35 Burst results for "Nova"
Cold Frames With Kini Jabbou
"I hope you're writing a book called that we can expect to come out next year. Yes i'm working on. And so i should say. Of course we'll have a book giveaway on with the transcript of the show on to garden dot com of your new book. I don't know how you manage to get this done. In addition to everything else. I don't know honestly but it was really fun to write and sort of revisit the whole season extending as well as you know the many other reasons besides harvey and cold weather So yeah this was a fun project for me for kept me busy. And it really is not against the instruction not just season extending but it's like insect prevention. It's like all of the uses for these sort of barriers and enclosures. And so forth right. And there's a wide range of of gizmos that you have gift moses. An underrated word. I'm going to have to steal that margaret on Yeah for sure. I mean i garden and nova scotia which is dear country as is of course much of the us and canada. And i deal with your every single day. I mean. I would note for a run in my neighborhood yesterday and had to stop. Let four deer walk across the road in front of me And they were probably on their way to my garden But yeah everything from deer and groundhogs two rabbits to cabbage worms and slugs and flea beetles and potato beetles and cucumber beetles. So there are a lot of reasons to consider covers. I think most people automatically go to season extension and protecting from cold weather. But you know. I use them in so many different ways to not only protect my food from pests and cold weather but even grow healthier plants in the end have larger harvest because those plans have been protected. You know and they're able to produce better so there are a lot of reasons to sort of. Consider yourself an undercover gardner right so in the introduction. I also said i was asking questions for friend. Oh yes my friend. Do you know how that is when you ask questions for a friend. What seriously. I actually do have a friend who just felt cold frames and this is his first late fall into winter with them and he actually did ask me the question i said but That is the oldest skies in the book. Have loads of cold frame questions for me to besides the extra extending of the season in the we'll get there. 'cause build a cold frame is actually the number one thing on the top of my 2021 garden to do less because i had an ancient one that succumbed finally kinda fell apart from earlier as the gardener here in a never replaced it. And i'm just jealous especially this last year. You know. i've been jealous of my friends who have renewed. I have my seedlings in the call frame. Oh i'm having solid from the cold front. You know all these little extra goodies so called frame one. Oh one maybe we should start with like what. What is it called frame four like. Why would i check. Because there's all again all these other gizmos in the book to use our new favorite word. Yeah for sure. Well i'm glad you brought up also starting seedlings in the cold frame because most of us. I think at this point thing cold frames or just for harvesting in winter or maybe pushing back spring a little earlier so that you can start planting in march or even late february depending where you live but you know you can use a cold frame for starting seedlings which will then be dug up and transplant it to your garden but you can also use them for overwintering half hardy perennials. Or if you love to force bulbs inside and oftentimes of course many need a cold period you can put them up and put them in a cold frame for a couple of months until that cold period is up so it's not just about growing vegetables. There are many uses for coltrane. So you know if you're into alpine plants or different things like that you can use them to shelter those over winter too so lots of applications but yeah for the most part i do use mine To get a jump start an extra extra early one in spring as well. Let's go later into fall and throat winter we harvest. But you know a cold frame really told. Job is to shelter plants from ice snow winter winds you know. And even though it's a small little gizmo or device you know it really does Taken a lot of solar energy and heats up like today here. It is for reasons like it's minus twenty celsius and. i don't know what that is his parenthood. I just know it's really cold but the temperature my cold fame out there. Now check this morning. It's just above freezing. And i mean that's amazing to me that it's sunny here today and therefore the temperature inside. The frame is just freezing. So that's the whole job of a cold frame to create a micro-climate around your plants and start those seeds earlier and harvest earlier and harvest out of season. So that's the main. I think the way most of us are going is a cold front so in this one one. Maybe we start with where is a good place
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Burning love elvis presley burning for you blue waster coal burning down the house. Talking heads is so good. Set fire to there being adele fire on the mountain marshall tucker band on fire by alicia keys. Oh my goodness soga overweight a minute. Eternal flame the bangles. There's just so so much material here that you can share and if you need some audio adrenaline you can find the complete playlist on spotify by searching for the nova now hype anthology on that note. Stay safe state. Groovy stay motivated. Everyone and having fantastic new nova now is a production of gbh npr rex. It's produced by ian costs. Are daniel johnson gonzales. Isabel hibbert christina. Monon in sandra lopez julia corden. Krishnan are the clogs active producers of nova dante grades director of audience development. Sukey bennett senior digital editor. Robin kashmiris science editor m. Uk's research intern and nina. Zucchinis managing producer of podcasts. Gbh our theme music is by the dj who lights up my mess. Olympic pathway dj kid. Koala and i'm a low patel. Thank you for joining us for season. One of the novell podcast. Hopefully you've learned something and it'll come into play the next time you think about genetic engineering feeding growing population political pollsters. If mail in voting is safe what happens in welfare smoke. How judges handle science in the courtroom. Why you jump at horror movies how we're going to ship nineteen vaccines all over the country. Our dependency on satellites or how exactly your neurotransmitters are going to handle. Twenty twenty one which is going to be a much better year scientists everywhere and it will be along for the ride. Catch you ex..
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Some heavy metal stuff either. Beethoven or mozart. i love classics. Yeah we've got your classics. I quite like the rookie song about they. Just put it on. It's like the tiger song..
Interview With Dan Westergren
"I was recently exchanging emails with today's guest. A bad he's premium membership and it turns out he has a love of sauk cling lock. Do he used to rice and he even spent time in south australia from the us. I while on assignment for white for national geographic now is picked up and i poked a few more questions by any told me on the nat geo and commercial travel photographer stock at home trying to decide how to make money with that getting on an airplane right now putting my towards commercial real estate architectural things but honestly don't know what's going to work out a cape listening to the podcast about facebook marketing for portraits etc thinking. Maybe that's the way to go. We exchange and other email to and i post a few questions and he said for more than twenty years. I was director of photography for national geographic. Travel up magazine. I had an editor who let me find the graph. A couple of stories a year usually adventure top stories and i was lucky enough to photograph stories to the magazine. Such as climbing mont blanc the matterhorn and skiing to the north pole now following that exchange. I invited him on for this recording. I'm talking about dan west to grin and i'm wrapped to having this now. Dan welcome andrew so good to talk to you. Do you still pinch yourself when you hear an intra liked about the things that you've done in the past. I do i do. It's it's kind of funny. It's a hard act. Live up to for many many years. I would tell my photographer friends who seemed to have up and down lives. You know the freelance yoyo. And i would joke to them. Well you know. I'm addicted to my paycheck. And i have the chance to send you guys out into the field my editor lets me go out every now and then you know. This is working pretty well. Well you know the media marketplace changes and so now here. I am not working on the staff at national geographic anymore doing some projects for them but just trying to figure out how to make this thing happen as a photographer. Yeah the tables have really turned. I think not only for youtha for all of us. Haven't i this year. Oh yeah yeah. I mean and it's a double whammy with a travel photographer because i don't even of course you can imagine after all those years. I have this huge rolodex of all these photo editors of magazines and things like this but nobody even pays money for magazines to take pictures anymore. It's like the rug was pulled out from under my profession. The one savior for me. The last few years has been you could either call it native advertising or content marketing or partnership projects. That's the kind of things like last year. I got to go to canada. Three times for national geographic. To do ten day long stories about places and so i did prince edward island nova scotia new brunswick last year and british columbia and those were my favorite Trips to take. Because i will talk to my producer at national geographic since i had a background in doing the photo editing. At national geographic. The photo editors really acted like a regular editor at most magazines. If we thought that a story was not sufficiently visual we would tell people. We didn't think we should do the story. And a lot of magazines. The phone will editors are just kind of in their corner in somebody throws them a manuscript is air pictures to go with this so when they tell me okay we wanna to do an online piece about adventures in new brunswick ten adventures in new brunswick will then i get to study new brunswick i pull out a map i get defined tended ventures. I contact all the people that i think might lead me to those adventures and then make pictures that i hope people find interesting and then when we get back in my case usually i sit down and they know that i've chosen the photo subjects with story line and so they don't even send a writer. They have a friend of mine. Who i get on the phone marielle. And is her name. And she sorta ghosts rights for me. And i just tell her what my experience was like and why i went to particular plex. And that's just that's what i love about. It all is to do the research into a place and then actually go take those pictures myself in sounds amazing and said the way you described this right now the role you had. Oh have you familiar with the movie. The secret life of walter. Mitty of course. Yes you the walter. Meeting is at your role in national geographic traveler. It was a little bit different because he was more had a role that we would call film review which were the people that actually got to look at the pictures. I didn't have a big role in putting the magazine together. So you know that was kind of funny. It was interesting that i love that movie. You know he got to go out into the field. And i've just i've seen that movie so many times i was watching it and my kids. My son is twenty two. My daughter's twenty five and they're really into music and david bowie died. We had to listen to all the versions of space. Oddity that we could find.
New Covid vaccine starts late-stage trial in the U.S.
"Novavax, now the fifth company to commence its third try a third phase Corona virus vaccine trial in the U. S. Nova backs, saying that its tests are being financed with up to $1.6 billion from Operation Warp speed. Fizer and Madonna's vaccine candidates have already received the emergency use approval from the FDA. AstraZeneca and Johnson and Johnson also approaching the end of their late stage trials
Navalny releases recording of call to his alleged poisoner
"Allegedly involved in the attempt to kill Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny has apparently confessed to his role in the plot. NPR's Rob Schmitz reports, Navalny has posted the audio of a phone call with an alleged operative who is seemingly duped into thinking he was talking to an aide with Russia's Security Council. Recording has not been independently verified, innit Navalny posing as the fictional aid prodded the operative for details of the operation, demanding to know what went wrong. Alleged operative, in turn, confirmed the FSB was behind the poisoning and said his colleagues had applied the Soviet era nerve agent Nova shock to the inner seems of Navalny's boxer shorts while he was staying at a hotel in Siberia. Two days later, Navalny war the poisoned underwear and later collapsed on an airplane before being taken to Germany for treatment where he's still recuperating. Rob
What's Happening In The UK's Mental Health Wards Right Now?
"Today. We're going to be trusting to john. Barry waldren is a staff nurse at some time trees. Healthcare and the host of the podcast. This is actually the second time we've been chatting to him. We had shot to him back in september last year. If you want to listen to that original one it's called working in a mental health facility. So today we're going to be talking to him about what life is like in a secure psychiatric hospital during the pandemic the patients and stuff. You've been before but for those listeners. You didn't hit last episode. Could you start by telling us about your work. What you d please. Yes so. I was this time last year. Which seems like a long time ago but i'm by memento health nurse. I work in a secure mental health facility looking off. The patients have been sectioned. And i've been lucky enough to be involved in a podcast that features then patients and the stall on the story. The whole idea of the podcast is to try and reduce the stigma around mental illness particularly men with hospitals. So i think there's a lot of of misapprehensions and confusion of what happens in these places and people tend to focus on the kind of the hollywood hollywood version of what the faces a lot. Robin reality of them is so. Can you tell us a bit about what it's been like in those until this past year i've might from the start Gung three to the lockdowns and now sort of looking voted the next year well I think it's been tough like tough for everyone but particularly knows what was. I think we're now in the second. Look down on me. Personnel found the second. One way harder i think the first one we of really what we were gonna get inform. People didn't really know what was going to happen but this one we knew what was going to happen has been incredibly tough. So how's it affected patients. Because i think people might assume that if people weren't hospital denied it it might not necessarily be kind of affected by the pandemic. But can you tell us a bit about how they have been what i suppose we had kind of two facets of the immediate one really overseas looking off the wellbeing of the patients that physical health. So you know. Everybody has to wear malls because we had a look off to the physical wellbeing of the patients. You don't want the gaining tibet involvement. And i was very lucky. I war that there was no patients directly affected card but we were affected by the measures. The lockdown and its patients can leave But i think probably the two main aspects of the first aspect we had was we do have a lot patients that have Delusions and sometimes they're paranoid nova see if they see installed coming burn. Mosques can be quite scary and quite doing it for though i mean. It's scary in doing for us seeing someone with a moscow initially So the people that may be all struggling with a mental health. It could be worse. I realized myself how. How often i use my show expressions to kind of one thinking and you can't do that in a mosque and it's really really tough. And so that was that was really hard for the patients trying to cross that kind of aspect of it. And obviously i'd say. The secondary aspect was the lockdown measures. So law of patience. They used to have leave. You know these out to town visits a lot and during the first lockdown that will stop and that was really difficult. Yeah i'm sure Because when you're in a unit you do really rely on may be seeing parents or friends foes into kind of keep going. Don't you absolutely. I mean typically all patients. Sometimes i might be quite far away from where they original hermes and then like maybe once a month maybe once every couple of months and to have that taken away that that's really hard obviously we can still use video links and phone calls on things but it. It's still quite saying. See the person in real life. How's it been in terms of things like bed that sorry econo- shoe member if it's a is it a private hospital or a through pass the yes it is yes. So it's like a charity hospital. You have the Most of the patients in may be in patients. Yeah yeah i think. I mean plus. I've this whole thing i've been reading quite worried about Sort of the long term effect on people's mental health. But also just as it's been going on whether people have been able to to get into units house. Have you had any sort of by dave. That's all od. Just sort of. Have your sets number changed. I literally just read some interesting stuff about this yesterday. And i think admissions to mental health units things will actually be reduced over the the pandemic think they done some research where they found that people In the stolen so many initially happening people tend not to Who have a boost sometime in the mental health. But i think before and after it is where. We're really gonna see fakes. So i mean we were very lucky in terms of all admissions. Everything slow down a bit. Really because i guess What you call it. Mental health workers going to see patients megawatts. You'll maybe people weren't being referred much as much the emissions actually reduced so we were lucky in that case. But i think we're gonna see it now. I think now particularly when we're gonna see the surge if you like in people having these forums.
Russian opposition leader Alexey Navalny dupes spy into revealing how he was poisoned - CNN
"Russian spy unwittingly revealed how Russian agents nearly killed opposition leader Alexei Navalny back in August when they placed the lethal nerve agent Nova shock inside Navalny's underpants. Even stranger. The spy disclosed that detail to navalny himself who was Impersonating a high ranking Russian official on the phone. CNN's Cloris Award broke this story in collaboration with the investigative outlet Belling Cat and Dirt Spiegel, and she joins us via Skype. Claressa welcome. Thank you so much for having me on Peter, and let's start with a little more context. Here. Back in August, Navalny was flying to Moscow from the city of Tomsk when he became very ill on the airplane, And here he is recounting that moment. To you. Let's listen. I get out of this bus room tone over to the flight attendant and said him I was poisoned. I'm gonna dive and then then I lay down under his feet in tow to die. So the pilot then diverted the plane to the Russian city of Omsk Navalny survived. He's now in Germany. But tell us what you learned about the days and hours leading up to that moment on the airplane. I mean, you know, it's just been extraordinary to get this kind of insight into how an elite team of FSB Russian State Security service operatives With a specialty in chemical weapons, many of them doctors, scientists operating out of the UN remarkable Moscow suburb were able to essentially trail Navalny's every move for more than three years. Then, as you said in August, Navalny became very sick on the way back from Tomsk on this flight, and the Germans once he was able to be transported to Germany confirmed that he had been poisoned with not be chock. We now know that that Na'vi chalk was planted. In Navalny's underpants If you can believe that, Wow, What is that? Details say to you. So we spoke to a lot of experts about this to try toe understand it better both from the point of view of understanding whether the intention was to kill or possibly just incapacitate. And by the way, all of them agree. You can only really be looking to kill when you're using Na'vi chalk outside of a laboratory. But also to get a better sense of why would they put Nova Chuck in the underpants? And particularly this one operative describes in this now famous phone call to Alexei Navalny were Navalny was posing as a senior national security aide conducting an investigation into the operation. He tells him. Listen, we put it on the underwear on the inside seems of the crotch area and experts Have told us that the groin area is particularly porous, particularly susceptible. This kind of poisoning, So they certainly knew what they were doing it as you say It was navalny himself, who was able to coax these details out of this agent who was a part of this toxins team. Why didn't have only do that? How did Navalny do that? So when I was in Moscow last week with my team, we all set about trying to confront some of the people that through this investigation with Belling cat we have been able to identify as part of this FSB toxins team. Then they landed on this idea of pretending to be someone high up within the Russian hierarchy, and they were able to disguise Phone number they were using to make it look like they were calling from an FSB landline. And if you listen to the conversation, it's it's something like 45 minutes long. It does take a while to persuade this operative his name is constant included. It's if he graduated from the Russian Academy of Chemical Defense. It does take him a while to be persuaded that it's OK for him to have this conversation on an open line. With navalny, But once he starts talking boy, does he start talking? Well. Vladimir Putin himself has said that if his agents wanted to kill navalny, they would have done it. So what do you make of that reaction in Russia? About how high up this operation went in the government? Well, I mean, this puts the Kremlin in an extraordinarily embarrassing and uncomfortable position because just last week, President Putin, responding to our reporting, said, What's the big deal? So what the FSB were following Navalny? That's normal because he works with us intelligence services. That doesn't mean they poisoned him. Well, fast forward just a few days, And here we are with concrete evidence that in fact, that team of operatives who were following him did poison him. And so how on earth does the Kremlin go about wriggling out of this one, Essentially I will say that unlike last week where it was much more silent, and the Russian media and people weren't really talking about it, perhaps because they were fearful this time, people are starting to talk about it. We've already seen Russian journalist trying to go to the address off. This could threats at this operative who unwittingly confessed to Alexei Navalny. And I think it's going to be very difficult for the Russian government to put this genie back in the bottle. Just briefly, Claressa. It is amazing to see you sitting there in front of Alexei Navalny, who had gone through such a tremendously traumatic ordeal on this airplane getting poison. He's been a thorn in the side of Vladimir Putin for many years. It's amazing that he's still alive. How is his health? How's he doing? He has made nothing short of a miraculous recovery, and all of his doctors say the same thing. What is even more extraordinary is that Alexei Navalny is still planning to go back to Russia. He says. He's a Russian politician. He belongs in Russia, and he would never give Putin such a gift, he
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Greetings earthlings who are so tired of being stuck at home and hearing the same political headlines over and over again. Let's switch it all up and talk about space history-making link-up up in orbit as the spacex crew in the dragon today. The first round of us space force enlists tease graduated right here in san antonio and there's a piece of technology we all rely on that's really shifted how both explore and exploit space. Iran's revolutionary guard says the country is now able to coax monitor the world from space. The world's first six g experiments satellite into south korea's first military communications satellite was launched into space in california people. Living near vandenberg air force base for warn today about sonic booms. This falcon nine rocket carrying a satellite into orbit. The will monitor sea level. What's working in stop by. Satellites extremely complex packages of engineering that gives us almost limitless benefits like watching tv tracking the weather finding our way home making calls around the world exploring outer space the basically deserving really big. Thank you for making our sheltered in place lives manageable there about six thousand satellites orbiting earth right now and of those nearly half are still operational just this year humankind has launched hundreds of satellites with flags from every continent except on kartika. Maybe that'll change. I don't know what's up penguins and we even have more than a dozen orbiting mars mars so straight up. We need to give you the dish on satellites. Get it unfunny but for real. They're an integral part of our modern world and help us understand our planet and ourselves. We explore all the celestial far out science behind the headlines in this astronomical body we call planet earth. i'm look patel. Hey folks aloke here. I have a favor if you liked the show or even if you hate it we want to hear from you all of you. We've put together a very short survey. I'm talking five minutes tops to get to know all of you. Better tell us how we can improve go to w. g. b. h. dot org slash nova now survey. It's quick. i promise if not feel free to send me an angry message. That's w. g. b. h. dot org slash novell and science. Thanks all of you for listening seriously. I'm raising a glass to you. Do you often hear the statement will. Humans are big enough or powerful enough to affect something like uris atmosphere horror the land surface and yet you can look at the record and see that transition occurring through land use and urban ization and so forth. Jeffrey jey masic goes by. Jeff is a project scientist for lance at nine at nasa's goddard space flight center. I think when we look at that we realize that we're a lot more powerful than we think. We are in our ability to change the environment. The lancet program a collaboration between the us geological survey and nasa. You're nineteen seventy. Two satellite was launched. Which will help to manage. World agriculture lansac beginning with land sat one the programs launch a total of eight satellite since the early seventies providing the longest continuous space-based record of the surface of the earth. We acquire imagery of all yours land and coastal areas every eight days. So we've assembled this long record of how the planet has changed and that's designed to support land management decisions by governments state local national level and individuals as well so we have five decades of information and knowledge about our planet from outer space. Can you tell us a little bit about what we've learned about our lovely blue planet from space in general what we've seen just graphically as dynamic. The planet is in response to human activities. When you grow up in an area you know your neighborhood for example. You don't really notice the changes that occur for years and decades scientists kind of almost seems constant. But when you run the movie in fast motion suddenly see all of these changes and urbanization and the changes in forest management. And all of that right. I mean we see areas where agriculture suddenly goes in irradiated agriculture into desert environments for example. And then we see it fade away again We see areas that convert from forest to soybean fields big areas in south america. I think one of the recent real big accomplishments of the program has been looking at ice sheet of velocity tracking so when you look at antarctica or greenland and how they're changing response to climate warming with lance at data. You're basically able to track features on the surface and and creative of lawsti map. The ice sheets and people are doing that year. In your out. Now which is pretty fascinating. Okay so speaking of all these lands at images. I'm gonna look at them in real time. I'm on climate dot nasa dot gov. I'm going to compare land images of greenland glaciers from nine hundred seventy two two thousand and nineteen here. We go.
Should you be worried about allergic reactions to the Pfizer vaccine?
"So now let's talk about vaccines today. And i want to talk to you about a couple of different vaccines. But let's start in the uk where thousands of people in the last couple of days have received the fifa vaccine which is really exciting. But one of the things that we've heard about. Is that a couple of people have had an anaphylactic like reaction. So how worried should we be about that. People have been discussing this risk with the peiser vaccine because it uses a substance code peg polyethylene glycol mackerel goal and what this substance does in vaccine and a couple of vaccines that use it. I think the one of the meningitis vaccines may goco vaccines use. It is kind of out the components in the vaccine and enhances the immune response so essentially what you've got. Is you want the strongest immune response that you can possibly get here and the probably ethylene glycol helps that to happen. So that's what that's about so it does rarely 'cause Reactions interestingly as pfizer says the didn't get an to or allergic responses anymore in the placebo in the anymore in the active group than the placebo group in the trial but these people certainly sound as if they got an nf electric or type reaction within a short time. After the you'd have to say was the pfizer vaccine. That did it. So you're saying that they did have some reports of these sorts of reactions during the trial but they didn't think it was caused by the vaccine. Yes and theoretic and people knew there was a theoretical risk of that because peg is known to cause an actual reactions in some people rarely. It's also used as a laxative. It's seems like a very versatile substance knows how to job well while we're talking about allergic reactions. Can we talk a bit about egg allergies and why we still hear that. If you've got an egg allergy that maybe might not have certain types of vaccine misleading story. That's got into the general public where they believe that if eggs have been used in the manufacture of vaccine. And you're allergic. You're going to get an egg allergy. It's not the egg itself. It's the embryo within the egg that they use embryonic cells within the egg that they use to actually make the vaccine. Influenza vaccine is the one which commonly uses eggs to culture the vaccine and it doesn't contain the york. Can we basically contains little or no egg allergen so it is a bit of a myth. So vaccine allergies are actually extremely rare. I mean some people argue that it's one in one point four million dollars what. Gp's are advised as you got a very egg allergy child them with a vaccine that uses egg. Then you just keep them in the surgery for a little bit longer just to make sure they're okay but a lot of these vaccines are being developed for. Covid have eggs anywhere in the process using all sorts of different new processes. The nova vaccine uses insect cells to produce the vaccine so lots of different selves used quickly. Talk also about china's vaccine which came out really quickly and they were reporting quite promising results. But there's been some news reports in a taiwanese news outlet saying that. Forty-seven people in uganda had the vaccine. Have now tested positive for coronavirus. How much stead should be placed on this news. Report a runabout about zero. We'd be my esteem you know. It's a newspaper. Report might be true. Might not be true. Might be misleading. That could have been part of a trial could have been in the placebo arm of the trial who knows and is complicated by the fact that no doubt taiwanese taiwanese media just love any story which knocks the chinese technological supremacy off the pedestal. So you just take all that with a pinch of salt. It may be true. But i'm really what we've to do. Chinese not done themselves a favor by not doing transparent trials at least yet and so we just don't know what's going on there and that sort of darkness stories like this popout and it. Just don't do the chinese any favors because the chinese are pretty good. Researchers of are some clouds hanging over some of their vaccine manufacturers allegations of fraud in the past. Well
DoorDash now indicated to open about 70% above IPO price in NYSE debut
"Slices of the restaurant delivery company door Dash start trading on stock markets for the first time. Ticker symbol Dash Tomorrow. It's the debut of ticker symbol a BNB. You got it. His pandemic, the best time to launch a new stock. Many companies this year certainly thought so. Marketplaces nervous. A foe has some details. Just last week door, Dash said its target price per share at 92 $95 so debuting above that amount shows just how much investor appetite there has been this year for initial public offerings. They've raised a record amount somewhere in the 142 $150 billion range Doordash, certainly adding to that total, which is all the more remarkable because it's not yet profitable, and still, investors are valuing the company at around $39 billion. What's the equation here? Nova Tech stocks are doing well. So initials stock offerings should do well. Well, markets are hitting all time highs. Interest rates are New Year zero and investors they're looking for returns. IPO's are attractive. The average one week we turned this year for I pose. David has been 25%. And look at the notable debuts. We have door dash, which has seen business skyrocket during the pandemic. In September. We had talent era's yet unprofitable. The defense software contractor debuted at $10 a share. It's stock has nearly tripled in price. Since then. Now it has a market cap of nearly $50 billion, and tomorrow we do have Airbnb, which did we turn a profit in the third quarter, Thanks to cost cutting and focusing on long term stays. It's expecting evaluation around 42 billion All right door dash, not trading as yet quite but it'll started $102 a share. Right now, the
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Those people who were at greatest risk. There are a lot of disparities in this country's inequities in diagnosis. So people in communities of color have substantial underdiagnosis and differential underdiagnosis of their abilities. So there's a risk that we miss doors who fall in a phase one b or phase two of the priority So schemes etcetera. I'm glad you brought up the issue of inequity. You know this better than most. We have seen inequity when it comes to access to care. preventative care. Health literacy being able to get health insurance and we're seeing it kinda glares ugly face during this pandemic when we look at which communities are hit harder than others. Do you think we're gonna be able to solve this four vaccine distribution. Do you think we're going to be able to bridge the gap and make sure that everyone has equal access or are you skeptical. My nightmare is that we may end up. Worsening the inequity in protection If you don't make a an active active effort for example nursing homes that get the vaccine early versus late. It could be different if you don't make an effort by socioeconomic status society has decided that it is an acceptable that our fellow citizens i deprived of lifesaving vaccines just because where they live. And what their demographic background is whether they live in urban pharmacy desert to be identified that concept that in the context of flu vaccine just like their food deserts we have pharmacy. Deserts and maxine desserts where accessibility is worse and these are not just urban communities their native american reservations but also other rural communities that cetera that have access issues and one thing is part of the national academies report. We recommended is that within each priority group. You make sure that you use this social vulnerability index which is a cdc index. It has approximately fourteen variables such as proportion elderly transportation access income race ethnicity. It's extra and other variables that put you at risk. So you calculate that and you make sure if you're a health.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Campaign of this is because even though pfizer is handling the distribution of all these vaccination kits it will ultimately fall to those local agencies to enlist and train the actual healthcare providers who will be getting needles into arms. This takes time and these providers have to be vetted they have to be trained and we wanna make sure we get all of this right. Claire raised one other concern specific to the pfizer biontech vaccine. The packaging is nine hundred. Seventy five doses. And if. you're doing the math earlier. Which i know you all were. The thermal shipper comes with at least one hundred and ninety five vials and each vial. Deluded five doses third grade math. That's how we get to nine hundred and seventy-five that really presents challenges for rural communities and smaller providers because they don't have that volume of being able to store that many doses and they don't have that patient population of that many people getting the vaccine that means you'd have to split a single kit among multiple healthcare providers while still keeping all those vials at the right temperature. And now you're looking at really cold chain challenges and you've got to meticulously manage that so that's the pfizer vaccine really challenging logistically onto moderna then the modern vaccine is a little more simple it ships frozen roughly the same temperature as your home freezer Ship with dry ice so so that's much easier there and once you've thought out it's viable for thirty days so you have a longer window to use it long story short. The moderna vaccine is more stable than the pfizer version. Plus the maxine does not have to be diluted and then it comes in packaging of one hundred dose vials. so it's a little bit more manageable. You can spread out across geographic areas a little easier to smaller providers to pharmacies where they would have the storage capacity regular freezer to store it and they'd be able to use it in that thirty day window if we look ahead. Now to some of the other vaccine candidates out there from companies like astra zeneca johnson and johnson or cancino biologics. Many of those could be even easier to distribute and deliver because they use a totally different technology instead of directly injecting. You aren a these vaccines use a delivery tool known as a viral vector to safely introduce genetic blueprint into your cells. Let's take the astrazeneca vaccine for example it can be shipped out at refrigerator temperature. And it's way cheaper than the madeira adviser vaccines. So it's good to see that's progressing as well but we don't have a lot of details on it because we're really focused on the ones that are likely to come out sooner in the next couple of weeks or so. In fact astra zeneca has faced some really tough questions about the data reported last month which could ultimately delay its approval so for now the pfizer moderna vaccine are leading the pack here in the us. Both of already applied for emergency use authorization from the fda which brings us to another important question who gets vaccinated burst. The added complexity of this program is that we have a nuanced variety scheme. Dr saad omer is the director of the yale institute for global health in terms of my own research. I'm an infectious disease. Epidemiologist with a specific focus on vaccines which is why when the national academies of sciences engineering and medicine created those guidelines for distributing the cove in nineteen vaccine. Saad was part of the committee. There were epidemiologists vaccinators Economists communication experts by esus etc together. They created a plan that works in phases. Phase one is healthcare workers and first responders phase one b is people with really high impact. Go mobility's folks. Living in nursing homes comber could mean cancer hypertension heart disease kidney disease severe obesity. Anything that put someone at a greater risk of severe complications from the virus. So the strategy is designed. And i'm also part of the. Who committee that created the roadmap for the rest of the world as well and the the idea is the same goal for directly after modality before transmission in other words focus first on the people who are most likely to die from the virus rather than the people who are most likely to spread the virus then gradually widened that circle so phase two will include teachers childcare providers and other essential workers as well as older adults and people living in prisons group homes or shelters and finally base three and four will open up the vaccine program all remaining adults and children and it's important to note the vaccine will be free all americans terms conditions may apply please your local provider for more additional details. It all depends on how things go but we really hope it will be free. I can't believe i did that. One take and then as vaccine does is become available. You start building a enough number of vaccines that you are starting to interrupt transmission. This is how we achieved the fabled legendary herd immunity when enough people have been vaccinated that the virus can no longer spread so if this approach is followed. You may see a reduction in debts well before reduction.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"I just kind of want to start with a bird's eye view of what's happening right now. We are talking so much about the trio pfizer moderna astra zeneca and the real challenges of trying to rapidly. Vaccinate of people has us ever seen or done anything like this before. Certainly not in my lifetime today as the production of cove nineteen vaccines finally kicking into high gear. We're talking with to experts about the challenges ahead. Nobody is vaccinated. So it's like a sports car. I like you have to go sixty in in a few seconds. Some people are calling this the greatest public health effort of our generation. So now i've never seen anything anything like this coming up. We'll talk cold-storage pharmacy. Desert's conspiracy theories hotlines. And why no you cannot ditch the mass and start partying quite yet. This is nova now where it's our job to give the news. A little booster shot science every couple of weeks. I'm look patel. Hey folks aloke here. I have a favor if you liked the show or even if you hate it we want to hear from you all of you. We've put together a very short survey. I'm talking five minutes tops to get to know all of you. Better tell us how we can improve go to w. g. b. h. dot org slash nova now survey. It's quick. I promise if it's not feel free to send me an angry message. That's w. g. b. h. dot org slash nova nell and science. Thanks all of you for listening seriously. I'm raising glass to you. I want to start by talking through three of the most promising vaccine candidates in the order that they're likely to roll out. Yeah so. I can talk about pfizer and the moderna vaccine is because we've really been focused on them and i know a little bit about astra zeneca which might be coming a little later. Clear hannan is the executive director of the association of immunization managers or aim there a nonprofit that helps to share information among state and local health officials who are on the frontlines of vaccination efforts in the us. Our members are all throughout the country. Working on amion ization and they don't necessarily know how others are getting through these challenges so we connect the dots for them now. The two vaccine candidates we've been hearing about from pfizer biontech and moderna maybe battling each other for news headlines but actually they have a lot in common. They both use the same basic technology. It's a messenger. Aren a platform so the concept is the same. Basically each vaccine contains a biological code in the form of an rn. A molecule that molecule is a blueprint for building a piece of the corona virus. One of the little spikes that sticks off of it and this should teach your immune system how to recognize and defend against the real virus. If it ever gets in your body tell me. That is an awesome. They both require two doses. The schedule of that double dose is pretty similar as well The pfizer is twenty one days apart. The moderna is twenty eight days. Apart and based on early data they both seem to be about ninety five percent effective which is really good better than the vaccine developers were expecting. Actually where they differ is really in the storage and handling which complicates the logistics so the pfizer vaccine requires ultra cold storage minus seventy degrees celsius a concept that you know most of us have never even thought of or contemplated. I'm one of those. Yeah right by the way minus seventy celsius four fahrenheit. The reason the vaccine has to be kept so cold is that china is inherently unstable and it breaks down quickly at room temperature or even in a refrigerator. it's only a stable at refrigerator. Temperatures for five days so once we get it thawed. It's got to be used in the five days. And when you go to administer it has to be mixed. It has to be diluted So that's that's really important to consider too. It's not something we haven't done before but it's not something generally we do with vaccines okay. Wow so given the complexity involved and the fact that this vaccine could be shipping out this month. I think it's time what the cool kids call a proper unboxing. It's the new day nuclear asian boxing every single. Hey subscribers today we'll be unboxing visor and biotechs brand. New amarnath based vaccine candidate b. n. t. wants to be to unboxing is complete without sound of things The tinkling sound a vaccine haji a hospital or provider. They're getting the pfizer vaccine would actually get three. Different shipments three boxes even better. Okay claire lay it on me so they would get what's called a thermal shipper box. It has what they call a pizza trae. In with the hundred and ninety five vials. On top of that pizza trae is the dry ice to keep the vials super cold and in the top part of the box. There's a digital data logger. So they're going to open the box. They're going to check the digital data. Logger make sure that you know. The cold chain has been maintained meaning. The vaccine never got above minus ninety four degrees fahrenheit during its journey. Okay on fox number two there separately gonna get a box that comes with the supplies for vaccinated. They will get the pp syringes all the supplies. They need to do. The vaccinating with the fis are vaccine. They're going to get a third box which comes with the gloves to take out the dry ice to handle the dry ice. I love that sound and they will get the dilution kit as well so to dilute the vaccine. They get a large syringe that they mix it in they pull the vaccine out and the dilution out. And they're supposed to not shake it but stir it and then from that they're gonna draw into five syringes. The actual doses. So it's quite a lengthy checklist. Actually of what what. They're getting just hearing you describe. What's in the box. Intimidated me if i were to get that box right now and look at it and now you know why we can't just ship these boxes with Instruction flyer in it we. We actually need to train people And we need to have a hotline so that they can call and you know they don't just leave the vaccine sitting out on the dock because They can't figure out the instructions and for claire and many others. This is a real point of concern especially given how much money the us government has spent on developing a number of coronavirus vaccines invested ten billion dollars in the production of this vaccine. And there's only been three hundred forty million spread to state and local public health agencies. This is not enough for.
Tu-whit tu-Whoo might be buying Wondery?
"Will wonder is new owner. The amazon the wall street journal in gadget report that talks going on valuing wandering around three hundred million dollars. It might all fall apart. Both apple and sony looked into buying the company last month the released version. Two point one of their podcast measurement technical guidelines for public comment. There's no change log so we've made one for you. There's some recommendations of user agent structure apple watch and a statement about ip version six. Brian bar letter from an ad tech newsletter sounds profitable is disappointed telling us at the press release absolutely overstates the promise of client confirmed ad plays ultimately fall short on all of its other goals spotify as large twenty twenty wraps for podcasters with a personal. Look at the data your podcast. You'll find it linked from the spotify for podcasters dashboard. Steve wilson has left apple podcasts to joined los angeles podcast network q code as chief strategy officer. Poltrak has published top. Us publishers for november. Iheart radio is still number. One wondering has jumped from sixth to fourth and incomplete rancor it measures participating publishes only congratulations to jim collison. Who celebrates ten years of home gadget geeks. Today there's a special live show tonight at nine pm eastern anchor powered more than one million show launches in two thousand and twenty. According to the verge spotify says anchor shows account for more consumption in terms of time spent listening than any other third party podcast hosting or distribution provider on its platform. Well specifies made a big jump in. Us app store charts over the past few days. Joe rogan became an exclusive show this week but it also coincides with the release of year in review. An algorithm can highly viral products. That is all to brag about. Excellent music taste. Spotify made a similar jump in app store rankings. Last year when they released here reviews well anyway. Investors liked what they saw all the stock jumped by twelve point six percent yesterday. Metronome is a new landing page for podcasts. Willing to an example today. Thomas g martin was a private investigator has investigated podcast booking agencies and things. They're all rubbish in response. Somebody called designed by creatives reckons. That thomas's article is nonsense. We don't have a horse in this race. Although a bit bored of the automated emails from people wanting to be a guest on this podcast. Which is you can notice. Doesn't do guests on the seventeen bucks a month plan which is always plan. Everyone gets private feeds. Everyone gets two hundred and fifty subscribers private subscribers. That's captivates mark. Asquith in portland. A new weekly podcast about the world of podcasting. Which don't today with some sethi and with me you'll find pod land in all of your regular podcast apps probably and in australia. Rupert murdoch's news corp has teamed up with lachlan murdoch's nova entertainment to produce a set of daily news headlines. Podcasts called news feeds editions for new south wales queensland south australia and victoria or you know the murdoch's control of the media is one concern of the media diversity inquiry so there's that to
A Special Breathwork Session To Help You Sleep
"What's up action trade. Ag year host and founder. Of my seven jukka. My seven chucker dot com. The place where we help you calm your mind. Relax you nova system and expedience. Deep states of bliss andres episode. I wanted to give you a glimpse into war responsible through work as many of you know. I conduct breath work healing circles on zoom every week on sunday mornings and wednesday evenings in these sessions have really been helpful in helping people cope with what's going on in the word right now but also reduce stress to calm their minds relaxed inova system and open up more possibility but there are so many more of you out there that can potentially benefit from these sessions but maybe a wondering waters breath work and whether breath for israeli as effective as people say it is right. That's why today we're going to do a breath work session with the music with the breadth with me guiding you through the process. But before that. I wanted to quickly talk about what breath work does for your body and a device that has recently caught my attention lately. There is helping me switch off my negative stress. And then we'll begin our session together all right so firstly stress. Activates your fight or flight. Sympathetic response leaves you feeling distracted overwhelmed and makes it difficult for you to get sleep. Stress also plays a key role in our evaluation sometimes especially to run away from a predator or to solve it challenging problem. You need the energy to make it happen. That's when your heart rate increases your cortisol levels rise and your blood shoots to your limbs but this is like stepping on your gas pedal of your car and it's not really sustainable because you need to at some point switch off your stress and start relaxing so their energy can be used for other functions like digestion and sleep and creativity when that switch off does not take place. Your body is constantly releasing stress. Hormones like cortisol making your breathing shallow and fast and sending your heart rates up and your heart rate variability down. What does hundred variability h. r. e. which is most reliable invasive biometric of stress measures the balance between your batta sympathetic rest and digest nova system. And you're sympathetic. Which is your fight and flight branch of your nervous system. A high heart rate variability gender lee indicates a strong guardia vascular system and low levels of stress being in a constant state of fight or flight makes it physiologically harder to focus harder to meditate. Relax sleep or even exercise because your body and your mind think that you are under threat and needs to be escaping danger and not sleeping not focusing on your work now like i said this does of abyss. But when it's left unchecked this chronic stress increases your risk of developing insomnia anxiety depression and chronic been and this in general makes you feel tired. Sluggish unhappy of causes. You've been and might even lead to some kind of illness. now breads workout. You switch off your negative stress and switch on your rest and relax branch off your system. And i'm going to show you exactly how to do that today. Now on top of that. I'm always on the lookout for other ways other devices. That will help us do the same so we can amplify this process of relaxation now. Recently company or apollo neuroscience sent me that device guard the apollo neuro which is a fascinating mention. Now this device. Which i'm wearing right now. Works on dutch therapy. And it creates these gentlemen waves vibration. That stimulates your rest and digest batta sympathetic nervous system response and it restores balance to your body. Now this is cutting its technology action tribe because this is the latest data about you but it's also influencing your stress levels at physiological level. This device stimulates touch. And i'm realizing the touch might be more crucial to our health and survival than we think it is in the midst of this crazy pandemic and social isolation you and me. We're not getting all the touch that we need and touch is a powerful sense from an evolutionary standpoint. It is the most important way that mammals communicate safety and love and assurance to one another different forms of dutch vibration. Heat gored a soothing massage along hug or even a pat on the back can change how you feel in ways that can be measured biologically now researchers found certain frequencies of are found to be soothing and significantly. Increase your better sympathetic dawn. Others can be more energizing and can increase your heart rate and other measures of sympathetic activity. So
Home Prices Are Rising Everywhere in the U.S.
"If you were hoping this might be a good time to buy a home. I am so sorry to report. Twenty twenty strikes again are up way up. If you were hoping to sell a home. I have good news home. Prices are up way up. The national association of realtors has the latest numbers. It says home prices grew by double digit percentages in all parts of the country in less quarter rising much faster than incomes. Marketplace's nova sappho joins me now with more high nova good morning. So this pandemic has meant people are looking for more space. Eyeing the suburbs interest rates are low. I guess a lot of people want to buy homes now. just how hot has the market gotten. Well you know. We've been seeing monthly figures trickling in showing home sales rising and rising september. Now new home sales dipped last month a little bit. But it's still a red hot market and what. The national association of realtors is now reporting. Is something we haven't seen in decades. Abry your over your home. Prices for existing homes rose in the quarter ending in october. In every one of the one hundred eighty-one metro areas that the realtor's group tracks now. If you look at it regionally. The highest increase was in the west up nearly fourteen percent year over year. The slowest growth was in the mid west. But it still was up eleven percent. Why are they rising so fast. We know mortgage rates are very low. That's poured rocket fuel on that demand for space. Also inventory is quite low to supply of homes for sale is down nearly twenty percent year over your soul. Low supply high demand. That's the classic formula of course for higher prices and We also know is that prices are rising four times faster than household incomes and that's really increasing the affordability problem free marketplace's nova sappho. Thank you so much. You welcome
As oil and gas declines, where do the workers go?
"Part. Three of our special five part series with the narwhal brings us to sharon riley. She is the l. berta investigative reporter for the narwhal. She's a lifelong alberton and she reports from the oil patch. Hello sharon hydrogen. How are you. I'm doing really well. And i'm excited to get a glimpse of what a really quickly. Changing industry Looks like on the ground. And why don't you just start. Maybe so we have someone to frame this around with telling me a little bit about dust. And taylor who is he and what did he do. It doesn't is one of the people that came across when i started looking into the energy transition in berta and what that really looks like on the ground for workers who are making the leap on their own so dustin was born in nova scotia. His his dad had worked in oil on an offshore oil rig there. He moved when he was a kid and he kind of has what. You would consider a fairly typical story for a lot of oil. Chris in this province but yeah i left left school before graduated and pretty much started working right off the hub and like most people numbered. I ended up in the energy industry working in oil and gas Making decent money. I mean it was pretty easy to find a decent job. He told me that it is first job. He made sixty thousand dollars a year. So i don't know about you. But when i was sixteen i was not making that kind of money. But that's a pretty typical story in alberta when the industry is booming oil and gas industry is booming. There's money to be made and of young people. Young men in particular in this province haven't always seen a reason to you know stick around pursuing education when you could support your family and your lifestyle so immediately right out the gate and what happened to him after he'd been there for a while and from your piece in your reporting i gather. It's not super uncommon these days. Yeah i mean. I think there are lots of reasons. Why an individual worker might decide that they want to shift out of the oil and gas industry their cultural reasons. You know a lot of oil and gas work involves working in a camp means being outta town away from home for at least a ten days if not a couple of weeks at a time. Which if you're if you're having if you have a family means you're away from your family for all that time as well. So what dozen described as a bit of a moral conundrum definitely remember watching the oil spill happen It was plastered all over the news for days. And i kind of watch this giant catastrophe. Just unfold in front of our eyes for days on end. Never really knowing what was going to happen. And it was kind of a heartbreaking moment he just suddenly something clicked in his mind where he decided that no longer could he work in an industry that he thought was detrimental to the planet and to future generations and he said that had a lot to do with him having kids and wondering about the world. They're going to live in and he decided to make a shift. It was a gamble for him. Where did he go well. He part of what does made him decide to make the shift as well as that. He lost his job so he lost his job so he went back to school retrained to be a solar installer in alberta. His story is the successful. He's now gainfully employed as a solar installer and he's completely left his oil and gas lifestyle. He can be home every night that that's not the reality for every worker who who may want to make a transition or have to. Because the job that they've had for many decades has disappeared. He had to do this on his own. You know he didn't have a lot of government support. There's no oil and gas transition worker program in alberta or in canada for that matter and so it's a. It's a financial gamble. It involves a huge lifestyle shift and something he took on his own. Before we talk about you know how the transition is moving along and what's to come. Can you give me a sense of just how prevalent of the oil and gas industry is in alberta. Because for for someone like me who's spends most of his life in ontario it can feel like everyone in alberta works in oil and gas. It can feel like that as well and there's are different stats out there. As to how many people are directly employed in the oil industry cap. Which is the canadian association of petroleum producers. An industry group. They said in two thousand seventeen so it's a couple years old now. There were hundreds of thousands of jobs from oil. And i think they said around three hundred and forty thousand now. Obviously that number has changed a bit since the pandemic kit. Everyone but it does go to show that. That's that's a large number of jobs and those are jobs directly related to oil so that doesn't include all of that hotels and hotel workers restaurant workers people who support the industry And the people who are directly employed in another way of looking at it is Looking at statistics. Canada figures statistics. Canada doesn't directly breakdown oil workers. It lumps them all in sort of what you might call extractive industries so that includes mining of all types oil and gas forestry fishing. And if you look at those numbers. One in every sixteen workers is employed in those extractive industries. So if you're in a room of sixteen people. One person is employed in that extractive industry. That is quite a few right. And where are we right now. I guess as we're talking in the transition towards renewable energy in in canada and around the world just in terms of how much longer that one in sixteen figure is going to be viable for albert. I think that's a million dollar question. We we hear a lot about the energy transition. We we hear from politicians and environmental groups. We've heard it from justin trudeau. We heard it from. Joe biden presidential debate that the us needs to transition away from oil. Even albert premier jason kenney has made reference to the energy transition is going to happen at some point here and just been pretty widely reported and repeated that if we're going to meet canada's climate targets many workers in fossil fuels will need to look for new jobs
Spotify investigates podcast subscriptions
"Spotify might be planning to launch a subscription. Podcast service it appears to be serving customers to gauge interest. In the others that have tried this. Include luminary stitcher and wondering reported. That wondering was up for sale at the end of september bloomberg. Report the both apple and sony have held talks spotify. The apparently an interested the asking price is between three and four hundred million dollars. The audio production award have just announced this year's nominations. The awards got the highest number of interest in their history. We linked to them today. I'm willing to an exclusive pod fest. China had its third annual conference. We've a full report from the day including developments in podcasting within china spotify twitter youtube and facebook all polls an episode of the pod. Being hosted steve bannon's war room. Podcast after bannon called for the beheading of dr anthony foundry and fbi director christopher ray. The episode in question is still available via apple podcasts. And the podcast index. The california privacy rights act passed last week the cpr. A has some tightening of rules especially around re targeting consumers based on their behaviour online which some podcast companies used for attribution. The nfl's it didn't go far enough. Meanwhile apple of center deadline of december the eighth at privacy data sheets. You need to identify all of the data you or your third party partners collects assay for podcast apps that could be interesting vocal via okay l. Dot co lets you create cool. Podcast video snippets for social media. So they say podcast addict has added a random pick button which returns a random list of podcasts and tacomas podcasting business including radio dot com and katie's thirteen claims a twenty-seven percent increase in downloads year on year in the latest earnings call. Espn is to lay off three hundred employees and let two hundred open positions go unfilled trouble for triton digital there mac accreditation for its webcast metrics. Local service was revoked in august. According to the quarterly update accreditation is suspended for the main webcast metrics service. No reason was given both us to compare streaming radio not podcasting in the seeking to regain accreditation for their main webcast. Metrics service anyway. Revenue grew by fourteen percent last quarter according to e w scripps his quarterly earnings call. The company also owns on the studio. It's a mondays. Here's another teaspoon of tech staff. The podcast index unveiled the podcast value. Tag it allows micro payments using crypto currency through the lightning network. Podcasters can opt in to be rewarded every minute someone lessons and this value for the podcast app and platform as well. There's more detail in the podcasting two point. Oh podcast which linked to today open source android. Podcast app antenna parks now. Has podcast indexes. Search built in as does podcast. Pod bay is one of the app supporting podcast chapters linked today to a c. Sharp rapper for the podcast index. Api with and blueberry has highlighted its full support of the podcast index. Impasse news powerful stories with torey arch. Bowl has joined nova. Entertainment's podcast network the show steps into the shoes of powerful women and discover how they earned success. Christmas partying is back for a third season. See what they've done their from. Brisbane in australia at tackles the fun all could and honest side of christmas and thirteen hours inside the nova scotia. Massacres launched today from curious cast and global news a thirteen episode series. It looks to piece together exactly what happened. And what could have been done to prevent it
Twitter names 7 outlets to call election results
"Keep track of its inventory walmart partnered with bossa nova robotics five years ago to gradually add these six tall inventory scanning machines to stores but reportedly walmart ended the partnership because found that human workers yielded similar results and some in-store shoppers weren't crazy about the robots. Pay pal said it. Processed record two hundred
Walmart Scraps Plan to Have Robots Scan Shelves
"Announcing plans toe pull the plug on some of its robot associates in favor of really people. The retailers ending its five year relationship with technology company Bossa Nova Robotics. Casanova produce robots for Wal Mart that would scan product shelves for inventory and alert managers when items were in need of reorder.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
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"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Funding for nova now is provided by draper. Draper is going places from the moon to cyberspace interested in joining them. Visit draper dot com and welcome back we were just talking about wipe polling went off the rails in two thousand sixteen but if you look closely at a good poll you'll see that. The pollsters are emitting. They're fallible or better said they're quantifying their fallibility putting a number on their imperfection. It's called the margin of error. Yeah i get excited about march eric. Quite frankly i. I think everyone should were back with our statistician dr timothy williams era. Everyone should at least know that they're there and they're often not reported like i don't see onstage saying you know they have is leading the polls in florida with the margin of error of three percent. Right they don't report that so could you break down for us. High statistics wanna one. What exactly an error rate is and how you figure it out. Sometimes i feel like pollsters pull it out of thin air but i'm sure there's a mathematical reasoning totally totally so so generally speaking your margin of error is the way that you try to say you know i recognize that there are some error and some bias and some mistakes in the way that i might have gone about this calculation it also sort of accommodates the fact that if you take a completely different sample you get a slightly different number right so we could take multiple samples over and over and over and over again. All of those numbers would be different so imagine if we could take one hundred samples and we average them. The margin of error sorta gives us the range that those samples would ideally fall into. So that's what you're trying to capture like based on this one sample. What might have seen if i you know. Got a different random sample of people. Think of it this way. Hypothetically if you could pull a thousand random voters a truly random sample you will get one result if you pull another thousand voters again at random. You would get a different result. Depending on which voters you happen to pick now. Continue that process a bunch of times. And what you'll have is a whole range of results. Roughly speaking that range is what the margin of error attempts to account for and the entire idea is that we're going to get some random error in any survey that we produce be captured by a margin of error at the end once again joshua. Dick for u mass lowell. But we're trying really hard through all of these other processes not to introduce non random bias not to do something that introduces bias. So that a choice that we made in the sampling process or waiting biases. The survey said. This makes sense to me. So i mean i'm looking at a couple of equations right now. I see like you know one over. The square root of the sample size equals margin of error. I'm not gonna go into the proof of how this comes about. But i'm guessing that you have your sample you plug it into an algorithm and gives you margin of error and we're supposed to trust that you are and that's why i hate giving people equations without any kind of basis for them I always want people to try to understand the concept. The concept means because when you see a margin of error on television even when i see my first thought. isn't it like. Oh that's one overnight. You know. I don't have to calculate that you know my first thought is what goes into it. And how did they accommodate the uncertainty within that margin of error. And i think that's kind of what i want your viewers to think about like not like. Can you memorize this formula. There's going to be a test at the end but really like what does it mean to say. There's a margin of error. It all means uncertainty. You know. I want to try to capture the fact that i'm not certain about this number that i just told you. And here's the extent to which i'm uncertain about it. Plus or minus whatever percentage three percent five percent often you can see overlap right and so if you add the margin of error to to polls you can often see where there's an overlap between a candidate winning or losing and so that's why it's hard to predict who's going to win or lose because the margin of error often has overlapped in the winners and losers wish. We did more to say that we could be wrong. I don't think we say that enough. And i think we can often use polls to lead people to believe that we know the answer before the.
Joe Biden holds drive-in rally in Broward County, NW of Miami
"In the race to the White House. So it's no surprise that both presidential candidates are stumping grounds here. Joe Biden, his campaigning in Broward, before heading to Tampa, where President Trump is also rallying. Today, more than six million Floridians have already early voted the Democrats of the Mail in ballot edge while Republicans are leading the in person turnout. Nova Southeastern University is Dr Charles Zelden says. Lettuce full show. Biden has a razor thin edge over Trump. So Biden's Florida fate hinges on if he can get more voters to turnout Tuesday. If he doesn't then it crumpled, probably squeak a wonder. One of the half person will win. Florida is the largest battleground state that's still up for grabs, awarding 29 of the 270 votes needed to win the race. One day Grossman,
Biden and Trump head to Florida
"Joe Biden, his campaigning in Broward before heading to Tampa, where President Trump is also rallying. Today, more than six million Floridians have already early voted the Democrats of the Mail in ballot edge, while report Wiccans are leading the in person Turnout. Nova Southeastern University is Dr Charles Eldon says the latest polls show Biden has a razor thin edge over Trump's abidance, Florida fate hinges on if he can get more voters to turnout Tuesday. If he doesn't then Trump probably squeak a wanted one of the person will win Florida's the largest battleground state. That's still up for grabs, awarding 29 of the 270 votes needed to win the race.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Becoming decrepit or old, and that's the fear that we wanna open the audiences heart. Then, maybe when the creature moves body, you hear the sinew and the flash moving with it. It's a matter of taking the more figurative metaphorical and turning into something a lot more literal. Sonically, this must be such a time consuming trial and error process to really nail that. You know I feel like fully art in some ways it's like a performance amount circling back to your work. You've hunted terrorists on the looming tower, which is on Hulu and roll joints HBO's High Maintenance. You crashed a bus for IRA glass on this American life do you. Ever, put part of your own soul urine personality into the sounds into the characters you bring the life. Oh, absolutely all the time I think all fully artists are relying upon a wealth of their own personal lived experiences to come to a more literal performance of a sound. For example, one of my favorite sounds is the sound of the bath tub being filled up and splashing of water in a bathtub something about that's very reminiscent of warm memories from childhood. Being taiwanese-american, remembering the sounds of my mom cooking Chalfen in the kitchen and knowing how that sounds. There's a lot of sound memories I think everyone has their life that they take with them into the fully stage and I'm very lucky because as someone who's trans someone who's taiwanese-american someone who's lived in several different cities have had a chance to kind of build up this Bank of highly memorable impersonal sounds the ideas to be completely transparent in the sense that if we do our jobs, right the audience won't even know where there but. To do the job, right, you have to have a basis in reality and never fought a war a war film. Maybe it's important. Go Talk to somebody who did fight in a war who knows but it sounds like and also what it feels like since Foley's inception. Of a dated outlook that you know the sonic world of women in the world of men were very different men walk heavier women walk lighter. However, one of the big discussions that we've been having as a community has been a matter of diversity. We need fully artists to reflect the stories and the experiences of a wide variety of people we create our inservice. To a story but artists very personal and it would be amazing if I could one day look back at the fully industry and not be the only in transgender taiwanese-american fully artist Joanna's work populating are streamlining platforms this month she's worked in vampires versus the Bronx I'm thinking of ending things and cartel land and with her team she worked on the remake of the. Invisible man a show like the woman was very interesting because obviously of character who is almost purely told through sound in this story, a crazed scientists stages his own suicide and uses his power to become invisible to stock and terrorize his ex girlfriend. The biggest seen that really required. The most attention to detail was the very opening of the movie when Cecilia the. Main character played by Elizabeth. Moss is desperately packing her clothing and she's just trying to get the hell out. You know this guy is abusive she has lived very controlled and restricted life, and she is very carefully trying to not make so much sound us to wake him up. But the level of emotional heightening that had to happen in her performance was really difficult. When have a character WHO's trying to be quiet when you have a job like fully where you have to produce sound. We have to try to balance those elements out. We still have to create some sort of sound to communicate that she is being sneaky. That scene was really hard because. She stuffing clothing and her backpack she's tippy toeing all these things were really important to ratchet up the tension and it was all a build up to this one tense moment where she accidentally kicks the Doggie Ball it is the sound that takes everyone's breath away. It makes her stop and go oh crap. Am I being too loud? You know sue for that instance when we did that sound, we didn't just. Do a normal. Doggie Ball. We also had another metal singing bowl that produced a more interesting sound with a movie like this man, a lot of the material raising weren't necessarily true to what was happening unscreened but were true to the emotion of what was happening on screen. So the Doggy Bowl Francis really interesting because we have a real dog we have a real dog. You know we have our studio dog dipper. adorable who comes to work with us every now and then and the problem was dipper was breathing heavily and we're trying to record the sound of these dog footsteps. So we're like, it's okay it's fine. We tried our best. Let's put on these gloves with their fake acrylic nails and let's just walk it like we normally do for a movie, but sometimes, the real thing doesn't sound real enough for movie surprisingly. So often we have to cheat it or we have to augment in a way that elevates the emotion of the scene for. Trying to get the audience to sit in the emotional perspective, the character and to get the audience there with us, we had to get every little detail. So even at the end as the Doug will come to a stop right in the frame, you see the food and the dog will shake a little bit. We finished the scene, there's something missing. So he went back and I just added the sound of the food moving in the dog bowl just to accompany all these different layers of sound. So that way the audience hears everything. They're hearing the real thing. You're hearing a sweetener that is elevated to the level of horror and they're hearing extra. Tells them. That was really loud that this is a very quiet CNN. She just blew it. If Films Foley is effective and if the film itself is believable, you'll never doubt the reality of what you're seeing onscreen and you'll never doubt fear because at that point, the fear isn't in the movie the fierce actually inside you. It's not about the spooks we made. It's about the horrors you've created along the way. I WanNa find this phrase one day in a fortune cookie. Beer is not around you the fear is. It's like poetic, but also kind of terrifying. Nova now is a production of GBH NPR ex. It's produced by Ian Costs are Daniel Johnson. Gonzales is Bill Hibbard, Sandra Lopez Monsalve, and Christina Monnet. Julia Courtney. Chris Schmidt our that CO executive producers of Nova Dante grazes director of audience development. Sukey Bennett is senior digital editor, Robin Caz Myrrha Science Editor Emma UK's research intern and Nina Poor Zouqi is managing producer podcasts at Gbh. Our theme music is by the EERILY AMAZING DJ Kid Koala. I'm Alok Patel. Willie back in two weeks, which is plenty of time for you to watch a few horror movies get scared and pay attention to all the intricate fully design as you watch people run away from Michael Myers Freddy Krueger Kerry Samara, Frankenstein Maybe Dracula Jigsaw that thing from the grudge creature from the Black Lagoon Chucky Annabel pinhead maybe the alien from species or the alien from the movie aliens or any alien for that matter. Horror can be fine and your response is incredible an ancient happy Halloween also. On REX NASA she something huge over defended. On Tuesday spacecraft called Osiris. Rex. Literally touched an asteroid called Banu about two hundred, seven, million miles away from Earth. And not just touch it. The craft attempted to grab a piece of it. If it worked that chunk of asteroid will eventually be brought back here to earn where it could teach us about the origins of art. Clinton's find out more by streaming novas hour long broadcast touching the asteroid. You could check it out on the PBS VIDEO APP or P. B. S. Dot. Org Slash Nova..
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Fear and anxiety. So anxiety is coming trepidation about some potential future threat. So it hasn't happened yet and what's interesting is. That humans seemed to be one of the only animals that have this anxiety because we can think into the future and fear is basically just a current threat. Right there's a Predator, there's an animal and what you do instinctively to survive in that moment, and then there's a whole cascade of sort of neurochemical events that occur to kind of help you survive. But the ninety is just an anticipation that a potential threat might be coming, which is a bit different. So they're all kind of interrelated but that real raw fear is when there's a current threat in the present moment that can trigger this stress response within you that is calibrated in such a way to help you survive the survival response like. Kept our species on the planet. Exactly. So, usually our senses will take in some information that says there's a harmful events about to happen. Imagine you're leaving the bar. You're having a great time you're walking home it's late at night. But it's really dark. You don't see anyone around you and then you turn the corner and you think you see a shadow under a streetlight. You see there's a potential threat. It activates a party brain called the Magdala, which is involved in this fear response. The amid is an almond shaped structure receives inputs from all of our senses, and the is like the accelerator it says, okay. Go from there sense signals to other places in the brain like the talents the to Terry. Glenn, it releases Cortisol adrenaline and of prepares your Bonnie to either fight or run an escape, and sometimes there's this freezing effect as well where you just sort of shock and freeze, but the most adaptive responses are to run or to find. So what it does is it increases your heart rate it kind of decreases, your digestive system because you don't need that right, you want to put all your energy into like your muscles to be able to run or to to fight. Your bladder relaxes. You might get flushed face your pupils dilate it increases your blood pressure, but it's all about to get your body ready for action. So you can either escape or fight. The Predator. And then you can have the prefrontal Cortex, which is you can think of it like the brakes stem, which then sort of evaluates the situation in the context you're in and decides whether actually you should want away or fight or maybe this is actually not that threatening of a situation. So it's a little bit slower to respond, but it might say you know what? That's not a real killer that's going to jump out at you. So let's just calm everything down and then activates this Paris that IQ nervous system, which kind of slows down respiration and your heart rate and kind of cools down everything. So it's this process between it and accelerator which gets very quickly activated. Just in case you really have to respond wants to go before you even consciously aware of it, and then you have the more conscious kind of prefrontal CORTEX, which is a little slower and can break the doubt say, no wait slow down. We don't really need to respond. Here's what's interesting. Even fear isn't pleasant for a lot of people. There's a whole component of fear that people seek. With extreme sports, horror movies, people like they say, Oh, you're makes me feel alive. Why do you think that is why is it that people want to tap into this primal emotion? Interesting, is that the same kinds of neuro chemicals that are released in the fight or flight response can also be associated with excitement or happiness, and a lot of emotion is again the sort of cognitive labeling how we label it. In the context. So you can have the same exact physiologic reaction and you look to the context and say Oh this means I must be excited because it's like my birthday everyone jumped out and said happy birthday you know and that's a positive label that. A killer with a nice jumping out you then that would be labeled as fear but they both were the same elements of surprise. Adrenalin Dodge. Berlin do you like horror movies You know I do not I. Am not a horror fan I do like psychological thrillers though like silence of the lambs and. Psycho speaking for movies I I find this fascinating when I actually really think about it. So we watch horror movies. We know they're not real like we we know we're watching a movie it's fictional but what is it about movies that gets us to have that response to these jump scares things flashing out at us. You know create these sustained stressful experiences. How can movies do that when we're no, they're not real. You know it has to do with the suspension of disbelief, right? So whenever we get engrossed in anything you. Know why do we cry in movies and it all depends on how much kind of dissociated in the sense how much you've lost your sense of self and are fully engrossed in the world that the film crates and I think really good filmmakers create a world they have the tricks of trade whether it's lighting or sound or moving the pace of the scene they know how to draw in your attention. So even though yes, there is a part of your brain that knows this isn't real which allows you to actually sit. There under all this heavy stress right for so long because that part is saying, it's okay it's not really if it was real, you'd be running out of the movie theater. So it allows you to sit there and play out these scenarios in a safe environment but you're still engrossed enough that you're actually getting emotional responses to them. Then they used the tricks, right? There's like the suspension music and the built up the anticipation and our brain loves uncertainty is that build up of tension and then the release that we really? Like the rush yes. The stick in your psyche. Okay. So there's this seat guys the nineteen eighty-two supernatural horror film also written by Steven Spielberg highly recommended watches this Halloween, you can stream it on Netflix in. Also, this next section is a little bit of a spoiler alert. The little boy is in bad and he sits up and it's dark it's night there's this big clown sitting in a chair just facing him it has a hat all the little bells on it. Now, we've all had this experience as a child like. Some weird stuffed animal in your room, and it's there you and so what do you do you like turn it away or put something over it so it can't be staring you and you're to go to sleep. So that's what the kids take cysts little if he gets like a blanket and he throws it over to cover it up. But with thoughts in the Bells Jingle, he just decides to leave it and courtesy and then. He's sleeping and suddenly you know you ever get that sense of like just feel something's not right. He sits up looks up at the chair the clowns not there. Right already, I'm getting chills I don't know. This is so well done. I'm like over my shoulder for a clown right now the clowns not there. So now here you have, you have the uncertainty, the mystery like Oh my God. So all of our brains like what's going on where's the of what happened you know? So of course, how do we relieved anxiety of uncertainty? It's about. Checking and reassurance seeking right. So where do you check obviously under the bed? There's this creepy slow where he goes and he leans over his bed and pulls up the sheet and he looked and you like anticipating that this clown is GonNa jump out at him there. And he pulls up the thing and there's nothing. And you just get the sense of. Relief. Right. Nothing to be afraid of and just.
Prof. John Flood, Professor of Law and Society at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we explore emerging ideas from signs, policy economics, and technology. My name is Gill eappen. We talk with woods, leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest. Scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be Color a wide variety of domains red new discoveries are made. and New Technologies are developed on a daily basis. The most interested in how new ideas affect society. And help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation. V seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations bit researchers and leaders who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot. com. And displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics, guests at other ideas. Please send up to info at scientific sense. Dot Com. And I can be reached at Gil at eappen. Dot Info. My guests today's facade John. WHO's professor of Law and society at Griffith University in Brisbane Australia. He's also adjunct professor of law at Queensland University of Technology and Research Associated University College Under Center for Blockchain Technologies, he who suggests on the Bloomberg professional globalization of law and the technology in law. But come John. Hello. Thank you. Sure. Yeah. So I want to start with one of your recent people, professions and expertise hog machine learning, and blockchain redesigning the landscape of professional knowledge and organization. In invite you say machine learning has entered the world of the professions. The different impacts automation will have huge impacts on the nature of work and society. Engineering architecture and medicine or early and enthusiastic adopters. Other professions especially law at late you say at in some cases with leptons adopters. could you talk about you know sort of the landscape all? Of Law, profession and. They today in terms of opting these technologies. Certainly Louis interesting because it's a very old profession is. Often considered one of the. Original traditional professions along with medicine and the church. And in a sense law has used different kinds of technology might say I mean does it? Based around writing. And then the printing press and So on yet that. It's always being based on a craft. A skill which the individual person is that enables them to do, whatever is quote if you like and. said, there's never been a lot of room for any kind of automation. Certainly, the has been space for using. A people who are not fully qualified as low as about as paralegals, people like that, who will do a lot of repetitive work document checking and things like that and so on. But what will get into now is the situation where automation through machine learning. There's other kinds of artificial intelligence. is able to start constructing documents example contracts. Check dollop a documents for particular clauses and things like that mature they're up to date and this incense is. Replacing now, the kind of work that noise will do. So I think in some ways more more of of the profession of law is gonNA be subject to automation, but distinction I would many because I think it's quite important here is that A lot of what lawyers do. Is actually quite. Active that that that that the drafting contracts overtime or or they're reviewing documents to some sort or another or they're getting through particular. Negotiation. And so you know a lot of it is the same, but they build up the expertise through doing these same kinds of were over and over again and What we're now finding is that instead of having young lawyers coming in and doing what you might call the grunt work of checking documents and going through discovery applications where he goes through the size boxes of evidence to decide. which are the appropriate documents you want the emails, the invoices order, this sort of stuff that is the kind of work which is lending itself to automation. And, and so that his taking away a lot of the work which is used for trading purposes with young lawyers and is just doing it much quicker. will quickly I mean More efficiently in many ways and probably expensive much much expensive a Lotta. This work is being outsourced to you know legal process outsourcing India or Philippines South Africa places like that. So yeah, that's that's right and so in some ways, the group of lawyers who do the work which requires the skill, the judgment. Is Reducing in some ways. That pool is getting smaller. Yeah Yeah it's it's interesting. The the distinction that you make between automation. And in my job and let's call it decision making right which is you know a lot of work in the business side of this. So for example. in the nineties in large pharmaceutical company So you think about you know rnd. People might think it has really complex selection of programs that design of them, portfolio management, risk management, all those decisions. Genuine companies be say well, senior managers with lots of experience and intuition make those decisions really well right and so that's statement would automatically implied that machines can really do much there. But what we find in the mid nineties says that is systematic analysis of data make those decisions. Don't better. Actually, I've Tom to humans humans. Always seem to make decisions. These are typically bonding the decision. So if you go back and look at it, alternative experiment has not been wrong. So we have no date to say it was a good decision at typically. So human scaffold, fifty percents of making good decisions So do you know just throwing a coin or letting monkey make those decisions so? Yup We found that even complex decision making that humans hold. you know close to their you know kind of domain I'm not necessarily. So we have machines That could do that much better than I. Don't know there's an analog of that in in law I I. Think The may be actually I mean Two three years ago the royal. Society in England decided to arrange a working party on machine learning. One of the things that they put together a a roundtable on machine learning professions resolved to talk about that night and I talked about the history of professions in technology and. and. I think one of the peculiar things that came out to in relation to law is that law. Has always been a sort of on its own. If you think about medicine, for example, medicines always had the teacher hospital institution that sort of straddles the academic quilt and the practice walls and brings those people together and as a result. INCORPORATES loss of, scientific, work. Engineering work as well computing work and things like that. And that's been the first teaching hospital king into existence in in the French revolution in Seventeen eighty-nine. A long history of that. If you look at law, there was nothing equivalent to that whatsoever and there is in fact, actually a big gap between what academy does on what the practitioners in your do so that As a result as before law has come to this a quite late but what we are. Finding I think is that Certainly the management consultancy finding is that because of the nature of a lot of what goes on in legal office a remarkable amount of it can be automated. So what we are getting now is companies setting themselves up to do this automated work. So. We have companies which do nothing but contract our instruction formation sort of company. The typical lawyer would would say to a client Do you WANNA contract classes. Yes I want this for this. And loyal galway draft contract back with it, and then in the con- comes back against as I need another contract, you go through the same process. which is good for the lawyer but not necessarily good kind. What we're finding now is the company's not can think of a few of them that will, in fact, go into the company's show order contracts. Let's see the entire. Corpus of contracts you've got there and they will analyze them. And basically say, all right. We can create a new contract in automated way fairly easily it may need some modification according to special circumstances but on the whole, it's fairly standard and and they can do that INNOVA systematic world meaning the contracts are reviewed that checked. If they're going to expire marketing, you want an unable just the system will cope with that if you're. Yeah. So yeah. No No. No so I was just going to say yes. So that the distinction you make, you know in terms education sort of systematic graduate level education that because as you say, it is low in one sense of soft proficient. You say in called professions like made it to text reengineering this team has a strong concern ensuring that expertise applied in the public interest when as low little bit different from from bad and economics in some sense sort of in the same same vein we have now made economics at really odd. of mathematics you know north of analytics there. Whether they are actually useful from policy making perspective is left to debate but at least it has been an attempt to make this make economic video hard. So so I don't know A. Fascination has been in in law I very much that will happen in law. Oh there things are beginning to happen I mean let me just boob. At. One example I learned in that workshop that I mentioned the Royal Society held. With somebody from the engineering profession talking about. The difference in skills between people who above forty I'm below forty he said. If he he was about Forty Years Austin design an aeroplane, takeout pen and paper Pencil, and paper and. I don't know anyone under forty could do that would know how to do that go onto a computer program undecided there. So you can see that the incorporation of technology into the academy through to the actual. Occupation. Than phones and things is is already a standard and they're in law. It isn't law. As you said, it's still very much a soft skill although I will argue that there is a difference between the way nor is viewed in different parts of the world. So in the United States A law is I think more tilted towards the sciences. So low in economics is one of the big things in the. US. So you got a lot of people working in the of lower economics who might go onto antitrust work no competition work and things like that which across a lot of economics, mathematics and Statistics and so on. In, say a Europe Australia and so on. Law is more allied towards the humanities. And the classics. So it doesn't have that kind of scientific underpinning in that way. So anything that's going to change in these parts if you like is going to be something that's going to be imported from outside. And is going to have a very dramatic impact when whether it does An and I think that's yet to happen. I don't think there's been sort of Cambrian explosion. If you like in in law, the will be one I'm sure but but law has an advantage over engineering economics or the other areas you might. That's With the nature of the rule of law and absent justice is since law as a a way of ordering society is absolutely crucial to everything else. Then, Law and lawyers will say will look you know we have a special status here is different amid leave engineer. We certainly want to make sure bridges stay up. We don't want down but we can design different kinds of bridges. We can design different kinds of legal bills, but they're also the fundamental rules If you want to you know if you're an engineering company and you want to build a bridge in a different country, you're going to have to do it on the basis of the legal rules, which will be just vise by the lawyers according to the country's there in so on. So in in that was what? I might put in a special category if you live. Yea. Yea. Let me let me push NBA John. So. The. The conference that you mentioned you know the Internet is under forty and engineers at. So so one could argue you know from an engineering perspective could argue e- It sexually dangerous. To not use machines to build aircraft the goes you know all the technology that cap today actually help us make the trap lot safer. granted. If you sit down with a blank sheet of paper and Pencil, you might get the principal right. But, but the technology has advanced so much that you really have to use. Technology to do so in some sense, engineering is pushed back. that. I argue this myself then they were naive engineering school. I had a V exposed at my daughter bent to school. She used the same physics book. Twenty, five. meter. I argue that that is sort of backward because data speed no need for an engineer to really learn Newtonian physics anymore because it is prescriptive, it's deterministic can make machines, learn it very quickly and so why spend all? Right. So so then you know if you think about the the law field. I wonder if there is a senior argument that is to say Dan and tape really good lawyer casts lot of intuitions dot expedients to crap something Contract or a discourse, but then maybe the machine scan actually do it even better We haven't really tested that hypothesis yet. Right be almost have this idea that humans are always dominant. Or machines but that the not be true as technology lancers. So what do you think about that in the in the? It's a very important point actually because the. American bosses. being modifying its ethical rules recently to say that lawyers have a duty and obligation to keep up to date with technology. So we already know the technology is now a an important part and I have to say when when I say the word technology, I mean this at all kinds of levels from what you can do with Microsoft word for example, it strays plug ins all the way up to artificial intelligence IBM, Watson, or something like that So that if if lawyers become. A. Uses of technology whether this small firms or big firms or what have you a under the Aba now they they actually have an obligation to make sure that they are up to date. They can't just say we didn't know what we were doing. So I think in that respect, there is a there was a move. The other move that is taking place is actually the push from from the clients. Now, this you have to look into ways one is with corporate clients. The corporation seen US lawyers have to use noise if you'd like want their work done. PHILOS- money on Chiba they wanted to more efficiently They don't want the best piece of work every time they want something that works and they want officiant. UTA A and so on. So it was interesting I think a few years ago. The General Counsel Cisco. Actually made a speech. Saying that he expected his. Lawyers Law firms who worked for the company to be reducing their fees year on year. Now, that's the opposite of what lawyers normally do, which is to raise them year on year. So say that that's one push which is. Very profound push now, coming from the client himselves who are using the beginning to use their procurement departments in in the companies and things like that to help purchase legal services the other aspects which is just as important in this is if you look at the role of lawyers and individuals. So if you is what access to to legal services, it's expensive lawyers are not cheap they charge our money We don't know how to judge the quality of their work and so on. because. There was a credence which we just know that So. On this is where technology can begin to step in and provide services which are. Efficient and often quite. what very well for the individual saying that this. Technology can be seen to be improving access to justice a Lotta people. Yeah. Yeah yes. I want to come back to this. John. I think this is a very important point. So bent on put has a lot of uncertainty. Uncertainty maybe not not the right term, but it's called deterministic. It shows beatty ability and so the determination of quality it's not as easy as hard media India nearing or. Right business economics legal all sorts of well foreign that category and the application of technology sort of a different different meaning there but I want to touch on one of the things that you say in the paper, and that is you mentioned this before and that's about training training the next generation. So you savior regulating bodies professions are involved in the collection and reproduction of knowledge intended to be used by the entire body professionals, and so there was an expectation here that you know seeing it professionals. Is Providing the wisdom that knowledge mission to train the next generation now in a technology driven. regime. discuss vacations right. Our expert is going to be a computer engineer in the future. And so so how does that work from from cleaning and knowledge Asian will I think this is This is a crucial issue in it's one which the profession hasn't. Really. Got To grips with yet I think because you think of technology in terms of Predictive analytics a document review and things like this most law schools are not preparing students for this they may be a a a a causal to on some aspect of technology, but it's not something which lawyers themselves are learning. So I think what is going to happen is we're going to find a blending of skills occurring. So law firms will be sense having to bring in a range of technologists who perhaps have. A scales a straddle, both sides of the lines, the lawyers like this too I think I think we're going to find an avangard Who will begin to develop skills that allow them to talk to both sides of the line, the tech people and? Below people if you likes and there will be people who will acquire develop these skills as well but that's that's still some way down the line I didn't think we're anywhere near there yet, and part of the reason for that I think is that you know law is still a very highly regulated profession and and the regulators themselves are in the same situation they are unsure about what is going to happen and they also feel they have an obligation to. Not only ensure that. Customers clients and consumers are protected but in some ways, the profession is protected to if you like so. You know it's it's a it's a fine balancing. There I. Think. It's a fight balancing act and you'd say if the changing changing things. So going back, you know you care as an individual eighteen status of expert. Some form of encapsulation of knowledge and analysis occurs enabling professional experts, derived diagnoses, decisions, and conclusion wrapped late. and you make some distinctions. Type of learning that. Human? Beings. That the distinction between doing drive and become a gift and laster Yes yes. Yes I think that's important. So the the the the principle behind this is that Individuals can acquire a lot of knowledge in in various areas. So as I say learning how to drive a car, you learn how to change gear you though with the speeds. Braking different rates, conditions, and things like that. So. If you WANNA take that further and become a formula one drive or something like that. Then you have to undergo a very different kind of training and that kind of thing becomes a lot more collective rather than individual because you start to you're you're going to be in a group that is gonna be doing a particular kind of our driving. If you like everybody in the group has to understand what each other is doing that group, you can't have people going right a racetrack at two hundred miles an hour or thinking individually feel like they have to have a collective consciousness. About. How to drive in that situation? That's nothing like how? You and I might drive. I'm not saying we bad drivers just saying spreading very different. So I think professional work is not. That different from this in a way. So once you you can go through school and you can do your law degree and you can learn your low. We can learn you engineering's this applies to or professions really. But in order to become a professional in order to become somebody who can operate function within that. Group if you like you then have yourself have to develop collective consciousness and and one way of thinking about it is that we we can kind of tacit knowledge. This assorted knowledge you learn on the job from people, which is not always articulated in a precise formulate kind way but it's something you pick up from the way. Somebody does something you just recognize aw that that's how they've done that might not be. Written down anywhere or anything like that. But you know that's different from now exiting differently from the way that wise doing I think X.'s doing it better I and you and you just, and you can absorb that. That's what I mean by this kind of tacit knowledge and that comes about from the professional context. As how the professional context develops becomes absolutely crucial to how you introduce new ways of doing things new my daddy's new skills new outlooks if you like and I. Think this is where we're on the cost of of this beginning to develop I mean we we know it's got to be done quite how it's going to be done. is yet to be. So. So let me make a statement John and I want I want your reaction to it so eat in hard sciences eight years against again medicine. Expertise has about a consistent happy of remorse. Whereas enor- economics and business in general, let's say expertise is not about the ability to apply rules but to deal with. and at and if that is true, it has lot of implications rate. It has implications as to how we might divide work. Between. And machine in the future. And the skills that universities need to impart on on on new graduates are also quite different. So I always argued in the business. engineering contexts that universities having changed the dog they get mentioned before they're using the same. Using the same. Out Thirty four years without asking the question are those skills relevant, anymore or more importantly watch. Really relevant for a human being in the future rate. do you agree with that that expertise assert more about dealing exceptions apply? Putting it actually. I. I can see the logic behind what you. Saying I think what distinguishes? A good professional whether it's a good engineer good architect or good lawyer or doctor is is somebody who has a certain? This may sound strange but it's the. Imagination. Creativity. about. Kind of flare that allows them to function on the nausea they they've got and developed over the years and the experience. Gathered from Nova pitching what they'd be doing over the years and so on, and it allows them to see around things in ways which they perhaps would. I can give you an example if you like a law. So I'm in in Germany and some other countries. For example, there's a particular way of bundling together mortgage securities I I won't go to detail about this, but this statute that enables you do it. And then you can sell these securities and get money. In certain countries, the UK, the US, and so on. This, NICI. So in a sense to put this kind of a a deal together it. Couldn't be done if you live. So a bank came to one of the large English law firms and said, look we wanted we want to replicate this in in the UK, want to set a market this we're not the statues off there. What can you do and what was interesting was that the law firm then went back to first principles lawyers who were looking at this went back I suppose they looked at some vape basic areas of law matter your trust. And contract from what have you? I'm from that they constructed elite supplement that looked very much like the one in Germany, but without stat sheet and they tested it and it worked. Out To be credibly successful. So much so that the German government started German legal profession started to complain because they said. You can only do this by statute and these we find a way of doing it three. I suppose using law and there it is an they were vowed shops by but that was a particular example if you like of of what you were talking about, they took the exceptions they went back to first principles and said you know or How would we get? This is where we gotta get to, and this is a way right at the beginning what are the steps we need to take and and? And that's what a good loyal will do if you. Right right? Yeah. So that's very important point. So you in your paper dawn as the DREYFUSS and rice note that the proficient performer immersed in the world of skillful activities sees what needs to be done. But decides how to do it. So as we move into a and other technologies, I think it's important point it is. Right from Dad benefactor culture we have been using humans as you mentioned before in lots of with meted activities big not designed for humans I would I would contend enjoy doing things over and over again, and if you had thought of doing that, yeah, because they have to do it for living right and so so we should be moving to word It would where anything that is with pita on delegated to the machine at automation in the bottom of that and Appealed autonation you can have intelligent automation you can have you know reinforcement learning those types of things you have some aspects of intelligence into the into the two. And deploy humans Don't Miss. They're really good at in some case. I'm. So you know we've been studying the green for ages be our no close. It feels to understand mother. Heck it does You know it's not neat learning it. Oh, BBC of. thirty years ago as see that person again, you could see you could you could have a feeling. Then you've seen that before and and what the brain has done actually not only as he that pattern but also age that matter intuitively for thirty years and say, yes, that face I, guess before. and. So there are some superpowers the brain has reaped have been applying the all all. So for a technology might allow. Look I. Think Technology will allow us to incredibly complex things without having to think about too much I. Mean if you look at the way a port functions, for example, any major port these days they've got millions of containers and ships going through them all the time. So there's a lot of paper going through the you those charter parties, bills of lading guarantees. So the lot of legal work that's being done it, it's all quite standard stuff. I mean everybody. KNOWS, what needs to be done and so on. Now, some people are beginning to think while the best way to handle a port if you like I for everybody should know is to put everything that's going on in the poor into a blockchain so that you can see the whole supply chain. You see when something comes in, you can determine when the goods are being offloaded. When they're being shipped, you can stop making the payments as a result of the. Operation of the smart contracts if you like, and the whole thing would be just one quite seamless. In some ways without that much human intervention really just need oversight Some bits of coordination so on. But at the moment is still a a lot of humans are vote in that shipping people, law people, all sorts of things which is. I think insane. That's a waste of resources. We know that there are people who have all kinds of problems that require that creative flair she like as so why waste money on the routine stuff when you could develop skills to the the real need if you like in that way? Yeah Yeah. So I, want that some that bit that John Blockchain, for example, as you mentioned. So so one reason especially in the professions like law and business humans have an advantage justice dimension of trust. and you know at least our generation we don't really. At eighty level, right. So so having that. Human human touch is still extremely important for us. Now, technologies like Blockchain, for example, actually allows that trust to be tensely decoupled, right? Yeah, and I think I think you're right. Look I. Think I mean one of the reasons we make contracts is because We, don't trust each other. So we we devised these documents with all the conditions in them. Something goes wrong. This is what will happen things like that and so on. What are the interesting things? You know people really rely on contracts are met you. You draw up a contract. And the to business people stick him in the drawer I never look at again less something really really fundamental goes wrong but they know sumit doesn't that never look at that again. So you say value of the contract, what did it actually do if you look at some of the Asian countries say like Taiwan or parts of China, you have a assistant coach Guanxi, which is where people developed effective relationships by knowing each other over a period of time around business that allows them to develop trust it. So You know there are different ways of of handling trust, but we we seem to spend a lot of time on trying to minimize something You know which we don't really do a lot of if you like. So I think one of the advantages of of blockchain is that it just it removes a lot of this from from the equation if there's certain things you know that can happen. as a result off if this thing that systems. Lead happened And you know. As, long as you've got oversight and you can see what's going on than. You don't need to be too concerned about it. It will just do what it needs to do in that way and So. Again. That's still very much in the early stages, but we are seeing situations where supply chains A shipping goods from one country to another can actually be done under smart contracts through a blockchain. Technology if you live. That that is now happening I associate goodful dealing with things like gum counterfeiting if you're. Producing. Particular high-quality could site move our phones or particular pharmaceutical products and so on you know it's one way of guaranteeing the quality of the product is you couldn't I say look you can examine the whole supply chain or the data is there. And you know his Eq- code look at it and you get the whole thing going all the way back The. Again, issues around that if you're dealing with the digital. Is Much easier once you start dealing with physical products then you have. A question of how do you get that first initial digitization of the physical if you'd like to goes on so though some people I know here in Australia who? Run A company called Beef Ledger, which is trying to export beef straight beef to China using the blockchain supply chain, which will. Guarantee the security, and the quality of the goods to the Chinese consumer APP because having problems with this before. But I will tell you now do doing something like that does require that the people you are dealing with. You're going to set this up with You have to have a trusting relationship with you before you can set up a technology that will do away with the So we're still in that. That's really early days. I think another a lot of time way to go right Yeah, but the technology works it. Clean potential one could argue contracts exist because they probably known performance if you have a technology that drives that probably the of non-performance zero, then you can actually get rid of for contract. Yeah limit. It is. Not. Goes back to that earlier point I made that. Most most contracts are fairly standard. You know a routine things they're there to. Record a series of transactions payments that have gone on between people without the to do much. If you like you know once you you're you're doing the business, the contract just kind of records that in perpetuity. So the small contract just takes that into a different area and an an actually does the whole implementation and execution without people to be involved in that too much and there's something goes wrong. But if it if it all goes right then back it is done you need to you don't you think about it Right. Yeah. Hasn't been jumping to another are forthcoming people globalization law at. A time of crisis in the? Global Lawyer and so in the say Nikolai Condom Nieve a Russian economists in the nineteen thirties believed the worst economy operates long sixty year cycles Then he called K. Braves. And you safeguarding coronavirus analysis, the fifth psycho young's from nineteen eighty to twenty thirty. It's you save twenty, nineteen forthcoming John You might have. I think so I think say because I, tell you off the what's happening this year I thought my good I couldn't My God. I was just. Owners because you know a contract device these waves up into into what he calls four seasons spring summer or winter at, and we're in the winter off this fifth cycle if you like this is. All the bad stuff happens and he's news war. Famine Disease I think wait a minute that sounds Yes yes. That's exactly right. A. But one of the interesting things about contractors was that you know he he a because he's A. Solid economists are installing a dip executed. By the way you know he he got fed up ninety that was the end of Nikolai unfortunately but he. He said instead of know if you like the ownership of the means of production are being the determinate for changeover from system system, he said it's it's technology and and that the technology will drive you out of the downswing of the last cycle into the upswing of the new cycle, and and the way that works is the win. You're in this kind of winter period because of the kind of economic. Gloom pervades if you like people tend to hold back in subsurface vestment in terms of technological innovation of what have you and so a lot of energy resources, resources, money capital if you like builds up to a second point when people say we're GONNA go for this is this is it? And that's when if you like technology comes to the fall on, really drives it forward. So from that perspective, what he's saying is that you know come right about twenty thirty. If. Things are going slowly now regarding technology they're going to speed up. In. This period and that's when it will. You know really also take take off and people have looked back over our preceding cycles and they've you know it works if you like not just their. Fantasy theory there are also the people who do Cleo dynamics in history these the quantitative historians and they've done a similar kind of analysis of historical periods and said, yeah, you know there are all these citrical. Processes that take place even revolutions occur and big upset occurs and what have you and and. One of their Perspectives which I find quite interesting is that they say one of the reasons for revolutions come about is caused a lease beginning to compete with each other and and an an I look at say trump in in America and I look at the Democrats and I I I would say Modine, India I look she in China and different groups of elites who are engaged really profound struggle for the future of their countries if you live. Out which again is leading to this kind of potential eruption of activity and a new ways of doing things. Yeah. It makes a lot of intuitive sense gone. So one way to think about this also. There are a lot of excesses. So innovating go good their excesses in the system people to believe that invincible they changed assumptions about. because they don't see any. and. Financial markets to right. So these cycles and real real mass that uniquely talking about you can see the. Happening in the financial markets more clearly. But what he's saying is that he happens mortgage and you ask in this paper in two thousand, nineteen for in many ways go. Crystallization off the settling ketone economic forces lost throat ear Kublai doomed as populous. Separates nationalism and lead clients and I think they have that we have probably the answer to that. But you see I think. One of the points I was trying to make an in in this paper walls that Global Law. If you like is is, is the a kind of synthesis off chaos? How do we bring some kind of order to chaos now once you start seeing the undermining? Of his global institutions, you see trump was withdrawn from the W. H. O.. He's he's are criticized NATO he he won't have the do with the International, Criminal Court and so we've got this kind of real life tension now between a an international legal order that's being built up since the Second World War both Ekit economic and legal order is Global And so we can't just a radical globalization I mean even even with covert, we can't eradicate mobilize ation we've got to. Handle covert the Kobe pandemic on a global basis. Otherwise, we'll. We're lost it retreats to a national. Approach is not gonNA. Work? We'll be defeated in that race is going to be global. Might. Be One of my questions in in paper was will who are the people who are going to be doing this? Kind of bringing the the order to chaos if you like and that made argument that it's got to be the global lawyer. And this is a person who not only understand their national legal system but also able to communicate with lawyers and officials. From around the world if you like. To be able to develop a kind of common. Language common discourse that enables them to stop putting these things together are, and it's not just a simple massa of saying mathematically, it works this way or not. It requires the kind of pulling together of people, but it requires that sort of common understanding which. Comes out of what I was saying about this idea of testing knowledge you know as you got this kind of professional consciousness you know how people ought to behave and how they will interact with you, and then that enables you to be out of bizarre to predict how you can do things and so on and so on. That basis I think we can operate kind of global order. It had a a below the institutional level if you're not kind of private. As opposed to the public according and that will put three. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah you know I the limit John I don't know if you think this way I limit one could as. Want to stay need for. Countries what does the need for legal system differentials? We set this up with the premise that it's easier to manage small chunks. one could also argue with Edmund Affect. -nology that you don't need to segment this debate that we have done. which might make these types of issues you know. See where you're coming from and I'm going to say yes or no? Yes, I think the home range of of questions that can be handled by the technology the ones we got pay I don't chain, etc. I don't I didn't see any issues there but there are a lot of decisions that needs to be made a book in terms of putting things together and resolve disputes that can only function at a human level because it's not. These are not decisions that are simple binary decisions. If you'd like, it's yes or no it's it's often a lot more nuance than complex about I mean, one of the resources in the World Kiva Zero System, the world amendment which is being fought over if you like is water, a water is probably one of the most valuable resources anywhere and it's you often find that rivers and things like that sort of flow between countries, they form borders. And and you are you know people if you look at the Nile, ESL start stopping in Sudan throwaway down to the Mediterranean. So he goes to countries all three countries, east European and then into Egypt's and so unwell well, who has the right to put it dime at a particular place and things like that all of that has to be cooled in act. You see a not going to be done at a human level that that's what caused the skills in negotiation judgment interpretation understanding if you like of the other people, no machine can do that I got. Yes before we conclude, I want to touch on one other thing So in the paper, you say as technology and culture intersect more and more. Ethical conundrums will intensify these raising questions about the rights and obligations of robots. And go beyond as moves. Three laws of robotics in two issues of rights of all moon. Algorithm, stem serves. So this is this is an area that be Kevin babies even even really form some notions allowed rights of all modes at rights of a are. Sai, gets more sophisticated. Yes. Yes. I do. I, mean I think this is one of the issues we already know some of the problems with algorithms and and you know can we can be are they transplanted from you see what's going on the ethical issues around the construction and implementation of algorithms and things like that. But I I I think looking into the future we all going to rely on things like robots. And various kinds of machines so much more so that if you look at a country like Japan, which is a a an aging population such that it doesn't have sufficient younger people to look after the people who need looking often. So machines, I'll be part of that, and that means people will stop forming real relationships with machines and and so that's when I would say. Okay. So let's think about how we View a potential rights of machine that we give. We give rise to humans. Yes. We know that we give rights to animals. Now we've also given rights to viz in forest in some countries as well as so machines I think our. Next logical step you know do we do we treat them with respect Let me give you one. Very classic example yet the production of. Robots for sex if you like is a major industry at the moment, some manufacturers say they want to program them say that people can act out rape fantasies will do we want that I? Mean you know should we be at first of all? You know? We should be having people behave in this particular kind of way, but even an uncertain if you do it against another human being, you'll be punished for it and you say we'll a machine is a piece of property you should be you should be doing that but I'm getting to think that maybe a machines should be treated with dignity say that we are treat ourselves with. Dixie. This a kind of reflexive situation here what we? Do to machines we do to each other, and they may again due to US depending on how they evolve and and move forward in that way is a very contentious issue. A lot of people would reject that right out of hand I agree I think we've got to stop thinking about stop dining forward because I. think we're going to at some point again. I. Don't know when. But at some point we will be having to deal with that. It's a it's a very important point. Joan. So if I understand you correctly, you know that the rights to animals the rights to inanimate. INANIMATE things like Lubers The recent those exist is because of its effects on humans and can see video a clear link in the future we would see a very clear link between a algorithms and robots ended affects on human. So this is not me You know each not fantasy in the sense that yeah, robots should have rights, but rather it's a more conceptual question. Any fraud did not have rights each going to cabin negative I I think that's absolutely true. I mean just to highlight that if you like this firm called Boston Dynamics that produces. Robots and they produced these videos of these. Now, these robots are resistant being pushed over and things like that, and it was quite interesting because a lot of people say all you can't treat them in this way. This is awful and so what I mean that that's the answer for more fighting to to the extreme extent. But it I think you know on the basis what you're saying, you know how we Oakland. Hold human beings accountable to each other in an increasingly complex world machines have become part of that. We can't just have them all sitting on the edge as though they're not part of who we are, what we are and how we do things. Right. So. Incursion Johnny fuel sort of look forward five years. At. The intersection of law and technology. But you think people see sort of the biggest. I. Think you'll see it two wins. On the you know for the individual The individual, you're going to see a lot of them just interacting. With artificial Tennessee, say lost questions about what my rights for this how do I deal with a tendency agreement? How do I complain against a producer company or something like that or that's going to be automated? is fairly straightforward to do and and it will only need A. Minimal. Amount of human inside of. An intervention if you like. At the other end at the. In I think we're GONNA see more and more technology coming in because as those basic functions that are. Being, carried out by junior people or or paralegals or things like that are the ones which are going to be increasing, automating creasing. I'm. We will replace the humans and just let machines do that because there's no point in wasting human resources on that whether that means we need fuel or more lawyers That's an open question I think it will that we need different kinds of lawyers We will need Roy Moore to logically aware much more sophisticated. They don't it's be programmers or odors or anything like that, but they need to have a quite a a a a strong understanding and gross what's going on in technology in that way if you like so. Yeah. We can definitely see an. Yeah, so I, think you mentioned the so from a structure perspective in all forum DC law firm sprucing to word. It a group of equity partners. Around it by machine so to speak well, I. Think. I was in that paper or another one I. I'm S-. Forecast. Law. Firms. Being. Distributed decentralized we'll tournaments organizations running on a blockchain with with the various people. into setting when they will no I. Think the law firm is still a very strong and powerful is Shutian, that's not gonNA disappear straight away. But certainly the numbers of partners who control things will shrink. They'll that will get smarter as proportion and yes, they will be surrounded by machines and they surrounded by people who are servicing those machines. Your excellent. Yeah. Thanks for doing this weekend. John really enjoyed the conversation. Thank you very much. It's been great fun and very
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"And in April two, thousand, twenty, the dramatic conclusion. Issued a major ruling this morning over wastewater on Maui. Supreme Court ruling today says, Maui county must abide by the Federal Clean Water Act in no longer discharge polluted water into the ground. The county is my sabbatical. So it was kind of looping around in bed to pay sabbatical and my thoughts on thinking about the county Malegaon gang decided, and then looking to the test I was like this is the task that we said. Not only did the Court Tapia Meka spree into consideration but by a vote of six to three, they created a new test for enforcing the clean water act based on the idea of functional equivalence. Tobacco the standard, the majority opinion lists a bunch of scientific factors for determining functional equivalence for example, how far the pollutant travels through groundwater how much time the travel takes and the ground is composed of sound familiar. It should these are the exact factors that Steph and the water scientists described in their America's brief, and so the seem to be the time in which the Supreme Court listened to the signs, and they actually developed their test based upon the factors that are relevant in determining the connectivity between some random discharge and surface waters and.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"It really is I, think I said the semi before it's just it's really hail Mary time like it. There's just not enough of anything right now. Just a few weeks ago, Dartmouth? Hitchcock Health announced that they were running a study of the Sherlock test using samples from their member hospitals in New Hampshire and Vermont. The healthcare network released initial data from that study earlier this month, which showed that Sherlock's crisper based test gave the same result as a standard PCR test in one hundred percent of the samples. That's a good sign in terms of accuracy. But keep in mind that this is still being run on a small scale in an really well equipped laboratory. As Susan Butler ru said getting this technology out to.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"The story involves a fancy piece of genetic technology called Crisper. We'll get to that in a moment but first. Let's meet the scientific dynamic duo i. hope the sound and there's good of Omar Abu. And Jonathan Gutenberg Science can be kind of a lonely pursuit. Sometimes, this is Jonathan and to have someone else you know with you I think really adds to a lot of great synergies. There is been a lot of cool scientific doors in the past you know. Something together, if you guys come up with a cold duo, a name be Jonathan. Omar. Like Jomar. We've. Yeah, there's been a lot of input from other parties Internet matter and this is Omar. Jomar has been a popular wine OJ. J.. This pair. I wish I could sit in bars. I could just watch them nerd out and Banter the Labs Update Gutenberg to. Goot. Good. Sounds like a wedding hashtag. Okay. So Jonathan Omar actually met in college, they both went to mit. Class just have all this random information about like biology he was gold medalist and. So. I. Knew Omar is a pretty intense guy. You know I think people like that are drawn together. They end up in this class together of course, twenty biological engineering and get paired up on a project because like we're going to finally kill this project. During. Really good great I guess. They finished up that project and then went their separate ways. But thank was not finished with Omar. Jonathan. Better known as Jomar. So at about that time, there were these early papers coming out on this like new Utah for. Christopher. C. R. I S. PR crisper Crisper had just come out and that was immediately drawn to it. I. Really Want to be part of it and so when they start Grad school at Mit Jonathan Omar, both joined the same lab. I got. To. Be. In the. Lab. The lab was run by Fung John One of the scientists who pioneered the use of this gene editing technology. Called crisper. Lucky to be at this epicenter when it was just like erupting. So, here's what you need to know about crisper. It's gene editing technology. It uses a protein originally found bacteria called cast nine, which works like a pair of scissors. Those scissors can then program to identify and cut small pieces of genetic material meaning DNA Arnie. It basically opened the floodgates on gene editing. It was a huge deal. Now around this time in two, thousand, fifteen everyone is talking about using crisper to do things like treat genetic diseases create genetically modified crops stuff like that. Anywhere like I reunion Jonathan, we'd brainstorm crazy ideas about like how to make large deletions in the genomes of cells late. But as new Grad students are friends Jomar are basically free to play around at this technology. Switching to protein together just to see what else might be possible inserting large. There was just like. A whirlwind. What to me about the moment when you're like Whoa, we can actually use this to diagnose and identify viruses. Yeah. So we were really kind of exploring this protein which back then was called CDC to we've just been renamed at cast thirteen now. Now remember how I said crisper uses a protein called cast nine to cut DNA well, our friends Jonathan. Omar here are around with a slightly different protein called cast thirteen and was like a really peculiar protein because for one thing, we found a kind of early on in that process that instead of cutting DNA like casn does it cuts Ra aren a like what the coronavirus has. That will matter in a minute, but there was something else going on with cast thirteen. When you want to cut a piece of DNA Arnie with scissors you expected to break into to clean pieces, which is what happens when you cut cast nine. But with this genie was pretty funky because we're getting like a bunch of different cuts like man this is getting chewed up. So, it's almost like cast nine is this pair of scissors designed to cut things. But then cast thirteen is like a toddler would scissors who's going to run around and be like cut cut cut cut cut and just go go haywire but haywire and a programmed fashion. So we were thinking hey, maybe this isn't cutting right where we tell it to cut, but it's actually cutting in a totally different way. That's when we kind of stumbled on this property of the end zone, you call the collateral effects. The collateral effect? So the idea is that if you tell it to cut his one piece of Arina in this case. It'll cut it. But it will also start cutting other things in the solution other are eight. Then, we ran this really need experiment where we could put one piece of a n that we told to cut and would cut that day and we could put another piece of a and but this is the weird thing. You're also cut the second bizarre. So it's like this activated cutting almost it flipped the switch when it hit that first piece. Of everything. And so we thought, hey, this is cool. If the first piece aren a is a virus and the second are in a is something that we can see. Something you can detect using machine. Then if at viruses there, it'll cut the second piece to. The key here is that the second night the collateral cut can be detected. So. If the target aren a save from a tiny virus is present, then cast thirteen will start cutting a bunch of other stuff and that stuff will literally emit a signal like kind of light that we can act. And that kind of one man. We can really use this for detecting acids and diseases, and viruses and everything. Omar. So picking up from there like after you guys were like, Hey, we got this pair of scissors that's GonNa, go nuts and identify. Multiple pieces of Arna. What was the next step? I remember we I think like on a whiteboard like Matthau different diagnostic areas like we go into you know we should try to detect bacteria. Virus Detection we try to do like cell free cancer detection. We should try they try Zeke samples, antibiotic resistant bacteria, which is you've got basically whatever they could get their hands on all these different applications who is like you know just kidding the candy shop. Tried on this on, this is trying to miss the whole process was actually pretty simple simple in air quotes once they got the hang of it and with a little bit of refining, it might even be simple enough for the average person to do at home I mean that's been one of the coolest elements like trying to transform these things into the simplest users formats you can try to push stuff out of complex labs and hospitals and getting close to people's homes down the road. All right. Let's bring all this back down to Earth. Remember we're looking for a fast easy accurate way to test for a virus, and that's exactly what Omar and Jonathan were getting at with this new crisper system. Well, they're missing one thing and that's an awesome razzle dazzle them. We called the technology sherlock in just twenty seventeen in science and wait remind me with Sherlock stands for. Man on the spot. So it's specific, high-sensitivity, enzymatic reporter unlocking specific high sensitivity, enzymatic.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Figure this out. So today on the show, we're going to talk about how gene editing tool called crisper might be able to revolutionize diagnostic testing I. Don't think I realized how crazy the journey would be, but the question is. It be ready for Primetime during this pandemic. It's really hail. Mary time this is Nova now, where we dive into the science behind the headlines I'm Alok Patel. First starters I WANNA. Get a primer on testing from someone who really knows her stuff Dr Butler wou what what is it that that you do? Okay, I am a board certified clinical microbiologist Susan Butler who runs the testing lab for the La County of Southern California, Medical Center one of the biggest public hospitals in the US. So my role is to essentially oversee diagnostic testing for infectious diseases. You are so needed right now because I have never I don't think anyone's ever seen so much public dialogue about testing things that are right things that are wrong completely misunderstood. So I just wanted to ask you if you were to do a bird's eye view of diagnostic testing right now regarding this current virus where your thoughts are, what are we doing? Well, what are we not doing well? Well. My appropriate language here. But if we were having adult beverages, I might be more colorful language There is a lot that's wrong right now because we essentially are dealing with a pandemic in the absence of any national strategy for testing, essentially, every person like me has to fight to get what they need for their own lab for their own institution to do testing, and that's part of the problem you know the other week I had to test at exposure at the hospital and it is surprising how difficult it was to get a test results back within two or three days most place I talked to were very open saying you know five to seven days whoa. One place even said up to fourteen days which at that point that's pretty much useless. Yeah. It's completely useless. That's why people are starting to think about things like Antigen testing just to be able to give something rapid back to people. But the problem is is that there's limitations with every type of test and people don't understand those limitations Just let's call it is it's it's a disgrace, your.
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Want to get a reflection from you because you're obviously not only are very savvy when it comes to. USPS and in L. Barcodes but can you just tell us? Can you do a little self reflection about the first time? You did a Melania vote what it felt like. Being. Totally honest. I was immediately. I really am. Analytical Person Through and through I need to spend time thinking about things before I just make a decision if I was at wools. I believe I would've been one of those people that's taking him excessive amount of time to cast my vote. I like being able to do for my home. It was delivered right to my front door I opened. It looked at everything on the ballot had information about the things I. wanted to potentially select. But then there was some things I wasn't entirely sure about pulled out my computer probably spent a good hour and a half watching videos of various candidates before casting my vote for some of the competitions on the ballot and then I live in a in a home where I can just put it out front. So my mail person can come back and get it. And I didn't even have to leave my house. Yeah I liked it. I liked it a lot. I could tell you were hugged. Say. So fascinating. Is there anything else you want people to know? Yes. So our election officials are working very hard to ensure that they're providing the best information. Possible. If you've got questions, be sure to reach out to them, and if you do you plan on voting by mail. Get everything done as early as possible requests that absentee ballot as soon as you can, and as soon as you receive your ballot, vote it ladies and gentlemen mic drop in the name of democracy just sending. Thank you so much. Here's the thing in the end how a revote it's your decision. If your request, an absentee ballot, you get it well in advance. So take your time have a cup of coffee re initiatives laid out in a Hammock, make it Sunday funday you do you. But remember wherever you do for November third science is helping to make sure your ballot counts. Nova. Now is a production of WG AGE NPR ex. It's produced by Ian Costs Ari Daniel Johnson Gonzales Hibbard Christina monon Sandra Lopez won't Salvi and Nina Zouqi. Julia. Corden Krishnan are the CO executive producers of Nova Dante Graves Director of Audience Development and Sukey Bennett is digital editor. Our theme music is by my very favorite. Kid, Koala. I'M PATEL WE'LL BE. Back in two weeks, which is enough time for you to hyper analyze the bar code on every piece of mail and perfect your unforgeable signature said a word..
"nova" Discussed on NOVA Now
"Straight up I feel like the news is giving us more questions when it's supposed to be giving us answers this packing is it amount to an act of war in your mind is or was that ever life on Mars? Do you trust political polls? Should you trust political pulse? Okay. But hello, where can I go to find answers real answers based on facts and not fiction That's where we come in. From the PBS series Nova, this is no now of biweekly podcast digging into the science behind the headlines even though you are likely not going to get symptoms you propagating the outbreak. I'm Alok Patel I'm a physician, a medical journalist, a science communicator, and I'm someone who wishes scientists and public health experts had the loudest megaphones on the planet. So. Let's give it to them. Being, exposed to these environmental chemicals, right this minute black holes can blow your mind. Most of us either have a reason condition or will soon. I love statistics is that it's the best crystal ball that humankind can have. We're going to talk to some brilliant people. We'll talk to engineers, gymnasts, mathematician surgeons, astrophysicists, chemists, maybe your high school biology teacher you name it to get their perspective on what's happening in the news. WE ARE DEVELOPING FORENSIC TECHNIQUES to protect world leaders from debates, wind and solar are much further ahead than anybody ever thought they would be ten years ago easing nothing but basic physics we can actually. Produce in our computers a virtual earth if we could just change the mosquitoes so they can't transmit malaria that would be the most elegant solution to a problem. Yeah. You hear all that those are scientific experts. So join us for Nova. Now we'll use science.