20 Burst results for "Nucleus Accumbens"
Can You Be Addicted to Love?
"Nicotine. Chocolate alcohol opioids work gambling. Sex food you might as well face it. Life is basically a gauntlet of substances and behaviors. That humans can become obsessed with and dependent on. But what about love not just sex but the deep interpersonal attachment we call love can be addictive. The notion of obsessive all consuming and even addictive love goes back literally thousands of years the ancient greek poet. Sappho wrote about watching her lover mary. Someone else and she describes being seized trembling drenched in cold sweat and feeling nearly dead she might as well be describing opium withdrawals or singing aversive addicted to love romantic. Love does have a lot of external features in common with drug addiction initial feelings of bliss and euphoria and obsessive fixated behavior often leading to poor potentially life ruining decisions. Two thousand ten paper from the new york academy of sciences points out that common criteria for diagnosing dependence include life interference tolerance withdrawal and repeated attempts to quit. Sound anything. like your relationship with your ex if so you're certainly not alone. But is there any more measurable basis for thinking. Love can be considered an addiction in the brain. Actually yes. let's talk brain imaging one way. That addiction hijacks the human brain is by taking advantage of a million reward and motivation systems. Like the mess olympic dopamine system which includes the ventral tag mental area and the nucleus accumbens. This is part of the nervous system that gives us internal rewards when we do something with an evolutionary benefits like eating or having sex essentially how the brain tells itself. Hey what you just did do that again. And again and again whether it's eating nutritious meal or unfortunately snorting cocaine back in two thousand five. A study in the journal of neurophysiologist used fm. Are i look at the brains of test subjects. Who self reported that they were intensely in love with someone else. When these lovebirds were showing pictures of the people. They adored there was activation in sections at that. Same mammalian reward and motivation system for example the right ventral mental area. But that's not all a follow up study in two thousand ten looked at what happened to the brains of men and women who had been rejected but reported that they were still deeply in love. It wasn't pretty when heartbroken. Lovers were forced to look at pictures of their exes. There was elevated activity in our old friends. The ventral take mental area and the nucleus accumbens researchers pointed out that the rejected lovers showed several neural correlates in common with the brain activity of cocaine addicts craving their drug so at the level of brain chemistry. Romantic love can be kind of like substance addiction but there are reasons why you might not want to refer to your latest crush as a full on addiction just yet. For example the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders does not officially recognize love addiction and while cravings for love can be devastating when their unrequited or self destructive they can also be deeply fulfilling in a way that no drug habit ever could be.
Why Deadhead Logs Are So Rare and Valuable (w/ Kevin OConnor) and Why Traveling Makes You Tired
"When you think about buried treasure. You probably don't think about trees ends lumber and yet dead logs are sought after because they could make you rich if you're willing to risk your life for them today to share the story is Kevin O'Connor who set of the Emmy me winning home improvement series this old house. He just wrapped the first season of his new podcast clear story which sheds light on the surprising stories behind our homes and today Kevin joins us with a brief history of dead head logs. Starting with what happened when European colonists I arrived in America hundreds of years ago when when the colonists I got here they were looking for resources and there were abundant resources. It was Virgin growth forest here in this continent Literally a billion acres of this continent of this country covered in trees and for better for worse we harvested them pretty aggressively throughout the seventeen and eighteen hundreds And in the process we took some magnificent supplies eastern white pines signs that were two hundred feet tall straight as an arrow that had been growing for one hundred years and were forty feet around we harvested them in mass those northern northern forests of Minnesota that we ship down the Great Lakes. We clear cut him. We cleaned MINNESOTA. We clear. Cut Him in Maine New Hampshire and in that process because of the era we would cut the trees down in the winter when the ground was frozen and then we get an ox to pull them across a C and snowy paths. Because how else would you move them through the mud and dirt did it. When the ground was slippery yes stack them up on the banks of rivers which were frozen but when the spring came and the snow melted and the rivers rose? You could float the logs from MINNESOTA DOWN TO CHICAGO OR FROM MAINE DOWN TO BOSTON and float him right up to the mills which were along rivers. You'd bring him in chop them up. And it was the heyday of timbering and logging in this this country. And while millions of these things made it from the forest to the mills thousands or hundreds of thousands got stuck along the way and they went to the bottom of Rivers rivers and is a weird thing. That happens when a piece of wood. Big Tree full-size goes to the bottom of a river. It is preserved like like I don't know what in from out of the died a frog and formaldehyde for science there preserved perfectly and they sit there for hundreds of years and now with the virgin forests. All gone all all this Beautiful slow growth timber all gone. There's only one place to get. It gets at the bottom of rivers and their guys who put on snorkel gear scuba gear and they will dive down into black murky rivers. They will literally list risk their lives and we talked to guys who get pinned under logs that way hundreds of pounds or rushed to the hospital because they got bit by poisonous trying to get this stuff but when they get it it's treasure they bring it up and it's beautiful and it could be five hundred or a thousand or two thousand years old and when you slice into it you're the first person to ever use it and see it and it's remarkable so it's rare it's coveted did and if you can find it you can sell it for a whole bunch of Dow because people really really want. Okay so what makes this stuff. So valuable depends on who you ask. I think if you talked to norm Abram who was our master carpenter on a shell legendary carpenter He will tell you it was the beautiful all in unique color of it and also the stability you know if the tree grew for five hundred years in the forest it grew very slowly slowly and we know that means that the rings are closer together which means the rain is tighter and that gives the woods stability and it's very difficult today because things go very fast and we force it and we farm it so he will tell you. It's that unique color the beauty as well as stability. I would argue with them a little a bit. Those things certainly are incredibly important but I think today the most important thing is it has story if you can sit there in your house talking to a guest or friend or even if you had to sell the idea to your spouse and you can point to this thing and say that lumber. I was here when Christopher Columbus showed up it went to the bottom of a river at the heyday of the logging industry. In this country it was was pulled up by a crazy guy a scuba tank and then we sliced through the Cyprus and Carter all the way up here to put it in the floor of this house you got yourself a story and you got yourself just a an invaluable thing. That's what our houses are there. Things that make us feel comfortable. They are the things that we like to show off. There are things that we like to share in that it it just it checks all the boxes right. You're making me really want one. Don't you want one. I could put you into a thousand year old piece of Cypress for eighty bucks a board foot. I'll get back to you on that. That would again. That was Kevin O'Connor his new podcast is called clear story and all ten episodes of the first season are available for you to listen to right now. Find Clear history wherever you listen to podcasts or look for Lincoln. Today's show notes. We got a listener question from Samuel in London. Who Asks? WHAT DO I get super tired after extremely only long car trips or train writes most of the time? I'm just sitting down doing nothing or sleeping but I still always become super tired. Can you please explain. Why Great Question Samuel L. as someone who falls asleep almost immediately on any long trip I definitely know where you're coming from? Samuel there are a lot of elements at play when you travel the can add up to that that sleepy feeling the biggest though is boredom. I mean whether you're in a plane train or automobile. There's not a whole lot to keep you occupied on a long trip. A study study in two thousand seventeen found that the same part of the brain. That's responsible for motivation can also produce sleep so when there's nothing particularly motivating around. We tend to get sleepy. Maybe that part of the brain is called the nucleus accumbens and it's packed with receptors for tiredness triggering molecule called a denizen both caffeine and motivating stimuli stimuli can interfere with these receptors. And keep you from getting sleepy but without either of those. It's a one-way ticket to snooze. Ville studies have also found that the gentle vibrations nations of a vehicle or also. Really good lulling us to sleep. Although scientists aren't really sure why a twenty eighteen study from Australia had people drive in a virtual oh simulator that was set up on a vibration platform. It only took fifteen minutes on a low vibration for the participants to show signs of drowsiness and by thirty minutes in staying alert took significant effort when it comes to staying awake on route the relaxing Of the engine isn't doing you any favors. And of course they're all the little things things on traveled as you probably wake up earlier than normal eat less than nourishing food generally send your normal routines out of whack. You also may be dehydrated whether from recirculated air in a plane or just forgetting to drink water in general and studies suggest that can make you sluggish. So what should you do about it. Honestly take a nap up. But if you'd rather stay alert here are a few things to try. Talk to your travel buddies to keep your mind. Active drink caffeine too full your identity and receptors. Just make sure sure to follow it with lots and lots of water and try your best to eat healthy meals so you don't have a food coma or sugar crash to make things even worse.
Addicted To Sugar? This Doctor Says It's 'The New Tobacco'
"Food there's a teaspoon of sugar and every table spoon of ketchup our next guest says on food is been adulterated poisoned and he's not kidding he says sugar plays a central role in health problems including an epidemic of obesity in infants as young as six months that it's as dangerous as smoking or abuse of alcohol and if you doing The New York Times seven day sugar challenge they say even grapes and bananas have too much sugar Dr Robert listing is professor of pediatric and technology at the university of California San Francisco Dr rod of people no sugar is in health food why is it so dangerous well so people think that sugar is just empty calories and they think well you get some discretionary calories during the day so why can't they be sugar well if sugar we're just calories then they'd be right except they're wrong because different calories in foods are burned and of the absorb digestive metabolized in different ways and do different things and contribute to different diseases so I just want underscore what you said because the rule has always been calories in calories out you've got to burn it off somewhere in the middle and you are saying again that is not true what do sugar calories do right so why are sugar calories so different well they're different for three reasons the first is when sugar is absorbed it goes to the liver and the liver gets overwhelmed because it has a limited capacity to metabolize it just like it has a limited capacity metabolize alcohol just like it has a limited capacity to metabolize many of the toxins that we take in you know because your liver is the detoxification center of your body it has a limited capacity for being able to deal with sugar when you overwhelm it the liver has no choice but to take the access and turn it into a liver fat and that liver fat is the driver of virtually every chronic disease that we are now currently suffering from that's gone up in time so type two diabetes liver problems hypertension cardiovascular disease cancer dementia non alcoholic fatty liver disease poly cystic ovarian disease all being driven by liver fat in the liver fat is because of the ship and so you can basically have alcoholic fatty liver disease if your over twenty one we can of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and it doesn't make a difference because they are identical and so we have done several liver transplants in soda drinkers you know teenagers soda drinkers transplants the insidiousness of sodas and I got a you know this is why I am one of those people I pride myself I don't drink coffee but I picked up a little bit of a soda habit and it's just appalling to think of how well and it's an addiction it's not it's an addiction and you know anybody who says you know I have this horrible sweet tooth that's sugar addiction yeah so sugar is objective in the same way as alcohol in the same way as nicotine cocaine amphetamine heroin shopping gambling social media internet **** all of these stimulate the same area of the brain called the reward center the nucleus accumbens anything that causes the release of dopamine is in the extreme addictive well when you call this the coca Cola conspiracy because you say it's not by accident it's not just that there's a ton of caffeine added to this so it is that makes you then Pete pardon my in elegance they also add salt so the combination makes you thirsty ear so you drink read more exactly so they know what they're doing do you have to put salt in coke there used to be a Cola called royal crown Cola didn't have any salt in it the coca Cola knocked them out of the park but the fact is you don't have to put salt and soda so this is by design well and then fructose was sold to us as more natural sugar it's this is in you know corn and beats and and and such but as you point out one of things I do is I think does which is added to just about everything is stripped the fiber out of it so that has a longer shelf life so it has absolutely none of that benefit and why is from toes as bad as sugar so first of all sugar is two molecules down together glucose and fructose now glucose is not all that bad so great but it's not that bad however fructose because it is metabolized into that liver fat in the liver that's where the problem comes in in addition structures starts the aging reaction it causes what we call caramelization it's the reason for wrinkles is the reason for cataracts this aging reaction this Browning reaction and fructose does it seven times faster than glucose and now we have learned through work done at Joslin diabetes center that truck tows specifically inhibits the mitochondrial enzyme that causes those mitochondria to burn less well which probably is one of the reasons for the persistent weight gain and also chronic disease and the glucose doesn't do that so there are some very specific differences between these two molecules however when you consume any form of sugar whether it's sucrose which is table sugar cane sugar beet sugar the stuff you put your coffee or high fructose corn syrup or honey where maple syrup Oregon eight doesn't matter you are getting one of each molecule and soak sugar is a problem because of the fructose molecules look we we have just a couple minutes left I urge people to watch your lecture but you try a direct line from the state we're in today to the health industry and the government may nineteen eighty two we were told to cut out fats and so everybody went to cards and of course cars are filled with all the sugar that you're talking about and by the way obesity went off when we cut out fats and went to cards you go back to Nixon in the early nineteen seventies who there was a political crisis food was too expensive he directed his agriculture department to cheapen it which they did by adding a lot of these you know corn syrup products you call for hello Sir yeah you called **** toes poison and one would ask why would our own FDA regulated poison well one of our biggest exports is our food of course the food industry pushes back on the your claims in the claims of others but people know what they can see with their own eyes they don't feel well they see their children are overweight a lot of people our age are doing things like The New York Times seven day sugar challenge trying to cut back the first day you know sugar at breakfast how would you help people do this given that it is so addictive and it is so everywhere right so I will be very honest with you we will not solve this problem until the food industry solves it for us and they have no interest in doing so because this is their gravy train this is their job or this is how they went from one percent gross profit margin two five percent gross profit margin in the span of three decades this is their livelihood and they're not gonna do anything they don't have to do and unfortunately the governments in bed with them because they're making fifty six billion dollars a year off export tariffs off our food so the only way we are going to fix this problem is when there are more votes than dollars and right now we're just beginning to you know get some traction in the general public for this issue of food having said that people need to understand what the problem is they don't have to understand the difference between processed food and real food and the difference is processed food is high sugar low fiber hi sugar for palatability low fiber for shelf life real food is low sugar high fiber real food works processed food doesn't process food kills because of these issues and we could repeat could fix this tomorrow if we want to ship the problem is because sugar is addictive people don't want to he one of the saddest things in your lecture is you talk about children who have the serious health issues now that are traced to the juices that they're given and these are low income children the juices come to them to the government wick program exactly right it's going to be tough for you to see those children impossible it's you know breaks your heart you know the fact of matter is these kids are victims and we know who the perpetrators are and the fact is you know the the parents don't understand and so it promulgates itself you know the fact is what mothers eight during pregnancy ultimately impact on the number of fat cells children born wish and those vessels wanna get filled so these kids didn't have a chance even before they were born never mind afterwards I mean how do you blame a six month old for obesity in fact the matter is we have a problem and we have to address it and no one
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Like you said you've got to use it agency before you fall in love you know if you begin to fall for somebody who knows lying to you the way out is through the door we've evolved a huge cerebral cortex we can overcome our drives and me people have a drive to eat sugar we can say no thank you but you've got to realize who you are understand your assets and your defect and contacted to flee think of a worker we can do this our brain chemistry make it harder to fall out of love than to fall in love it's extremely difficult to do you know we I and my colleagues have put fifteen people who just been rejected and love into a brain scanner and we ended up finding that those people who are still madly in love with somebody who just dump them they still showed activity in this ventral tegmental area a little factory near the base of the brain that pumps out the dopamine gives you that elation we still found activity in the brain region link was feelings of deep attachment to the partner I you don't stop loving somebody just because they dumped you we found activity in three brain regions click with addiction particularly the primary brain region it's called the nucleus accumbens that is associate with all of the protections so you still crave the person and we even found activity in the brain region like with physical pain not only the the distress that goes along with pain physical pain so you.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on KQED Radio
"And on the show today. Hardwired ideas about how our biology and our experiences determine who we are. And before the break pediatrician Nadine Burke Harris was explaining that childhood adversity is one kind of experience that can result in severe health problems. We now understand better than we ever have before. How exposure to early adversity affects the developing brains and bodies of children, it affects areas like the nucleus accumbens, the pleasure and reward center of the brain that if implicated in substance dependence it inhibits the prefrontal cortex which is necessary for impulse control and executive function a critical area for learning and on MRI scans we see measurable differences in the amid della the brain's fear response center. So there are real newer logic reasons, why folks exposed to high doses of adversity are more likely to engage in high risk behavior, and that's important to know. But it turns out that even if you don't engage in any high risk behavior, you're still more likely to develop heart disease, or cancer. The reason for this has to do with the hypothe- Lamictal Terry adrenal access, the brains and bodies stress response system that governs our fight or flight response. How does it work?.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Guy rise and on the show today. Hardwired ideas about how our biology and our experiences determine who we are. And before the break pediatrician Nadine Burke Harris was explaining that childhood adversity is one kind of experience that can result in severe health problems. We now understand better than we ever have before. How exposure to early adversity affects the developing brains and bodies of children, it affects areas like the nucleus accumbens, the pleasure and reward center of the brain that if implicated in substance attendance, it inhibits the prefrontal cortex which is necessary for impulse control and executive function a critical area for learning and on MRI scans we see measurable differences in the amid della the brain's fear response center. So there are real newer logic reasons, why folks exposed to high doses of adversity are more likely to engage in high risk behavior, and that's important to know. But it turns out that even if you don't engage in any high risk behavior, you're still more likely to develop heart disease, or cancer. The reason for this has to do with the hypothalamus Patou itary adrenal access, the brains and bodies stress response system that governs our fight or flight response. How does it work?.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Model Health Show
"So you said we domesticated us. That's powerful. Yeah. I mean, we think well, we domesticated we plant, but what really happened was now, there's we'd everywhere we did a heck of a job dominating all the other plants on the planet to become the number one food source on planet earth. That's how it manipulated this. So win again, we satisfy our desire, and again, it's not just the carbs satisfaction. It can be whatever the addiction may be. You know, maybe it is gambling. Maybe it is the mindlessly shopping or whatever it might be. We get that dopamine rush. And that dopamine rush ultimately stimulates parts of the brain that there are a couple of the areas we wanna look at look up these areas. The nucleus accumbens is one and the ventral tag mental area is another these are pathways or centers along the pathway that ultimately stimulates the production of these indulgences morphine chemicals. So in a very real sense when we cater to our addictions, or to our desires that bring us pleasure. We're really catering to a system that's allowing us to stimulate the insides of our our skulls with. Morphine like chemicals, and that's why it's so hard not to do it. The more you do it through neural plasticity, the more those pathways become hardened or ingrained. What a great name rained got the grain part. But the more we choose not to do it the easier. It becomes this to distance ourselves from that type of activity. It isn't easy to move away from that type of activity, but it gets easier with time. So the plea is give it a shot stop eating, those foods stop engaging in those activities, and it will get better and you'll develop much better relationship with the part of your brain that allows you to seek happiness over momentary pleasure because what happens with pleasure is it needs to be rekindled in recess. Fide? You know that day later on or the next day. Happiness, and the prefrontal cortex when that is stimulated we develop a sense of what is called contentment, which is the opposite of pleasure pleasure. Means you never have enough you need more contentment by its very definition means you're content with what you have and contentment cannot.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Untangle
"But that sort of a sensual for our long-term will being really liked the way that you put that I think of you look at the prefrontal cortex when year, let's say your limbic system or your small child feeling part of you gets triggered. If you're prefrontal cortex is kind of develops. It can comfort that small child without sort of kicking it out in three. And then you become more integrated inbound wet with the problem is that most of us like when I talked about the habit part of the brain. There's aren't just physical habits are also social emotional habits, and that communicates with the prefrontal cortex as well. And so when you're feeling really emotional, you've practiced over the course of your life certain coping habits to help keep those emotions in check to help regulate those emotions somewhat it just happens at some of those coping habits are only good in the short term for helping us feel comforted and not good in long term. And that's what we call. Bad habits are things that only help us in a short term, but don't help us or actually harm us in the long term. But because those parts of the brain started getting programs when we were small children before prefrontal cortex is fully developed when we started those habits of say isolating myself. Whenever I felt down or criticizing myself, whenever I made a mistake that might work in this sort of short term trying gain control of emotions, but they're not initially beneficial in the long term, and yet the port of the brain that engages in those habits makes us feel compelled to engage in those habits is the straight or the habits system that doesn't care about the long-term is just cares about the moment. Only part of the brain that sort of cares about oh, Arlene or long-term well-being or the future is the prefrontal cortex. And so these are often at odds with each other. Or in an argument said speak in that we encounter a situation in part of our stratum says a will let's do it this way. Because that's how we've always done it in the prefrontal cortex says, oh, will let's we should do it this way because that's gonna get us where we want to go and in the nucleus accumbens says look there's cookie. Somewhere in that conversation between those regions are decisions get made in that whole conversation is influence by the emotional circuitry in the brain such that when we are feeling more emotional or stressed out. It decreases the influence of the prefrontal cortex and biases it towards our most deeply ingrained habits or just being impulsive. We're gonna take a little break to give a shout out to our.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Untangle
"He's saying numbers of suicide going up, and it's interesting how many people put forth one face to the world and have this other world inside it just that part confuses me so much because like it would be so hard to do. But you have to think from their perspective that the opposite would be harder that what seems to you on the outside to be totally inexplicable behavior makes perfect sense to them, even if they don't like depression, distorts, you were view of your. Ourself distorts your view of your relationships to the point where it's not always in touch with reality or with other people with thanks. So I could from the outside say, oh, why are you depressed? Like, you have so many wonderful people in your life, and you've got so much things going on. But depression, interferes with your ability to experience, the joys from that or to really be connected with it. So for example, depression can make you feel worthless and a burden on the people that you care about into if I care about you can't look you're not a burden. I love you. I care about you on a scorching. But like in your brain, you might be interpreting as oh, well, yes, they love me so much a say that I'm not a burden just because they don't want to make me feel bad. But I know that I am a burden. It distorts you're thinking, it's not always like that. Sometimes it waxes and wanes, but you. You can say to someone so many good things going on your life. You have a good job. You have so much money. But that little spark of enjoyments that most of us have from like L getting paycheck or from doing something fun. That's like a little tickle of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens that is disrupted in depression such that like the things that should bring you joy or that you used to enjoy no longer have that little spark moments in them. Can you talk a little bit about and you go through this a lot in the first section of your book? But we talk about the regions of the brain that actually impact depression. I really love what you were talking about the ways that the prefrontal cortex inter acts with the make dilemma hippocampus than how our members they're impacted. I found that also interesting, and I love the kind of created this bridge. Non scienc- people understand this. It is really complicated might go was to. Try and simplify it to the point. Where non scientists could understand it. But anytime, you are simplifying it. You're losing some of the complexity, but if you try to communicate something in all of its complexity you end up communicating nothing at all, which is what most scientists abors sound. Like, what are they saying here that I will on this hand, there's this? But on the other hand there's evidence that it in like scientists need to talk to each other in order to like he Munich eight the tiniest little nuances. But I realized that's not most people aren't gonna be able to put that into practice in their lives. The best simplification that I could think of was to think about how depression his problem with how the thinking feeling action circuits in the brain are communicating with and regulating other. And if we wanna get specific about the neuroscience that refers to the prefrontal cortex the limbic system in the stratum that's thinking feeling in action brain respectively. And one of the interesting things is how these all sort of evolved at different stages of our evolution in sort of layered on top of each other than they all amicably interact, but we have this deep habits region of the brain. That's like as old as the dinosaurs that tries to get us to do what's most immediately, enjoyable pleasurable or to just do whatever we've done the most in the past..
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Say Why To Drugs
"Question is this. There are tube survey ship in the literature regarding how drugs work, which the way I see the contradict each other the one is that people that take drugs the drugs work on the nucleus occupants in a way that every time they take them the drug the brain considers that Inova stimulus. So every time it's like the first time, and that makes the reward driven learning associated with drunks much stronger compared to other natural rewards. That's on the one hand on the other hand, we also know that it's really difficult for drug users to go back to that very first high the experienced the first time they used the drug. So how do this to go together? So eventually, the nucleus accumbens. So mean. Obviously, the nucleus accumbens is. So the nucleus comes very small structure in the brain, which is located in the ventral straighten. And it is quite important. Component of what we consider our measles Killingbeck reward system. What system? So basically. There are a lot of drugs on the brain tend to work on what we term like a reward system. Nucleus accumbens seems to be an area of this reward system, which most drugs do have an effect on and people take drugs because they enjoy taking drugs. I think that's an important point to mention that. It's not surprising that drugs are associated with the reward pathway because that's why people take them at least initially yet. I think what you kind of talked about that in terms of novelty of turkeys, and the first instance, kind of signaling something that would make you want to take again or like, so I think this phase into Juneau the incentive since as Asian yet yet. Well, I should say. Okay. Right. So basically why? Just playing it. I think is happening as the this novelty thing would come into the term wanting. Where there's parts in the in the nucleus comes with particular important for salience orienteering, so things in the environment becoming while salient to you and one thing that might become saving to be a reward, however, salience and reward in this example, at the independent of one of the sort of liking. Which can be mediated by other areas of the reward system as well as other euro chemicals as well. So a drug can sensitize your brain to want to take a drug very very quickly. Whilst you still the pleasure that you get from taking it reduces overtime. So they're not really they don't really correlate the amount that you a drug is perceived as being something that you want necessarily correlate with the pleasure that you get from taking it. The idea is the change in the brain for you to orientates wards, a drug reward or whatever can also independently of a real life cognitive evaluation of what you want today, which would be like more prefrontal cortex kind of thinking about it on this is kind of almost like an implicit kind of thing. So yeah, I think then kind of changes can happen very very quickly and can last. Longtime as well. Even after you and stop taking. So. Anywhere near what you after. And I think. It's also important point out that the vast majority of people who use drugs weren't develop a disordered pattern of use most people who use drugs use drugs, not to at sort of addiction level. So that's also can impact on how quickly tolerance builds up. How how severe withdrawal symptoms are? And how likely this is to keep this kind of? I mean, I'm not a brain area expert, which is why I got Karl along why I'm making him on through the difficult questions. But as to my understanding, it's why the kind of brain firing could remain rewarding the people who aren't you don't develop his problematic is. Yes it. Well, I think not sin of a really important distinction to make is the problem is extra keys and kind of compulsive is actually a very very small proportion of the population of even of drug users as well. So not all drug users will go on to become pro. Uses. There's only I think it's like say of something like this which might go on to kind of have more compulsive drug..
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Mark Bell's Power Project
"You're pretty hungry so at first you're like i won't have any then next thing you know you you reach for one and then you have three and then you ask for more yeah right yeah and it's and you and you just suck down a lot of bread then you know then you eat your meal and you had a steak and all these other things with it that's no longer that appetizing because you just truck through a bunch of bread with butter on salt and that that tasted really good and so you don't even eat the healthiest part of your your meal you're not even getting in your fats and proteins from your steak you eat about half that you're full and then what do you do you order dessert physiologically to write your body starts craving that stuff immediately because it gets that huge dopamine hit right yet that the nucleus accumbens in your brain right that little spot in your brain where your your body is grabbing for dopamine as soon as you eat that bread and it's turns into sugar and it starts producing dopamine and you go that was awesome i want more so than your regular meal comes in you're like i don't want this gave me the ice cream or giving the desert i want that same brush again i want that seem just compounds like you're saying you think about like these these food companies you know companies that that make things like doritos like the most expensive thing you can buy most restaurants usually a steak you know you can go to a nice restaurant and get one hundred dollars steak or even some places to three hundred i mean it could be off the charts depending on where where you go in which you get but if you eat a dorito which is like i mean how much is a bag readers what did i don't even know what it costs just four bucks.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on WCHS
"This we have people who is strokes tubers and things like that but now we have yet another tool in our arsenal that's krenz trade trans cranial magnetic stimulation by putting your brain in a helmet which cresa magnetic field we could turn on it off certain parts of the brain and therefore we know with certain parts of the brain do because once you turn up this part of the raid all of a sudden your left hand does it work your turnoff that part of the brain and you're right had this at work it's a very primitive process but hey it works now have we done this odd addiction the answer is no we're talking about a very tiny part of the ray the nucleus accumbens and is creating a magnetic stimulation is not that precise that we can actually shut honor off certain parts of the brain and second of all it's the biochemistry of addiction that is at stake here trans cranial stimulation basically turns on and off certain parts of the rate but it is the biochemistry the nucleus accumbens which causes addiction so at the present time there is no simple magic bullet to addiction which is very sad because of course millions of people are affected by drugs and because evolution never gave us defenses against it we are largely defenseless when you fled the brain with chemicals which stimulate the pleasure center but hey we're moving very fast in this field maybe in the near future it will find a way of linking these two things the right now trends cranial magnetic stimulation is basically this should honour off certain parts of the brain but addiction is biochemical okay well let's move right along to the next listener phone call hi dr kaku how would like to know your opinion what is your gas are we in the simulation thanks well egeland musk space x that tesla voters think so and let me back up a bit many people know about virtual reality you put on goggles that you can simulate a magic mary world many people have seen the movie the matrix where reality itself was uploaded in the human brain now then the question is how realistic can you make a simulation is the world a simulation i don't think so but let's take a look at the pros and cons of this let's try to.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on WCHS
"You're listening to and the city you're calling from and perhaps you can get on science fantastic well before the break we had a call about addiction and trends cranial magnetic stimulation is there a relationship well actually i discussed this in my book the future of the mind first of all we're not beginning to understand the biochemistry of addiction first of all at the very centre of the brain there is the pleasure center of the pledges center evolved millions of years ago animals have it very important because that's how we begin to to learn things because certain things are pleasurable where we learn there and we learned that turned things are unplayable it has also learning experience so the pledges center is very important for animals however we all know the way in which has stimulated dopamine is a chemical that stimulates the pleasure center which is at the center of the brain is an area call the nucleus accumbens that's the area where you find the pleasure center of the braid at dopamine is one chemical that stimulates it now it turns out that of course you have to stimulate the putschists them jerk as as how we learn we learn what is good for us we learn what is good to eat we learned what is good for our health wheeler what is good for our social interactions and all of that is due to the pleasure center wherever and this is a huge however however because of modern technology we can over stimulate the pledge just enter almost at will and that's what addictive drugs do they overwhelm the nucleus accumbens dopamine floods into the nucleus accumbens and what happens is it draze that of all the stimulation and as a consequence you feel bad and you have this feeling of depression because you've used up all the fuel so to speak of the nucleus accumbens and then you go to withdrawal symptoms and then you begin to hunger hunger for the.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Upgrade by Lifehacker
"Unedic component hotel call ism or is that just a fantasy there absolute just like how a different glass of wine or a different food would affect two people differently you know each of our brains has different levels of certain neurotransmitters and so there's so many different genetic aspects but this studies have shown that there's no one single gene that says yes you're going to be addicted to something or no you're not an equally the studies have shown that no matter if you have all the markers for addiction you're not going to be addicted on your first set so it's not like somebody's born an alcoholic and then they suddenly have a sip of alcohol and boom you know rockbottom no it happens because they drink over time and there's a massively addictive component to the alcohol itself and alcohol an all addictive substances what happens is they over stimulate the pleasure centres of our brain so we have this massive increase in stimulation for the nucleus accumbens and other parts of our brain with l that's cratelike for the cool thing leak who can just drink something and we overstimulated our pleasure centres the the flip side of that is that by over stimulating the pleasure center the brain says wait a second i need to maintain a hold me a stasis i need to be imbalance so it actually releases counter chemicals one of those is called dine orphan that brings down your pleasure antinorth and takes a lot longer to leave the body than the alcohol does so over time through drinking this huge increase means that you're constantly releasing dino orphan into your brain and so things that used to really register on your pleasure center like reading a book or you know good meal are having sex they no longer register without the alcohol because they need that artificial stimulation to break through the levels of day norfolk and i know that's kind of complicated but it just goes to show it's the substance this really addictive and we'll certainly there are two netted components absolutely everything now what he's been able to zero in on okay this is a gene let's test for it and then you never.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Ben Greenfield Fitness
"Yeah i agree with that i agree with that however i think once you start to combine protein with salt lake salted meets you get a food that actually is associated with craving anna in a pretty high percentage of people especially men so i don't know that like you know a lot of the proteins that we eat are actually pretty natural like meat is a pretty natural food assessed r a food on so i don't know if meet really can kind of rise to the level of you know quote unquote addictiveness that you're gonna see with things like brownies and caixin and you know that sort of thing but i think it definitely has a motivational value for us in a specially meat does i think that's very hard wired so anyway so our brains are are literally wired to look for these specific properties in food and those are food properties that actually spike dopamine in a part of a brick in called the ventral stratum and eventual stratum is really important it's a key part of the grain for motivation learning to be motivated over time as well as pleasure and this is also in this area is also known as the nucleus accumbens basically when dopamine spikes your nucleus accumbens that makes you motivated to go after whatever was that made the dopamine spike and so if you eat a food and there's tons of fat and sugar in it for example you're dopamine is going to start to spike in that tells your brain while this thing that you just ate is awesome is a really great source of fat and sugar and so what your brains going to do as a result of that dopamine is this going to collect all the sensory information that was associated with that food you just eight so it's gonna say let's say it was a brownie it's gonna say skinner remember the smell of the browning it's gonna remember the appearance of the brownie it's going to remember where you got that brownie it's going to remember who you were with skinner remember the name.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on KQED Radio
"You see them as being conflicted but also as being the difference between reward and contentment i want to get into those with using first mentioned that rubber leszek is professor emeritus of pediatrics and the division of endocrinology you see a seven member the institute for health policy studies that you see us let's let's talk about that division but let's talk about another division first and as nope amine and serotonin not to get too much in the weeds here but this is central to your whole thesis in absolute no unfortunately we have to get a little bit scientific in order to understand this so 30s hamid prevent we should get a laggard living well look the first thing half the news you have to understand that every thought that you have is really a noor chemical reaction in your brain every memory as a protein phosphorylation every emotion is to neurons communicating together and those communications involve chemicals that go across that's why we have an antidepressant pharmacopoeial that's why we have an anti reward and opiates pharmacopoeial is because these chemicals act on our brains in certain ways when you understand how those work than you know the thesis of the book makes sense so let's talk about the differences between dopamine serotonin right off the bat dopamine is the reward neuro transmitters also the learning transmitter it's the transmitter that tells you bring hate i like this i walk more and its active in this area the brain called the reward center or the nucleus accumbens now dopamine is an excite a tory neuro transmitter it excites the next neuron so when dopamine is released across the synapse which is the cleft between two neurons it binds to receptors and it activates it fought makes that mix noor on fire neurons like to fire that's why they have receptors but there was like to be tickled not bludgeoned they like to be stimulated and then the stimulation stop chronic overstimulation of any neurons leads to neurons cell death we know that because.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The thesis of the book makes sense so let's talk about the differences between dopamine serotonin right off the bat dopamine is the reward neuro transmitters also the learning transmitter it's the transmitter that tells you bring hey i like this i want more and its active in this area the brain called the reward center or the nucleus accumbens now dopamine is an excite a tory neuro transmitter it excites the next neuron so when dopamine is released across the synapse which is the cleft between two neurons it binds to receptors and it activates it fight makes that mix noor on fire the neurons like to fire that's why they have receptors but there's like to be tickled not bludgeoned they like to be stimulated and then the stimulation stop chronic overstimulation of any neurons leads to neurons cell death we know that because of the kids who have chronic seizure disorders and up basically frying their brains i took care of these kids pretty routinely at at you csf so the second neuron has a defence mechanism it has a plan b it has a way of protecting itself it down regulates the number of receptors in this case dopffer dopamine so what does this mean in human terms means you get hit you gotta a rush receptors go down next time you need a bigger hit to get the same rush than a big hit bigger hit bigger hit until finally huge hit to get nothing that's called tolerance and then when the nahran start to die that's called addiction so excess dopamine leads to addiction serotonin on the other hand this other neurotransmitter is the nor transmitter.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Bulletproof Radio
"And it probably has its own little dopamine score embargo it with it uh or i liked the better word i like his drip is you undo activities that drip dopamine throughout the day that help you feel sort of pleasure unhappy and focus motivated you don't wanna hor dopravni so if you do cocaine that poor soto soto voting voting warning of an error yeah it'll or one yeah that those are the two big dopamine things right and extreme sports maybe like almost dying what what whether these streets arts clearly with would do it uh as well and sometimes uh video games wills is well especially if you're like murdering two hundred fifty people in three minutes that it is pouring dopamine and the problem with poor dopamine or if you've got a big shook burst sugarbush bores dopamine is well uh they've actually found people who are overweight have doled activity in the nucleus accumbens a pleasure centres where dopamine axed isn't yet i always think that's interesting that's why you wanna will oilseed cheesecake card doughnuts because they actually are physically wearing out your pleasure centres they have to be careful better to drib dopamine the two poor very interesting advice for people listening so if you're finding yourself addicted to one of those behaviors dopamine drives a lot of addiction gambling for sure is you know every time you win a big scored a dopamine but if you have no dopamine because you don't have an interesting life or because you have the inability to make it you're also not gonna like your life.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on TED Radio Hour
"How exposure to early adversity affects the developing brain some bodies of children it affects areas like the nucleus accumbens the pleasure and reward center of the brain that is implicated in substance dependence it inhibits the prefrontal cortex which is necessary for impulse control an executive function a critical area for learning and on mri scans we see measurable differences in the mid dillah the brain's fear response centre so there are real neurologic reasons why folks exposed to high doses of adversity are more likely to engage in high risk behavior and that's important to know but it turns out that even if you don't engage in any high risk behavior you're still more likely to develop heart disease or cancer the reason for this has to do with the hypothesis hamik patou itary adrenal axis the brains and bodies stress response system that governs our fight or flight response how does that work well imagine you're walking in the forest and you see a bear immediately you're hypothetical a'must sends a signal to europe a to a terry with sends a signal to your adrenal gland says release stress hormones adrenaline cortisol and so your heart starts to pound your pupils dilate your airways open up and you are ready to either fight that bear or run from the bear and that is wonderful if you're in a forest and there's a bear but the problem is what happens when the bear comes home every night and this system is activated over and over and over again and it goes from being adaptive or lifesaving to maladaptive or healthdamaging.
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Science Show
"It was a necessary part of building the social structure the social fabric of the groups also the ability to orly keep to the tradition going not only in terms of the history geography aboriginal populations here understand that very well so that to me is a key element of what music does of course the other thing that i think is very important is when you look at brain imaging in the areas of the brian that are shown to be active when you perform cooperative tasks such as you're given a choice of helping somebody also not helping somebody else given a dilemma of what to do the heirs of the brian directive when you are doing those cooperative acts many in the prefrontal cortex but also in the reward center the nucleus accumbens out very very similar to those areas of the brian directive when you listen to music that you like that you personally enjoy it so obvious when you see that relationship it's clear that music is a driver of those regions those regions incidently are the last to develop in humans that relatively immature birth and interestingly enough there are some pipe suggesting some of those wedin some more resistant to the change in dementia which may be one of the reasons why music memory and music contraction is such a wonderful wild unlocking people's memories and the social interactions if they have dementia or some sort of other memory loss well i nother in the book you say that language spoken languages many on the left side and music comes on the right side of the brain but we give impression from what you just said of the therapeutic advantages in people got mansur that each spread almost all over the bloody brain you know so you're you're activation parts which transcend the fact that some other parts of the brain vim broken the general consensus is that the circuit since associated with music and the remedy not just sensory components is the motor components because our defy anybody is listening to a piece of music by really enjoy whatever it is to be not tapping or thinking about having a finger removing the headed this this absolute bond between the sense remoter experience in music that's hint starts.