He had the chance to mold the perfect ruler. But seneca wasn't the only person who had two seniors potential as a perfect ruler. Not long after. Seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain niro was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about narrow it was about their family the line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do. This was to have narrow mary. One of claudia says daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old. even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro in octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too dear. The rest of this episode follow dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

caligula agra pena niro colella rome Agra pena Nero agra pena roman palace Claudius kate Idi amin joseph stalin roman senate uncle claudius fifty year guinea khalil Young nero uncle caligula nero
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

The Dark Side Of

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Hi everybody. It's kate. I wanna take a moment to tell you about another podcast show. I host that. I really think you'll like it's called dictators. And every tuesday we delve into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders in earlier seasons. We cover dictators. Like joseph stalin. Idi amin and vlad the impaler now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hear a clip from part one of our episode on niro. He was a young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip in one here the full episode follow dictators free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts and here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace as emperor caligula made his way into sister pena's chamber it was mid december and thirty seven c e and she had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy. A boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius the last thing khalil and needed was a sudden challenger but put on a smile and greeted the new parents who colella preferred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still caligula was urinated at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. Caligula said. the boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. What china didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators a spotify original from par cast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all up assads of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artists placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december. Thirty seven. c collegial is rain was already becoming a dark time. for rome. illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for colonialism interest in his sister and baby nero. Manipulating the boy's father guinness curricular was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies. His only allegiance was to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way guinea's ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily guinea's died sometime in narrows third year of life which left niro firmly under the influence of his mother. Agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story. We have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until colella exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily when caligula was assassinated just four years into his reign his often mocked uncle claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So in claudius invited agra pena to return from exile. She set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentleman encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Missile lena valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her but it. Suddenly the emperor was newly single early sources maintain that mess selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. it was time to start grooming nero. To be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage needed a more classical education nobody cared. If the emperor could sing like a bird he had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients. Leadership has the boy grew. Seneca aligned with agra pena's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor seneca saw potential in euro. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle. Kalibbala or a thoughtful empathetic leader augusta's the aging scholar have lived under four emperors. Already now he had the chance to mold the perfect ruler but seneca wasn't the only person who had two seniors potential as a perfect ruler. Not long after. Seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain niro was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about narrow it was about their family the line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do. This was to have narrow mary. One of claudia says daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old. even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro in octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too dear. The rest of this episode follow dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

Caligula niro agra pena colella rome Agra pena Nero agra pena roman palace Claudius pena kate Idi amin joseph stalin roman senate seneca uncle claudius fifty year guinea khalil
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

Kingpins

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Hi everybody. It's kate. I wanna take a moment to tell you about another podcast show. I host that. I really think you'll like it's called dictators. And every tuesday we delve into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders in earlier seasons. We cover dictators. Like joseph stalin. Idi amin and vlad the impaler now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hear a clip from part one of our episode on niro. He was a young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip in one here the full episode follow dictators free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts and here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace as emperor caligula made his way into sister pena's chamber it was mid december and thirty seven c e and she had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy. A boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius the last thing khalil and needed was a sudden challenger but put on a smile and greeted the new parents who colella preferred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still caligula was irritated at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. Caligula said. the boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. What china didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators a spotify original from par cast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all up assads of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artists placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow days of his reign as the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december thirty seven. C collegial is rain was already becoming a dark time. for rome. illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for colonialism interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father guinness curricular was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies his only allegiance to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way guinea's ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily guinea's died sometime in narrows third year of life which left niro firmly under the influence of his mother. Agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story we have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne who died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until colella exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily one was assassinated just four years into his reign. His often mocked uncle. Claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So in claudius invited agra pena to return from exile. She set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentleman encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Methylene valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her executed suddenly. The emperor was newly single early sources. Maintain that mess. Selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. It was time to start grooming. Nero to be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage needed a more classical education. Nobody cared if the emperor could sing like a bird. He had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time. Nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients. Leadership has the boy grew. Seneca aligned with agra pena's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor. Seneca saw potential in narrow. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle. Kalibbala or a thoughtful empathetic augustus. The aging scholar have lived under four emperors already now. He had the chance to mold the perfect ruler. But seneca wasn't the only person who had two seniors potential as a perfect ruler. Not long after. Seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain niro was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about narrow it was about their family the line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do. This was to have narrow mary. One of claudia says daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old. even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro in octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too dear. The rest of this episode follow dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

caligula niro agra pena colella rome Agra pena Nero Claudius roman palace pena kate Idi amin joseph stalin roman senate fifty year guinea khalil Young nero uncle caligula nero seneca
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

Natural Disasters

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Hi everybody. It's kate. I wanna take a moment to tell you about another podcast show. I host that. I really think you'll like it's called dictators. And every tuesday we delve into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders in earlier seasons. We cover dictators. Like joseph stalin. Idi amin and vlad the impaler now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hear a clip from part one of our episode on niro. He was a young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip in one here the full episode follow dictators free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts and here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace as emperor. Caligula made his way into sister. Anna's ever it was mid december and thirty seven c e and she had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy a boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius the last thing khalil and needed was a sudden challenger but put on a smile and greeted the new parents who caligula preferred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question still. Caligula was dated at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. caligula said. The boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. What pena didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators a spotify original from par cast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all up assads of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artists placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december. Thirty seven. c collegial is rain was already becoming a dark time. for rome. illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for colonialism interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father guinness curricular was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies. His only allegiance was to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way guinea's ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily guinea's died sometime in narrows third year of life which left niro firmly the influence of his mother agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story. We have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne who died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until gila exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily when caligula was assassinated just four years into his reign his often mocked uncle claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So in claudius invited agra pena to return from exile. She set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentleman encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Missile lena valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her but it. Suddenly the emperor was newly single early sources maintain that mess selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. it was time to start grooming nero. To be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage narrow needed a more classical education nobody cared. If the emperor could sing like a bird he had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients leadership has the boy grew seneca aligned with china's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor. Seneca saw potential in narrow. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle caligula or a thoughtful empathetic augustus. The aging scholar have lived under four emperors. Now he had the chance to mold the perfect ruler. But seneca wasn't the only person who had two seniors potential as a perfect ruler not long. After seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain niro was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about narrow it was about their family the line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do. This was to have narrow mary. One of claudia says daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old. even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro in octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too dear. The rest of this episode follow dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

caligula niro agra pena rome nero agra pena roman palace claudius Agra pena kate colella pena Idi amin joseph stalin roman senate uncle claudius seneca fifty year guinea khalil
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

Con Artists

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Her i everybody alistair. I wanna take a moment to tell you about one of my favorite podcast shows. It's cooled dictators. And every tuesday it delves into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders earlier seasons have covered dictators such as benito mussolini genghis khan and kim jong il now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hair clip from paul one of the episode on niro. He was a young placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip and once they hit the full episode followed dictators. Free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts. And here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace. As emperor caligula made his way into sister pena's chamber it was mid december and thirty seven ce and she had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy. A boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius. The last thing needed was a sudden challenger but caligula put on a smile and greeted the new parents who caligula preferred to keep on his side after all. He knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still caligula was dated at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. Caligula said. the boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately calligas joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor she planned for her son to become the emperor. What china didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators. Spotify original from podcast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow nero in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december. Thirty seven. C caligula is rain was already becoming a dark time for rome. Illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for calculus interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father guinness caligula was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family. Denies is only allegiance was to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way denies ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily ghanaian died sometime. In narrows third year of life which left neuro- firmly under the influence of his mother agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story. We have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne who died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until caligula exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily when caligula was assassinated just four years into his reign his often mocked uncle claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius empower agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So when claudius invited agra pena to return from exile she set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentle encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts in the little boy and much like his departed. Uncle colella niro developed a love for song and dance and for attention. nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Messily valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her executed. Suddenly the emperor was newly single early sources maintain that mess selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pena was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. it was time to start grooming nero. To be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage near a more classical education nobody cared if the emperor could sing like a bird he had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become narrows mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time nero was learning about the world of power and politics his lessons with seneca often related to patients and leadership has the boy grew. Seneca aligned with agra pena's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor seneca saw potential in niro. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle caligula or a thoughtful empathetic leader like augustus. The aging scholar had lived under four emperors already now. He had the chance to mold the perfect ruler. But seneca wasn't the only person who had to see niro's potential as a perfect ruler not long. After seneca became the boy's tutor agra pena convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain nero was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Niro was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about her teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about niro. It was about their family. The line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do this was to have narrow mary. One of claudius daughters so agra pena set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro and octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing to speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too to hear the rest of this episode followed dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

caligula agra pena niro rome nero agra pena Claudius roman palace Agra pena pena agra pena guinness caligula seneca colella benito mussolini genghis khan kim jong il roman senate uncle claudius fifty year
Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

Assassinations

13:37 min | 9 months ago

Dictators: The Rise & Fall of a Roman Emperor

"Hi everybody. It's kate. I wanna take a moment to tell you about another podcast show. I host that. I really think you'll like it's called dictators. And every tuesday we delve into the minds and motives behind some of the world's most infamous leaders in earlier seasons. We cover dictators. Like joseph stalin. Idi amin and vlad the impaler now a new season has arrived and it takes a deep dive into the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors and to give you a taste of the intoxicating dictators. Podcast i'm going to let you hear a clip from part one of our episode on niro. He was a young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. If you like the clip in one here the full episode follow dictators free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts and here it is. Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace as emperor. Caligula made his way into sister her. It was mid december and thirty seven c e and she had given birth to a boy but caligula was happy. A boy meant another challenger for the throne caligula had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius the last thing khalil and needed was a sudden challenger but put on a smile and greeted the new parents who colella preferred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still caligula was irritated at this new mouth to feed. He gaze down at the little baby so weak and vulnerable as a joke. Caligula said. the boy took after his ineffectual. Great uncle claudius. Maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. Pena didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son niro to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators a spotify original from par cast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all up assode of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artists placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of niro's mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for adoration brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week. We'll explore the fire that razed narrows capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him when nero was born in december. Thirty seven. c collegial is rain was already becoming a dark time. for rome. illness grip the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for colonialism interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father guinness curricular was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately colella realized he made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies. His only allegiance was to the bottle. According to sweet. Tony's a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known. He gouged out a soldiers. I after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way guinea's ran over the child with his chariot luckily guinea's time in narrows third year of life which left niro firmly under the influence of his mother. Agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story. We have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanic the beloved former heir to the throne who died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to caligula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until colella exiled her and her sister villa for conspiring against him. Luckily colella was assassinated just four years into his reign. His often mocked uncle. Claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena sawn opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son niro to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So in claudius invited agra pena to return from exile. She set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne. Young nero received a thorough classical education but he took a particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his baby sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentleman encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention nero wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gained the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He long to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream home when her son was around. Eleven years old agra pena found herself closer to the throne than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife. Missile lena valeria had a torrid and public affair. He had her executed. Suddenly the emperor was newly single early sources maintain that mess selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved as the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position of women could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. it was time to start grooming nero. To be emperor. Agra pena realized the teenage needed a more classical education nobody cared. If the emperor could sing like a bird he had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. e. seneca returned from exile to become niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients leadership has the boy grew. Seneca with agra pena's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor. Seneca saw potential in narrow. The boy could either be another tyrant like his uncle. Kalibbala or a thoughtful empathetic augustus. The aging scholar have lived under four emperors Ready now he had the chance to mold the perfect ruler but seneca wasn't the only person who had two seniors potential as a perfect ruler. Not long after. Seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father niro's path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain niro was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumb to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about teenage sons opinion niro's rise wasn't just about narrow it was about their family the line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do. This was to have narrow mary. One of claudia says daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old. even though she was narrow. Stepsister niro in octavia were married. In the summer of fifty three ce niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son in law as well but fifteen year old niro was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he had a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely niro is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had a solution for that too dear. The rest of this episode follow dictators. A spotify original from podcast. Listen free and follow on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

caligula niro colella agra pena rome Agra pena Claudius Nero agra pena roman palace kate Idi amin joseph stalin roman senate fifty year guinea khalil Young nero uncle caligula nero Pena
October 13, 2020: Death of Emperor Claudius

Today in True Crime

15:16 min | 10 months ago

October 13, 2020: Death of Emperor Claudius

"Shipped. Done, differently their expert shoppers, pickup, fresh groceries, household essentials, and even pet supplies from local stories you love. Get everything delivered to your door and as soon as one hour. About full shoppers, unbelievably fresh produce and peace of mind. That's the difference shipped makes try same-day delivery for yourself at dot com slash true crime today once again, that's S.. H.. I. P. T. dot com slash true crime. Today is Tuesday October Thirteenth, two thousand twenty on this day in the year fifty, four ce Roman emperor Claudius was poisoned by his wife I'll grow Pena agree. Pena was a cunning strategist and knew that with Claudius out of the way she could get her son from a previous marriage into the seat of the emperor. Welcome to today and true crime a cast original do the graphic nature of today's crimes. Listener discretion is advised extreme caution is advised for listeners under thirteen. Today we're covering the poisoning of Roman emperor Claudius by his much younger fourth wife I'll repeat. Now. Let's go back to ancient Rome on October thirteenth fifty four C, e. It was just. Tonight in the sprawling imperial mansion of sixty four year old emperor Claudius. He was hosting a lavish dinner party. There were tables of senators, Roman nobility, and other distinguished guests all around them servants carried jugs of wine and gilded trays of meat and vegetables. Claudius. Sat on a raised day with a few of his most trusted lieutenants and his beautiful wife thirty-three-year-old I'll. Pena. Gripping also happen to be Claudius niece. In fact, the Roman Senate had to make a special exception to the Empire's incest laws for Claudius to marry her but Claudius didn't care after three previous marriages. He finally had a beautiful woman at his side during a break in the musical entertainment Claudius raised his silver goblet and toasted her the most beautiful woman in all of Rome. I'll group enough tried to smile at her husband and emperor, but it wasn't easy. The man's nose was constantly runny. He drooled and spit when he spoke and he had a habit of drinking too much. As Agra, Pena bit her lip and raised her glass. She silently pray that the old man would die soon and leave the throne to her seventeen year old son Niro. When the toasting was over in the Music Return Agree Pena excused herself from the table and slipped into the kitchen. There she found Claudius. Personal Food taster holidays. Holidays was tasting plate of Venison cooked with mushrooms one of the emperor's favorites. He saw Pena he tensed they word supposed to be seen together. But Agree Pena moved quickly she slipped talented a small pouch of gold coins and sprinkled a package of her own mushrooms onto the dish. Then she continued into the kitchen like nothing had happened. Back at the dinner party, Claudius was oblivious to agree Pena's dealings. He toasted the senators and his personal bodyguards the Praetorian guard he stopped when he saw servants enter with another barrage of trays he welcomed everyone to enjoy the next course of food. While everyone ate from communal dishes. Claudius received an individual plate, which as usual had been checked by his food taster Halladay. Claudius thanked his trusted eunuch and then ate ravenously devouring the meat and mushrooms. After another round of toast to his distinguished guests, Claudius requested a musical performance a group of singers and Harpists were led into the ballroom. As, they started to play something happened that would change the course of the Roman. Empire. Claudius, started sweating his mouth drooled more than usual. His I seem to spin in his head. He reached out for something to hold onto, and then suddenly he collapsed onto the table. Claudius. Torso and head smashed into his plate and spill the wine goblet guests screamed immediately the PRAETORIAN guard swarmed. They yelled for Claudius personal doctor who was also at the party. Gayus. Rushed over to examine Claudius, he ordered the Praetorian Guard to carry the stricken emperor back to his bed chambers. There's xenophon one look at the emperor's sweating trembling body and gave his diagnosis the emperor had been poisoned and his life was in danger. Coming up emperor Claudius fights for his life. Listeners who doesn't love a good go story rattling chains mysteriously moving objects unfinished business. I am ready for all things spooky and so is podcast network starting October. First, we're bringing you the scariest most hair raising go stories ever imagined every Thursday on the new original series, haunted places, ghost stories, Alistair murden summons, a new spine, tingling tale of rates, phantoms, and chilling apparitions. These stories come from all over the world including Japan India the UK and even ancient Rome don't miss stone cold classics like the Kit bag by Algan Blackwood, a sinister account of a condemned murderers. And the lengths he'd go to fulfill it and the me Suray a Spanish tale of a wandering musician who here's a terrifyingly beautiful song in a burned out monastery and is doomed to capture. It's notes. Until he dies, you can find and follow haunted places go stories free on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts and don't forget October is our favorite month and one of our busiest. So make sure to search podcast network in the spotify search bar to see all our new shows. It takes time to research different true crime for each day of the year a lot of time. So when it comes time to turn off my brain and just relax I go to best fiends the casual mobile puzzle game with over one hundred, million downloads and counting best fiends is challenging match three game that has literally millions of five star reviews on the apple APP store and Google play I used to play here and they're like. Between, recording sessions or while waiting in line at the store. But now I find myself playing more often because I enjoy it. So much I think what I like most about best fiends is that it's challenging without being so difficult, it's frustrating with over five thousand best fiends puzzles to solve. It looks like all never be bored again, download best fiends free today on the apple APP store or Google play. That's friends without the our best fiends. Now back to the story. On October thirteenth fifty, four, ce sixty, four year, old Roman emperor Claudius was poisoned at a dinner party his ambitious wife. Agra Pena, had slipped the emperor poisoned mushrooms with the help of the royal food taster. Death by poison was a common occurrence in ancient Rome Claudius, his father druce was rumored to have been poisoned as well as several other members of Claudia's extended family meaning Claudius is Dr Xenophon was quick to realize what had happened as the Praetorian Guard stood vigil next to the emperor xenophon pulled Dogra Pena side to discuss the situation. I there was the update on the emperor's condition xenophon titled Pena that Claudius must've only consumed a small amount of poison. He might live or he might die in a few days. There was no way to tell at this point but then xenophon said something that would horrify most doctors. He told Pena that he would finish the job. xenophon return to Claudius, his bedside he informed the Praetorian guard that the only way to save the emperor would be to make him regurgitate the poison from his stomach. The guards stood back as the doctor gently opened the emperor's mouth and threaded along ravens feather into the man's throat, the emperor gagged but nothing emerged from his mouth xenophon tried again this time it worked the emperor's body convulsed vomiting the poisoned food. Within minutes, the emperor's body was no longer writhing in pain. He seemed to stop sweating. The PRAETORIAN guard was relieved. The doctor had saved their. Emperor. At this point, xenophon told the soldiers that they could leave the emperor to rest. No, one would bother him now little did the guards realize the emperor's apparent tranquillity was not the result of a miracle cure xenophon feather was actually dipped in atro- Bub Bella Donna. As deadly nightshade, he applied a heavy dose of the poison to Claudius his larynx and throat where it entered the bloodstream. Instantly, the emperor was now breathing shallowly within an hour he was dead. When. The Sun rose in the morning I'll gruppen went into see her husband there in his bed. She found him cold and unresponsive. She screamed for the servants to fetch the doctor. Once again, this time when xenophon arrived, he confirmed that the emperor was indeed dead. As the servants looked on xenophon admitted that perhaps the emperor hadn't regurgitated enough of the poison he had tried his best but there was nothing that they could have done. He tried to comfort agree Pena who was now a widow? Pena. Didn't tell the Senate of Claudius is death for a few days according to her astrologer. She had to wait for the correct stars to align. She wanted an auspicious moment to break the news to them. But more importantly to announce that her son Nero would ascend the throne. In the days that followed, they were elaborate funeral rites held for Claudius, his body was cremated and the ashes were interred in the mausoleum of Emperor. Augustus. Ironically seventeen-year-old Niro delivered the eulogy for his slain stepfather. Many Romans had the hide their laughter during the speech. They knew the boy had the most to gain from. Claudius as death and everyone suspected Niro's mother had poisoned hair. Unfortunately, there wasn't much that could be done. Now the empire needed a ruler. So the Senate conferred the title of Emperor on Seventeen Year Old Miro. As fate would have it. Justice was eventually served for most of Claudius 's murderers months later xenophon the doctor died of undocumented causes though many suspected he was poisoned. By. Years later in fifty nine ce agree Pena was murdered as well by none other than her son. Nero, he didn't use poison though when he sent his assassin to kill her, she said to have commanded they stab her in the womb, the womb that had given birth to him and in sixty eight C e after a disastrous reign Niro himself chose to die by suicide rather than face execution although in his last moments, he couldn't bring himself to take the final plunge. He had to ask a servant to stab him. So in the end, Claudius was avenged and the Great Roman Empire kept dying its own slow death of murder greed and corruption. Thanks for listening to today in true crime. I'm Vanessa Richardson for more stories on the intrigues of Rome's emperors checkout park cast original dictators today in true crime is a podcast original. You can find more episodes of today in true crime and all other podcast cast originals for free on spotify not only does spotify already have all of your favorite music. spotify making it easy for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcast originals like today and true crime for free from your phone desktop or smart speaker to stream today in true crime on spotify just open the APP and type today in true crime in the search bar, we'll be back with a brand new episode tomorrow in True Crime Today and true crime was created by Max Cutler and is a podcast studios original. It is executive produced by Max Cutler sound designed by Juan Boorda with production assistance by Ron, Shapiro Carleen Madden and Freddie Beckley this episode of today and true crime was written by Adam Dasilva with writing assistance by Nora Battelle I'm Vanessa Richardson. Remember to allies stare murden every Thursday for the all new series haunted places. Go stories don't miss the most chilling spirits ever imagined by authors from around the world follow haunted places go stories free on spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

Claudius Agra Pena Dr Xenophon Praetorian Guard Rome Claudius spotify Rome Niro apple Google Senate Roman Senate Dogra Pena Rome Nero Alistair murden Agra Great Roman Empire Harpists
Nero Pt. 1: Rome

Dictators

45:23 min | 9 months ago

Nero Pt. 1: Rome

"Due to the graphic nature of this dictators rain listener discretion is advised this episode includes discussions of violence and sexual situations that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under thirteen. The baby's cries echoed off the stone walls of the roman palace as emperor caligula made his way into sister pena's chamber it was mid december and thirty seven c and she had given birth to a boy but caligula wasn't happy a boy meant another challenger for the throne colella had just inherited after all of the torment he suffered under tiberius. The last thing khalil needed was a sudden challenger but caligula put on a smile and greeted the new parents who illegal up referred to keep on his side after all he knew his sister was a cunning power seeker and the baby's father was a console to the roman senate. This boys noble blood was hardly in question. Still colella was irritated at this new mouths to feed. He gazed down at the little baby. So weak invulnerable as joke. Khalil said the boy took after his ineffectual great. Claudius maybe they should name the boy after him even better. Why not name him. After caligula himself ultimately caligula joke would backfire literally. Agra pena didn't need to name her son after an emperor. She planned for her son to become the emperor. What agra pena didn't plan was for rome to burn to the ground or for her son nero to be the one responsible. Welcome to dictators. Spotify original from podcast. I'm richard and i'm kate on this show. We're going deep into the minds of some of history's most hated despots. This season will be looking at the bloody rains of rome's most notorious emperors. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. Today we're diving into the rise of emperor nero. The young artist placed at the head of an empire who subsequently watched it burned to the ground. This week we'll discuss the conspiratorial politics of narrows mother that left him with a lonely childhood even while she guided him to the throne. We'll also hear how niro's deep need for ration- brought rome to the edge of catastrophe next week will explore the fire that razed niro's capital and the smoldering political embers. That burned away his base of power. We'll follow narrow in the final days of his reign. As the last emperor of the giulio cloudy and dynasty and hear how his legend lived long after him up next the explosive of neuro begins. This episode is brought to you by sport clips haircuts from start to finish. Sportclips provides so much more than a haircut. It's an experience. I cut the weight with ondeck text. Alerts you'll get a fifteen minute heads up when it's time to head and another text alert when you're next in line then treat yourself to a sport clips signature service the mvp from a hot steam towel over your face to a relaxing massaging shampoo. That makes you feel like melting into your see. It's the convenience that an mvp like you deserves only at sportclips checking on the app or online at sportclips dot com slash. Check in this episode is brought to you by sport clips haircuts sportclips giving you more ways to save time so you can enjoy your primetime with on deck tech's alert you'll get a fifteen minute heads up when it's time to head in and another text alert when you're next in line for your haircut checking on the app or online at sportclips dot com slash check in this episode is brought to you by the national highway traffic safety administration when a train its vehicle at a railway crossing the results are often fatal be cautious at crossings and if the signals are going don't be tempted to try and sneak across the tracks even if you don't see a train stop trains can't a message from its when nero was born in december thirty seven c e caligula s- rain was already becoming a dark time for rome. Illness gripped the city. And the emperor was fiendishly holding onto power. No matter who we had to murder to do so much of the reason for calculus interest in his sister and baby nero was about manipulating. The boy's father denies caligula was not liked by the senate and ghanaian was a valuable ally to have in the ranks. Unfortunately caligula realized. He made a miscalculation ghanaian wasn't an ally to anyone including his own family denies. His only allegiance was to the bottle according to suetonius a roman historian of the time he was a drinker and all around angry man. His rage was well known he gown out. A soldiers i after the soldier criticized him and he had even killed several people in fits of anger when a young boy playing in the street didn't move out of the way denies ran over the child with his chariot. Luckily guinea's died sometime in narrows third year of life which left nero firmly under the influence of his mother. Agra pena the younger to fully understand niro's story. We have to get to know agra pena i. She was the daughter of germanacos the beloved former heir to the throne who died before he could rule. Ultimately this left the empire to curricula however agra pena still had an intimate view of roman rule at least she did until caligula her and her sister lucilla for conspiring against him. Luckily in colella was assassinated just four years into his reign. His mocked uncle claudius became emperor and with fifty year old uncle. Claudius in power agra pena saw opportunity agra pena grew up surrounded by backstabbing and plotting within the emperor's palace. She learned early on that for a woman to gain power and prestige was to play smart and be resourceful so she would use her son nero to her political advantage but at this point he was still a child. So when claudius invited agra pena to return from exile she set out playing a long game of political chess. She waited and prepared to make the key moves that would bring her ever closer to the throne received a thorough classical education but he took particular interest in the arts supposedly one of his sitters was a dancer and she taught niro about artistry and emotion. This gentle encouragement planted a deep appreciation for the arts. In the little boy and much like his departed uncle caligula nero developed a love for song and dance and for attention. Niro wanted to be adored. He admired the musicians and athletes. Who gain the love of the people through their excellence. Niro learn to see artistic performance as equal to athletics. He longed to be a champion even if it was as a dancer instead of as a gladiator but his mother soon quashed that dream when her son was around. Eleven years old agra piano found herself closer to the throne than than ever after emperor. Claudius discovered his third wife mess. Alina valeria had a torrid in public affair. He had her executed suddenly. The emperor was newly single early sources. Maintain that mess. Selena had plans to conspire against claudius with her new lover which explains her execution others. Hint at the possibility of agra pena being involved has the one who made the affair public in the first place in any case with. Claudius now alone agra pino was in a good place to make her next move marrying. Claudius as empress agra pena finally held the highest position a woman could have in rome now she could pivot her focus from her own power to her son. It was time to start grooming. Nero to be emperor. Agra pena realize the teenage narrow needed a more classical education. Nobody cared if the emperor could sing like a bird. He had to be a knowledgeable and confident leader so she turned to one of rome's most famous philosophers lucia seneca in forty nine c. Seneca returned from exile to become. Niro's mentor taking long and instructive strolls through the palace grounds with him he taught with proverbs and bits of wisdom leaving the teenager to work out for himself with the lesson was for the first time. Nero was learning about the world of power and politics. His lessons with seneca often related to patients and leadership. As the boy grew seneca with agra pena's goal of forming him into a beloved emperor seneca saw potential in niro. The boy could be another tyrant like his uncle caligula or a thoughtful empathetic leader like augustus. The aging scholar had lived under four emperors already now. He had the chance to mold the perfect ruler. But seneca wasn't the only person who had to seniors potential as a perfect ruler not long. After seneca became the boy's tutor agra peanut convinced emperor claudius to become niro's adoptive father newroz path to the throne was becoming clear but it was far from certain nero was merely an adopted son and claudius had other children from previous wives. Luckily agra pena had one last move that would solidify her son's place as claudius air marriage. Nero was disinterested in power. He was happy with his artistry and enjoyed his lessons from seneca. The last thing he wanted was to get married and succumbed to the obligations of living in the emperor's family and putting on a show for the masses but agra pena didn't care much about our teenage sons opinion narrows rise wasn't just about niro. It was about their family. The line of germanacos consolidating power and the best way to do this was to have narrow mary. One of claudius daughters so agra pena's set her sights on octavia who at the time was around thirteen or fourteen years old even though she was narrow. Stepsister nero and octavia. Were married in the summer of fifty three c. Niro wasn't merely an adopted son any longer he was now. Claudius son son-in-law as well but fifteen year old nero was unhappy. He detested his father uncle and didn't care much for his new wife cousin either but he knew he a duty to his mother and he wanted to please her. He reluctantly joined palace gatherings and gave officials speeches in the senate usually written by seneca slowly but surely nero is being introduced to the public as the young face of power in rome even though he still preferred singing to speeches for the most part romans. Both citizens and senators alike accepted narrow. He had the endorsement of seneca and a storied family to boot. It was all but certain that he would eventually rule rome. All that was left was for emperor. Claudius to die. Of course agra pena had solution for that too coming up the throne is suddenly empty and niro finally makes his own move hello listeners. It's richard from podcast network. We all know that when it comes to love every story is unique. Some layout like fairy tales. And some don't in our love story the new spotify original from park cast you'll discover the many pathways to love as told by the actual couples who found them every tuesday. Our love story celebrates the ups downs and pivotal moments. That turned complete strangers into perfect pairs. Each episode offers an intimate glimpse inside a real life. Romance with couples recounting the highlights and hardships that. Define their love. Whether it's a chance encounter a former friendship or even a former enemy. Our love story proves that love can begin and blossom in the most unexpected ways. Follow our love story freon spotify over ever. You listen to podcasts. This episode dictators is brought to you by simply safe. When you're home you want to feel safe and the easiest to feel secure in your home is with simplisafe. It was designed to be easy to use so protecting your whole home. Twenty four seven has never been simpler. You can order online with just a click of a button. Once your box arrives. All you need to do is placed the sensors plug it in and then your home is protected around the clock when simply safe says it's easy to set up. I figured that meant for everybody but me but it's true. They did a great job of explaining how to install everything. And before i knew it i was ready to go now. My home is set up with what was named the best of all home. Security of two thousand and twenty by us. News and world report head to simplisafe dot com slash dictators and get a free hd camera that's simplisafe dot com slash dictators to make sure they know that our show sent you now back to the story. For over a decade agra. Pena the younger said about positioning herself and her son. Nero to obtain power in rome. She married emperor. Claudius gave narrow the finest education in the empire and married him off to claudius his daughter. All that stood in the way of getting nero on the throne was the emperor himself and that was an easy fix on october thirteenth. Fifty four ce sixty four year old emperor. Claudius was poisoned. Accounts vary on how the poison was administered. Some claimed that he was poisoned with mushrooms. Others claim that a physician administered a poisoned feather to him. Apparently as soon as he'd taken ill agra pena sent for several key. Senators and the praetorian guard in the early dawn hours as claudius body grew cold agra pena and the others discussed the transition of power the convenient timing of claudia's demise led many ancient historians to conclude that agra pena had poisoned the emperor. The most alarming evidence that agra pena had known claudius would die was the fact that nero was quick to address the praetorian. As the new emperor agra pena knew that suspicion of niro's rise to the throne would spread throughout the empire. Especially without the public support the praetorian guard rome's answer to private security since roman soldiers were not allowed within the city limits. The praetorian acted as the emperor's bodyguards and general law enforcement in rome. Luckily niro had a close relationship with the commander of the guard. A man named burress and of course. It helped that agra pena had been involved in bruce's promotion as sole prefect of the praetorian guard. Bourassa's loyalty to mother and son was without question. After brief speech to the praetorian they accompanied him to the senate where agra pena's allies quickly threw their support behind the teenagers. Official appointment as emperor within hours news of this series of events had spread throughout the city but rather than responding with suspicion at how quickly and seamlessly everything had moved. Most romans follow the senate's lead pledging loyalty to their new leader. Emperor claudius is dead long. Live the emperor nero. At sixteen years old niro became the leader of the largest empire in the world and it was all thanks to his mother. Though nero is still largely ambivalent about the power he wielded agra. Pino was finally where she wanted to be. While roman women were prohibited from holding. Any position government agra pena quickly established herself as the leading voice in the palace and narrow. Didn't seem to mind in the least. He knew that he had his mother to thank for his meteoric rise to power that this was her dream and like any good son. He wanted her to be happy. In fact the new emperor was quick to show how much you loved his mother. One of his first acts was establishing an official password for the praetorian guard. Niro chose a simple phrase optima mutter. It meant best of mothers niro even had a gold coin minted the first of his reign and a typical power play by new ruler. But this coin didn't just feature his face it showed agra pena's face to this was unprecedented they were featured on the same side of the coin facing each other and her name was on the front of the coin. Nero was making it clear. His mother was untouchable. Still agra pena wasn't one to leave her position up to the fickle power of love. She wasted no time in solidifying her influence on her. As the new emperor she made sure nero can loyal births in close confidence. Like minister of defense and seneca became one of narrows chief advisors essentially filling the role of a chief of staff niro cared for both men and valued their opinions highly but they were more loyal to his mother. Their advice to the young emperor often came after consulting with agra pena niro even gave his mom and official escort and he had the senate moved from its long standing home in the roman forum where women were prohibited during niro's rain. The senators gathered in the royal palace. Which made it convenient for agra pena to eavesdrop on the political debates also handled most of the administrative decisions for her soft-spoken son who is more than happy to leave business to her and keep practicing his art ancient. Roman historian cassius dio even wrote agra pena managed for him all the business of the empire. She received embassies and sent letters to various communities. Governors and kings when it came down to it. Agra pena was running rome which was fine with narrow because he was having the time of his life especially at night niro quickly discovered a love for roman nightlife. Under the careful watch of the cohort. As elam units of men who patrolled the city at night niro went to brothels bars and gambling dens almost every evening the cohort as veggie lem which was like a nightwatch was led by praetorian named tig s. Gelinas was a conniving sycophant who fully supported muros vices. Nothing made faster friends than a shared secret and he became one of narrows most trusted confidence as he stood guard over the young emperor's frivolities it was during one of his late night excursions to rome. Cd underbelly that seventeen year old nero met a woman named acting. She was a beautiful freed woman and full of confidence not so different from his mother. Niro was immediately smitten with her. They embarked on a passionate affair. Niro even brought to the palace for trysts of course with his young wife. Octavius dylan residents. It didn't take long for agra peanut to hear about niro's affair. From the poor girl agra pino was furious their families hold on power was still tenuous. There were many senators who remembered that was an adopted heir. Others had grown annoyed by agra pena's overbearing influence on the young emperor. She couldn't afford anything that might be used against her. So neither could niro. Agra pena encouraged her son to abandon activity his marriage to octavia gave niro legitimacy a neither the senate nor the people would approve of an affair but for the first time in his life narrow refused to acquiesce to his mother. He was in love and he even went so far as to try and convince key. Senators act was of royal blood. Of course his clumsy teenage july didn't work the affair between nero and agde eventually ended. Perhaps due to agra pena's meddling Niro was slowly turning away from the influence of his mother and soon turned to the people who always gave him. Praise is advisors but narrow wanted to make sure his men were in fact his and not his mother's meanwhile seneca had long tired of agra pena's domineering attitude and he supported niro's sudden desire for independence then nero us the security of his newly trusted advisers to take even more drastic action with seneca support. And nobody else willing to speak on his mother's behalf. Niro banished agra pena from the palace whatever hesitations. The young ruler may have felt at this monumental change of status quo. He ignored them after all. Niro was the actual ruler of rome. And while he expected loyalty from those around him he was the emperor and he didn't have to offer his loyalty in return even to his mother. Niro didn't simply put agra pena on the streets instead. He sent her to their family estate. In antietam less than forty miles. South of rome antietam was where niro had been born and it was a place of comfort and isolation from their agra pena's influence over roman politics was severed but now that nero had effectively seized power. He had to lead by himself and the first step was making sure. Romans adored him to earn their adoration narrow decided to provide for his people where it counted their wallets and their bellies. The emperor founded and national lottery. That was run from the palace. Apparently whenever he would address crowds of romans he would throw small wooden balls into the crowd. Each had a number on it. And anyone with a winning number could come to niro's palest- to collect a prize. These weren't simply monetary prizes. Romans could win horses and chariots slaves and even land or property soon narrows generosity became legendary throughout the city nero also sponsored lavish games and entertainment ranging from chariot races at the circus maximus to roaming performers in the streets. He was even said to perform poetry readings and songs himself from time to time but most importantly niro fed his people he provided free and steeply discounted grain to roman citizens in the early years of his reign. Roman bakeries were never without bread. Niro's popularity skyrocketed. The roman poet. Juvenal the phrase bread and circuses to describe the way leaders like narrow win approval from the masses. It also helped that. The young emperor was accessible. Niro didn't stay behind his palace. Walls decreeing his laws from afar. He was on the streets reading citizens without fanfare even remembered many of their names he mingled at and joined crowds just like any other roman even if he wasn't the one hosting niro was the people's emperor and he had finally gained the adoration he'd sought for so long and on his own terms. The first five years of niro's rain were a time of calm prosperity for him and for rome. But it wouldn't last because agra pena wouldn't let it niro was still enjoying the roman nightlife incognito and when news of his indiscretions and drunkenness reached agra pena in antietam she was enraged agra pena. Didn't hesitate to let narrow no of disapproval. His illicit behavior was still a risk to his reputation their reputation but i didn't care. He was young and beloved by those who counted his advisors and his people. He didn't need agra pena's approval he was the emperor not her of course for niro. This was an actually true deep down. All he had ever desired was his mother's approval and she was the only one who didn't give it to him so presumably not long after his twenty second birthday neuro even stopped bothering to see or speak to agra pena period. However the move wasn't just because agra pena was impossible to please as it turned out niro had a new woman in his life. Her name was papaya and her influence over the young emperor was about to bring chaos to his family. Niro's affair with paige was more public than any he'd ever had before and octavia was enraged. She tried to be a good wife even if that meant leaving her husband alone in his impropriety. Nighttime revelry unfortunately papaya managed to do something octavia never did become pregnant. Not only was niro in love with papaya but she could provide him a son a pay new. She had the upper hand and continually pushed narrow to divorce his wife. Nero was reluctant. Despite cutting ties with agra pena he could still hear his mother's voice in his head chastising him for ruining his image according to ancient roman historian tacitus. Popeye changed her approach. She began to quietly lament agra pena's continued influence over her lover after all. Why was narrow so needy for his mother. Papaya provide him all she needed. She said in fact didn't it. Seem that agra pena was the one who needed him but word reached agra pena of papaya smears and she didn't take this criticism lightly she fought back and in doing so drew a line in the sand. Niro could not have both his mother and his lover in his life. This was the final straw for niro. He was tired of trying to please his mother to earn her adoration. he had papaya. She loved him. And that was enough with payers encouragement. Niro came to a final decision. His mother had to die gumming up. Niro makes the harsh choice between family and power. This episode is brought to you by the national highway traffic safety administration. If you're ever stopped a railway crossing the signals flashing and you don't see a train or it appears to be moving slow and you're thinking maybe you could get across the tracks before the train comes. Think about this. Even if the engineer sees you and applies emergency brakes right away. It can take a train over a mile to stop by that time it's too late and the resulting crash will often be fatal stop. Trains can't a message from nitsa. This episode is brought to you by mail chimp after gathering insights for millions of small business customers over the last twenty years milch. Impasse some marketing smarts to share like creative smarts with male chimps new creative assistant. You can create beautiful. A generated designs using your existing brand assets or customer journey. Smarts like of a customer buys something. Mill chimp will help you stay ahead of what they might buy next. And then set up follow-up emails to help close the deal or recommendation smarts get tips in insights. What works what doesn't in what to do. Next to target your highest value customers sell more stuff with marketing smarts for a male chimp. Try it now at mail chimp dot com slash smart marketing now back to the story in early fifty nine ce twenty two year old niro planned the assassination of his own mother agra pena had reached the highest position a roman woman had ever claimed but she had fallen from grace in a most spectacular fashion niro finally realize that her conniving schemes which had successfully brought him to the throne could be used against him to with her endless commentary on niro's personal choices becoming more brazen and public niro knew. It was time for agra pena to have an accident niro couldn't simply have his mother executed like another dissident. A mother was considered sacred in roman society. He would quickly lose the public adoration that he so deeply cherished if he murdered her in cold blood so nero came up with a series of plans. to make agra pena's death seem accidental and each one was more absurd than the next according to suetonius he. I tried to poison her three times. However rumor of the plan. Got back to agra pena and she started to take precautions by building up an immunity to his poison of choice or simply by avoiding the particular dish that was tainted agra. Pena wasn't going to let herself be so easily duped after all it was poisoned. Put on the throne. Next thought was to rig a mechanical device that would collapse her bedroom ceiling and crush her while she slept but she caught wind of that plot as well and escaped agra. Pena didn't want to keep up the game of cat and mouse with her own son. It was childish so nero sent a letter to her. An anti antietam asking for a reconciliation. She hoped it signalled an end to their little feud she accepted. Niro's invitation to meet him near naples for a banquet. Niro even sent a private both to pick her up that night. But according to tacitus as account the boat itself was narrows final assassination attempt the craft was built to collapse once off shore in the open water and it worked perfectly while on its way to naples. The boat began to sink. Quickly tossing agra pena into the water where she managed to swim back to the shoreline. Niro couldn't believe it. His mother seemed to be unkillable and he was growing tired of this subterfuge so he decided on a different route. He invented an assassination plot. When one of agra pena's messengers came to the palace niro claimed his mother had sent the man to kill him with this alleged threat. Niro was able to convince the senate to allow agra pena's execution nero sent a navy officer to antietam where agra pena solemnly greeted the man though she understood. Why the officer was there. Agra pena tried to play dumb when that didn't work. She pleaded for her life when she saw the assassin had intention of leaving her alive she finally pointed to her womb and told him to strike her in the fatal spot that had borne her evil son so he did beating and stabbing her. In the belly until agra pena was dead niro was finally free of agra pena's overbearing criticism three years later in sixty two see he married his mistress papaya and banished octavia from rome. Nero finally had everything he wanted. Unfortunately his twisted win coincided perfectly with the end of his bright future as an emperor with his mother out of the picture niro was finally free to spend his days making music and making love he had little interest in the actual administration of rome. Instead he simply wanted to keep himself and his people are happy with entertainment. Unfortunately his advisers didn't agree. Seneca had encouraged niro to make his way out from under agra pena's thumb but he didn't condone her violent end he was especially concerned that indicated a budding attitude towards dissension of all kinds. It was the sign of a budding tyrant. Seneca decided it was a good time to retire to the countryside where he could write and offer advice from afar. Around the same time the praetorian leader died abruptly from throat cancer. There were quiet rumors that nero might have poisoned him. But most historians agree that this was unlikely. In any case the praetorian guard was now in need of a new leader. The void left by niro's to original advisors was quickly filled by telling his old. Nighttime confidante take a leanest was wholly devoted to narrow under his command. The praetorian behaved more like a tyrannical private police force. And they were at niro's beck and call so. In roman citizens began to vandalize portraits of narrows new wife papaya. It was a simple matter to dispatch the praetorian into the city. Unfortunately this show of force did nothing to solve the real problems at play the desecration of pays portrait's revealed the truth about the public's changing opinion of nero paige and octavia the romans new octavia was from the royal bloodline of rome's hero. Augustus and nero had shamed administrator. The public still cared for octavia even if nero did not as the wave of public opinion started to turn against him. Nero tried to slander octavius reputation. He claimed she'd had affairs. But the people didn't buy it considering that nero had no evidence for his claims even when he had gelinas torture octavius. Servants to force confessions of her crimes. None of them caved. They were loyal to the death. One of octavius chambermaids supposedly even spit on gelinas. Just before she died. Failing to destroy octavius reputation only made nero angrier. He had never inspired that kind of devotion. Still nero had his yes men and he was determined to use them niro recruited naval officer into his scheme. He told the officer that he could either publicly testified. To having slept with octavia or face execution the naval officer didn't hesitate. He went immediately to the senate with a masterful performance of his affair with the former imprints with his evidence. Finally in place narrow had octavia quietly executed in june of sixty two. See of course. His love for theatrics didn't let her death stay quiet for long niro. Had octavius head. Brought to papa. As a token this set off a firestorm of conflicting rumors and the roman people finally learned that octavia was dead. Historians are divided on. How specifically narrow survive the outrage. That followed octavius. Execution some point to his tyrannical praetorian primary tool for keeping power but other ancient historians report that nero simply doubled down on his bread and circuses. Stratagem ended worked niro provided richer lottery rewards and more violently spectacular chariot races and gladiator games with this wellness display of public appeasement. Niro managed to stay in power. Of course he was more than happy. To let the senate ron rome from day to day in doing so nero was free to pursue his original life goal the arts he took up the lyre a stringed instrument and had daily lessons with professionals he sang and wrote poetry and hosted lavish gatherings for artists and performers. Eventually niro believed he was ready to begin his life's true pursuit as a public performer. He planned a national tour in which he would sing and read poetry for his people. However some of his advisors suggested he begin his tour outside rome after all the morale of the people void or toppled emperors. If he performed before he was fully ready. It would give people a reason to mock him. Just as adoration was niro's greatest desire. Mockery was his greatest fear. So niro embarked on an artistic retreat at his home. In antietam where agra pena had spent her final days there he performed for small crowds. Earning daily praise but then on july eighteenth sixty four c. Niro received an alarming message from rome. The city was on fire. Niro had no experience in any sort of emergency but he knew he had to join his people in fighting the fire. He rushed back to rome and into the flames. unfortunately niro didn't realize that he was rushing toward his downfall. Thanks for listening to dictators next week. We'll hear about the terrible fire that ravaged the roman capital will also investigate the slow decline of nero and his growing rage. Against an insurgent cults. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other originals from podcast for free on spotify. We'll see you next time. Dictators was created by max cutler and is a podcast studios original it is executive produced by max cutler sound designed by trent williamson with production assistance by ron shapiro. Carly madden and bruce kovic. This episode of dictators was written by andrew messer with writing assistance by cake. Gallagher and stars kate. Leonard and richard rosner. Hi it's richard again searching for your new favourite show. Remember to follow the newest spotify original from podcast. Our love story. Every tuesday catch an intimate glimpse inside a real life. Romance with couples recounting the highlights and hardships that. Define their love. Listen to our love story. Freon spotify or wherever you get your podcasts.

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Emperor Caligula Pt. 2: Royal Lineage

Assassinations

39:42 min | 2 years ago

Emperor Caligula Pt. 2: Royal Lineage

"It was early evening on January twenty fourth forty one CE Cassius cherry, a stormed into the imperial palace and headed straight for the emperor's bedroom to other praetorian guards men, followed close behind him, Cassius, and his conspirators had just killed emperor Colella, and before the news broke, there was one more thing to take care of every member of Caligula, s- bloodline had to be washed out, so Rome, could start anew in the bedroom. They found Khalil's wife, Melania, Sonia. Their two year old daughter. Julia clutched tightly to her leg with trembling hands Maloney, pushed her child away. She outstretched her neck and told Cassius to kill her quickly, Cassius granted her that courtesy when her body dropped to the floor Cassius turned his attention. Two two year old Julia Caligula only child Cassius smashed her head into a marble pillar killing her instantly next. He and his cohorts searched the palace for the former emperors last surviving, uncle Claudius. They found him cowering behind a curtain, Cassius lifted his sword, and his fellow soldiers stopped him. It had just occurred to them that Claudius might be more useful alive than dead. one death can change the world. At least that's what assassins believe, welcome to assassinations apar- cast original, every Monday, we examined, the famous assassins of history, and the men and women who were assassinated. I'm your host, Bill Thomas and I'm your host Kate Leonard. This is our second episode on emperor Caligula, who was killed by the commander of his personal bodyguard, Cassius cherry ah in forty one CE last week, we follow Khalil's rise to power and the events leading up to his murder at the hands of Cassius and his co conspirators today will look at the aftermath of the murder, Cassius his fate, and how the world today might be different. If kalibbala had lived at par cast, we're grateful for you. Our listeners you allow us to do what? We love. Let us know how we're doing reach out on Facebook and Instagram at par cast and Twitter at par cast network into, if you enjoy today's episode the best way to help us is to leave a five star review wherever you're listening. It really does help. We also now have merchandise head to park, cast dot com slash merch. For more information. On January twenty fourth forty one CE emperor Caligula was attacked by the head of his praetorian guard, Cassius cherry a- and a handful of co. Conspirators Rome's twenty eight year old emperor was stabbed twenty three times and left for dead. In the dark underground tunnels that led to the palace. But there was still another important step to take care of before the plan was finished the conspirators had to make sure there was no one left alive. From Caligula s- family who could make a claim for the throne after mercilessly disposing of Khalil's wife and daughter, Cassius turned his sword on the former emperors uncle Claudius Claudius was around fifty years old and considered the family embarrassment while his brother dramatic was strong and charismatic Claudius was week had a permanent limp and spoke with a stutter. Modern scholars have theorized that he suffered from cerebral palsy or to read syndrome, but during his childhood, the Royal family thought Claudius is afflictions were caused by sheer stupidity and laziness, he was more or less locked up in the metaphorical attic of the imperial palace, while his brothers and nephews vied for power as Cassius loomed over the crying shaking, Claudius, one of his fellow praetorian guards gratis told him to put down his sword. It might be the family outcasts turn in the spotlight. Even before the assassination, there had been disagreements among the conspirators about who would take curriculums place, the senators and the praetorian involved all wanted to say in Rome's future, but being men of action. It was the Pretoria's led by gratis who made the first move as Cassius step back, rot us and a few other praetorian seized Claudius to take him back to their camp. Just outside of Rome, their goal was to install the week. Inexperienced old man as a puppet emperor, who would do anything. The soldiers wanted Claudius had never held any political office until a few years earlier, when Colella appointed him as his co counsel as a joke, Claudius is main duty was to stay nearby, in case Colella needed someone to play pranks on or humiliate in front of the Senate. But there were. Definitely be no laughter as the praetorian sled Claudius out of the imperial palace and through the streets. News had already begun to spread that Colella was dead. And the citizens were in shock and disbelief political news, traveled at a snail's pace in the first century see e even though the ruling class new Colella was piloting, the empire into financial ruin the average Roman citizens, still saw him as the generous humble son of germanacos who was appointed for years earlier. The mood was tense says, Cassius sent his fellow Pretoria's hurried out of the city, every moment that passed without an emperor posed a threat to their plan. If the Senate moved more quickly, the Pretorious might lose their grip on power when they reached the praetorian camp just before sunset, there was a discussion amongst the ranks about the fate of ankle Claudius some of the soldiers weren't on board with the plan, they believed they should kill him. And let the Senate decide. Side who would rule next others agreed that by putting Claudius on the throne, a man that nearly everyone perceived as a dunce, they could successfully use him as a puppet and take control of the entire empire. There was some pushback from soldiers who argued that this was the same tactic. They tried and failed to us with Caligula the heated debates continued into the night with no resolution in sight. But back at the Senate house, the senators were close to being in complete agreement by the time the sun, rose the next morning with Colella dead and no apparent air. They saw an opportunity to restore the Republic and be rid of emperors, once and for all before Caligula, great, grandfather, Augustus became emperor in twenty seven BC Rome's, political power was divided between two consoles, the Senate and three voting assemblies with checks and balances between each branch of government. During Julius Caesar's reign from forty nine to forty four BC he slowly turned Rome, into a dictatorship, the change became official when Augusta's took power and reformed the constitution making himself. The first Roman emperor, a return to a Republican government would put more power into the senate's hands. So that quickly became the most popular plan amongst the senators after Khalil's death, but the praetorian guards were making plans of their own, and they were moving with haste just twenty four hours after Caligula death on the afternoon of June. First, a pair of burly praetorian grabbed a be wilder Claudius and carried him to a tall wooden platform Claudius was sure he was about to meet the same end as his slaughtered nephew. Looking out over the hundreds of soldiers at the camp, he prepared himself to accept his death. But to Claudius shock every single one of the praetorian drop to one knee and proclaimed their undying loyalty to him their new emperor, the praetorian told him they were going to lead him back into Rome, and convinced the Senate to appoint him as emperor, but before they did, there was one little thing to take care of arresting Cassius for the murder of Colella. A handful of soldiers led Cassius to the stockade assuring him that it was only a formality. They had to project, the allusion of Justice, so the Senate didn't grow suspicious, but once Claudius was crowned Cassius would walk free. But as Cassius his neck was snapped into the stockade he realized he'd become a pawn in a much larger game he'd planned the assassination, recruited the participants and struck the fatal blow. But while he was focused on getting revenge against Colella his accomplices, had their own plans to advance their own power and now Cassius was taking the blame while his more prominent co conspirators reap the rewards. He might go the same way as navy Satorius, macro. The praetorian who'd killed Tiberius only to face his own execution by Colella when the praetorian guards reached the Senate with Claude. In to-. They heard out the senate's request for a return to a Republic, but they didn't seriously consider negotiating the military faction had been amassing political influence throughout Caligula is rain, and they were ready to cash in every bargaining chip. They held to make sure Claudius was crowned emperor politics, failed. They had physical force at the tips of freshly sharpened swords, the Senate agreed to let the praetorian have their way. The senators had only one request in return. They wanted to make sure that Claudius wouldn't prosecute any of Calligas murderers, many of whom were members of the Senate Pretorious eagerly obliged, since many of the assassins were from their own ranks as well. Claudius agreed to he was fully ready to forgive the men who killed his brat of a nephew, so on September second forty one. C E Claudius, the most unlikely of men was made the fourth emperor of Rome, while Khalil's body was still being embalmed Claudius was being fitted for his laurels. News of the agreement reached the praetorian camp Cassius was released from the stockade. He breathed a sigh of relief as he walked back to his quarters where his fellow soldiers were waiting to celebrate him after a lifetime of service to the Roman empire Cassius felt that killing Colella was the greatest deed, he ever performed still. He prepared his weapons and a quick moment so that he could return to service, as soon as possible during the first days of Claudius is rain. He revealed himself to be much more intelligent than he appeared. Many of the men who appointed him had never bothered to learn who Claudius really was poor what he knew being a social pariah throughout his entire life Claudius had ample time to sharpen a weapon even more deadly than a sword his mind. He wasn't impressive scholar and his subject of choice was. History. In fact, one of the reasons he'd been shunned from public life was that he was, too critical of the reigning, emperor Augustus. This was a revelation to both the Senate and the praetorian guard as soon as Claudius took power, he set to work undoing all the corruption. Colella had normalized being so familiar with the past he was too wise to repeat the mistakes that had gotten his predecessors killed within weeks. Rome's power players realized how wrong they were in mistaking Claudius for a buffoon. The new emperor didn't waste any time. Improving what kind of ruler he was going to be immediately after assembling his circle of advisors Claudius? His first command was for the praetorian guard to bring him the man who killed Caligula Cassius cherry a-. Up next. We'll find out Cassius 's fate. Darkness tragedy pain. These things hide within every beloved institution. And most people are none, the wiser every week, my new show, the dark side of pulls back, the curtain to bring you the most salacious stories and disturbing details behind everything we hold most dear. You'll learn the dark side of Hollywood, where on the set of the wizard of Oz. Numerous accidents sent actors to the hospital, and Judy Garland was beaten by director and Nazi sympathizer, Victor Fleming, the dark side of music, where Elvis Presley was so obsessed with death that he brought friends to a mortuary at three AM to look at corpses and the dark side of the bible, which contains stories of demonic giants, unicorns and child sacrifice. You've heard the good side. Now here, the dark side of search for and subscribe to the dark side of on spot. Defy or wherever you listen to podcasts again. Search the dark side of or visit par cast dot com slash dark side to listen now. Now back to the story, a few weeks after Caligula assassination on January twenty four th forty one c Cassius cherry ah in his full Pretorious guard regalia was seized by his fellow soldiers. He was marched in front of the new emperor, Claudius, whom Cassius had inadvertently helped rise to power Cassius, locked eyes with the new ruler seated on his throne. His weak, stature, and shaky, knees, weren't, so apparent, he looked as regal and handsome, as his late brother dramatics, Claudius was so calm and confident his infamous stutter was barely apparent as he read out loud, from tablet. He declared that Cassius cherry a- the one and only assassin of former emperor Colella was to be tried for murder Claudius held up his agreement, not to seek prosecution for any of Cassius his cO. Conspirators but history taught him that he shouldn't let the lead assassin go free. It would set a bad precedent that anyone could openly sleigh an emperor and get away with it after a speedy trial. Cassius was found guilty of murdering Colella his wife and his daughter. His punishment was death. We don't know the exact day or method of Cassius his execution. But it was some time shortly after Caligula sanitation in forty one CE he was the only person ever arrested or tried for the crime in the months and years following his rise to power Claudius began to make big changes recognizing that the den of vipers around him had been shaken by Cassius his execution. Claudius took the opportunity to begin stripping away their power. He started with the Senate Claudius gave more of a governmental rule to the free. Edmon a class of former slaves, who had earned their freedom giving the Friedman voice in politics helped, check the power and ambitions of the noble born senators. It also ensured that the Friedman with all their newfound power would stay loyal to Claudius if anyone attempted to overthrow him as for the Pretoria's Claudius kept them too busy to plot conspiracies by sending them out of the city on an endless string of conquest across Europe shortly after assuming power Claudius sent a ship to the Ponti Nyland's to free, his last two living, nieces, Colella, sisters, Julia Livia and Agra Pena, the younger, it was probably a gesture of good public relations kalibbala had exiled them for allegedly plotting to overthrow him by bringing the women back to Rome Claudius was demonstrating that he wanted to distinguish himself from Colella in EV. Every way possible. Nearly everyone was surprised that the man wants dismissed as an idiot was turning out to be such a strong and effective leader with some wise advisors at his side. Claudius was even able to reverse the empires financial troubles. He won favor from the common citizens by solving one of Rome's greatest challenges grain distribution with an empire as fast as Rome, it was difficult to make sure each town received enough grain stores to survive during droughts. The inefficient distribution system and the angry mobs that resulted had been a headache for every emperor, since Augusta's Claudius made it a top priority to fix the issue once and for all he began by investing in infrastructure ordering new roads to be built along with new harbours, so grain could be moved along waterways. He also instituted strict ROY. Rations to make sure there was enough for every citizen by forty eight. C E Claudius was celebrated by all of Rome for returning, the empire to its former glory. But while his professional life was soaring sky, high his personal life was hitting rock bottom in around forty eight c Claudius is marriage to his third wife Valeria mess Alina ended when she married her secret lover to add injury to insult. The remarriage was also an attempt to overthrow Claudius as emperor Valeria missile Lena had planned to marry her lover while Claudius was away from Rome. And simply tell everyone that as acting empress she was going to appoint her lover as the new emperor. Suffice to say her plan failed spectacularly when Claudius found out he had both Valeria and her lover executed for treason. After that debacle Claudius had to find a new wife. He was presented with many, many options. But he eventually landed on his niece and Caligula sister, Agra Pena, the younger, the decision outraged, most of Rome, citizens who saw the union as incest, but power and popularity had gone to Claudius his head. He did nothing to quash, the outrage nor was he able to stop Agra Pena from reviving the family traditions of scheming, and backstabbing after the marriage Akra Pena persuaded Claudius to adopt. Her only son Niro, as his heir, once he agreed her next step was to get Claudius out of the way and let her loyal son ascend to the throne. She succeeded Claudius was poisoned to death on October thirteenth, fifty four CE he was sixty three years old. Vero just sixteen years old was now the emperor of Rome, Agra Pena hope to control his every move from behind the scenes, but despite his youth Niro was quickly growing into his own man. A man that would be vengeful and vindictive against the mother who sought to control him after a year of intense power struggles and personal conflicts. Niro expelled Agra Pena from the imperial palace and fifty five CE, an exiled her to the countryside. Agra Pena still tried to meddle in her son's affairs from the outskirts of Rome. Just three years later in fifty nine C. Niro had had enough. He covertly attempted to kill her by sending her a self destructing boat. Agra Pena barely survived the shipwreck and managed to swim ashore. So Nero sent some sailors to finish her off. They found the battered Agra Pena back at her home in the countryside. The sailors beat her bloody and with her dying breath. She told them to stab her in the womb, the womb that bore the monster Nero. Emperor, Tiberius, once quipped that governing Rome was like holding a wolf by the years, but just as often the emperor was the wolf and the Roman empire was desperately holding its grip without the influence of his mother. The twenty one year old Niro was set loose like a wild animal destroying anything in his path in sixty four see what became known as the great fire blazed through Rome, over the course of six days, the flames destroyed much of the city, it was widely reported by historical sources that Nero himself had started the fire, although there was disagreement about his motivations, a year later, a conspiracy of statesmen plotted to assassinate Nero. He found out about the plan and had the conspirators executed. But Niro couldn't outrun his detractors forever in sixty. Eight. See the governor of Ghalia Luke Donen says in modern day. France, led an armed rebellion against Nero amid the chaos the entire praetorian guard abandoned the imperial palace and the Senate declared Nero, a public enemy bureau, too afraid to live, but too afraid to commit suicide forced his personal secretary to kill him the last ruler of Khalil's family lined was finally dead in the Julia Claudien dynasty came to an end. After Niro, emperors would rise and fall for nearly four hundred years until the Roman empires and enforce seventy six CE some rulers were good. Some were bad, but none became as notorious, as Colella given Caligula is reputation for insanity during his lifetime accounts of his antics, solely became more and more outlandish over the centuries due to Roman records, being lost or destroyed over the course of its history. It's hard to separate the truth from the fiction, whether or not the surviving stories are accurate Khalil is name has become synonymous with depravity and excess with that kind of reputation. His life has been perfect fodder for storytellers for nearly two thousand years, Robert graves nineteen thirty four novel. I Claudius portrays Colella as a cold blooded. Mega Loma Nyack murderer Albert, KOMO news. Absurdist play Colella published a decade later a matches the emperor as a suicidal philosopher who willfully manipulates the conspirators into killing him. But the most notorious portrayal of the mad emperor's reign is the nineteen seventy nine film Colella. In the early nineteen seventies the life and times of Caligula, piqued, the interest of Bob Guccione publisher of the adult magazine penthouse Bob, no stranger himself to living life, without limits became obsessed with bringing the story to the silver screen, his vision was to make a bio pic, about Colella that blended. The high budget splendor of a Hollywood production with the graphic sex of pornography films sparing. No expense. He hired one of the most acclaimed writers in America to pen, the script a man already famous for bringing history to life on the stage and screen gore Vidal. The two men didn't exactly share the same vision Guccione intended, the film to be an elaborate mega budget porno. Fidalgo on the other hand wanted to take a more serious look at how absolute power. Drove Caligula in. Madness even more concerning the script, he delivered contained several gay, sex scenes, and only one heterosexual seem, which was incestuous not good news for Guccione's target audience of penthouse subscribers after a series of long and vicious arguments, which culminated in Vidal telling time magazine that the film's directors were, quote parasites. The doll was axed, and the film's director Tinto brass rewrote, the script into a more lighthearted heterosexual political satire. The cameras finally started rolling in nineteen seventy six with Peter O'Toole, Malcolm McDowell and Helen Mirren, starring Tiberius Colella, and Maloney. Os's Neha respectively by most accounts. The production was a disaster. Bob Guccione, perhaps channel the bit of Colella himself continually harassing the director. Tito br. S into including hardcore unseemly lated, sex scenes when brass refused, Guccione, snuck back onto the set with a skeleton crew, and shot the scenes himself when the film was released in one thousand nine hundred seventy nine it was immediately as infamous says the emperor it was based on, due to its explicit sex, scenes it received an x rating from the MPAA and many countries banned it entirely. The film was panned by critics, but it became the highest grossing independently produced pornographic film of all time, grossing twenty three million dollars at the box office worth nearly seventy two million today. It became something of a cult classic. And the name Colella was reintroduced to American pop culture. These saga of the film's troubled production is eerily reminiscent of the feuds betrayals and power grabs that plagued the imperial palace. If Colella had been alive to see it. He might have been proud to see that his legacy was still alive, or he might be enraged that his legacy was cut short by a band of assassins. Most of whom were never punished. He may have wished. He just stayed in bed on the morning of the Palatine gains. Coming up. We'll look at what the world might have been like, if Kalita avoided Cassius cherry as assassination attempt. Now back to the story, the actions of just a few can affect the entire course of history. Let's examine what might have happened if Colella hadn't been killed on January twenty four th forty one CE on the morning of the Palatine games. Colella woke up feeling terribly ill his bodyguards and attendance tried to convince him to make an appearance at the games, but they're fussiness only made the emperor suspicious. Convince something was a foul. Colella went back to bed and told everyone to leave him alone, Cassius panicked his assassination plan was already in motion. He left his post to meet with his accomplices while he was gone, his fellow praetorian and co. Conspirator. Gratis. Realize the plan was unraveling there was only one way to save his own skin. He told kalibbala about Cassius assassination plan when Cassius came back. He found Caligula protected by a dozen praetorian guards. He met gratis. His is an instantly knew he was a traitor, Colella laughed, and ordered the guards to arrest Cassius and all his co conspirators after a speedy trial, Khalil ordered Cassius to a painful and humiliating death by torture. As a preventative measure, he ordered the praetorian guard to be decentralized from their camp in Rome. If even his most trusted bodyguards could plot to overthrow him perhaps, the military had been given too much power to begin with Colella set sail for Egypt as he'd intended to do for a while from the safety of foreign shores. He ruled for the rest of his. Natural life span, and ran the Roman empire directly into the ground. At the time of his death. Collegue Yetlis negligence had already led Rome into financial ruin. It was only Claudia says reforms that brought the empire back from the brink of collapse. It's quite possible that if Colella had continued to rule for decades, he may have been the third and final emperor of Rome. But it's equally possible that even from the safety of Egypt Colella wouldn't have lasted much longer. His chronic health problems might have led him to an early natural death, or the Senate or praetorian guard might have sent a team of assassins to track him down and get rid of him. Even if Caligula had died without leaving an heir, it's likely that in different circumstances, Claudius wouldn't have been chosen to succeed him. The choice to use Claudius as a puppet ruler was made by Cassius praetorian conspirators, many of. The other praetorian and most of the Senate strongly disagreed with the plan without the pressure from the praetorian guard. The Senate might have succeeded in their original plan of reverting, Rome's government to a Republic. The strict term limits and division of power set out by the original constitution of the Roman Republic would have prevented another dangerous. Dictator like Colella from gaining power. More authority would be placed back in the hands of the Senate and other legislative bodies that this might not have been a return to the glory days. There's been much debate among historians about what would have happened if Rome had continued as a Republic, but the prevailing theory is that it would have collapsed at the speed of light. The same corruption and intrigue, we saw in Colella circle were also a mainstay of Rome's earlier years, but while on emperor can easily be assassinated by a few wildly conspirators the republic's political struggles were much bigger in scale and much bloodier in the years leading up to Augusta says rule civil wars within the ever-growing empire were a red. Regular occurrence without a single long-term leader to take the reins rival senators governors and generals, constantly battled for dominance, usually Duke it out with armed militias appointing one emperor to run the show was actually much more stable, after all, if they proved to be too unqualified to rule. They could be removed with the flick of an assassin's knife. Reverting to a Republic probably would have thrust Rome back into instability, leading to an even quicker collapse than they were facing under colleague Yalies rule. Even if these set it had realized the flaw in their plan and appointed another emperor after Caligula. There's another factor worth considering if the praetorian guard hadn't put Claudius forward as the next emperor Claudius as wife wouldn't have plotted to overthrow him and steal the throne for her new lover and intern Claudius never would have been remarried to Agra Pena, the younger, she would have stayed on the remote island Caligula had exiled her to until her death and without Agra Pena around to pull the strings, her son Niro, probably never would have become emperor, either. This alone could have changed history in tremendous ways during Niro's rain. He inadvertently shifted, the course of one of the world's largest. Just religions, as we mentioned earlier in July of sixty four CE, the great fire destroyed a large portion of Rome, and killed countless citizens, the historical accounts of the fire vary. Most say that Niro ordered the fire to be set, but some writers were unsure about his involvement either way, one thing was certain the citizens of Rome, wanted a scapegoat for the tragedy, and Nero looked like the easiest choice, desperate to take the suspicion off of himself. Niro pinned, the blame on another target Christianity. At the time Christians were considered in the words of Tacitus, quote, a class hated for their abominations, and quote, the religious sect which was considered an offshoot of Judaism, was extremely small, and extremely new Jesus had been crucified in Jerusalem, just thirty years earlier, but the crucified man surviving followers were so passionate about spreading his message that many in Rome, considered them, a nuisance, including Nero, and as the embers from the great fire turned to ashes, the emperor decided, they were the perfect group to take the fall from sixty four CE onward Niro, persecuted exiled and executed every Christian that he could get his hands on. He had a lot of fun doing it to the most infamous story is that he set Christians on fire and used them as lamps for his dinner party. Others were mauled by lions or crucified, notably. The apostle Peter was crucified upside down to inflict even more pain, Niro's bloodlust was so severe the Christians took to calling him the anti Christ they referred to Nero by a secret code number. So they could talk about him without fear of retribution that code number was six six six while Niro, didn't invent the concept of religious executions. He did invent the image of the Christian, martyr the elevations of spiritual status for the victims of the state's persecution actually help bring more attention to the tiny religion. And it helped it's disciples convert their fellow Romans to Christianity. Even amidst the widespread hatred and violence in order to escape the constant persecution, the Christians eventually fled from Rome. And in doing so spread their teachings farther. And faster than they could have if they'd been allowed to stay their message became so popular that just over three hundred years after Niro's, first wave of persecution Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire under emperor Constantine. The embrace of Christianity in Rome, led to the establishment of the Roman Catholic church and over time the city state of Vatican City, which still lies inside Rome's boundaries. Many historians believe that Colella initially proclaimed himself a God as a joke, given what we know about Calligas sense of humor. That's an easy theory to believe taking jokes a bit too, far is what got collegial killed and a much different. God ended up getting the last laugh for all his infamy, Colella wasn't the first Roman ruler to be assassinated for his cruel and reckless behavior and he wouldn't be the last. In fact, nearly every member of his family line met their end at the hands of a political assassin, perhaps what's most surprising about his legacy is how little he actually changed in his years of tyranny. The damage Caligula did to Rome was undone by Claudius, only to be redone by Nero, the cycle of ups and downs continued for hundreds of years until the Roman empires. Eventual collapse while certain contingencies might have led to slightly different outcomes. The truth is that even an emperor has no more than a tiny piece in a massive historical puzzle, and even an emperor's death might not be enough to change the world. Thanks for listening to assassinations. If you're looking for more episodes or other stories of murder and crime. You can find us as well as all podcasts other shows on Spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts. You can also find us on Facebook and Instagram as at podcast and on Twitter at park, cast network. She you next Monday. Assassinations was created by max Cutler is a production of Cutler media, and as part of the par cast network. It's produced by Maxon, Ron Cutler, sound designed by David Turk with production assistance by Ron Shapiro and Paul Moller additional production assistance by Maggie admire and Freddie Beckley, this episode of assassinations was written by Sammy Sosa and stars Kate Leonard and Bill. Thomas. Don't forget to listen to my new show. The dark side of the first episode is about Harvey indict a Wilcox who registered Hollywood with the Los Angeles County recorder's office in eighteen eighty seven. In hopes of creating a Christian utopia. It's truly fascinating church four and subscribe to the dark side of on Spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts. Or visit Parkhouse dot com slash dark side to listen now.

Claudius Claudius Tiberius Colella Cassius cherry Julia Caligula Rome Rome Khalil Senate Senate C. Niro Caligula Cassius imperial palace Agra Pena murder Nero Hollywood Colella Facebook Colella circle Twitter
Mushroom Foraging, Part 1

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

54:21 min | 11 months ago

Mushroom Foraging, Part 1

"Hey. Everybody. Today's episode is sponsored by the New Mazda C X Thirty you know Robert this past December when I was out in California for the Mazda thing. So I got a chance to try out the X. Thirty on a road trip from palm desert to San Diego and I was riding along with someone all you listeners might know miles grave from our cousin podcast the daily Zeitgeist. Uh so miles and I each took a turn driving through the mountains along the way and we both got to experience the terrain. The awesome occasionally Olympics Mons like desert landscape those mountains in southern California really something else is beautiful country. But we got to do it as both the driver and the passenger since we traded off in about halfway through, and we also got a great feel for the features that make the Mazda C X thirty really stand out in its class. You can check out the new theory yourself at Mazda USA, dot com slash Iheart, or see it in person at your local Mazda dealership. This episode is brought to you by IBM, today answers matter more than ever before. That's why IBM is helping businesses manage customer questions with Watson. Assistant it's conversational AI designed to work for any industry. Let's put smart to work IBM Dot Com Slash Watson Assistant. And a little notice here at the beginning This is an insert because Robert. Nigh we started talking about mushroom for genuine ended up going on for more than two hours so So we're splitting this episode into two parts and here's your warning so be sure to. Not only listen to this one, but come back next time. Welcome to to blow your mind production of iheartradio. Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Land and I'm Joe McCormack in today we're going on the quiet. That's right. WE'RE GONNA be talking about mushroom foraging. which we kind of touched on very briefly in our recent episode about Lichen and then realized we just had to come back to because I guess the basic. Genesis. For this is that. I've noticed a lot more mushroom talk a lot more mushroom activity this year. Part of it has been social media for sure I've noticed. People I know taking photographs, interesting mushrooms that they've spotted sometimes correctly identifying them or even harvesting them, and I have to admit the my own family. We've gotten into identifying mushrooms on hikes, and we've even done a little bit of foraging ourselves but only with the ratio shrooms and Sean Tyrrell's in way mushroom foraging is is an ideal social distancing activity. Right is something you can do that in A. Way feel social because you take them home and you take pictures of them and you put them on the Internet and everybody thinks it's beautiful and they comment on them and it's a way of interacting in a significant productive way with the world outside your house but you don't have to get close to anybody. Yeah. Yeah. It's I think part of it has certainly been cove in nineteen restrictions on our lives. Because some of us are doing a lot more walks through either parks or or hiking trails if we have access to them and were able to get to those. But even through our own neighborhoods like we we've harvested some. Mash rooms from star immediate neighborhood environment just walking or walking around spotting them, and then being them, and then also just iding various other things that were not attempting to collect. It's a great. It's a great. We're occupy your time to sort of have. It's kind of like the pokemon go of the wild it gives you sort of. Goals to achieve on your walks things to chronicle and for most of US anyway, new topic to immerse ourselves in. You know because prior to the last couple of years or so I really didn't know much about mushrooms outside of the few varieties that I had previously consumed or the can find at the grocery store order on a pizza. But of course, that's only a slim of variety of of of the mushroom world. There are some delicious edible wild mushrooms that that have resisted cultivation. Totally and there are some interesting reasons for that to like one of them being that tying back to our recent like an episode, some mushrooms that are delicious to eat exist in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, specifically often like plants and trees that are difficult to recreate in a controlled environment. So you can't just started chantal farm or maybe you could. But you know you're yield would be inconsistent is just really difficult to do. Absolutely. Another thing though is I, it's funny that we think of mushroom foraging a sort of the the natural world version of Pokemon go is a sign of how sort of my tamed our brains are that. Yeah isn't pokemon go really a sort of substitute or surrogate for this ancient instinct we have to scour the land for bits of edible plant matter and and other life it absolutely is and and so that's why I encourage everyone to to to. Keep listening to this episode. Even if you're not that into mushrooms, you're not interested in mushroom foraging because we're going to discuss mushroom foraging, but we're also going to discuss foraging behavior. In a broader sense and I think that's something that that that certainly you engage in just and when you're on a walk and you're looking for something, be it birds or mushrooms or NON-EXISTENT POKEMON lurking You know somewhere in the GPS domain I think it also comes into play in shopping in sorting through a big box of unsorted Lagos to find the pieces you're looking for I mean it pops up in so many different human activities and it captivates us it. It is. It latches an to a part of our neural. Wear, because it is it is part of what we're supposed to do. This is interesting. I wish I had thought about this before we started talking so I could research in a bit but it just occurred to me what makes the difference between search activities that are intensely pleasurable and search activities that are maddening like I'm thinking about search activities such as locating a specific item within your house or a given room that is not fun that feels awful. You know it's like where are my keys you? Just you just want it to end as soon as possible but on the other hand of course foraging for. Playing pokemon go or even sometimes digging through a container of legos that can be very fun we're searching for a puzzle piece. So what's the difference I mean? It might be the difference between the search for the thing lost and the search for thing not yet obtained. I'm not sure but I also have noticed I. Think I mentioned this on the show before I have found that Jigsaw Puzzles, the process of looking for the correct piece for me I feel it's both like it's both kind of mentally exhausting and frustrating and yet at the same time completely enthralling so I I in the past I found myself helping to put together a jigsaw puzzle and not really like I'm asking myself, am I enjoying this my having a good time I'm not sure but I also cannot stop I mean I. Guess One thing we're highlighting is the sometimes fuzzy line between work and play a lot of. Ever notice how much video game time is taken up with things that like are basically like they would be work in the real world but I was thinking about the way they're framed. It just makes it a game instead. Yes. So many of these games especially, you know they want you to play regularly it's not just play the story it's play every day. So they give you these little basically grocery lists things to do, and you know sometimes you see players complaining about it. And rightfully. So but but also there's something kind of addictive about it like okay. I need to go out I need to find an scrap eight hats in this post apocalyptic world you know something like that and it's ICAN weirdly get into it. Yeah I got a break rocks in my digital domain though I guess that that sort of introduces the slot machine element because if it's exciting if they were variable intermittent rewards, I think that's the the the candy in there Yeah. I mean will sometimes there's a random through the reward is random but like sometimes like in thought seventy six, which which I know fans kind of go back and forth on this particular game in the way, it's designed elements in it but like a lot of the grocery list assignments you have. There's not there's not really a random reward. You know exactly what you're GONNA get like you're going to get so many like you know Adams that you can spend in the store or whatever you know exactly what you're working for with it So in that regard I, feel like it kind of falls in line with four, but then again, foraging is also an exercise in not necessarily. Knowing what you're going to get knowing what quantities we're going to get, and we'll we'll get into that. Well Yeah. I mean what if one of these digital rocks you broke could kill you? Yeah. Yeah and that's GONNA be a huge part of of mushrooms here. But before we go any further, I do to just shows a couple more things first of all, yes. Photography is a tremendously fun activity. To engage in with mushrooms when you're scavenging then in finding them and charting than in the wild. Spore prints are also a lot of fun. This is when you you can look guides and how to do this online but where you collect the cap mushroom and then you put it on paper and then cover it with like a glass container, a bowl or something, and then the spores leave a print of the mushroom cap on the sheet of paper, which you can then photograph and share on line or even you know I think there are ways to preserve it as well noting. The emission of spores as a great reminder something we've talked about before, which is that when you harvest a mushroom, you are not harvesting the entire organism that you know the fungus is a web of things that live under the ground usually or in some kind of decomposing matter or parasitic on another organism. The mushroom that you collect is the fruiting body. That's like an organ of the overall fungus. It's almost I, mean not exactly analogous but the closest analogy I think would be the. Breaking off the sexual organs of an animal and walking away with them. Now that being said, I want to stress something that mushroom forager's often stress regarding the fruiting body and that is that. You're not going to be hurting the organism by by harvesting the mushrooms themselves. Now. That being said they before first of all, before you engage in any kind of mushroom foraging the aware that in some places. It is prohibited some places or maybe not going to be hip to this idea that you're not really hurting the organism. They're still saying, well, you're taking away from the natural environment that is protected in this space. The other huge thing we want to stress before we go any further is that while we're going to be discussing mushroom foraging for mushroom that one would then consume for culinary or medicinal purposes do not engage in this. Just, based on anything. We've told you here as we were going to outline shortly. There are some risks involved there if you if you pick the wrong mushroom. Some dire consequences can occur and you just really need to You need to go down that road. With with professionals who know what they're talking about with mushroom foraging and don't just run off into the wild based on listening to this episode yes. Do not choose to put any particular thing in your mouth because of anything we say here today right. So speaking of this, this danger factor I want to stress that the while while I myself have enjoyed engaging in mushroom identification and the limited foraging that that my family feels comfortable with yet. Drive the nail home here. If you eat the wrong mushroom that you find in the wild, you'll die. Because you know the most notoriously, there's a variety of mushroom known as destroying angels and these indeed destroy you should you make make a mistake them for an edible mushroom? The deadly web cap mushroom is another example. This one has been mistaken for edible shelter. Terrell mushrooms it's even been mistaken for suicide and mushrooms before, and it has a horrifying reputation for causing a reversible kidney failure in those who consume it including some very notable cases such as that of English author, Nicholas Evans Yeah they're actually a number of historically notable alleged mushroom poisonings that I've been reading about a specifically in a book by Cynthia D, Bertelson called Mushroom A. Global History from reaction books in two, thousand, thirteen I think it was also distributed by the University of Chicago press but Bertelson at one point writes about how the French philosopher Voltaire, Who Live Sixteen, ninety, four to seventeen, seventy, eight once wrote quote a dish of mushrooms changed the destiny of Europe. Now, how how could that possibly be true? Well, he was talking about the poisoning of a specific king of the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg King Charles the sixth of Austria. To pick up with what Bertelson writes quote who eight death cap mushrooms amanita fallow witty's the subsequent war of the Austrian succession from seventeen forty to seventeen, forty eight which developed into a global war. In the American colonies, it was called King, George's war absorbing in the process the war of Jenkin's ear, the British and Spanish in the Caribbean affected people as far away as India all because of mushrooms those quote toadstools and here she's referring to the fact that it was allegedly common among especially English speakers to take a very indiscriminating attitude toward mushrooms. You know a lot of English speakers would just look at all kinds of mushrooms and say, well, they're all just toadstools. In terms of other political consequences in history, it's also been alleged that the Roman emperor Claudius. was poisoned with mushrooms though this is disputed the earliest accounts indicate that on October. Thirteenth fifty, four CE at the age of sixty four, the emperor started to complain of extreme stomach pain had diarrhea and vomiting you had trouble breathing low blood pressure and excessive salvation and I was reading a report in scientific American from. Two Thousand and one about a conference presentation by a doctor named William Valente from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and Valente argued that mushrooms containing Musk Corinne, where the cause of his death according to the symptoms reported and one of the traditional explanations for what happened to Claudius was that he was poisoned by his wife Agra Pena in order to clear the way for her son Nero to ascend to the. Throne and we all know good old Niro Now, the conclusion that that Claudius died by some form of poisoning does appear to at least usually have been the historical consensus but other experts doubt this one we should note I found a paper published by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine in two thousand and two by more men and Vedran, and they wrote quote we see no reason to believe. That, Claudius, was murdered. All the features are consistent with sudden death from cerebrovascular disease, which was common in Roman Times, and they also note that one of the forms of evidence they side is that physical depictions of Claudius in the couple of years before he died visibly declining health that would be you know consistent with the symptoms of this disease that they think would also explain what people saw when he died. So so we don't know for sure but as a strange apparently, emperor nero declared that mushrooms were the food of the gods and also kind of interesting because Claudius was deified meaning made into a god basically immediately after his death. Oh, well I mean that does. One could certainly interpret that as Niro being a very being very dastardly sneaky thing to say or it could be a coincidence because, hey, I mean mushrooms are kind of the food of the Gods Mushrooms are delicious I. We've gotten this far into a podcast about mushrooms without me just saying like I love mushrooms I've been cooking with a lot of them recently that we've been getting from a local CSA that has been supplying us with with Shazaki, mushrooms and Oyster? Mushrooms which are so delicious. Roast them lightly in the oven until they get a little bit dried out and Brown, and you can use them in anything. They're they're like they're meteor than meet. They are certainly like my family we are. We're PESCA -Tarian. But we we don't even eat fish that often so. It's it's it's wonderful to to have mushrooms in a dish to create that that that meaty texture and that needy flavor. Yeah. So good are we're going to take a quick break but we'll be right back. Hey everybody. Today's episode is sponsored by the new Mazda C X Thirty so lately, we've been trying to do our part to be cautious and do what we can for public health. So we've been cooped up in the house a lot not a getting out a lot Robert. Is there anything you Kinda miss about the about the road trip or going on long? Drives. Why do you have to say there's there is something really cool about having a long drive. Hopefully, you know like driving through the mountains or something in and you get to really dive into a particular album you know just really experience it beginning to end while taking in the scenery also a great time for the children to learn about metal machine. Music. So when miles gray and I drove the Mazda. C. X thirty from Palm Desert to San Diego. I really enjoyed the scenery along the way and I feel like the car itself helped a lot with that like the interior of the car is crafted with what they call an essential list approach. So while it's got a lot of features like in-car Wi fi vehicle status, navigation displays, etc. It really doesn't feel crammed with distracting lights in visual decoy. And speaking of features the six thirty also has a really good factory soundsystem. They loaded the car up with some high definition sample tracks for us to try like we listen to Daft punk and that sounded great for everybody else if you want more information on Mazda and the first ever Mazda, C X Thirty, you can find it online at Mazda USA dot com slash Iheart, or better yet. See It in person at a Mazda dealership near you. Hey everybody today we want to talk to you about Caserta by Lutron smart lighting control brought to you by Lutron pioneers in Smart Home Technology. 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N. DOT COM slash stuff. And, we're back now now we've been discussing these like terribly poisonous mushrooms. We should, of course, stress that. It's not just a you know good versus evil situation here. It's not just this mushroom will will be delicious or have some sort of curative properties to it, and this one will destroy you. There is a wide variety of mushrooms out there some of which. If you eat by accident, you're not going to die. You'll just get violently ill you know there's a whole world of light mushroom poisoning yes. Said there are certainly mushrooms out there that are technically edible not good to eat. And then there there's also something to be said for just everyone's particular. Digestive system is going to react differently to different thing. So there you know the mushroom that one person finds delicious and fulfilling might give someone else in upset stomach. Yeah. Absolutely in an away, the idea of mushroom foraging reminds us of something that would have been much more common throughout history at times before say I don't know having like an FDA and widespread food inspection and a very organized streamlined process for supplying foodstuffs to grocery stores and all that I. Think if you go back in history, you'd find that eating was more was a little bit more game of Roulette than it is today you know that You were kind of always just had to wonder is like is what I'm eating right now safe. Yeah, indeed. But particularly, I guess the thing about mushroom foraging his especially in the modern connotation, it does. Really highlight that that risk than inherent risk of foraging for your food. And it in. Certainly if if you look at some of these worst case scenarios in these horror stories of people consuming deadly poison thinking that they found the edible mushroom or psychedelic mushroom It may raise the question. Why do this at all they know is the reward truly worth the risk and I totally get this question when when my wife became interested in wild mushroom foraging, my initial thought was okay. Sean Tyrrell's sound delicious I. Think I'd I'd had them previously maybe once before but are they really so good that it's worth even thinking about the possibility of getting it wrong or getting it deadly wrong. Even casting aside the more serious risk of Death Oregon damage. Do I really just want to spend an afternoon or an evening You know violently ill in my stomach because I wanted to have this this experience. I mean I would guess that. Part of it like you can sort of calculate your risks, you can't be a hundred percent. Sure but you can say like, okay. I'm plucking a mushroom that looks like this. I think it's this species how close in appearance and in habitat and stuff like that is it to things that are known to be poisonous? Yeah. Yeah. The certainly. Like, in our case, you know the the mushrooms that we tend to gravitate towards are ones where at least in our area there there are only so many things you could mistake it for, and if you you can educate yourself on what details to precisely look for, and then one of the beauties of social media or one of the. The benefits I can point to is that you can then take your photograph of the specimen and share it with other enthusiast and even experts and say, what do I have here helped me identify this etc lady. Resources at hand? Yeah. That is kind of wonderful in the same way that the Internet can, of course, be the source of collective delusions and things like that. It can also be the source of collective wisdom. One of the ways in which I've seen it best used for collective wisdom is species identification. There's a whole part of twitter this just people posting species, identification photos for snakes for spiders for wild mushrooms and things like that. That's awesome. Yeah. Now, particularly with mushrooms I was looking around for for people's thoughts on this and I found an article on the website for Ian Magazine, by the Author Cal Flynn and the author writes this whole pieces just. About mushroom, foraging and the risk rewards of it and they write quote if the risk is so huge in the playoffs. So small, why do it? The identification process is interesting of course, and mushrooms are pleasant enough to eat. But perhaps the real intrigue arises from the risk itself and the skill required to sidestep it. Yeah. This ties in with something I've often wondered about in two categories both dogs and humans children, and the question is why do so many dogs and human children just put basically anything they find on the ground into their mouths you know like chances are not good. This is food but by God I'm going to give it a go. This has always struck me as a as a really maladaptive behavior. Why would we instinctually air on putting things into the mouth instead of keeping them out of the mouth wouldn't you think that we would instinctually air more on the side of caution? It seems like there's more risk in putting random, potentially poisonous or inedible things into your mouth than there is reward in whatever forsaken food inner she'd be missing out on if you didn't put it in your mouth but I I don't know who knows I mean maybe one thing is that the conditions of modern life somehow encourage behaviors that wouldn't occur very much in nature I. Guess that's a possibility Maybe maybe, nibbling on all kinds of nutritionally ambiguous material is just a lot less risky than it would seem may less risky than we assume maybe you can actually put all kinds of stuff in your mouth and in your body in most of the time, you'll be fine. Well, I want to stress that we are not advocating anyone do that no no, no no. But I am told that experience mushroom forager sometimes perform a taste test tasting but not consuming. A mushroom to help determine the variety and it's my understanding that it's done the with potentially toxic mushrooms as well. Again, do not try this because we mentioned it. But but but it but this, this would make sense. That that, you were able to to taste some of these these specimens. To See, I don't know to detect say bitterness to help in the identification process I also thinking about. Okay. What is actually been observed in wild animals in terms of just like tasting everything trying everything in their environment when there are so many toxic plants and mushrooms in the world and one thing I came across that was kind of interesting was an an older article in the. Fish and wildlife news by Riley Woodford called how dear eat poisonous plants and it sites and Alaska Wildlife Biologist named Tom. Hanley who talks about how actually in the wild deer eat toxic poisonous plants just all the time. And Hanley says quote dear will eat a little bit of almost everything out there including a few bites of various toxic plants there seemed to be threshold levels for the toxicity of different plants and as long as dear eat below the threshold there. Okay. So That's interesting. It's like maybe just eat toxic things in moderation nibble on a little bit of this here in a little bit of that there, and over time you can sort of build up some nutrition for your body without reaching toxic levels on any one particular poison. Yeah, I mean it's also worth worth remembering that you know it's going to vary from species to species for instance, with humans. Poison Ivy is generally no fun. But goats goats like let me add it. I'm just eat it all. Goats Poison Ivy Yeah Yeah. Yeah. Now, that means you need not have goat milk from those goats. But yeah. To have no problem with another outstanding example of the sort of thing are box turtles. Box Turtles are all about eaten up some some some poisonous mushrooms, for example. And Then by the bother them at all but for similar reason, don't go out harvest in box turtles think thinking you're going to make soup out of him. Yeah. And the fact that different species are tolerant of different toxins is, of course, something as mentioned in this article as well like it talks about how mule deer, for example, are more tolerant of something called Loco weed than pronghorns, antelope bar, and it says that elk or more tolerant of Ponderosa Pine Than Bison are and I. Think this would probably have to do with what their natural habitats are, what the evolved relationships they have are with different plants and and probably also their nutritional needs. But the quote that Bertelson has in her book that I really liked it was from the American food writer, Jon Thorne who wrote quote all hunters put life at risk but for mushrooms, the amount of danger comes well, after the quarry has been run to ground finding the mushroom is the initiation but eating it is the test. I think that's interesting comparing it with hunting like that you know hunting dislocation of where the violence could set in and and this connects to some Russian traditions that I'll talk about in a minute. But there's also a folk adage I. Think we may have mentioned it when we did our episodes about Silla, Sivan and psychedelics. the folks saying is there are old mushroom hunters and there are bold mushroom hunters, but there are no old bold mushroom hunters. Which? Hammering home the idea that mushroom foraging while a highly rewarding activity of millions of people around the world is something that's best practiced with a kind of conservative mindset like you do need to be cautious to to understand what you're doing before you dive in Headfirst Yeah I think I've heard Paul Steinmetz echo the same nugget wisdom. And speaking of. Of Wisdom concerning the consumption of mushrooms and also plants this brings to mind this mythological figure from Chinese mythology that have brought before and that's Shinnung the divine farmer. Also that the Chinese father of agriculture and he's he's credited with inventing various imported agricultural technologies but also was said to have consumed basically the the net is he looked around and he saw that the people were starving they were they were sickly they needed medicine, they needed more food. So what he did is he set to work consuming hundreds of plants per day and as many as seventy poisons a day in order to chart the medicinal properties of the natural world in order to alleviate sickness and starvation and disease. And you'll often find illustrations of him kind of like chewing on the end of some sort of vegetation and he's a really interesting character in the artistic depictions as well because he he has these kind of bovine features and even these kind of horn-like. On his head, which apparently we see in some other Chinese mythological figures as well. Well, this is great because even though there may be there could be mythological elements to the specific story of She Naung it highlights the fact that at some point, there had to be a lot of trial and error going into our knowledge about mushrooms right? You couldn't just look at them and. Reason from that knowledge and like people were making decisions about what mushrooms were safe to eat long before we had laboratory testing procedures and all that. So there, there are just years and years and many historical recapitulation of painful horrifying trial and error in mushroom foraging In fact, Bertelson writes about this. She talks about specifically what was going on in the literature of the eighteenth and nineteenth century in the medical literature. she says quote in his full of accounts of unsuspecting forager's coming home with their prizes only to find themselves hours or even minutes later laughing hysterically or bent over with intestinal pains unable to move from chair to bed. So serious cases of poisonings in France that in Paris in seventeen, fifty four, the City Fathers passed an ordinance prohibiting the sale of any mushrooms in the markets. Like there's so much mushroom poisoning people just trying to figure out what you're supposed to eat and not or maybe disregarding what was already known by other people there. There they were just like, okay. Were were saying Knicks on the mushrooms. No mushrooms at all Oh. Yeah. Indeed. Unique. What was known and perhaps forgotten. It's interesting to think of just the very early days of humanity. As human expansion spreads out of our, you know our ancient places of origin. The humid these humans and and and and and pre humans have. Encountered, just new environments and that means new species, new substances that they would then have to test out and figure out again like what is what has beneficial? What is dangerous You know what is food and what is the potential medicine as they continue to spread out in the world? Yeah, and I think this is something you see throughout the history of mushroom literature is a gradual process of ruling things in. So in the in the eighteenth century French example I mentioned in seventeen, fifty, four, they said, okay no mushrooms at all in the markets but. Mushrooms are good. So this was eventually amended and Bertelson mentions that in eighteen eight, they changed the law to allow seven species in particular in markets in Paris, and the mushrooms had to pass inspection by police appointed experts in order to be sold down, that would make for good. Television show the mushroom police. Are, we're GONNA take a quick break. We'll be right back. Everybody does twenty twenty mean for small businesses what means you have to do more with less suddenly every single higher is critical, but there are fewer resources to find the right people. 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So go right now to indeed dot com slash podcast terms and conditions apply offer valid through September thirtieth. Everybody US bank is committed to helping everyone not just their customers understand finances a little better. Their financial I q site has insights and tools to teach you about managing your money to help you reach financial goals protect your accounts from online fraud by your own home or plan for retirement just type in your question and learn something new whatever your financial pursuit visit us bank dot com slash insights to get started. US. Bank is an equal housing lender member FDIC. All. Right. We're back. You know there's something I've sometimes going to wondered about when people really enjoy meet people who are big carnivores like I just love a good steak. If part of the enjoyment is a sort of sublimated implied sense of violence or struggle in the idea of eating the meat because you know if you're eating meat you, there was some violence that happened at some point. Something is a little bit dangerous about your food. And it makes me wonder if maybe in the back of our minds, there's something slightly psychologically similar going on with mushrooms I mean probably not because not if you're buying button mushrooms from the store or something I mean that's just like any other crop at this point. But maybe with foraged mushrooms, there's a similar danger running underneath the skin. How maybe so yeah. Yeah. than at a to come back to to cal Flynn's piece in Ian the author they're also compared it to the consumption of a particular meet the Japanese delicacy of Fu. In you know in which the risk and the skill is part of it. You know it's like is the. Louis is the is the chef. In this case, are they skilled enough to pull this off to remove the dangerous? Only delicious parts. And so so that author ties this into the. To our relationship with mushroom foraging. Now to come back, just briefly to the idea of their seeming to be an uptick in mushroom enthusiasm. Especially, what we see online and all I just wanted to share a few more thoughts about first of all I do think there is probably a connection here to the increased mainstream interest in psychedelic mushrooms and the increased in promising clinical research, which we we outlined what was it last year in a several part series on psychedelics? I feel like that. I feel I feel like that is part of the scenario at least with some people. Also I we should always drive home that humans have always been fascinated with mushrooms. So there's nothing new about mushroom fascination we see it in ancient art we see it in Super Mario Games. So it's it's it's just part of who we are, and if you wanna read more about this last point, it was touched on in a New York magazine article by Sydney Gore with the wonderful title. Why are mushrooms taking over my social media feed my medicine cabinet and my closet referring to like fashions I believe there Oh, like those fungus hats. Pulse. A WHO yes. Yes. Paul Steinmetz Fashions. I also found it interesting article about a huge uptick in Scottish mushroom foraging steep rise in scots enjoying fruits a foraging by Maggie Ritchie and this article put it this way quoting Terry Carmichael, resident forager for wild tastes at the Carmichael, estate and in Lancashire. Quote more people are trying to get back to their roots and to nature since the pandemic started and we reconnect with nature, there are so many foods that are right on our doorstep. That we see every day and can bring into our kitchens. They're all packed with nutrients far more than any sold in supermarkets and it's also worth noting. That articles speak You find articles speaking to the rising quote hypnotise of mushroom for a drink in twenty, nineteen and earlier. So a lot of this was already in motion For instance, there is the Guardian. Article. Titled The Gospel of Mushrooms How foraging became hip and that was from October of two thousand nineteen. In for my own part, I have to point out the my family took a guided foraging exercise. Like a guided hike through an area where they are known to be some edible mushrooms in earlier in two, thousand, nineteen, I thinks summer of two thousand nineteen as well. There's apparently been just overall kind of demographic shift on top of this where mushroom foraging was previously the kind of hobby that You would often see older individuals engaged in and that has shifted a bit younger in in recent years. So part of this goes back to a pre pandemic times to twenty nineteen and and these trends. But I definitely also to come back to what you were saying before that would connect it to. Trends we've seen in self sufficiency and production of foodstuffs in the home or around the home the boy. There was sort craze for like people making sour dough bread, people growing herb gardens and things like that. This year when I think suddenly a lot of people realize that it might be much easier than they had previously thought to hire food items from places other than the grocery store. Yeah. Yeah. I also WANNA mention that that that foraging course. That my family took the high guided hike It was kind of a varied group. You know you had some people that are just kind of nature enthusiast but then there's one guy that was like straight up survivalist like you. He was there to to learn i. mean he's there. I think for a little socialization as well. But he was also one of these guys was like Yep it's coming and I'm GONNA I'm GonNa be the one they know where the mushrooms are. When the Y Two K bug hits, I'M GONNA be here with my gun mushroom hunting. Yeah. I think we can all relate to that. You know we do a little doom fantasizing and we're like, Oh man if it suddenly, Cormac McCarthy's the road i WanNa know what's up you know? Especially, as we previously mentioned you know fungi are GonNa go presumably do do. All right. If the son gets blacked out right this is a great point. I didn't think about this. So the in in Corinth McCarthy's the road the earth is dead. The Sky appears to have been I don't know clouded by some kind of particulate matter. Did you ever have a personal theory as to what the event was in the road was volcanic eruptions or an impact from space sir I always lean more towards nuclear war just because they have the he had those really I mean the whole book is beautiful dark and several has richly but. As as these deposits of just exceedingly rich language and there are a few there describing what it's like in the cities where like the city seem to be a very toxic place to be, and you've talked about like people rummaging through the rubble to get a probably radioactive foods that they can eat that sort of thing I kind of tend to lean towards that but he does keep it. They get to what exactly happened right? Well, whatever it is something has has darkened the skies and this of course has killed all the plant life. So nobody can grow any food to eat but yeah, I would be thinking shouldn't mushrooms doing awesome. Yeah Yeah there's no I don't think there's any mention of them growing anywhere, but one would hope so. It would be it would be almost kind of a comical scene, right where the cannibals are hanging out and they're like Whoa guys they're mushrooms everywhere we have to eat babies anymore is sean trail season. Hen of the woods so anyway, So, there's the survival aspect of it certainly, but you know there's just fascination with nature but I would say that another huge part of this and something we're going to continue to discuss here's that foraging would seem to be an innate part of the human experience and we engage in it in various ways. Mushroom hunting stands out as thoroughly authentic example of the sort of foraging behavior. But again we can. We can all identify with activities that are. Like foraging that are oddly satisfying again like Jigsaw Puzzles Lego pieces, shopping even going to the grocery, store candy and an act of foraging sort of engage some of those same circuits I feel like it's certainly varies from person to person For example, I've been fascinated by the way that some people really enjoy shopping. You know the enjoy like shopping for clothes or whatever, and that's always been very mysterious to me I don't enjoy that at all. It seems like a really irritating tedious activity that I don't do unless I absolutely have to but then I realized actually I can relate to it because I really enjoy under under at least like less stressful circumstances I, really enjoy shopping for food I like going out to find like nice produce you know going to the farmer's markets and you know finding a really good-looking cucumber bunch of mushrooms or something so so I think I do actually relate To, that foraging shopping instinct is just with different kinds of items and I guess that probably works differently from for different people. I know some people who love going to the hardware store I don't really get that either. But you know that's like a very classically dad thing is like Oh yeah. The hardware store. Well, I know you and I back when we could actually physically go in there going to the last video store in Atlanta video drums. And forage for particular You know movies we're interested in saying that that is a is, is I think very comparable to forage it very interesting. Why? Yeah. So I love the video drome and in the produce aisle do not love the hardware store the clothes I'll I don't know maybe it comes back to again. This idea is there ward is there something that I'm working towards getting that is meaningful to me sustenance either in a food sense or in a B. Movie since but clearly for many people, there is a lot of pleasure in mushroom foraging that is not related to reward. It is related to the activity itself, and this is something that kept coming up for me when I was reading about the Russian traditions of mushroom foraging this is what reference to the beginning of the episode but the term, the quiet hunt apparently, mushroom foraging is very popular in Russia and it's often been called this the quiet hunt. I like that Bertelson mentions the tradition in her book when she's quoting a passage from of Vladimir, Nabokov's memoir speak memory, which he published in nineteen fifty one and in this book, he writes about his own mother's obsession with mushroom foraging quote. One of her greatest pleasures in summer was the very Russian sport of Hoda Po Greedy looking for mushrooms fried in butter and thickened with sour cream. Fines. appeared regularly on the dinner table not that the good dettori moment mattered much. Her main delight was in the quest Bertelson also quotes the Russian American Pediatrician Valentina Pavlova Watson who was married to the famed Mica File are Gordon Watson. They were sort of a a amateur mushroom expert team in in the mid nineteen hundreds I think that they were also heavily involved in spreading the word about suicide mushrooms to. World. but speaking of her childhood, you know she came from a Russian family Valentine Pavlov now wrote that quote when we were naughty, our mother would punish us by forbidding us to go mushrooming. Great you know it's like it's like a video game. And Bertelson in her chapter identifies a couple of possible factors influencing the widespread passion for mushroom foraging. Russia. One of them that she highlights is the number of fast days mandated under the Russian Orthodox Church, which would specifically It would imply that Christians were expected not to eat meat on these days and mushrooms would provide a luxurious meeting as to a plate the you know. When you can't eat meat itself but also just general poverty leading to that same lack of meat But there's also a thing that appears to go beyond culinary preferences. I was reading an article by Ellen. Berry in the New York Times for the Moscow Journal called a Hypnotize Ing Hunt Leaves Russians bewildered this is from two, thousand nine and Berry writes that practitioners of the quiet. Quote routinely become. So hypnotized that they get hopelessly lost. Yeah apparently Russian media is full of stories like this. She cites a couple. I'm just I'm going to read from her article here quote. Earlier this month, a sodden and unshaven man emerged from the woods near the southern Russian village of. kluge telling rescuers that he spent three nights perched in trees to get away from jackals. A similar tale came from the Tiga near brought Skin Siberia where a twenty two year old man wandered for five days covering himself with Pine Boughs at night to ward off frostbite eleven time zones to the West near the Baltic Sea a search and rescue team found an elderly couple in the swamp. Where they had spent the night the wife in what officials described as a state of panic it happens every mushroom season and so yeah very interesting very rights that for a lot of mushroom hunters in Russia, the foraging activity induces a kind of trance state. I don't know how literally to take that but that's what she says and it does seem to be consistent with what a lot. Of people have written about the the quiet hunt and I. It's interesting that there there's a disconnect because, of course, ancient mushroom foraging practices would have been established by people who are probably better at navigating the wild landscape and finding their way home following the angle of the Sun. For instance, while in modern times, we have lost a lot of these way finding skills because we don't need. them very often and instead we rely on technology, which is not always reliable. So autumn comes and people go in, they go to the woods trance up and they get lost and the article quotes a rescue worker named Alexander's men of ski who calls the people who get lost quote the children of asphalt ha no. Of course with stories like this, you also just have to you know wonder. With some of these stories, people might just be doing other things and than later they say, Oh yeah, I got lost while mushroom foraging. There are some there. In the article of some people's particular stories where people are like well, they were just on a bender or something but but clearly, it does seem to happen fairly often well, I mean one is, of course, reminded of the fact that if you go on a nature walk you you you you you may get lucky and find some shelter als or whatnot growing close to the trail. But in all likelihood you're GONNA you're gonNA spot that telltale yellow patch a little further off from the trail, and then you you may wander off the trail to go and get them, and of course, leaving the trail can is one way to get a little closer to becoming lost in the forest. I mean. This is how isn't there there's a part in the Hobbit I think where the basically the same thing happens except the series campfire, which of course, has parallels to patches of mushrooms in the would well and it. It specifically highlights things about foraging strategies that we observe in humans and other animals about say the density of rewards in certain areas like. Probably the closer you stay to the occupied area, the more picked over the the stores are going to be. So you might need to make a little bit of a journey to go to places that haven't been picked over by other people already, and the farther you get away the more the risks multiply the more energy expend. Yeah and and then next thing you know you got the head of a bear. The mushroom has has transformed you. All right. We're going to have to interrupt the conversation right there. Again, we had to split this conversation into two episodes. So expect the second half on the next publication day for stuff to blow your mind. But in the meantime, feel free to write in. We'd love to hear from everybody on the topic of Mushroom foraging your experiences with mushroom foraging et CETERA. I should also point out that if you if you're interested in merchandise for the show, we actually have a mushroom theme stuff to blow your mind local t shirt it's kind of black light themed if you go to. To blow your mind dot com, it'll still refer you to this iheart listing for our show and there should be a store. Selection that you can. You can click on store and it'll take you to that store. So if you're interested in that sort of thing that's where you'll find. Huge. Thanks says always to are excellent audio producer, Seth. Nicholas Johnson if you would like to get in touch with us with feedback on this episode or any other suggested topic for the future, just to say, hello, you can email us at contact at stuff to blow your mind. To blow your mind is production of Iheartradio for more PODCASTS, my heart radio with the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Everybody today's episode is sponsored by the new Mazda C, x thirty. You Know Robert. This past December when I was out in California for the Mazda thing. So I I got a chance to try out the thirty on a road trip from palm desert to San Diego and I was riding along with someone all you listeners might know miles grave from our cousin podcasts the daily guys. Uh so miles and I each took a turn driving through the mountains along the way and we both got to. Experience the terrain, the awesome occasionally, Olympus. Mons like desert landscape the those mountains in southern California really something else as beautiful country. But we got to do it as both the driver and passengers since we traded off in about halfway through, and we also got a great feel for the features that make the Mazda C, x thirty really stand out in its class. You can check out the new theory yourself at Mazda USA dot com slash Iheart or see it in person at your local Mazda dealership. Can robots raise human children and love them as their own does mankind's last glimmer of hope lie on other planets if there is a God, do they have any plans to save us? I'm Holly Fry, and these are just some of the questions posed by the new HBO MAC Scifi series from Ridley Scott raised by wolves as host of raised by wolves. 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