20 Burst results for "Nucleus Accumbens"

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Unreserved

Unreserved

05:09 min | 2 weeks ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Unreserved

"It's really fascinating. Now, too, because they know we know now from research that a hundred hours of practice begins to change white matter in the brain and increase it, which is good for the connectivity. After a hundred hours of straight sitting, then prayer or something will do the same thing. And it also will begin to improve the gray matter in the brain that protects really important parts of the brain, are thinking parts of brain and it decreases gray matter around these trouble parts of the brain like the amygdala that are about fear and so on. You take a leap to a thousand hours and in a study show that a thousand hours of practice will begin to change a person's levels of awareness of their own heartbeat and what's going on in their body so what's going on with the liver, what's going on with the heart that's going on with the processes in my body. And 5000 hours then really begins to get us into this place where we're beginning to see some really dramatic changes happen. 5000 hours of practice is a lot of practice, but people can do that over a longer period of time, right? People then begin to develop a greater sense of compassion. They begin to develop a greater sense of reduction in the nucleus accumbens, which is the part of the brain that says it's all about me. It's take care of me and I don't care about anybody else. So it begins to shrink, right? By the time you reach 10,000 hours, which is a lot of hours which would be someone who would be a master meditator, very, very dynamic things are happening. The brain begins to go into a state that it can sense things and pick up things that you normally wouldn't pick up sight, sound, smell, taste, touch. That happens through the development of gamma waves in the brain. Think about that how indigenous spiritual leaders must have had that capacity to get into that state where their brain was completely open and maximally sensitive to its surroundings. The other thing that happens at that level of the brain is that we have a major reduction in the nucleus accumbens. It started happening at 5000 hours to 10,000 hours that part of our brain shrinks even more pretty soon. The sense of ourself begins to disappear. And we're not really ourselves anymore. But we are part of this great circle of life that we always talk about. And we're connected. And we know that, you know, it's not just something that's made up. It's like it's been observed now in brain imaging studies what happens when people get to that level. That nucleus accumbens shrinks and we have this connection. So I can think about that in all the studies that I've seen on the brain when people are doing sacred things and doing this meditation, how that can be used as a proxy for what was happening to indigenous people long ago when they were very deeply involved in this kind of prayer, this kind of sacred activity, not just for a workshop or an a day, but they spent a good part of their day sensing community and engaging in this kind of interactions with the environment.

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

08:35 min | Last month

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"It's just bad news. If you think artificial sweeteners are good, well, I think again, they actually may be worse for your brain and metabolic health, aspartame is a neurotoxin. We know this. I have so many patients who have cognitive issues, and memory issues, headaches, migraines. We get them off the diet sodas and drinks. They feel how much better. They actually make you want to drink more sugar and more food. In fact, they'll eat more food if you have more artificial sweeteners, because you're hungrier because you've created this pavlov response on your body that makes you think and then what happens if there's no food so your body's going wait a minute, there was no sugar. I don't know what's going on. And it just creates this whole process of slowing your metabolism and increasing weight gain. All right, so what are the 6 things that we need to know about sugar? One, it's addictive. Despite the industry's best efforts, it's not a secret anymore that sugar is bad for you. In fact, just kind of recap on a study that was done in the 60s by the two leading harbor nutritious. At the time they were not a lot of nutritious and academia. But these were Harvard nutritionists who were the leading thinkers at the time and nutrition science. And they wrote an article in the New England Journal of Medicine. This is who our peer review, and in that article, they basically said, fat was the problem, not sugar. And it turns out that a forensic analysis essentially by researchers today found that those authors were paid off the equivalent of about $50,000 to write the article as saying it was fat and sugar, and they were paid off by the sugar lobby. Let me see the sugar association. So there's been a lot of suppression of the sugar conversation, even in our dietary guidelines. The food and lobby is so big. So I've written a lot about this in food tricks. You can read about that there, but it is very addictive. And it's why people struggle to give up their cookies cakes and ice cream. And it also alters your metabolism and bring chemistry. They didn't study, for example, on these men who are overweight. And they gave them this milkshakes, one milkshake, or their most tasted the same, and they gave the same group of men the one kind of milkshake on one day and another milkshake another day. And the one milkshake was same protein, same fat, same carbohydrate, same fiber. Everything was the same, except except the carbohydrate in one was fast acting, and then it was slow acting. So they think the snow I think carbohydrate, nothing really happened. Their blood sugars in spike, their cholesterol didn't change or insulin didn't spike. The cortisol didn't spike, they bring chemistry looked fine. When they gave them the quickly absorbing sugar, and by the way, the people they know, they were doing something different. It tasted the same. So they thought they were having the same milkshake. Their insulin went up. Their cortisol went up. Their adrenaline went up. It's like a stress. Obviously, blood sugar, and their cholesterol went up. All these things happen. And when they looked at the brain imaging and a functional MRI scan, they found that the area called the nucleus accumbens lit up like a Christmas tree, which is the addiction center that gets lit up by heroin or cocaine. So we know the biology of this is real. Next thing you should know about sugar is that stopping will quickly fix things, it's so over the place. It's so easy to access. And it's effect on our brain is so powerful that it feels like you never going to be able to quit. And I did a workshop once with this sort of on sugar detox and it was a long time ago. Anyway, this woman, they're just like, look, I'm addicted to sugar. I know it. I can't stop. There's nothing you can do. I know this isn't going to work. And but I'll do it anyway. I'm like, okay, just see what happens. So like day two, she comes up to me and she says, I can't believe it. I just can't believe it. I don't have any cravings for sugar. I feel totally different. It's amazing. And all I did was feed her in a way to bounce her blood sugar by having protein and fat in the morning. Getting rid of all the sugars and refined carbohydrates, lots of veggies, lots of fiber. It's not that hard. Your body wants to be healthy. And I wrote a book called the blood sugar solution ten day detox diet, which is about sugar addiction, and it takes you through in ten days how to reset your whole nervous system. And not only, you know, not crave sugar anymore, but you'll average person lost about 7 or 8 pounds in a week. They are ten days. Their blood sugar dropped ten 20 points. Their blood pressure dropped ten 20 points. They reduced all symptoms from all diseases by about 70%. So if you have migraines and digestive issues, sleep problems, joint pain, whatever it was, everything drops 70% by getting your system healthy. So that's important to remember. It's quick. You don't have to wait forever to see the results. So we had a woman in our Cleveland clinic program called functioning for life within three days of joining the program. This woman was on insulin for ten years. It was severely overweight. In three days, she was off her insulin by changing her diet. In three months, she reversed her diabetes completely and her heart failure and everything else. Pretty impressive. Next thing you should know about sugar is there's many ways to say sugar to quote Shakespeare, you know, a roses but a rose by any other name. The other thing you should know is that we have many names for sugar. I think the Inuit from the Arctic say they have a hundred words for snow. And we have so many ways of saying sugar and often we miss it on the label because it's kind of hidden. So you know what food companies will do, it literally put four or 5 different kinds of sugar in some product because you're forced to list the ingredients in order of the amount on the label. So basically, if they put 5 different kinds of sugar, they can list like a healthier ingredient first, like flowers something and not actually put sugar as the main ingredient. So it's really, really sneaky what they do. The other thing you should be aware is there's a lot of words that you might see like agave, cane sugar, corn, anything, rice, even brown rice syrup. Any kind of evaporated cane juice, what is that? That's called sugar. Even fruit, you might see fruit concentrate or fruit juice. I mean, that's just basically like sugar, anything with oats in the end, like fructose, dextrose, maltose, tree yellow, sucrose, these are all sugar, anything with malt in it, like malt syrup, foam, maltodextrin, also sugar, anything with ISO like ISO glucose, isomaltose, basically there's a million names for sugar syrup, bright maple syrup, sorghum syrup, corn syrup. Pancake syrup, which is usually prayer fructose molasses. Anything with the word sugar in it, date sugar, coconut sugar, brown sugar, beet sugar, confectioner sugar. It's all sugar. So sugar, sugar, sugar. Now is high fructose corn syrup, a little worse. Yes. But in the end, it's all bad. Next thing you need to know is that artificial sweeteners are also not so great for you. So here's a classic example what happens when you try to outsmart mother nature? Rather than accepting that we really shouldn't be eating a lot of sugar or we shouldn't be having a lot of artificial sweeteners. And rather than accept the fact that we just should try to eat less and not have so much sugar, we kind of want the hack, right? We want the magic loophole to avoid doing what's really good for us. We tried this with fat, right? We thought, oh, you know, butter, bad, and saturated fats. So let's get margarine, margarine, and I grew up on fleischmann's margarine. But it turns out that trans fats are not only not good for you. They're very bad for you. And they've killed hundreds of thousands of people, and they cause heart disease, diabetes, and they're really unsafe. And the government finally after 50 years and they lawsuit. Finally caved and said, oh, gee, it's not safe anymore. It's called that a grass generally recognizes safely remove the grass label. The problem is, it's still in the marketplace because FDA is in cahoots with the food industry and essentially they gave them a lot of loopholes and ways to kind of leave it in there. So I go to the store regularly and I kind of hunt for products. Now, a lot of companies have taken it out, but what the replacement may not be any better, right? So I think we have to be very careful, like pom, pom, shortening, which can be from a palm trees, but they're often.

sugar association migraines New England Journal of Medicin headaches Harvard diabetes Cleveland Arctic fleischmann heart disease government FDA
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on RISE Podcast

RISE Podcast

05:36 min | 2 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on RISE Podcast

"Brain becomes devoted to approached motivation, even in response to stimuli that in a different context, a responded to as a threat to be avoided. Right. But wait, there's more. Yes. Because we, as lab rats, we move from the rat spa. Into, it is brightly lit, the music is playing really loudly, but not even just at a stable volume, it'll be loud and quiet. You can't even just adjust to it. And you were an introverted bookworm at the worst nightclub in the world. They're literally playing Iggy Pop. And they zap the front of your nucleus accumbens, which in every other setting has resulted in, whoo, what's that? Approach curious motivation, but here, when you're so stressed out, even zapping the front of the nucleus accumbens makes you go, what the hell is that? I want to move away from it. When you are in a stressed out, unsafe state of mind 90% of this organ in your brain becomes devoted to avoidance motivation even in response to stimuli that in a different context, it would have approached with curiosity. So there's almost nothing. If you're in a stressed out enough state of mind, there is almost nothing even a beloved, sexy partner can do that's going to feel pleasurable. Right, and I just want listeners to sit with this for a second because I think that as women, especially as wives in certain cultures, like we have this belief that it is our job to be there to get there or to let them try to get us there. And it should be easy and right. And why doesn't this work for you? And being made to feel like if you're not getting turned on, that it's somehow you're hurting. It's so warped. I love anything in life that gives us a why. This is why this is happening. You're not abnormal. You're not weird. It's society or culture that's weird for telling you that you should behave differently. Yeah, so in the book, I'm just going to keep saying this I want everyone reading to go get come as you are. In the book, you give so many great examples of students or Friends of yours or what this looks like in a real life relationship. And the example you give on this one, I think, is like a girlfriend and her husband, they try and recreate like a sexy vacation. Will you talk about that? Right. Yeah, so these Friends of mine, they had a kid who was special needs. He was a very bad sleeper. And my friend also had a full-time job and was a grad student at the same time. So she's really stressed out, but they remembered from earlier in their relationship, having a really great getaway at a bed and breakfast. I think in the poconos. And she had lost all of her groove. She had zero. Her desire was flatlining. They're like, okay, so what we should do is try to recreate the context where we had great sex. So they go back to the same bed and breakfast, but the drive was really difficult. They were really stressed out when they got there. And though they had tried to recreate the context, they had gone to the same physical place because their mental state was not the same. They couldn't recapture the feeling they had that time they went there before. So even though they had gone to the same physical place, they weren't really capturing the same context because they were so stressed out. So what do you say to, I mean, I bet you could give this all sorts of answers. But what do you say to listeners who really they miss that? They miss that connection. They really, you know, they have a new baby or there's something happening in life that's really affected the context of their ability to enjoy. Is it, hey, let's just take a break. Is it there are things you could do like how do we help this? Yeah, so the first part of the answer is only ever do things that you like. Pleasure for I know that sounds really simple and basic, but you'd be because we are taught that we have a kind of duty or an obligation or a responsibility, the doctor tells us what is it 8 weeks after birth? Girl. We're ready? Girl, I was thinking about that. I actually, I must have been thinking about this because I was reading your book. I was remembering the first time that I had sex, my oldest is 15 years old. The first time that I had sex, it was my first baby and the doctor said, all right, you're approved to have sex. And my husband at the time was like, well, let's go. And I was 24. And totally insecure and totally incapable of standing up for myself. And I remember it was the worst sexual experience of my entire life. I remember, you know, I have an 8 week old so I'm wearing a bra with those pads because you're just nursing. Yeah, nursing pads, your leaking leaking leaking. I remember turning my head to the side and crying. Crying so he couldn't see me because I was so miserable and uncomfortable, but I did not know that I was allowed to say no. And I didn't know that I was allowed to just say like this sucks and this is awful and I don't like it. And what's very interesting as just the context or how things change or whatever, I had a pregnancy with my third son, God, if he ever hears this he'll run into traffic. But I don't know what button got pressed during that pregnancy, but I was like, I could not have enough.

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on RISE Podcast

RISE Podcast

03:57 min | 2 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on RISE Podcast

"Will spend your entire life or your entire life up until maybe you listen to this, thinking that something's wrong with you. Because also twisted part of sexuality was I was raised in this church that was like, this is sinful and wrong and ugly, but also I was raised in a culture that was like, but you gotta be sexy, but you need to make sure that you're a lady in the streets, but a freak in the sheets, and I'm like, I don't know how. I don't know what that means. You've got to wear this lacy underwear and do this thing and be sexy for your man. And it was such a warped way. I just always felt like, I don't know what I'm doing here. So you know what? We'll just make this about him. This is way more important to him. I'll quote unquote, take one for the team forever and ever and ever amen. Oh, girl. I mean. Speaking, honestly, 'cause I know there's probably a lot of women or maybe some men who have done the same. No, probably not men. But I didn't know better because I thought, oh, this matters to him a lot more than it matters to me. So I just am trying to just go along with it. Yeah, exactly. Exactly. The awareness now I'm almost 40 years old. I'm since divorced. I'm an incredible relationship now. I am even aware since reading your book. Oh, so my kids are with me every other week. So the time they're with their dad, half the time they're with me. And very unsurprisingly, the week that kids are here, there are four of them. Least sexy time on planet. I am. No, I am pulled in one thousand directions. All I do is carpool people and make food and pick up messes and clean up puke. And it's so wild, literally they went back to they'll go back to their dad's day after school. And immediately, some of them in my body changes, I'm like, all right, where's boo? Where is that man? And I never had a word for that before. Until I read the book. And that word is context. Yes, contacts. Yes. No, you're going to explain it. I'm not going to explain your work to you, but I loved the context chapter. So the short version, do you mind if I talk about the rat brain science? I love it. Oh, let's go. Reptilian brain. I wrote about this in my last book, too. And I was like, literally no one cares about me, but still. I know. Let's begin lab rats. And the researchers are going to painlessly implant a probe into our nucleus accumbens shell, which has a thing called an affective keyboard. And the affect of keyboard just means like it's like a keyboard on a piano where it goes from one layer and it travels to another, so when you zap the front of the affective keyboard, you get positive approach motivation, which in a rat looks like what's that? What's that? One of my favorite things is pretending to be a rat just turned into like a thing in my life. Whoo, what's that curious approach, exploration motivation? I'm gonna use out the back of the nucleus accumbens. You get avoidance motivation, which is what the hell is that? Where these foot motions are stamping to kick up dust as defensive digging to get the dust in the face of the predator like a snake, there's videos online of rats doing this, and it totally works. Like, get away from me. This is moving away. Motivation, avoidance, fear, stress. But if we, the lab rat with the little probe in our brain, move into what I call the rats spa, so it is dark and silent, and it smells familiar. It's just the most relaxing, imagine yourself after a spectacular massage. When you're in the restroom and you can see the ocean, it's just, this is my person. Right, this is your happy place that you get, yeah, this is when these at the front of the nucleus accumbens, what they get is, oh, what's that? And in this rat spa, which the researchers just call the home environment, when they zap the back of the nucleus accumbens, what is the

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

05:53 min | 3 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"It takes off the edge of the cocaine. And unfortunately, it's more lethal. So we disclose this, get national recognition, and in the course of getting a lot of media attention for the work we were called the Miami Vice metabolite. I start talking about this drug from Africa. And it happened three times. I heard it three times. I was at a coalition for a drug free America giving a lecture about my research and a gentleman and out. An African American man came up to me at the podium as a doctor mash if you heard about this drug from Africa and he's going on and on and I think I was short with him and abrupt because I'd never heard of it and I don't know what he was talking about. Second time I heard about it was Stan glick, a professor from Albany university was working with these drug taking rats, rats will self administer at high rates of responding, everything that humans will abuse. So they'll drink alcohol, they'll take nicotine, cocaine, other psycho stimulants and opiates. So he gives these rats this drug from I became, they stopped taking drugs. And I'm sitting in the audience listening to, listening to his presentation going, wait a minute. That same molecule. Wow. The last thing that happened was Howard Lutz off contacted me because our laboratory was getting so much publicity. He had several patents on ibogaine. And he wanted to file a new patent for poly drug dependency and use our research on COVID cocaine and alpha. So he called me. And I said, who are you? What does this drug do? How does it work? What's the mechanism of action? Yeah. And he said, want to come to Amsterdam and see it? And I said, yeah, I do. Here we are. And so you went to Amsterdam and you actually witness addicts taking the drug and the next day being symptom free from withdrawal. Now I'm a physician and there are physiological things that happen. It's not a psychological withdrawal. I mean, there's psychological dependence and physiological dependence. And you see what the addiction to, for example, alcohol, alcohol has come in when they get up booze. They start to go and tremors, they have all kinds of symptoms. Same thing with heroin and opioids and yet somehow this compound erases all of that, which kind of leads to a whole set of questions about what is it doing? How does it work? And I've even heard people share who've taken the drug that it's like a brain reset around, not just addiction, but around their personality, around their mood around their view on life and it just seems to sort of have this really magical set of properties. It seems to go beyond just this one dose that you take kind of deal with addiction. So how have you kind of explored this sort of Pandora's box of this compound that seems unlike anything else we've ever seen? I mean, because there isn't anything in medicine that works like this. You take this thing and it's just like you have to keep taking it as a normal drug. You don't take a statin once and then your cholesterol is fine forever. So how did this work? And what is the theory behind it? And what have you learned in the 30 years of researching this about the mechanisms of action? Because if this is true, then it seems to be such a powerful lever for addressing the opioid addiction problem, but also other kinds of addiction. We've talked about this offline about sort of food addiction, which we know is a real phenomena that has to do with the way the sugar affects the nucleus accumbens the area of the brain that's responsible for pleasure and addiction. So kind of unpack the biology of this compound. What we've learned. Thank you, doctor. That's a big, obviously, a big, big, big white box question, and I'm quite humble and what we've learned about this drug. But suffice it to say, I was a skeptic walking in the door. And when I saw people were able to come off of a hundred milligrams of methadone, young man, hundred milligrams, chipping on heroin, doing some benzos, diazepam, some Xanax on the side. A little bit of cocaine for extra recreation on top of the methadone and completely be detoxified. Get up the next day. No withdrawal shower and shade come in, sit down and eat a big breakfast, because as you know, people who are coming off opiates, they don't have an appetite, they're very all of the, you know, just complete blockade of all of the classic opioid withdrawal symptoms that are black and white. Here I was in there seeing and believing. And the place in Amsterdam that I visited was not what you would expect to see in an academic medical center to say to be polite. So it was just people in different rooms and the wing of a hotel that had been taken over, who were going through detox after given one dose, and I thought this is while this is really scary here. And I had brought a medical doctor or a colleague from mine from the university of Miami, Juan Sanchez Ramos, my doctor Ramos there, but everybody went to bed. Everybody went to bed. I stayed up all night. So I went from bedroom to bedroom to a hotel room to a hotel room with three gentlemen. Two were coming off of opioids. And one was coming off one had been abusing a lot of free base cocaine. And I

Stan glick Albany university Howard Lutz Amsterdam Africa Miami America Juan Sanchez Ramos university of Miami Ramos
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The School of Greatness

The School of Greatness

04:39 min | 5 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The School of Greatness

"First of all, dopamine downregulation. So you've got this center in the brain. It's sort of like, it's almost right in the middle of the brain. You've got this addiction reward motivation pathway. The ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, all driven by dopamine, and what happens is you flood that area with too much dopamine, like ungodly amounts, right? Because donuts, frankly, you don't have anything like that in the wild. Blueberries. I mean, come on, not even close, right? What have you got in the wild that's like a donut, nothing. I mean, it's the equivalent of pornography for sex. It's like, you know, super normal stimuli we call it. Flower, sugar, everything. Oh my God, right? So you flood the brain with too much dopamine, and the receptors go, wow, we don't need anything like that kind of stimulation around here. And so they adapt. They downregulate. The receptors become less numerous, less responsive to compensate for this flood that keeps coming out all the time. So that is challenging because now you're rewiring the brain. And that's going to be fine as long as you keep swinging by that coffee shop and getting that fixed, right? As long as you keep hitting that Dunkin Donuts, right? It's going to be fine. But if you don't start topping up every few hours, you're going to have a problem. You're going to feel itchy you're going to feel restless. You're going to feel irritable. You're not going to feel quite right in your own skin because you don't have enough baseline dopamine anymore. So when I have a donut, what happens to my brain and my body? So it hits the brain first, where dopamine floods into that area. And so this is incredible. This is incredible. We love it. We love this. Do more of this. Yes, exactly. And then over time, you start liking that donut less, but wanting that donut more. Oh man. And then you're effed. Right? Yeah, then it's a problem. You like it less you want it more. And there's this incredible line of research that shows that people with obesity, people with addiction, they're wanting system is out of control, but they're not even liking it anymore.

Dunkin Donuts obesity
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

08:03 min | 6 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"When the chromosomes start replicating, they can become zombie cells, which follow around your body, creating a whole cascade of inflammation. They never die. They just kind of cause more mess. And they shorten as we age, but there's many things that can link to them, exercise, meditation, love, healthy diet, a multivitamin. So they're not static. Anyway, these epigenetic changes are really key to understanding the way in which we can regulate our health long-term and how to influence our genes through epigenome. There's lots of ways to do it. There's mitochondrial therapies. There's hormetic therapies. There's ways to switch on the longevity switches, which we're going to get into called AMPK and mTOR and sirtuin genes. So how do we extend life? Well, this is the first data we first got on anything that really worked, which is calorie restriction. Now, I met a guy once who did calorie restriction. And I said, what are you for breakfast? He says, well, I'll leave 5 pounds of celery. I'm like, no thanks. I'm going to die soon. And so your hunger all the time, you're starting all the time. But what they found was that by calorie restriction, which is adversity, the body starts to kick in repair healing mechanisms that allow us to actually function at a much better rate. So we never had all the abundance we do now. We never had a buffet. We had to go hunt and gather and scrunch around and maybe we didn't have food moving in. So we have 200 or more genes to help us deal with starvation. And almost none that help us deal with abundance. So when you calorie strict, all these longevity switches get turned on, because it's a sign of, oh, I better go into survival mode, which is great. And it activates this process called autophagy. Who here has heard of autophagy? So autophagy is a very simple process of recycling. Your body is only recycling plant. And essentially, it envelops old cells and parts and puts them in a bubble called lyso. And then, and then they transport you another part of their body, another component of your cells. How lysosomes, which are full of enzymes, degrading enzymes. So basically, it's like recycling where they breaking apart into its component parts. And then you get to use those parts again. And that's really called autophagy. And it's so important because think about if you just cook and cook and cook in your kitchen, you never cleaned up. It's going to be a problem. So you've got to go through Facebook both autophagy and building. The key to understanding aging is not just over here, you should be vegan because meat activates mTOR and if you actually enter, you're going to die sooner, no. You need both my autophagy and the clean up and autophagy so repair. Which is a catabolic state. And you need, you need protein synthesis. You need to build new tissue and protein. So it's really about the dance of how to activate the switches in a way. Switches not too much. It's kind of like the Goldilocks effect. The worst thing is sugar. Sugar is the worst thing and has the most adverse effects on all the longevity switches, whether it's mTOR or CMD or sirtuins. And it is the central driver of aging period. So I know there's a lot of desserts out there, but I just think about their worth it. And the body is as we age, particularly because more and more. For people who are listening to this mark is a single handedly doing acupressure on me because I've got a little nausea. We're on 20 foot seas. He's moving the slides forward, but I'm doing good. You're not anymore? I mean, it's about half of what it was. So it's about a 5 out of ten. Okay, good. So I saw the barf bag go down to the floor. So that's good news. Okay. So sugar, sugar, sugar, sugar, any sugar flour, I've written dozens of books on this, read, you can read the ten 80 text diet, which talks about sugar a lot, or but your solution. But it's really the driver of so much. We now eat about a 152 pounds a year per person. We used to have 22 teaspoons a year as hunter gatherers. But what about proteins should we not be eating meat because meat is bad for the planet? It's bad for the animals. It's bad for humans, right? Not necessarily. It depends on what meat and how it was raised. And so forth. So regeneratively raised cow is very different than a feedlot cow. And one study, for example, they found that kangaroo me, which is available in Australia, Australia, they were able to do a study where they compared it to feedlot meat, and the feedlot meat raised inflammation and the kangaroo meat lowered inflammation. Same amount exactly gram per gram of protein. So it's the information in food that matters. This is such a key concept. If you learn nothing else today, learn that food is not just calories that is information. It's code. It's instructions. And it's literally programming every cell, every biochemical reaction in your body, every day, in real time, and it's talking to your microbiome too, and it's just, it's so important to think about your food as a pharmacy with an F one little geeky minute here, and they're going to be on some fun stuff. So these are the longevity switches. And I don't try to explain all of it. Read my book. It's coming out in February. But basically, scientists have discovered that there are these longevity switches that can be turned on and off by different inputs or outputs. So dietary restriction is one of the most powerful ones. So if you want to in my studies, you still like my third. And when yeast, they can do it by a thousand year of a thousand years and we'd be a 120. So mTOR, which we'll talk about in a minute is an important because it's really raised to protein synthesis, which is great. But if it's too much, it's not good. And so in order to initiate autophagy, which is a self eating recycling system, you need to shut it off. And the best way to shut off is to only overnight. You just take your 12, 14, 16 hour fast, which is not that hard. CMK, a lot of this research around in four minutes about this is really the blood sugar and insulin. These are two ends are massive DNA repair. Systems. And anti inflammatory systems, and they are very much activated by inhibited by sugar. You heard the red wine story, resveratrol. This is that story where they were able to extend life and found the rats and mice could drink all this wine and still be fat, but all their biomarkers were really healthy and they were more fit. They had better health, even though they drank the equivalent of 1500 bottles of wine. But unfortunately, it wasn't wine. It was the capsules. So don't try to do this at home. Muscle building and muscle as an organ is one of the most important things to think about as you age, because if you don't have that, you're in trouble. Because it's what drives people into frailty. The reason people end up in nursing homes is not because they have an illness because they can't get up out of chair. Like just a simple test like where you get up like this without holding on. They're going to have to go like this, right? And then you see the people do that. This is the beginning of the end and when they fall, it's a disaster. And body composition, we can measure now with a dexa scan. This is probably one of the most important tests. Look at where you're visceral fat at the organ fat. That's what causes all the problem. So exercise is the key to that. And then sleep is really important, but we won't talk about that on this ship. Meditation is, again, the key lifestyle factor to reset community, which we're all experiencing, which is really feeding our souls and helping us joy and happiness. I joined happiness is so important. And altruism. Altruism is actually a drug. It literally binds to receptors in your nucleus accumbens and activates the pleasure centers, the same as cocaine or heroin. So serving others loving others is actually medicine for you. Okay, now supporting healthy aging, adversity. I'm going to start frame the things that can be done that are coming down the track. There's a lot of

hunter gatherers Australia nausea Facebook
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

07:44 min | 7 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"Kind of screwed, right? We are tribal people. We have to help each other. We have to work together. And so we're hard wired for altruism and altruism also activates dopamine in the brain. So there's lots of ways to activate it, but I like giving things away and I've called therapy. Yeah, and the best part about that compared to drugs that are out there. And by the way, it's really interesting. I've heard a lot of anecdotal stories of people using in conjunction with maybe AA or treatment centers that they're going to how a lot of these processes actually help them get over their addictions. Again, I'm sure some people are out there studying it like they're studying it with psilocybin and smoking secession. We had doctor Roland Griffiths on the podcast before, but it'll be exciting to see people starting to use hot therapy, cold therapy to actually treat addiction. So a couple other wait wait, one more thing. Yes, please, please. The one thing I forgot to say, which is something I've written about for the last 30 years that activates dopamine, it's sugar. So I don't know why I forgot it. When you go for that cookie or that pint of ice cream or whatever it is, that is activating the same receptors that we're talking about through the dopamine receptors in the brain and the nucleus accumbens. And so that's why people literally get addicted to sugar. But I'm more addicted to cold therapy and giving in service. And that's how I get high. Basically. So you mentioned a few things that are worth I think are worth breaking down. So we talked about the finished studies in the high temperatures that are there. You know, one 70, one 75, one 80, potentially. And generally the time length inside of those, and again, if somebody is new to hot therapy, obviously, first of all, saunas can be, you know, it's expensive to have us on your house, but you can find saunas at local like gyms and other places and, you know, you could borrow them. But a lot of people ask, and there's some great companies that are out there that, you know, we've known throughout the years, but they ask, what about infrared sauna? It can't get that hot, you know, are there still the benefits that are there, even if the body of literature may not support the heat that they're getting to. So thoughts on that? Yeah, I mean, I think there is a literature on Fritz onus two and it penetrates a little deeper. You can stay in it longer. And it doesn't get the temperature doesn't get hot, but it does heat you up quite a bit. So I think either work. And there are a number of things I didn't actually mention about heat, which is that it also increases the health of your cardiovascular system. It helps with weight loss, it increases the release of toxins from your skin through your sweat. It increases heart rate variability, which is one of the best metrics of your autonomic nervous system, your health of your stress response. So a lot of us are over stressed and we're have really poor heart rate variability. I wear an aura ring and I can track my heart rate variability and I can see what makes it good or bad. And it's amazing to see how correlated it was your stress response and the higher your heart rate variability, the more complex your heart rhythm is, the healthier you are. So people, for example, have heart failure, go into the saunas, and they actually improve their heart failure just by increasing the health of their autonomic nervous system. So it's really quite powerful. Okay, great. That's a good option because for a lot of people, like you mentioned earlier, saw in a blankets and there's a bunch of great brands that are out there. Those can be an entry way that's a little bit more affordable, but like you said, you could even do a bath. So if somebody was going to do a bath, you know, and they were going to hop in, how long are we talking about staying in, just like a general of um, if people are going to use their bath in a warm bath, how long are we talking about staying in there? Well, I read about this three years. One of my favorite things to do is I do an epsom salt bath with lavender drops. Lavender, the lowers cortisol. That's why they put it in baby Johnson & Johnson actually is on the research on this and the largest stress response. And epsom salt has magnesium, which relaxes your muscles and nervous system helps you sleep. And the sulfur epsom salts magnesium sulfate helps you detoxify. So it's really great. And I heat the water up as hot as I can stand. So everybody's got a different tolerance for heat. But it's like where you have to get in, you kind of have to get in slowly because it's kind of too hot and you can barely stand it. That's kind of good. And you might be able to say 5 minutes member of say 15 minutes. So if the Internet you kind of get really hot and then you can go right into bed and as your body pulls down and you'll fall right asleep. So it's a great tool for sleep. It's a great tool for muscle relaxation. It's a great tool for detoxification. It's a great tool for doing things like heat shock proteins and it's quite amazing. I just reminded this data that I saw in this sort of anecdotal stuff that I've heard of case reports of autism. So autism is a disease of the brain that actually is about inflammation. And in a lot of the inflammation causes a lot of malfunction in the brain through these deep proteins and other things immune system. And it's been observed that when kids who have autism at high fevers that they wake up from autism and then when the fever goes back, they go back to being autistic. So it's really fascinating to see how heat plays a role in so many of the functions of our body. We're just really being an understand this. So one more follow-up question. You know, right now, you're recording the podcast out of San Francisco. It's great that we have modern technology that allows us to record anywhere. So this is awesome. So for instance, because you travel a lot, what are one of the ways, for example, now, you know, how you're looking to incorporate hot and cold therapy in because it's become part of your routine. So on a practical level, is it that you just have a lot of friends that are so into this too that you state their husbands and you just need to borrow their sauna. Any tips for people when they're on traveling? I mean, yeah, I mean, listen, you know, if you're booking a hotel room, try to get one with a bathtub. And most hotel rooms, hopefully you'll have a shower. So you've got a hot tub and you got a cold shower. It's pretty easy. Or you can fill the bathtub with cold water. Or you can get ice cubes from the shower. So there's a lot of ways to do it. I really make a point of seeking this out. And I really have learned how to sort of hack my travel life so that I could say healthy. And then I can say rest it, and I can keep rejuvenating myself. So yeah, I have friends who have this and I'm lucky because I'll tell my Friends that Dubai and then they'll get it and then that sort of kind of fun. But it doesn't have to be super fancy. You can just have a shower and a bathtub. And that really is an easy way to do it for most people. And a couple more clarifying questions. So how does this fit in your day with your normal routine and also when it comes to exercising and your movement that you have in your life? Is this something that you typically like to do before that or after that? So when does hot and cold therapy come in and how does that play a role in timeline again with exercise? So let's say I'm in my routine at home and I've written about this in my new book, young forever. What's doctor Hyman's daily longevity routine? I mean, I just saw a guy who kind of was a fan and had seen me in person. We were actually in the sauna together in the Russian Bania yesterday. And he's like, man, you look better than you did 5 years ago. You know this person, you look better, you did ten years ago. I'm like, yeah, 'cause I'm figuring all this stuff out. And so I actually have a routine in the morning where I'll wake up and meditate 20 minutes. And then usually work out. And I travel these bands. And I had back surgery a couple of years ago, and I learned really how to rehabilitate through Tom Brady's training program. I don't give any money for it, and I'm not associated with it anyway, but it's the TB 12 sports program. And I use these basically bands. And I bring them with me. I travel everywhere. And all I need is the bands on the floor, basically. And sometimes something to hook it on to like a doorknob, you know, hotel room or a post somewhere to do some of the exercises. And so I do a workout for 30 minutes, and that's kind of a standard thing I can do anywhere I am. And then I like if I'm home, I like to do seem, I have a steam shower, so I put the steam on while I'm working out, I'll go on a steam super hot, like ten minutes. And then I'll fill up a

Roland Griffiths autism Fritz heart failure Johnson & Johnson fever San Francisco Dubai Hyman Tom Brady TB
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on 10% Happier with Dan Harris

10% Happier with Dan Harris

08:37 min | 9 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on 10% Happier with Dan Harris

"The imaging scans, when we had them lie in the neuro imaging scanner, they had brought us a photograph of the person who had died. And so we were able to show them that photograph on goggles, as they're laying in the scanner, and look at the brain activity has their perceiving that picture and feeling that grief. What was so surprising was there was this region of the brain that we call the nucleus accumbens and for the non blob ology geeks out there. It's a part of what we think of as the reward network of the brain. So teaching us and helping us to want things to yearn for things, right? And so we discovered that the people who were describing more yearning in the weeks before the scan, they also had the most activity in this nucleus accumbens region. And so there are other regions of the brain. There's parts of the brain that encode memories, for example, or strong emotions, and those are activated in everyone. But to see a place in the brain that was really tracking how much we were yearning for this person, that was very interesting because we know this is the same region of the brain that is required when there's bonding. So if you put people in the imaging scanner, you show them a picture of their romantic partner, or fathers, you show them photos of their kindergartner. This is the same region of the brain that we see activated in those studies as well. That's probably a major part of where this bond is really held. And so as we are grieving something in the brain has to change to update to understand, I am no longer going to get to spend time in the presence of this person. That's not true anymore. And so I have memories. I have emotions. I have thoughts, but it's not the same as this reward prediction of, I want to be with this person and that will sometimes happen. In the future. And yet the same part of the brain is activated. So this is what's so interesting. In the people who had transformed had integrated their grief so that they were what we might think of as more resilient. This was a group of people who, one of the women in the study told me, yes, you know, I put out my mom's Christmas decorations. At Christmas, we think about her. We tell stories about her, but day to day, I don't yearn for her to be with me. I understand that this is how the situation is now, right? So she still having memories she's still loves her mother. She still reflects on the importance of her mother in her life, but she isn't spending time wishing that she was able to be with her mother in this moment, right? She just knows that's no longer the reality. As opposed to another woman who told me, my mother has died and why would I even bother to give bar mitzvahs to my children? Life just has no meaning. Why would I even engage in life in this way? Why would I do these meaningful things if she's not around? Right? So you sort of see this difference of on the one hand you can have moments of grief, but you're grieving has brought you to a place where you accept. There's a certain accepting that this is the reality. Versus on the other hand, this just protests, this just isn't possible. I just don't, I want them to be back. That level of yearning is where we're still seeing this reward prediction in the brain that says, I want, I'm yearning. I'm thirsting for this person. Does that sort of make sense? So the same part of the brain, the yearning, the nucleus accumbens, the reward center, is activated both when you're falling in love and when you're grieving, but for people who are more resilient, it's activating in a different way than folks who are still in the throes of the thing. It's activating less, at least in this study. So it's almost as though the bond part is transformed. And so they don't need to use this part of the brain. It's not an active yearning process for this bonded loved one, but rather it's a part of memory, so it's in posterior cingulate cortex, or it's in some of the emotion areas of insula and so forth. It's really transformed the way that we're perceiving with our brain. Would it be safe to say that from the brain's perspective loss, death does not negate love, the love continues no matter what? Yes, I would absolutely say that. There is no way that, you know, 6 months, 6 years, 6 decades after we experienced the death of someone. That the brain doesn't have this experience doesn't create this experience of grief when we become aware that they're gone. And that's because we love them. Because they are so important to us. So the grief, that momentary feeling, that will always be true. That doesn't mean that we haven't also restored a meaningful life for ourselves, right? And so I think the trouble for people often is when they experience these moments of grief, years after the loss, when they break down into tears, you know, as they pull out some memento, they see the handwriting, right? If their spouse who died. And in that moment, the grief feels just as awful as it did. It doesn't mean there's anything wrong with them. It doesn't mean there's anything wrong with the grieving that they have been doing. It just means that in that moment they have the awareness that this person is gone that meant so much to them. They have that awareness of loss. That means that grief will be true forever while grieving means that we still come to integrate and understanding to live a meaningful life while being a person who can acknowledge and move into and out of those moments of grief. So your work, the neuroimaging gives us understanding, but does it give us relief? Does it help us in any way to deal with this universal human condition of grieving? Oh, that is such a good question. I think for me, part of writing this book was, you know, I say in the book, I'm not giving advice, actually. I don't think that's how insight works. I don't think, you know, someone else can tell you how it works. For me, it's that if we understand some of the basic science of how the brain might be doing this and why it might hurt so much, we can apply that then to our own lives. So while this is not a part of the data, I find it very comforting. So not as a scientist, but as a human being, I find it very comforting to know that when I fell in love with this person, that it changed the physical aspects of my brain, because it means that even after they've died, I'm still carrying them, right? I still carrying a physical part of us in my own brain. So do you see what I mean? That's not the science isn't giving me the comfort in the sense that through data. Experience comfort. But for me, it is by understanding why this happens and how it works. I find comfort in knowing how important that connection is, how it works that I'm carrying it with me, and that I will always have that. So your mom, for example, might not be drawing breath at this moment, but she lives in your nucleus accumbens. She absolutely lives in my brain. And I perceive the world through that, right? So she's in everything, right? As I look at what dress I'm gonna wear on Easter Sunday, I don't know. I see that in part through a brain that's been shaped by who she is. Whether it's because I choose the dress she would hate. Or whether I choose the dress she would love. It really means that I'm just perceiving a world shaped by the love and relationship that we had. It's also kind of trippy in that to the extent that we think about our own brains. We think of them as our own. And yet they are being, I don't love this word because it's a sort of new age cliche, but they're being co created our brains in partnership with other human beings with whom we have a relationship..

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Food for Thought

Food for Thought

09:20 min | 9 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Food for Thought

"Times bestselling author of the science of nutrition. Please go check out my new book. I think it will help a lot of people out there. And founder of London's leading private nutrition clinic. Now in each of the 12 episodes I'll be joined by guests all of whom are experts in their field, which is wonderful. So together we can all learn fact from fiction and empower the healthiest and happiest versions of ourselves with trusted expert advice. In a society where we're still so strongly influenced by diet culture, it's no wonder really that people are trying to come up with an alternative weight loss solution because they seem to be absolutely everywhere. But is there a way that we can do this by adjusting the way we think about food and the way we eat? Now, this is a conversation in this week's food for thought that I've wanted to have for so long with doctor Susan pierce Thompson. She's New York Sunday times bestseller and I have to say that her views and her training are very different to the exposure that we have in the UK. So we discuss how to reframe your approach to eating and understand how your mindset can help with sustainable weight loss. It's an enlightening conversation and I really hope that you all enjoy it. Hello, Susan. Hi, Rhiannon and so good to be here. Oh no, thank you so much all the way from New York. Lovely to have this conversation today. I think the fact that we know that, I mean, I mean the stat I've got here season correct me if I'm wrong is that around 80% of people will not maintain their weight loss, you know, long term. It's quite big and I think it's something a lot of people would really love to hear a little bit more about and what they can do. So let's start the conversation by saying, what do you think about this? What's the driving factor? I think the driving factor is that most weight loss programs that people are trying aren't built for people to be able to sustain them. They really don't have longevity in mind. And I don't think, you know, really until bright line eating came around. I don't think the code had been cracked on sustainable weight loss. And if you think about it, a lot of the big weight loss companies, they make their money off recidivism. People just keep coming back and paying initiation fees over and over and over again, joining and rejoining. There's this great market research report that comes out every other year at cost several $1000 to buy it. So most people don't have access to this information, but in the United States, which is where I live half of people are dieting. They won't tell you their dieting all of them because dieting has gone out of fashion, but they're spending money trying to lose weight or trying to change their eating to get healthier to take off pounds, et cetera. Half of people. So we're talking about a hundred and something million people. And on average they try four or 5 new attempts each year. So I think it's actually higher than 80%. I don't know where the 80%. But there's different ways to look at it. But most pounds that get lost get regained within a year or two, for sure. Yeah. Of course, and that's like you said, with data, you know, it's how many people actually report this and how many people we can get to, you know, get on board and get in our studies and in our stats and the number must be more. I agree with you completely. So let's go a little bit further then. So we know a lot of people are constantly thinking about this and I know from my experience in my nutrition clinic and it gets a lot of people down. It can really impact their mood and some of the key things that clients often say to me, which is very, I think it's the language used obviously. So they will say, oh, I feel like I'm addicted to food. So I guess we should start by asking, what is actually classed as a food addiction because there's two camps here, there's people that avidly believe that it's not the same as drugs or a pathway with alcohol and then you've got another camp of people that are saying it is. And I know the education that we have here is that food is not classified as an addiction, so I would love to hear your viewpoints on this. I have to tell you, it is entirely possible as a matter of fact, factual and clear that people's brains become addicted to the hyper palatable foods that we have in our current food environment exactly through the same neural pathways that are addicting them to cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and all the rest. It's the pathway of dopamine down regulation in the nucleus accumbens, and when you eat a donut, it floods the nucleus accumbens with too much dopamine, just like if you snorted a line of cocaine, and over time those dopamine receptors down regulate, which means they become thinner, less responsive, less numerous, and what that leaves the person in is a state of dis ease, discomfort, itchiness, bleakness, until they get their next fix. And this is what's leading people to, you know, and it's not just sugar. It's also processed flour and starches and things like that. So it's chips. It's pizza. It's muffins and lattes and all the things that bagels and all the things that people are eating, the sugar and flour processed foods. And it is literally literally addictive. So, you know, I'm so excited to talk to you because these days mostly I talk with people who are very clear that food is physiologically addictive. And I know that there's a bunch of people who are saying, well, food addiction is silly. That's like air addiction. You can't be addicted to breathing. You need to breathe to live. And you do, of course, need to eat to live, but you don't need to eat donuts to live. And they're not natural foods, right? At all. So I'm so excited to get to have this conversation with you. Because I know there are people who are still thinking food addiction isn't a real thing, literally specifically that it's either nonexistent or it's a metaphor. And I just need to clear that up. Absolutely not. It is truly physiologically addictive. Well, that's why we've got you here on the podcast today. We always want to share the balanced two side equation. Like you said, there are people for and against everything and I find that absolutely fascinating and it makes perfect sense because if you think about the world of food that we live in now and the complete and utter change of environment, you know, for a lot of people, they will consume just processed food now. You know, people are not cooking from scratch. And it makes sense that this is how people feel. And like you said, they can be instantly dismissed sometimes. Which isn't right. So do you think our minds play a huge role here then in the approach to how we eat our food bearing in mind, we know we've got this neurological connection here. We've got this research that suggests this is happening. So what can we do about it? Is it a mindset thing? How do people go about dealing with this in their everyday life? Yeah, so what I find is that the thoughts, the thinking, the mindset, comes from the physiology, more than the other way around. It's really not possible advisable feasible, realistic for someone who's developed this addiction over time to sort of think their way out of it. What really needs to have any more than the person who's addicted to heroin alcohol cocaine can sort of shift their thinking and affect a cure or a lot of progress. What what's needed really is to stop exposing the brain to these addictive substances. And then a lot of the, what seems like counterproductive thoughts, fade away on their own. They were actually generated by the physiology. So what's really interesting is when you look at my PhD is in brain and cognitive sciences. And when you look at the relationship between thoughts will volition intention, willpower, and physiology, what you see in domains as primitive and biological as eating, breathing, sex, right? These things are hard wired in at the deepest core levels. We're talking hypothalamus, brain stem, absolutely primitive. And what you see is that thoughts come up being driven by the physiological needs. So here's an example. Try to hold your breath for longer than it's possible. Most people can't hold their breath for two minutes, right? Do a thought experiment with yourself and imagine that imagine that €10 million were sitting in a bag for you in a locker somewhere and all you had to do was hold your breath for two or 5 minutes or whatever. And it was yours. Well, what's going to happen as you set a timer and try to hold your breath for longer than you can..

Susan pierce Thompson New York Sunday times Rhiannon Susan London UK New York United States
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

05:50 min | 10 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

"And they did see neuroinflammation after three months. They specifically saw it in the nucleus accumbens, both in the core and in the shell, and they saw it in the hippocampus. And the reason that these two regions are important and the reason that the researchers talk a bit about these two regions being important with this gene expression of inflammatory markers is that they're involved in behavior modification and heavily in reward, drug reward. Drug seeking behaviors, addiction behaviors. And even some, they call it like anxious or depressive behaviors. I think they're more referring to mood in the nucleus accumbens, but there is a concern here that if there is inflammation in this area that that could have some bearing behaviorally on addiction levels and on mood which can sort of be associated with addiction. They also did find some changes to cardiac tissue and the weird thing is these alterations to the inflammatory state were not very easy to point to. There was actually some down regulation at the three month part in the cardiac tissue. And so you might think sort of on the surface. Oh, maybe that means it's reducing inflammation. Maybe that's heart healthy. But what they found or what they're concerned about is, no, maybe that actually means that it's a depressing immune response in the heart. And that's disconcerting as well. So we don't know how these things translate to actual health in human subjects because we're looking at gene expression in adult mice. But what they found again was that the nucleus accumbens both accumbens about the core and the shell and the hippocampus saw some neuromodulation. They saw changes in these inflammatory markers in the heart. They saw changes to inflammatory markers in the colon and they also saw some changes in the lung, but they were not what they expected. They expected pathophysiologic changes in the lung and they actually didn't see them. So they didn't see alteration to airway response. They didn't see some of the expected alterations that they thought that they might see. And I think that's an interesting outcome in and of itself. They didn't see emphysema and they didn't see overt inflammation. But of course, there are massive limitations to this study. Number one, three months is their chronic condition. That's not really that long. So there's always going to be limitations when you're doing laboratory work because it doesn't directly translate to people. And then lastly, there was this interesting effect that they saw where the mint pods seem to have a stronger inflammatory effect, especially in cardiac and colonic tissue compared to the mango pods. And when they looked, they recognized that the nicotine concentrations were the same, but the flavoring compounds the chemicals that actually make the flavorings were different. One of them was based on something called ethyl maltol. That's how they made the mango flavors, and then they actually used menthol concentration to make the mint flavor. And there is a concern here that there is a negative outcome simply from the flavor and it's not specifically due to the nicotine, which sort of. And is that consistent with tobacco? Yeah, I was going to say kind of jives with the idea of all those different carcinogens that you would see in tobacco. When you would burn the paper and the glue and there was so many different compounds that were discovered over the years. And so yeah, it's an interesting study because it's not as clean as you would think. They had some hypotheses and not all of them were confirmed. Their sample size was small and that was one of the concerns from the editors, but they also replied that they did do a power analysis in advance, and they didn't want to collect more data beyond what their power analysis told them to collect. Because they didn't want to alter those outcomes. What's the power analysis? Power analysis is there's different software programs that you can use, but it's a statistical way to in advance to say, okay, I'm going to do this type of statistic. Like I'm going to do a Chi square, or I'm going to do an anova or an ancova. And I want to make sure that if I'm looking for a difference between groups that the difference is large enough to recognize, right? It's going to be 25% difference or 5% difference. And you set all those parameters and then you calculate how many samples you need to collect in order to achieve that power in your study. Because if you're doing, let's say, 20 contrast, you're going to need way more, a much higher end than if you're going to do one contrast. Right. And so a power analysis allows you to set your statistics in advance so that you don't end up inadvertently P hacking, for example. I was going to ask about that. I like that. If it's trying to deal with that, even indirectly. Yeah, that's one of the things that I thought. It's funny because this study is interesting. And of course, the write ups around it are interesting like, hey, vaping is not great, you guys, look at these things that we're seeing. We're seeing inflammation in the brain. We're seeing changes to cardiac immuno response. We're seeing changes in the colon. We're seeing changes across the body of these mice. This is not, this is worrisome at minimum. But the other thing that I thought was interesting was this study is a very cool explanation of how science is done because the curtain is completely peeled back. And so for those of you who are interested in reading more about the process of doing science, this allows you to kind of PEEP into that in a cool way. Eli. Elijah, yeah. Very cool. Yeah, so it is complicated the whole vaping thing..

ethyl maltol emphysema Chi square Eli Elijah
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

05:43 min | 11 months ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"These foods are addictive, and they just keep on pulling you back back in. Yeah. It's so true. And I think, you know, the sides of this is really compelling. I just sort of break it down a little bit, but my friend David literally goes Harvard is one of the most brilliant scientists, clinical trialists in the world. Has done a number of really elegant studies looking at this. One was he took a group of overweight guys, and he fed them what seemed to be identical milkshakes on different days. So they were the same in protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Same percentages, same amount of fiber. Exactly the same. Except for one difference. One of them and a taste of the same. One of them had a very quickly absorbed carbohydrate that spike blood sugar and the other one didn't was much more a slow carb. It's called a slowly absorbed carbohydrate. And they then they fed the same guys, their milkshakes on different days. And then they tracked their blood and they looked at functional MRI imaging. And when they look at their blood, the guys who had the high sugar spiky carb, their insulin up, their sugar went up, their cholesterol went up. They tried those from their mouth, their cortisol went up there, adrenaline went up. It was like a stress response. When you eat sugar it literally creates a stress response. So when you eat a lot of sugar, it's like being chased by a Tiger. Your body doesn't know the difference. And so cortisol causes all sorts of problems, causes diabetes, causes you to have dementia, it causes you to gain weight, it causes you to lose muscle. It's really bad because your bones are dissolved. And this is what happens when we sugar. So then he took these guys and put them in these MRI machine and looked at their brains before and after the high sugar milkshake. And they found that the ones who had the high spiky sugar milkshake, the area of their brain that's the addiction center called the nucleus accumbens, lit up like a Christmas tree. Essentially, it's the addiction center that gets stimulated by cocaine or heroin or anything else that is addictive. And so it proved that from a biological perspective is addictive. And there's studies in animal. I wrote to tending detox diet, which I cataloged a lot of the research, but that was like ten years ago most 8 years ago, I wrote that book. And they found it for me with animals. If a rat was connected to an IV cocaine and they could hit the lever and give them IV cocaine, they would literally always switch over to sugar if given the chance. And they would work 8 times harder to get the sugar than the cocaine. And they would another experiment was kind of a terrible experiment, but they put them in this cage with an electric chock floor. And whenever they ate the sugar they give an electric shock. And they kept eating the sugar, despite the fact they were getting shocked over and over. It's like getting electric shock therapy. While you're eating sugar, and it's think about it. I mean, how does someone get to 500 pounds? Not in one day, it's slow, and they keep eating the stop, even though it's making them sick, even though it's making them incapacity, they can't stop themselves. Their whole system, including their brain, has been hijacked. And they're more likely to be depressed, which also makes them feel like there's no hope and one thing leads to the next. All right, Mark, let's pivot a little bit to this category, which is the highly minimized. If we can avoid it amazing, it's tough sometimes and it takes a little bit of education, but it's really worth it. And one of those things that you mentioned previously, one of those topics is these gums and emulsifiers. So first of all, what are they and what are they used for when it comes to processed foods? So the bees are basically thickeners, right? They thicken stuff. They're used in milks, all the nut milks have them often. There's ones that don't. So you have to really be conscious like carrageenan and xanthan gum and what's turns out that these thickeners seem to have a really bad effect on the gut and they damage the gut and cause what we call leaky gut, and they've been linked to allergy and autoimmunity and all kinds of other issues, digestive problems. So I'm very cautious about these various emulsifiers and thickeners. And I read an article in a medical journal, not that long ago, which is like holy cow. These are really a problem. There's one. And this is not on the label, which is almost in most processed food, which is kind of weird that they don't put on the label, but it's called, it's called microbial transglutaminase. Wow. And this is a compound that sounds like a big fancy name, but transglutaminase is from gluten, transglutaminase. So it comes from gluten. And it literally manufacturing gluten, which makes things stick together. I mean, we make bread and use the flour and it gets sticky. That stickiness is gluten. They call it gluten because it's glue. It's like glue. These seeds on an envelope to actually when you look envelopes to seal the envelope, they would use gluten to actually make the stick, right? So it's sticky. And so they take bacteria and they kind of genetically modify them to produce this microbial transglutaminase. But it's not on the labels. So it's in a lot of processed food, and it's basically like concentrated gluten you're eating. If you're gluten sensitive, it's a problem, even if you're not, if you eat a lot of this stuff, it damages your gut. Even healthy people, a little bit gluten that can handle, you get a little leaky got what everybody handles it. But for the most part, like gluten is just not good for your gut. You know, the thing about these and why education is so key is I can remember, let's say like 15 years ago, 12 years ago, there started to become commercially available almond milk and nut milks that were out on the market. You can go to most grocery stores and pick them up. At that time, anyone that you looked at, they all had carrageenan. I can't think of anyone if somebody made it themselves at like a store or like a small batch or raw almond milk or the ones that you make at home, but all of them had it. Now, through all this education and the fact that companies are listening, you say we're voting with our dollars, companies are listening. I counted in my Los Angeles whole food store. There's now three or four commercially.

David literally Harvard dementia diabetes allergy Mark Los Angeles
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

06:46 min | 1 year ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Short Wave

"Having said that, one of the things that we know is that grief is tied to all sorts of different brain functions we have from being able to recall memories to taking the perspective of another person to even things like regulating our heart rate and the experience of pain and suffering. We have a study that compares people who have complicated grief from people who are bereaved, but are not having that experience. And one of the key findings there was that there is a specific brain region called the nucleus accumbens that seems to be distinct where people who are having complicated grief show more activation in this region. What's interesting about that is this is a very important region for reward, we know in other human and animal studies, it's important in the reward created when we make a pair bond when we deeply connect with someone else in a long-term relationship, this is part of the brain that enables us to do that. So you're saying that when people are experiencing complicated grief, prolonged grief, the reward centers of their brains light up? When they think about the person that is gone? I am saying that and it sounds a little confusing. And I'll be honest when I saw those results, I was confused too. But this is how I've come to understand what I believe is going on there. You and I when we use the term reward, we think of something pleasurable. But when the brain is thinking about reward, it really is a signal, you should do this again. So when we see our loved ones, all sorts of neurochemistry is saying, oh yes, we like this. Please come home after dinner and let's sit together on the couch and snuggle. I think that this rewarding experience is something that when people are adapting to the absence of this person, they realize that is never going to happen again. But for people who have complicated grief, it is perhaps as though that reward is still something they could potentially experience. They still yearn for that person to walk in the door so that they can sit with them on the couch. And that kind of learning has to be updated and is maybe taking longer or is more difficult for this group of people. So you write about this very thing in your upcoming book coming out in February 2022 about this concept of post traumatic growth. I'm very intrigued by this. What is that? Although grief and the loss of someone we love is terrible suffering. It does also teach us that this is how the world is that we never know when a loved one will be taken from us, which is a terrible, terrible reality to have to face. But if we are in fact aware of that, often, that makes us live our life in a very different way. What we see in science is if you have a grief experience and you have support. So that you have a little bit of time to learn and confidence from the people around you that you will in fact adapt if you have that support post traumatic growth is more likely out of a bereavement circumstance. And the thing is, we sometimes forget this, but bereavement is a health disparity. And when people don't have the support because they are dealing with other issues whether that be food insecurity or racism or other things going on their life. When you don't have the support to process what has happened to learn to restore a meaningful life, it can be harder to do. So even when we think about COVID, it's not all the same people who have grief. Say, for example, black children were twice as likely to lose a parent or caregiver than white children. I'm really glad you brought up COVID because there has been so much loss the past year and a half through the pandemic. What would you say to people who know someone who lost someone to COVID? It really is more about listening to them and seeing where they are at in their in their learning than it is about trying to make them feel better. The point is to be with them and let them know that you will be with them. But I would also say about the pandemic specifically, one of the topics I think has not much in the national conversation is that so many of the deaths of our loved ones happened in hospitals in emergency rooms in ICUs and we weren't there to see it. Watching those changes that happened in their body that prepare our mind for the possibility that they might die and to go through that process without those memories makes it much harder to learn. What has happened so many people feel it hasn't really sunk in yet even that they're gone. One of the few other situations historically where a large number of people have died when we weren't there has actually been soldiers in war. And I think when we do eulogies and speeches around those kinds of deaths, we talk about the sacrifice that was made by the remaining people those loved ones who are left behind. What I don't hear very often is the fact that with COVID, the loved ones that are left behind made the sacrifice of not being with their loved ones in the hospital, in order to stop the spread. And that sacrifice needs to be recognized. I think in part to help people heal. Mary Francis O'Connor, thank you so much for coming on shortwave. This has been a really, really important and actually a conversation I'm going to take with me personally. So thank you so much. It's wonderful to share what we know in science about this, but most of all to connect with people who are going through this experience given there are so many of them..

Mary Francis O'Connor
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Factually! with Adam Conover

Factually! with Adam Conover

04:45 min | 1 year ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Factually! with Adam Conover

"Yes and the thing is that at the same time. Those drugs i think are being taken. Because of the high work requirements that i was under a lot of pressure to produce at my very loosey-goosey liberal arts school There was more work assigned than i could reasonably do and some. That was one of the reasons i was like. I'm trying to get ahead of this. So let me let me start getting a prescription for this For this drug and again it helped some things but You know not not in others Well so speaking of As when i. I have so many questions about addiction generally One thing we haven't spoken about yet are addictions that we commonly understand behaviors that we commonly understand is being addictive but which aren't related to a particular drug for instance Even on our show. Adam ruins everything. We've talked about How slot machines are designed to create an addictive response And i wanna know how that sort of fits into the framework you've laid out about how how our brains are sort of Designed for addiction in a way does that fit in. oh sure absolutely. Gambling is very addictive. And it's addictive like a substance for the same reason which is that. There is a a very small group of neurons nerve cells in the center of the brain kind of going from the top of your spinal cord or a little bit beyond it to about two inches behind your eyeballs in these neurons released dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and this is sometimes called the men's olympic dopamine pathway and every single drug that's addictive releases dopamine in that mesolithic pathway and so does gambling and it does so for the same reason which is that It's giving the brain. The idea that something meaningful or salient is happening. And one thing that's meaningful is the surprise of what's gonna happen when i pull this This slot arm one more time. Or when i opened the door. Or when i push the button in these things stop so..

Adam
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Optimal Living Daily

Optimal Living Daily

04:24 min | 1 year ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Optimal Living Daily

"Dot com. My friend rob told me that. His co worker complained about every little thing. It dragged him down. If someone left work early he would chime in. If someone didn't send him the right format on a report he would grumble. No-one went the extra mile for him because he would always find a way to complain about something. Do you know anyone like this. People complain at work because they focus on the lack instead of the joy that they get from their job. They do this for a number of reasons. They don't feel appreciated by their boss. They've skewed their expectations of what they really want out of their job. They don't feel appreciated by their coworkers. Aren't happy with the work. They're doing instead of trying to change these feelings. People perpetuate them through complaining however we have the ability to change his way of thinking. Give gratitude it can be as simple as a thank you to a co worker. Who helped you wanna project or gave you good advice. Those two words can increase your happiness. Because they trigger to parts of your brain the nucleus accumbens and the caudal nucleus which are both associated with being rewarded. Furthermore by giving a thank you to someone else you will also send good feelings throughout yourself. You don't necessarily need to hear a thank you or you rock from a co-worker first before giving a compliment to them when you give the gratitude i you can start a chain reaction. You will feel good. The person who gets a compliment will feel great and the people who were close to both of you will also feel happier because work. Happiness is contagious. Anita fontana wrote an article titled how to cultivate gratitude in the workplace. She talks about the importance of fostering and attitude of giving appreciation freely quote with the power of gratitude and appreciation at your disposal. You can transform a negative atmosphere into new spirit of appreciation in your office. Empowering people bringing enthusiasm and satisfaction back into their work and building strong bonds between employees and quote. that's a recipe for success. It works because we create an abundant mindset. That focuses on the good things in our working lies. Is that of complaining about what we wish we had. I've been guilty of complaining at work and actually challenged myself to stop complaining at work and at home for thirty days a watched how negative i could be in how it affected. My work a realized that i needed to become more thankful for my co workers and my ability to accomplish good work. We all need to cultivate gratitude in the office in order to create enjoyable atmosphere. The benefits go beyond feeling good when we feel grateful. We also number one strengthen our immune system and naturally increases or antibodies number to improve brain functions. We see more focused and are less likely to slip into a depression. Number three relax. Our heart rate lowers which helps regulate blood pressure and number four become more productive. People who are grateful toward others are actually better their jobs. What can you do to feel more grateful. Create a compliment schedule. Most of the time we get too caught up in our own work and forget to thank our co workers for all their hard work. You may want to create a schedule and put it on your calendar. Most computer calendars allow for reminders. I used to set mine to p me at three o'clock every afternoon. If i haven't complimented someone by that time. I make sure that. I find someone and give them a compliment. This has become a habit has improved my work relationships. Ask someone if they could use some help. There's nothing like bringing a little appreciation into your life by offering to help someone. I love the looks. I get from co workers. The funny thing is they usually say no but they always appreciate my offer. Give a compliment and really watch what happens. I've seen a co worker. Give another co worker compliments. And they were too embarrassed to watch the results. I always enjoy the person's expression. Every time i give a compliment. I watched the results and trying to make mental notes as a way for me to revel in the goodness. Sometimes i'll get such a surprise reaction that they just don't know what to do with the words that just came out of my mouth. Experience of gratitude is just so much fun. Make a co worker appreciation list. Some of us don't like to throw around compliments might understand. I hate when i get a disingenuous compliment. I prefer if they hadn't said anything at all but that doesn't mean we can't give silent. Thanks to the co workers in our lives. Take ten minutes and write a compliment for every.

Anita fontana rob depression
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Post Reports

Post Reports

06:29 min | 1 year ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Post Reports

"What do you do I'm lenny bernstein. And i cover health and medicine for the post lenny. Bernstein talk to our executive producer. Maggie penman about an experimental brain surgery to treat substance use disorders and lenny stories started with this one guy. Jared buckhalter forced and the only person in the united states to have his addiction to drugs reversed by brain surgery. A particular kind of brain surgery in which a deep brain stimulator is installed. They had to drill holes in his skull. They have to implant electrodes in two parts of his brain called the nucleus accumbens one on either side stimulating. This part of the brain appears to affect other parts of the brain involved in decision making and curbing impulsivity and scientists have found that it might reverse physical changes to the brain caused by years of drug use. Jared is thirty five years and he struggled with severe substance use disorder for more than half his life. Now after this brain surgery he's been sober for more than six hundred days. So you spend a lot of time with jared reporting this story. What does he say this feels like. Does he not have the desire to do drugs anymore or does he just have more impulse control or like. What is this therapy actually do. It's really interesting to hear him. Describe this because he is trying to describe something that literally no one else has ever felt. His cravings are greatly reduced so that is the first and probably most important thing he desperately wanted to get better but the cravings had such a hold on him that he literally could not focus on anything else outside of getting that truck after thought so his cravings are greatly reduced that allows him to focus on other things. He still feels depression. He's still feels anxiety. But the brain stimulation has reduced the drugs hold on him to the extent that he actually can devote some energy and some attention to getting better. I wanna talk a little bit. About what jared. Life was like before the surgery. What were his relationships like. What was his health like. Did he have a job could he. Maintain friendships what was his life. Like for the better part of twenty years he cycled in and out of jobs never maintaining one for very long he had no true friends Other than other drug users and they were essentially in the same situation he was he did have girlfriends but he inevitably would steal from them. There is nothing in my life. Did i hadn't screwed up at time. I anybody know everybody. His parents stayed in his life for the better part of these two decades but eventually they too had to sort of distance themselves from him he was stealing thousands and thousands of dollars from them and from their friends and from people he knew and his father was pretty convinced that he was ukraine. End up dead or in jail And he said you know the only thing. He was praying. Every day was jared wouldn't hurt somebody innocent person by driving under the influence of drugs. This experimental surgery on the one hand. Sounds like americal and on the other hand sounds sort of dystopia ian. What are the moral and ethical questions around the surgery. Is that something that was discussed before it was performed. The questions of risk and reward were very seriously discussed When he was first approached he didn't wanna do it and his parents were absolutely dead set against him. Doing it. gradually. Over time. Jared and to a lesser extent. His parents became convinced that while there was some risk to brain surgery the path that he was on was far riskier than that He was in the end stages of his addiction. And everything else that exists out. There had not worked and his future was imminent overdose and death. He had overdosed numerous times. Already and He was really looking at dying sooner or later from a drug overdose. There are obviously a lot of interrelated problems that come along with substance use disorder and it feels like this surgery sort of one part of it. Would you agree with that. Is that something that the doctors who performed the surgery would agree with. Yeah if you define that one. Part as reducing the cravings reducing impulsivity improving judgment then. That's what the surgery does. It does not cure drug addiction. It allows the person enough space in their life to us. The other methods of addressing substance use disorder in an of itself a cure. You know you can take the craving aspect out of it you can. You can make me feel a little bit better. I i have a living problem. That's the biggest thing. That's i didn't know how to live a normal life outside else.

Jared thousands lenny bernstein twenty years thirty five years Jared buckhalter Bernstein jared first more than six hundred days thousands of dollars two parts united states Maggie penman ukraine one guy one part more than half two decades one hand
"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

02:13 min | 1 year ago

"nucleus accumbens" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Way to approach. This question of who gets musical. Frisson is can we learn anything by identifying what people have in common when they don't experience musical freeze on So again i. I mentioned earlier. That presentation. I was watching by the researcher psyche. louis And she was talking about studies that have been done with people who have what's called musical in dona and this is a condition where people just do not really derive pleasure from music Now it's important to specify what musical and had danica is not. It's different from what's known as a museum or tone. Deafness people with musical in danica do not show major errors in their perception of music. They can hear it just fine. And it's different from general in dona so people with musical in danica can derive pleasure from other things. It's not a generalized lack of pleasure. It's just a lack of pleasure for music. And one thing louis talks about is research that has found that people with musical. Anhedonia have different patterns of connectivity between the auditory regions of the brain and a region of brain known as the nucleus accumbens So the nucleus accumbens is important in the reward system. It is used to drive motivation for the anticipation of rewards including things like food. Sex money and drugs basically like anything you can think of that would be. You know kind of pleasurable stimulus that would really motivate you to want to get more of it that motivation to get more of it is mediated by the reward system in the brain including the nucleus accumbens. This might be also very unscientific for me to say but all those things also seem to have elements of Anticipation dopamine oh yes exactly. So the thrill you get in anticipation of one of these things. Food sex money drugs any of these. These things The thrill you get in the brain while you were in pursuit of that goal Is very much related. That is the reward system working to motivate your behaviour. Now another interesting thing about who gets musical free freon's I was reading a about a study by the estonian neuroscientist yok punk sep..

louis Frisson estonian one danica free freon dona
Can You Be Addicted to Love?

BrainStuff

03:03 min | 2 years ago

Can You Be Addicted to Love?

"Nicotine. Chocolate alcohol opioids work gambling. Sex food you might as well face it. Life is basically a gauntlet of substances and behaviors. That humans can become obsessed with and dependent on. But what about love not just sex but the deep interpersonal attachment we call love can be addictive. The notion of obsessive all consuming and even addictive love goes back literally thousands of years the ancient greek poet. Sappho wrote about watching her lover mary. Someone else and she describes being seized trembling drenched in cold sweat and feeling nearly dead she might as well be describing opium withdrawals or singing aversive addicted to love romantic. Love does have a lot of external features in common with drug addiction initial feelings of bliss and euphoria and obsessive fixated behavior often leading to poor potentially life ruining decisions. Two thousand ten paper from the new york academy of sciences points out that common criteria for diagnosing dependence include life interference tolerance withdrawal and repeated attempts to quit. Sound anything. like your relationship with your ex if so you're certainly not alone. But is there any more measurable basis for thinking. Love can be considered an addiction in the brain. Actually yes. let's talk brain imaging one way. That addiction hijacks the human brain is by taking advantage of a million reward and motivation systems. Like the mess olympic dopamine system which includes the ventral tag mental area and the nucleus accumbens. This is part of the nervous system that gives us internal rewards when we do something with an evolutionary benefits like eating or having sex essentially how the brain tells itself. Hey what you just did do that again. And again and again whether it's eating nutritious meal or unfortunately snorting cocaine back in two thousand five. A study in the journal of neurophysiologist used fm. Are i look at the brains of test subjects. Who self reported that they were intensely in love with someone else. When these lovebirds were showing pictures of the people. They adored there was activation in sections at that. Same mammalian reward and motivation system for example the right ventral mental area. But that's not all a follow up study in two thousand ten looked at what happened to the brains of men and women who had been rejected but reported that they were still deeply in love. It wasn't pretty when heartbroken. Lovers were forced to look at pictures of their exes. There was elevated activity in our old friends. The ventral take mental area and the nucleus accumbens researchers pointed out that the rejected lovers showed several neural correlates in common with the brain activity of cocaine addicts craving their drug so at the level of brain chemistry. Romantic love can be kind of like substance addiction but there are reasons why you might not want to refer to your latest crush as a full on addiction just yet. For example the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders does not officially recognize love addiction and while cravings for love can be devastating when their unrequited or self destructive they can also be deeply fulfilling in a way that no drug habit ever could be.

Sappho New York Academy Of Sciences Journal Of Neurophysiologist Mary
Why Deadhead Logs Are So Rare and Valuable (w/ Kevin OConnor) and Why Traveling Makes You Tired

Curiosity Daily

07:45 min | 3 years ago

Why Deadhead Logs Are So Rare and Valuable (w/ Kevin OConnor) and Why Traveling Makes You Tired

"When you think about buried treasure. You probably don't think about trees ends lumber and yet dead logs are sought after because they could make you rich if you're willing to risk your life for them today to share the story is Kevin O'Connor who set of the Emmy me winning home improvement series this old house. He just wrapped the first season of his new podcast clear story which sheds light on the surprising stories behind our homes and today Kevin joins us with a brief history of dead head logs. Starting with what happened when European colonists I arrived in America hundreds of years ago when when the colonists I got here they were looking for resources and there were abundant resources. It was Virgin growth forest here in this continent Literally a billion acres of this continent of this country covered in trees and for better for worse we harvested them pretty aggressively throughout the seventeen and eighteen hundreds And in the process we took some magnificent supplies eastern white pines signs that were two hundred feet tall straight as an arrow that had been growing for one hundred years and were forty feet around we harvested them in mass those northern northern forests of Minnesota that we ship down the Great Lakes. We clear cut him. We cleaned MINNESOTA. We clear. Cut Him in Maine New Hampshire and in that process because of the era we would cut the trees down in the winter when the ground was frozen and then we get an ox to pull them across a C and snowy paths. Because how else would you move them through the mud and dirt did it. When the ground was slippery yes stack them up on the banks of rivers which were frozen but when the spring came and the snow melted and the rivers rose? You could float the logs from MINNESOTA DOWN TO CHICAGO OR FROM MAINE DOWN TO BOSTON and float him right up to the mills which were along rivers. You'd bring him in chop them up. And it was the heyday of timbering and logging in this this country. And while millions of these things made it from the forest to the mills thousands or hundreds of thousands got stuck along the way and they went to the bottom of Rivers rivers and is a weird thing. That happens when a piece of wood. Big Tree full-size goes to the bottom of a river. It is preserved like like I don't know what in from out of the died a frog and formaldehyde for science there preserved perfectly and they sit there for hundreds of years and now with the virgin forests. All gone all all this Beautiful slow growth timber all gone. There's only one place to get. It gets at the bottom of rivers and their guys who put on snorkel gear scuba gear and they will dive down into black murky rivers. They will literally list risk their lives and we talked to guys who get pinned under logs that way hundreds of pounds or rushed to the hospital because they got bit by poisonous trying to get this stuff but when they get it it's treasure they bring it up and it's beautiful and it could be five hundred or a thousand or two thousand years old and when you slice into it you're the first person to ever use it and see it and it's remarkable so it's rare it's coveted did and if you can find it you can sell it for a whole bunch of Dow because people really really want. Okay so what makes this stuff. So valuable depends on who you ask. I think if you talked to norm Abram who was our master carpenter on a shell legendary carpenter He will tell you it was the beautiful all in unique color of it and also the stability you know if the tree grew for five hundred years in the forest it grew very slowly slowly and we know that means that the rings are closer together which means the rain is tighter and that gives the woods stability and it's very difficult today because things go very fast and we force it and we farm it so he will tell you. It's that unique color the beauty as well as stability. I would argue with them a little a bit. Those things certainly are incredibly important but I think today the most important thing is it has story if you can sit there in your house talking to a guest or friend or even if you had to sell the idea to your spouse and you can point to this thing and say that lumber. I was here when Christopher Columbus showed up it went to the bottom of a river at the heyday of the logging industry. In this country it was was pulled up by a crazy guy a scuba tank and then we sliced through the Cyprus and Carter all the way up here to put it in the floor of this house you got yourself a story and you got yourself just a an invaluable thing. That's what our houses are there. Things that make us feel comfortable. They are the things that we like to show off. There are things that we like to share in that it it just it checks all the boxes right. You're making me really want one. Don't you want one. I could put you into a thousand year old piece of Cypress for eighty bucks a board foot. I'll get back to you on that. That would again. That was Kevin O'Connor his new podcast is called clear story and all ten episodes of the first season are available for you to listen to right now. Find Clear history wherever you listen to podcasts or look for Lincoln. Today's show notes. We got a listener question from Samuel in London. Who Asks? WHAT DO I get super tired after extremely only long car trips or train writes most of the time? I'm just sitting down doing nothing or sleeping but I still always become super tired. Can you please explain. Why Great Question Samuel L. as someone who falls asleep almost immediately on any long trip I definitely know where you're coming from? Samuel there are a lot of elements at play when you travel the can add up to that that sleepy feeling the biggest though is boredom. I mean whether you're in a plane train or automobile. There's not a whole lot to keep you occupied on a long trip. A study study in two thousand seventeen found that the same part of the brain. That's responsible for motivation can also produce sleep so when there's nothing particularly motivating around. We tend to get sleepy. Maybe that part of the brain is called the nucleus accumbens and it's packed with receptors for tiredness triggering molecule called a denizen both caffeine and motivating stimuli stimuli can interfere with these receptors. And keep you from getting sleepy but without either of those. It's a one-way ticket to snooze. Ville studies have also found that the gentle vibrations nations of a vehicle or also. Really good lulling us to sleep. Although scientists aren't really sure why a twenty eighteen study from Australia had people drive in a virtual oh simulator that was set up on a vibration platform. It only took fifteen minutes on a low vibration for the participants to show signs of drowsiness and by thirty minutes in staying alert took significant effort when it comes to staying awake on route the relaxing Of the engine isn't doing you any favors. And of course they're all the little things things on traveled as you probably wake up earlier than normal eat less than nourishing food generally send your normal routines out of whack. You also may be dehydrated whether from recirculated air in a plane or just forgetting to drink water in general and studies suggest that can make you sluggish. So what should you do about it. Honestly take a nap up. But if you'd rather stay alert here are a few things to try. Talk to your travel buddies to keep your mind. Active drink caffeine too full your identity and receptors. Just make sure sure to follow it with lots and lots of water and try your best to eat healthy meals so you don't have a food coma or sugar crash to make things even worse.

Kevin O'connor Minnesota Samuel L. Rivers Rivers Caffeine Emmy Great Lakes America Norm Abram Maine New Hampshire Maine Nucleus Accumbens Boston Chicago Christopher Columbus Cypress Cyprus Lincoln Ville Carter
Addicted To Sugar? This Doctor Says It's 'The New Tobacco'

Here & Now

10:18 min | 3 years ago

Addicted To Sugar? This Doctor Says It's 'The New Tobacco'

"Food there's a teaspoon of sugar and every table spoon of ketchup our next guest says on food is been adulterated poisoned and he's not kidding he says sugar plays a central role in health problems including an epidemic of obesity in infants as young as six months that it's as dangerous as smoking or abuse of alcohol and if you doing The New York Times seven day sugar challenge they say even grapes and bananas have too much sugar Dr Robert listing is professor of pediatric and technology at the university of California San Francisco Dr rod of people no sugar is in health food why is it so dangerous well so people think that sugar is just empty calories and they think well you get some discretionary calories during the day so why can't they be sugar well if sugar we're just calories then they'd be right except they're wrong because different calories in foods are burned and of the absorb digestive metabolized in different ways and do different things and contribute to different diseases so I just want underscore what you said because the rule has always been calories in calories out you've got to burn it off somewhere in the middle and you are saying again that is not true what do sugar calories do right so why are sugar calories so different well they're different for three reasons the first is when sugar is absorbed it goes to the liver and the liver gets overwhelmed because it has a limited capacity to metabolize it just like it has a limited capacity metabolize alcohol just like it has a limited capacity to metabolize many of the toxins that we take in you know because your liver is the detoxification center of your body it has a limited capacity for being able to deal with sugar when you overwhelm it the liver has no choice but to take the access and turn it into a liver fat and that liver fat is the driver of virtually every chronic disease that we are now currently suffering from that's gone up in time so type two diabetes liver problems hypertension cardiovascular disease cancer dementia non alcoholic fatty liver disease poly cystic ovarian disease all being driven by liver fat in the liver fat is because of the ship and so you can basically have alcoholic fatty liver disease if your over twenty one we can of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and it doesn't make a difference because they are identical and so we have done several liver transplants in soda drinkers you know teenagers soda drinkers transplants the insidiousness of sodas and I got a you know this is why I am one of those people I pride myself I don't drink coffee but I picked up a little bit of a soda habit and it's just appalling to think of how well and it's an addiction it's not it's an addiction and you know anybody who says you know I have this horrible sweet tooth that's sugar addiction yeah so sugar is objective in the same way as alcohol in the same way as nicotine cocaine amphetamine heroin shopping gambling social media internet **** all of these stimulate the same area of the brain called the reward center the nucleus accumbens anything that causes the release of dopamine is in the extreme addictive well when you call this the coca Cola conspiracy because you say it's not by accident it's not just that there's a ton of caffeine added to this so it is that makes you then Pete pardon my in elegance they also add salt so the combination makes you thirsty ear so you drink read more exactly so they know what they're doing do you have to put salt in coke there used to be a Cola called royal crown Cola didn't have any salt in it the coca Cola knocked them out of the park but the fact is you don't have to put salt and soda so this is by design well and then fructose was sold to us as more natural sugar it's this is in you know corn and beats and and and such but as you point out one of things I do is I think does which is added to just about everything is stripped the fiber out of it so that has a longer shelf life so it has absolutely none of that benefit and why is from toes as bad as sugar so first of all sugar is two molecules down together glucose and fructose now glucose is not all that bad so great but it's not that bad however fructose because it is metabolized into that liver fat in the liver that's where the problem comes in in addition structures starts the aging reaction it causes what we call caramelization it's the reason for wrinkles is the reason for cataracts this aging reaction this Browning reaction and fructose does it seven times faster than glucose and now we have learned through work done at Joslin diabetes center that truck tows specifically inhibits the mitochondrial enzyme that causes those mitochondria to burn less well which probably is one of the reasons for the persistent weight gain and also chronic disease and the glucose doesn't do that so there are some very specific differences between these two molecules however when you consume any form of sugar whether it's sucrose which is table sugar cane sugar beet sugar the stuff you put your coffee or high fructose corn syrup or honey where maple syrup Oregon eight doesn't matter you are getting one of each molecule and soak sugar is a problem because of the fructose molecules look we we have just a couple minutes left I urge people to watch your lecture but you try a direct line from the state we're in today to the health industry and the government may nineteen eighty two we were told to cut out fats and so everybody went to cards and of course cars are filled with all the sugar that you're talking about and by the way obesity went off when we cut out fats and went to cards you go back to Nixon in the early nineteen seventies who there was a political crisis food was too expensive he directed his agriculture department to cheapen it which they did by adding a lot of these you know corn syrup products you call for hello Sir yeah you called **** toes poison and one would ask why would our own FDA regulated poison well one of our biggest exports is our food of course the food industry pushes back on the your claims in the claims of others but people know what they can see with their own eyes they don't feel well they see their children are overweight a lot of people our age are doing things like The New York Times seven day sugar challenge trying to cut back the first day you know sugar at breakfast how would you help people do this given that it is so addictive and it is so everywhere right so I will be very honest with you we will not solve this problem until the food industry solves it for us and they have no interest in doing so because this is their gravy train this is their job or this is how they went from one percent gross profit margin two five percent gross profit margin in the span of three decades this is their livelihood and they're not gonna do anything they don't have to do and unfortunately the governments in bed with them because they're making fifty six billion dollars a year off export tariffs off our food so the only way we are going to fix this problem is when there are more votes than dollars and right now we're just beginning to you know get some traction in the general public for this issue of food having said that people need to understand what the problem is they don't have to understand the difference between processed food and real food and the difference is processed food is high sugar low fiber hi sugar for palatability low fiber for shelf life real food is low sugar high fiber real food works processed food doesn't process food kills because of these issues and we could repeat could fix this tomorrow if we want to ship the problem is because sugar is addictive people don't want to he one of the saddest things in your lecture is you talk about children who have the serious health issues now that are traced to the juices that they're given and these are low income children the juices come to them to the government wick program exactly right it's going to be tough for you to see those children impossible it's you know breaks your heart you know the fact of matter is these kids are victims and we know who the perpetrators are and the fact is you know the the parents don't understand and so it promulgates itself you know the fact is what mothers eight during pregnancy ultimately impact on the number of fat cells children born wish and those vessels wanna get filled so these kids didn't have a chance even before they were born never mind afterwards I mean how do you blame a six month old for obesity in fact the matter is we have a problem and we have to address it and no one

Obesity