8 Burst results for "Norman Heatley"
"norman heatley" Discussed on The Science Show
"Night. The is filled with screaming goals and birds of death to hold german alcohol. Jomon bombs blew up. The locks retold the walker and dunkirk in loading pill times for the medical students at the done school. Like gus franco. One of my duties was to patrol around the done school of theology to protect the place against german parachutist related. Let's tin hat. A civilian gas mask and a wouldn't kudrow inscribed oxford university. Police aware of what they were doing in the trip that time. Certainly it was full of this chilling machines. Full of highly inflammable substances. My whole off the done school which cut lodge building became entirely. Converted into penicillin factor. Newman heatley a brilliant biochemist vital member of the oxford team records. The first groundbreaking experiments on mice eight mice were given a dose of a virulent streptococcus. Such a dose as would certainly kill them while naar later four of them were given penicillin and the other fall now owners controllers were given nothing sixteen and a half hours later the four controllers for dead but the enniskillen treated mice were alive and apparently quite well. Howard florey ernst chain norman. Heatley had the proof they needed. Chain apparently was almost dancing with delight and flurry well. He was as laconic as usual. But when he telephoned dr margaret jennings short time later. His excitement was obvious to her. When the professor rang me up on that sunday morning he expressed his feelings about the result of this experiment. By saying it looks like a miracle and as he was usually a person who was given to understatement. This was very surprising. The expression us meant that he was really excited about it. It's a take him some weeks to prepare enough penicillin for the mouse experiments. But flurry knew that a man is three thousand times the size of a mouse and if tests were ever to be carried out in man an enormous increase in production would be needed. The first difficulty was to obtain enough containers to grow the fungus in all kinds of lab class. Where president service as well as domestic things like is tends trays and namur bid pans. Bedpans were particularly good. But alas the into sixteen of them eventually affirm in the midlands offered to produce made-to-measure ceramic culture parts production increased a thousand times and soon there was enough for a human trial. A young doctor. Charles fletcher was to give the first injection of penicillin. Policeman who being in what is called. The septic ward a terrible for wall. We don't have now people with absences and balls and blames all them and this policeman was particularly bad ill. He'd had on his mouth about a month previously infection. It spread over his scalp had absences there to spread to build his is one of which had to be removed. He had absences being opened on off. He had absence of this lung. He was well on his way towards death on this total infection and we nothing to lose and everything to gain so we thought he'd have a try shortage of penicillin was such as off to the first day i collected all his. The school yard have been saved. And i took it in the battle over to the floor was working so that the penicillin convicts textured neo and used a gay in on the third day and when i got over that light focused flory was very taciturn. Mounir very man of few words and he was well. How's the patient chain was eastern european excitable. What's based like he's doing well and what that's marvelous and this lovely contests these two characters in charge of the work and every day. I did that on the third day. He was having the same venezuelans held on the first day. Fourth day he read. It was dramatically improved and he was sitting up in bed and his temperature. Come down but there was a dockside to the teams excitement. Flurry knew that the supplies of penicillin were running out. If the infection returned there was no drug. Left to fight it dr fletcher. I case was as well known tragedy because the supplies of penicillin ran out before the man was completely cured and he did impact dive the penicillin factory oxford couldn't hope to produce the necessary quantities of faster and cheaper way hat to be found. Norman heatley rory had tried to get british to make penicillin on a large scale but bombing was bad at this time and it was just not feasible. Therefore he took the bold step of going to america under the auspices of the rockefeller foundation trying to get american firms. Interested eventually yet. Another million to one chance. A friend of flurries suggested he visit an obscure little laboratory in the middle of the american wheat belt in peoria illinois. Their chemistry experimenting with agricultural waste products. One of the byproducts from turning corn into starch steep liquor and they decided to try growing the penicillin mold on this the mold love the new dot and increased its yield tenfold communicate of the pain. You don here. By over december nineteen.
"norman heatley" Discussed on Surprisingly Brilliant
"Was like a crazy full circle a coincidence it's. Working there right now on some of the bacterial problems of today, which I thought was beautiful. So why did we come back to penicillin? After giving up on it in the twenty s and what was going on in between one of the reasons that people didn't pursue penicillin as hard as they could have right after Fleming discovers, it is because something else comes onto the scene that sort of acts as a stopgap measure that is effective against bacterial infection, discovered in nineteen, thirty, five called Sulphur Nila might. To say so, Phil Knight. It's a chemical. It's a synthetic chemical that someone isolated from an oil based die, and not only was it discovered, but crucially was then altered into an effective treatment, and it's actually the first synthetic antibacterial drug, so it's not the first antibiotic, because antibiotics can be created by living things in the definition exactly, but this what we call sulphur drugs is developed into one drug, and then a whole suite of drugs which were used as first line treatments for bacterial infections, starting in the nineteen thirties, and they're actually still used today for very specific kinds of infections, but But within a few years of their development, bacteria start developing resistance mechanisms, so the discovery of sulphur drugs changes the mindset of a lot of people because a lot of scientists in the field are feeling very discouraged at this point in time. They're thinking God. We're never going to find anything that's GONNA be effective against bacterial infections, and they're feeling very put down by the fact that penicillin wasn't able to be formulated into something useful, and then sulphur drugs come along in. They're like no, it can be done. We're GONNA. Find it so a team at the done school in Oxford composed of. Chain Howard. Florey and Norman Heatley so three dudes. They pull out an old sample of Fleming's penicillin fungus, and they start to conduct those experiments that Mario mentioned. They successfully isolate and bacteria killing compound, which is what flemming failed to do, and they start seeing what it can do in an infected organism so one of the experiments that they did. That showed the pumping therapeutic. Potential Penicillin was Unin months so eight mice infected with STREPTOCOCCI Guy, this team that causes pneumonia skin infection sepsis. So four mice treated were seven and four. My served as a control, so they didn't receive any treatment twelve hours acting action, all control mice died and mice, receiving penicillin survived. That was incredible. Just imagine being in the lab. Seeing this results realizing that here. Right in front of you. Yeah! I mean that must be amazing. For ten years. People have been trying to isolate and purify penicillin. They've had this like. It's just been just with beyond reach and then to actually see that in the lab off. That must be amazing. Is We're onto a thing and you're thinking too I. Mean Antibiotics. Yes, we've talked about them in the context of the war and how many people they kill? We're looking at surgery. We're looking at every area of medicine is about to be totally revolutionized by our ability to prevent and treat infections so the Oxford team realizes what meets our mouse models. It's brought to you. They published their findings from this mouse experiment in nineteen forty, and they continue their research, and they're scaling up and they're trying to figure it out in human trials, but what else is going on in Britain in one, thousand, nine hundred forty. Greg is there. Is there someone in the studio who might be able to tell us a little thing or two about the U, K, in nineteen forty to? A. Massive bombings of London Europe at war, and beyond exactly World War Two pretty big deal, so flory chain and he are trying to make penicillin something that would be effective in humans, but flory. WHO's the leader of this? Oxford group says. A man is three thousand times as big as a mouse sort of as this example of how problematic is. It's hugely problematic to try and scale up production of penicillin work out the dose. Yes, I mean that's also a problem, but the reason we mentioned World War Two is because when you're trying to scale up production of a drug, you need industrial facilities, but Britain has requisitioned all of their industrial facilities to make munitions for the war and so Britain says hey, guys. Sorry, we don't have any resources for us. US but that the they're. They're on the precipice of of something. That's GONNA save a lot of lives of the people who are in World War. Two exactly. They are almost there and they're in their lab. They're using things like bedpans and bathtubs to cry and cultivate these this enzyme, this this active ingredient of penicillin fungus in large quantities to make something that will make a huge difference in the war. Do, they make enough well. They go to the United States. They say okay. We don't have the resources we need here in the UK. Three thousand bucks. Just, not cutting just enough bathtubs to make penicillin for five men. No one gets to wash. said the US. Who at the time in nineteen, forty is not actually part of World War Two yet? The US doesn't join world until nineteen forty one after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. So the US is still has resources Galore for them to use, and this is one of my favorite parts of the story, flory and heat. We make their way over to a research lab in Illinois, and they're worried that if they bring a sample of the fungus. Vile or some kind of container. It could be really easily stolen were lost, and so what they do instead is. They smear the fungus on their jackets. Jackets over on the journey to the US and then take a sample from the jacket and then cultivate fungus from there. Wow! Isn't that insane and Assyrian Polka? Xactly so they've made it all the way to the US with this fungus smeared on their jackets, but actually even the US won't give them enough resources to ramp up production enough to make penicillin for a whole army, until the US joins the war in nineteen forty one, and now they're invested, so there are scientists in the US who are really invested in this as well from a scientific perspective, but it's not until the US joins the war, and the military gets involved and is like. Like, we need penicillin as a war resource that they get the money and the facilities to make penicillin industrial quantities. So that's how we get there. So the US team the Oxford team they're working together to do some crazy amazing science to produce huge amounts of penicillin, and by nineteen forty four sufficient penicillin was available to treat soldiers Florida came in planning receive Annabel price in nineteen forty five. On this year we are celebrating seventy fifth anniversary of the Nobel Prize in medicine for Penicillin. And against this is discovery of penicillin is an example of how one of.
"norman heatley" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"It's kind of getting stuff wet with this this stuff that that that fights bacterial growth, but they couldn't isolate the compound that was causing the. The effect and stabilize it and make it make it generally useful so to quote from Aminov. Paper Aminov that I mentioned earlier quote for twelve years after his initial observation Alexander Fleming was trying to get chemists interested in resolving persisting problems with the purification and stability of the active substance and supplied the penicillin strain to anyone requesting it, but he really he, he could never cracked the nut oatmeal and he didn't finally make this discovery of the process I for stabilizing and isolating the compound and by nineteen forty. Aminov writes that fly. Ming finally abandoned his quest wood. Fortunately, it was right about that. That time that capable team at Oxford University, including the researchers Howard flurry in Ernst chain or Chine. They picked up on this research and they. They kicked off the research project that would eventually break through on this and they're all these interesting story, so of course, this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal, and there are all these stories about how they turned their lab, at Oxford into this giant incubation center, or factory for mold, like they employed all these lab assistants who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls. And they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs, and basically every container that they could And eventually they did. They were able to isolate and stabilize this compound so to quote from an Article from the American Chemical Society. In nineteen forty Flory, it'd be Howard Florey carried out vital experiments, showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February. Twelfth Nineteen, forty, one, a forty three year, old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses, and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting. Affecting his is facing lungs, penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery while, but unfortunately despite this recovery, which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander, eventually got worse again, and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course, they would. Would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him. and I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another important biochemist, a guy named Norman Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows. Shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin scale it that would be needed to even one person. Let alone. The whole world the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it, and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. concilium, which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the Penicillin Phil Trait, and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story I'd never heard about this The so the story goes like this..
"norman heatley" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Twelfth Nineteen, forty, one, a forty three year, old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses, and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting. Affecting his is facing lungs, penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery while, but unfortunately despite this recovery, which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander, eventually got worse again, and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course, they would. Would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him. and I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another important biochemist, a guy named Norman Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows. Shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin scale it that would be needed to even one person. Let alone. The whole world the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it, and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. concilium, which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the Penicillin Phil Trait, and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan Physician and medical historian Howard Markel. That tells a really interesting story I'd never heard about this The so the story goes like this. Apparently, one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day. Day In nineteen, forty, one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold, which is great, because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one but the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called penicillin. Chris. Chris O. GM with Markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and then later, markel writes the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab, so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much. Much insulin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine. All right on that note. We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back, we're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're going to look at it.
"norman heatley" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"All right. We're back now. We'll get to Alexander Fleming in a minute with the discovery of penicillin but Alexander Fleming was not the first to notice that there might be some anti microbial. Properties of certain fungi. That's right there. Was there was work. Going on in this area of prior to fling was was picking up on some of it and And really just all our understanding of a fun Guy In general was was advancing as we mentioned psychedelics episodes You know there was a time where we did not recognize guys being separate from the realm of plants right before we realized that it was a kingdom unto itself in all ultimately kingdom. That has a little more in common with the Animal Kingdom. It does with the plant kingdom and little a lot of talented folks working in this area but one of them might come a- surprise to a lot of people in that's because her name was Beatrix Potter who the the Bunny Rabbit. Bunny rabbits yes. Okay off the Bunny Rabbit Fame it was kind of a curious coincidence because I was reading about all this and then just randomly on the stuff to blow your mind discussion module which is the facebook group for people. Listen to the show to discuss episodes. Someone brought up. Yeah trix Potter in Regards to something to do with squirrels. Because there's a lot of squirrel squirrel content in the discussion module and they brought up Beatrix Potter and Beatrix Potter actually ties in to this episode. A little bit. Because in addition to being the author and illustrator of the the tale of Peter Rabbit and associated British Animal Tales. She was also a naturalist With a great deal of interest in astronomy and most importantly of all my college so she produced a lot of beautiful scientific watercolor illustrations of various fungi in her neck of the British Woods. And you know as part of her studies and if you studied a lot of local molds as well and did illustrations of them she's ultimately very interesting character. That was you know. Unfortunately she lives in a time in which You know the sexism of the day prevented her from I. Think reaching the heights of In the natural sciences that she would have been afforded later on but in a lot of her work is also just being think rediscovered and appreciated for the first time in recent decades. But yeah the next time someone busts out some dietrich's potter remember. This is not just an individual who wrote some fanciful tales and illustrated them. She was also just. She was out there studying the natural world and in create in in advancing our understanding of my college. She was sort of a looking into the hidden life of nature in multiple ways. Yeah no and I see some sources that are asking the question. Okay was Beatrix Potter. She a true naturalist true natural scientists over she just to lead an amateur. There was just very interested in things. And I don't know it's kind of a COUPLA question. Ask when you consider like the limitations in the Victorian era for women a but I I think undoubtedly she she I I would side with the fact that she was a natural scientist She authored or co authored. One paper if I remember correctly so I'm I'm gonNA give her giver. Full credit was about Fungi It was it was a mushroom in particular I forget was one of those related to the Russillo mushrooms but forget which species but Bama basically she was she was kind of up against the the patriarchy For the most part though yeah well is it. Time to turn to penicillin itself. Yes let's turn to the key discovery here and our inventor are discover Alexander Fleming. Okay so who was Alexander Fleming? Okay so Fleming was born in eighteen. Eighty one died in nineteen fifty five and he was a Scottish biologist. Physician microbiologist and pharmacologist. He was the son of a farmer and he observed and studied a great deal of death from Sepsis in world. War One He observed that while Antiseptics worked well at the surface a deeper wounds sheltered bacteria from the effects of things like sulfur drugs right so if you have kind of superficial wound you could clean it off pretty good and and that might help protect you from from bacterial infection. But if you have a deep wound and say like dirty stuff bits of soil and other you know just crud gets lodged deep in there. You might not be able to clean the wound out very well right. And that's exactly the kind of stuff that's going to get lodged in there especially with your war ones where there is a stab or Or or deep cut or a bullet entering the body. We'll makes me think about the when we were reading about the idea of Stegosaurus. Perhaps weapon I mean not consciously stegosaurus perhaps Having an adaptation to weaponize infection against its enemies by dragging its Tagamet through the Dung. Right exactly yeah. Having Dirty Bagga miser spikes and then when it wax the T. Rex in the crotch with them the that gets infected later in eliminates a Predator from the area and The the the predators of the day would not have had access to antibiotics. Certainly not or even that beer from the we mentioned earlier so full fling devoted himself to research and he it prior to penicillin he discovered a license Zayn. Naturally occurring enzyme in Mucus and other parts of the body than inhibits bacteria. So you know he was already you know in this. This area looking for for new New Breakthroughs new discoveries but then his biggest breakthrough of all is this discovery of penicillin. And it's truly one of the more amazing inventions slash discovery moments from history because while he was exactly the right person to make the discovery and then deserves all the credit was given. The key. Moment comes down really to pure luck and we simply don't know if anyone else would have made the discovery if he had not been there to observe it. Okay so what happened with this discovery? So around like nineteen twenty seven or so. He had engaged himself in studying. Staphylococci the staff and he had stacks of Petri dishes displacements in his lab which I've seen described as kind of an untidy lab. So you know imagine all these likes like. Petri dishes full staff all over the place notes and so forth and so the key moment comes in September of Nineteen. Twenty eight right right so he has these staff Petri dishes out and he leaves them for the weekend to go on holiday with his family and he when he comes back. Expect to see how they've progressed. See how they've grown a but he finds that they haven't grown in fact they have died. Something has ravaged his specimens. Yeah now this is one of those stories where it gets very narrative is so you do have to wonder if some details of it or embellish. How the story may have changed over time but this is the way the story has been passed down and I think it seems to be largely basically true The way that I've seen the story often told us that he comes in. There's a blob of mold growing in one of the plates and all around the mold. There's this halo of nothingness. Where normally what you'd see is that if you got a plate for culturing bacteria there would be these little dots in blobs on the on the late but instead there's this halo where there's no bacteria bacterial dead zone now. Of course we know. Staphylococcus is is a bacterium grouped linked to all kinds of human disease and misery. Staph infections right. If this mold could kill staff that seems medically relevant. So what happened here? Well he he. He realized that he was dealing with some sort of a fun guy. So he Luckily there was a microbiologist with lab just below Fleming on the floor below his lab a man by the name of cj La Touche and in fact it's also been suspected that the mold and question that killed Fleming's staff might have drifted up from Shays lab adding an extra element of weird chance to this whole situation. Okay so perhaps. His samples were contaminated by stuff from the lab. Next door down on a floor right. That's not that's not a theory that's presented in every source does pop up fairly frequently so specifically this mold was what would later be identified. As a strain of penicillin no tottenham and. It was obvious that it's secreted something that prevented staph bacteria from growing and so fleming followed up in studying the secretion. This this mold juices. I've seen it called. He found it. Didn't only prevent the growth of staphylococcus. It worked against common bacteria like streptococcus or meningococcus and And the Beck and also against the bacterium that Causes Diptheria. Interestingly while Fleming did see applications for penicillin and curing disease and he mentioned briefly in the paper he published in nineteen twenty nine about this discovery about The the antibacterial properties of concilium He primarily thought of this secretion of penicillin as a tool for bacteriologist to sort strains of bacteria basically independent sensitive versus non penicillin sensitive species and the that that could be useful in the lab. Yeah so he's sometimes criticised is really not understanding completely what he had here not having the vision to see where could go well. I don't think he completely understood but he he did indicate that this could possibly have uses in medicine right So Fleming and his assistance Stewart. Craddock and Frederick Ridley tried for years to turn this accidental discovery into a stable isolated compound that would be useful and this. This was a problem because like so. You've got this secretion from the mold molds making some juice. It's kind of getting stuff wet with this. This stuff that that That fights bacterial growth. But they couldn't isolate the compound that was causing the effect and stabilize it and make it make it generally useful So to quote from Aminov Paper Aminov that I mentioned earlier quote for twelve years after his initial observation. Alexander Fleming was trying to get chemists interested in resolving persisting problems with the purification and stability of the active substance and supplied the penicillin. Anyone requesting it but he really he he could never cracked the nut ultimately and he didn't finally make this discovery of the process for For stabilizing isolating the compound and by Nineteen Forty. Aminov writes that Flaming finally abandoned his quest wood. Fortunately it was right about that time that capable team at Oxford University including the researchers Howard Florey Ernst chain or Chine they Picked up on this research and they they kicked off the research project. That would eventually break through on this And they're all these interesting story so of course this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal and there are all these stories about how they turned their lab at Oxford into this giant incubation center or factory for mold like they employed all these lab assistants. Who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls and they would work too. Like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs and basically every container that they could And eventually they did. They were able to isolate and stabilize this compound so to quote from an article From the American Chemical Society in Nineteen forty. Flory it'd be Howard. Florey carried out vital experiments. Showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February twelfth nineteen forty one a forty three year old policeman. Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford Penicillin. He'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses and developed a life threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his is facing lungs. Penicillin was injected and within days. He made a remarkable recovery. Wow but unfortunately despite this recovery which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander eventually got worse again and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him. That after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course they would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin. He excreted again so that it could be re administered to him And I should mention also that the the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin. The mold juice was led by another Important biochemist a guy named Norman. Heatley but this case of Albert Alexander shows an obvious early problem. They had which was the problem of scale. They simply lacked the ability to make penicillin at the scale. It that would be needed to even one person let alone. The whole world The strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus concilium. Which would maybe they thought produce higher concentrations of the penicillin filtration and I was reading an interesting by the University of Michigan physician and medical historian. Howard markel that tells a really interesting story had never heard about this The so the story goes like this. Apparently one of the assistants at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day in nineteen forty one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold which is great because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one But the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called Penicillin Chris O. Gm which Markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and Then later markel writes the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab. So like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain. That would make up to a thousand times as much insulin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine. All right on that note. We're GONNA take a quick break when we come back. We're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're going to look at it.
"norman heatley" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"Of the drug the Sulfur Syrup in October of nineteen thirty seven and almost immediately deaths were reported and the FDA launched into action and tracked down the almost the entirety of that initial shipment of thank gracious so this company was brought to trial over this but they were not brought to trial because they're drug had killed a bunch of people the only thing that they could be like find sued for is because they had mislabeled their drug as an elixir. And it wasn't an elixir. Because by law elixirs were required to contain alcohol. And this did not I. I know I don't even have any words right now. Actually I know they were. You know they were find. That's that's about it. This was nineteen thirty seven. Yeah Okay Cool And one good thing did come out of this. And that was the nineteen thirty eight Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that introduced some much much needed regulation and oversight into the manufacturer and sales of medicines. Yeah spending time sulfur. Drugs continued to be widely used and were a key component in fighting infections during World War. Two and so it might not be that surprising that these were the first antibacterial drugs that we see antibiotic resistance towards for example in the late nineteen thirties. Ninety percent of soldiers treated for gonorrhea with this drug were cured but by nineteen forty two that had fallen to seventy five percent and would continue to drop who we just a few years but this concerning development was somewhat overshadowed by the introduction of an entire suite of antibiotics snaps. Here we go into it. I feel like this is where most people probably expected the story to begin so a hundred percent. I think the whole story of sulfur drugs is not as well known as penicillin. I sure spoilers. And there's a whole book about it that I have to confess. I haven't read but I wanted to if I had more time. Called the demon under the microscope. And that's about sulfur drugs cool but anyway okay so yes I think most people are at least somewhat familiar with the story of Fleming's accidental quote unquote discovery of Penicillin. But just in case. I'll take us through it because there's also some fun things that I learned of course here and there always are there always are all right so in. Nineteen Twenty eight Alexander. Fleming was a researcher in a lab in Saint Mary's Hospital in London and by this time his work during World War One on the role of anaerobic bacteria in battle wounds and the harm that antiseptics and wound treatment can cause as well as his discovery of the digestive enzyme license. I'm these things had established him as an intelligent and insightful scientist he also claimed to have discovered I'm by when his drip From his nose accidentally fell on a plate of bacteria he was culturing in. They died and so he's like. Oh there must be something in my snot and then so he discovered license. I'm okay inside. Cool yeah so. He was just admitted to the world that he had a snotty nose that he just let drip everywhere. Yep Yeah I mean. He was known by his Co workers to be pretty messy. Yeah well not that having snotty nose makes you messy but like this is just I think. In addition so in August of Nineteen Twenty eight as the story goes he left for vacation in Scotland. Leaving Petri dishes of staff cultures just out on the bench and a window open when he came back a couple of weeks later he found spots of fungal contamination on one of his plates in the fungus. Probably he assumed blue in through the open window and around the spots of fungus technically mold actually was a clearing so a ring where all the staff cultures on these plates had died. Fleming recognized this. Mold represented some amazing possibilities in terms of killing bacteria and so he set to work trying to cultivate it and he later discovered actually was told by another colleague that it was penicillin. Not Adam now penicillin crisis Jim. I think that's how you pronounce it item. Not sure and he reasoned that if there was something which he referred to as mold juice produced by this mold that inhibited the growth of bacteria and he called that penicillin he published this finding in March of nineteen twenty nine in an article called on the antibacterial action of cultures of penicillin with special reference to their use in the isolation of be influenza. What an amazing story of accidental brilliance and insight. You know wh or was it. It's I will say what's impressive is like you pay that much attention to the plates that you supposedly just forgot left lying around all empty array you come back and you're like let me inspect this. Ooh I see a fungal growth and a small clearing around it like it's pretty good. It's pretty I mean I am by no means saying that. This is not impressive. I just think and this is not. This is not you thought unique to me. This is definitely something I picked from these books that I read. This probably wasn't as accidental of a discovery as he claimed it to be. The insight was still brilliant and amazing. But let's just let's just go through some of the points of the story that don't make a lot of sense first of all that window. That just happened to be open. According to other people in the lab it was like opened so it would be kind of strange that he would leave it open for like a bunch of weeks at a time. Yeah and then. The timeline itself is a bit fuzzy so Fleming said he was gone for at least five weeks and then it was no more than two and I could just be the not remembering. Well if you're recalling this years into the future but the biggest plot hole lies in the biology of this penicilliums species so although Fleming wouldn't have known this the staff a plate would have killed the mold before it would produce penicillin If the plates already had those cultures they're like they did before he left and the penicillin blew into the window. That staff would have killed the mold before it could produce the compound penicillin. H- so there's rings weren't possible so what actually was going. Well Fleming was a rather inventive guy who liked to play games. He would paint pictures of the Union Jack or The logo of Saint Mary's using different bacterial species in this was mid nineteen twenties. When you would have had to have encyclopedic knowledge of bacteria to be able to pull that off. Yeah that's pretty cool. Yeah and he was also painfully shy and hated discussing his methods or results with anyone So the best guests from the author of the book that I read about this is that he invented the story so as not to have to describe his process of discovery and he may have actually been looking at more sources for. I'm thinking maybe it's found in mold or pence Liam as well because basically they're saying he would have had to basically plate the mold before he played it the staph Aureus to be able to actually kill stacked with the with that mold right exactly I mean but regardless of how he arrived at this discovery he still discovered it and bring naked those dots. Yeah that's pretty cool there impressive dots to connect. That's for sure super impressive. I don't know why he would have chalked it. Up to like serendipity. I don't know maybe maybe it's like more fun to have a lightbulb moment than like you know the incremental progress and like years of hard work and inside. I. I don't know I don't know. Don't have the APP Cingo. But if there's one name that we associate with penicillin it's Fleming Right and if there's one era in the first half of the twentieth century right However ooh however it turns out that the bacteria killing quality of penicillin molds had been observed before as early as the eighteen hundreds when Sir John Scott Burden Sanderson Joseph Lister and John Tyndall all observed separately that bacteria would not grow in media that had been contaminated by mold and lister and Tyndall when as far as to describe the mold as penicillin species and there are other instances of people recognizing the power of mold. So what made flemming's discovery a breakthrough while the others remained simply observations right so one reason is that Fleming saw the implications that this could have for treating infections and also because he set out trying to isolate his mold use compound basically turning his lab into this penicillin farm. Okay and when they They meaning Fleming in his assistant Stewart. Craddock finally had enough mold us to test it out. They realized that it killed. Not just AFLA cocky bacteria but also STREPTOCOCCI and a bunch of other groups. Bacteria gram positive bacteria They also realized that some bacteria were immune to penicillin Gram negative among others and the final really important realization was that it was a not harmful to non bacterial cells. Yeah that was the big one right. This was finally like was this. The magic bullet seemed to fit. But all of these observations were made through bench work alone. Fleming never tested out penicillin on an animal. Maybe he never thought of it. Maybe it was just too difficult to isolate the compound And finally the lab where he worked at Saint. Mary's IT's simply wasn't equipped to do the kind of work that he was doing there. Were very few chemists. Working there and overall it was much much less funded than the chemical companies who microbiologists were partnering with in Germany So there was only so much fleming could do but where Fleming left off flory picked up in one thousand nine hundred eighty five Australian. Howard flurry was professor of pathology and fellow of Lincoln College at Oxford and was leading a research group to investigate why bacteria could not penetrate the wall of the GI tract or did not seem to. He suspected license which your member from Flemming's discovery and to carry out his research. He realized he needed to form a strong collaboration with chemists. Honestly Erin I think I had no idea that. This episode was going to be propaganda for chemistry. But I'm I'm one over there. I'm here for it okay. Anyway he ended up partnering with a couple of chemists one named EA H Richards who appear phyliss time and another named Ernst chain. Who would identify its substrate? These efforts were part of a larger goal of the lab that had begun in nineteen thirty seven which was to survey. This is a massive undertaking to survey. All of the antibacterial substances produced by microorganisms. All of them just all of them by all of the microorganisms cook. Cool work out for them actually. Pretty great because penicillin molds. Were on that long list. But in the eight years since flemming had published his paper in nineteen twenty nine not much substantial work been done on penicillin and Fleming had all but abandoned it at one lab group afternoon. Tea Flurry was talking about. What a difficult time. Fleming and a biochemist name. Racetrack had in trying to stabilize. Penicillin and Shane was like well. They must not have been very good chemists and took it as a personal challenge to try to do it himself. I relate to that and Shane but chain at the time had his hands full with a bunch of other chemical experiments penicillin so he called on biochemist. Norman Heatley who all accounts was the nicest most humble like kind person in this group and he so he wanted. Heatley to work on growing enough of this penicillin mold to make research feasible. Okay and where? Fleming had lacked the equipment and chemical minds to make forward progress with penicillin. Flurries lab just lacked money period and eventually the Rockefeller Foundation awarded a nice grant to help them along and it was just an icky time because the penicillin project had been yielding some very promising results so heatley had been able to extract larger quantities of penicillin..
"norman heatley" Discussed on Curiosity Daily
"He's flurry and his team spent years trying to solve this problem testing the contents of soil samples from all over the world but none produced the mold they needed finally they conor break with some help from a bacteria logist named mary hunt. She'd been collecting moldy food. She found it bakeries and grocery stores than isolating the mold and the lab. The moldy winner ended up being a texas cantaloupe. That was perfectly ripe. Save for a small mold growth at its naval hunt even cut up the cantaloupe for the staff to eat and it was reportedly delicious us. The mold turned out to be the fungus penicillin crisis g._m. We're shielded two hundred times the penicillin fleming strain and once the fungus was exposed. I i x rays and later to you. The radiation it's production yields increased even more in one thousand nine forty-five the nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to alexander zander fleming howard florey and ernst chain who is a biochemist who'd worked with flory on trying to reproduce this stuff. Most of us only remember fleming and that's mostly because of oxford offered universities p._r. Efforts and yes he should certainly be celebrated for his discovery but howard florey ernst chain norman heatley. Mary hunt and countless others were responsible for making penicillin a reliable practical drug that made it the greatest medical advances of the twentieth century very few advances come from only one the individual and this breakthrough was the definition of a team effort. Remember history isn't always as simple as it might seem and neither is science another thing thing that seems so simple but we have some drawbacks wireless charging. I hate to be the bearer of bad news but researchers say that wireless charging technology called inductive zip charging may be bad for your battery as reported by few charity inductive charging leads power source transmits energy across an air gap smartphones taken that energy gene with inductive charging coils. You'll find in newer devices especially in the last couple of years. You don't have to deal with cables when you do this but you do have to deal with potentially damaging heat that had charging pad can generate and that's part of the problem. The power receiving coil is usually close to the back cover of the phone which is usually electrically non-conductive. Thanks to packaging constraints. The phone's battery and power electronics are usually pretty close together so there's not much room to dissipate heat generated in the phone or to shield the phone from he comes from the charger. It's well documented that batteries age more quickly when they're exposed to higher temperatures so researchers researchers decided to conduct some experiments to see how inductive charging might affect a phone especially if it's not lined up correctly on the charging base that's because on a phone is poorly aligned and a wireless charger those inductive charging systems can increase their transmitter power or adjust their operating frequency that basically it means the charges less efficient and you end up generating more heat and it's actually pretty easy to miss a line your phone since the actual position of your phones receiving antenna isn't it's always obvious the researchers found that when a phone charged using a conventional cable the maximum temperature was never higher than twenty seven degrees celsius or eighty point and six degrees fahrenheit when the phone used inductive charging even when it was properly aligned its peak temperature was roughly ten percent higher at thirty point point five degrees celsius or eighty six point nine degrees fahrenheit that temperature didn't get much higher when the phone was misaligned but the peak temperature was reached sooner and and lasted more than twice as long. This isn't all bad news. The researchers noted that using ultra thin coils higher frequencies and making some other improvements could help alleviate this problem as this technology continues to develop for now inductive charging me be convenience but it'll probably reduce the life of your mobile phone battery. If that's the price you willing willing to pay for the convenience then go for it but if you want your phone to live its longest life then maybe stick to the cable. There's something to be said for being old school. Sometimes the alpha dog is a canine myth certain t._v. Dog trainers have made careers out of telling us that dogs will only respect your authority if they see you as the <music> alpha or dominating pack leader but this so-called alpha dog theory just isn't true what you're really needs. According to most animal behaviorists is reinforcement enforcement consistency and love the concept of alpha wolf originated with animal behaviorist rudolph schinkel who spent the nineteen thirties and forties studying studying the social interaction of wolves at the basal zoo in switzerland. His findings showed the group naturally competed for status until a male and female emerged as dominant in the pack but we now know that his entire paper was based on a faulty premise the idea that a bunch of unrelated animals brought together in captivity would behave the same way they would in the wild it would be like trying to learn about average human family dynamics by studying humans in refugee camps according to new research wild wolves actually live even family units that are strikingly similar to those of humans the parents guide the family's activities and split the chores of feeding pup rearing and protection and as the the pups get older their social status is based on birth order with the oldest of the top. This means so-called dominance training to change a dog's behavior is based on faulty science. It's even though they're used by celebrity. Trainers like cesar milan dominance tactics like mild quick smacks on the flank or pending dog on its back using an alpha role are ineffective at best. The american veterinary society of animal behavior has released a statement against the use of punishment modifying. Your pet's behavior and bonnie beaver the former president of the american veterinary medical association told time that they're on record as opposing some of the things cesar milan does instead most experts advise advised training that focuses on positive reinforcement in the end the risk of too. Many treats is much lower than a stressed insecure dog for we wrap up. I want to ask you to do us originally quick favor. It has been like a year since we asked for anybody to rate and review us on your favorite podcast app. It's not a thing that we're going to beg you to do every day but it'd be nice to see a a little boost and reviews once in a while just to help other people know at a glance that we're a good show and then we're worth listening to so if you're enjoying this then please distract us a quick rating in review and maybe we'll read your review on a future episode like this one from depan ville who says imagine hanging out with two youthful co workers or classmates who are excited to share things. They've just learned. I think that's a pretty good description and just last month. Sarah dear wrote. I love this podcast. I listen to it every day on my commute and it's very thought provoking. We are glad to provoke. Your thoughts asserted dear. I'm allowed to say that that's the username listed. It'd be rude. I don't wanna be overly familiar sarah or sara dear however you'd like to be addressed. Sarah darling's darlings. She said it not me. Thank you for writing that and for your feedback and yeah we're always happening here. The people are like in the show anyway now. Let's recap what we learned today today. We learned that we have penicillin. Thanks to more than a decade of research from lots of scientists not just one guy and that wireless charging might hurt your battery marib heating it up too much and the wild wolves actually operate like human families so you shouldn't try to teach dog otherwise but every cat is the alpha cat its own heart. You know how you address a cat right. Oh no you say it's not a dog cats the musical it's it's on tour join us again tomorrow to learn something new in just a few minutes. I'm cody. Gosh i'm ashley hamer. Stay curious on the westwood one podcast network..
"norman heatley" Discussed on Invention
"Fleming finally abandoned his quest but fortunately it was right about that time that a capable team at Oxford University including the researchers Howard Florey and Ernst chain or Chine they <hes> picked up on this research and they they kicked off the research project that would eventually break through on this <hes> and they're all these interesting story. So of course this is while World War Two is going on right so research conditions are not ideal and <hes> they're they're all all these stories about how they turned their lab at Oxford into this giant incubation center or sort of factory for mold like they employed all these lab assistants who were these women who had been referred to in some sources as the penicillin girls half and they would work too like they would work to grow the penicillin and buckets and tubs and basically every container that they could <hes> and eventually they did they were able to isolate and stabilize allies this compound so to quote from an Article <hes> from the American Chemical Society in Nineteen Forty Flory and that would be Howard Florey carried out vital experiments showing that penicillin could protect mice against infection from deadly STREPTOCOCCI then on February twelfth nineteen forty one a forty three year old policeman Albert Alexander became the first recipient of the Oxford penicillin he'd scratched the side of his mouth while pruning roses and developed a life <unk> threatening infection with huge abscesses affecting his is facing lungs penicillin was injected and within days he made a remarkable recovery well but unfortunately despite this recovery which lasted for a few days they ran out of the drug and Alexander eventually got worse again and he died and I was reading that they were so desperate to cure him that after Alexander urinated while on his antibiotic course they would collect the urine and try to extract the penicillin he he excreted again so that it could be re administered to him <hes> and I should mention also that the process that the Oxford team relied on to extract and purify the penicillin and the mold juice was led by another important biochemist a guy named Norman Heatley ugly but this case of Albert Alexander shows an obvious early problem they had which was the problem of scale they simply lacked the ability to make penicillin at the scale it that would be needed to treat even one person let alone the whole world <hes> the strain of mold that they were using didn't make enough of it and this led to the search for other species of the same fungal genus penicillin which would maybe they thought produced higher concentrations of the penicillin filter eight and I was reading an interesting article by the University of Michigan physician and Medical Historian Howard Markel that tells a really interesting story. I'd never heard about this. <hes> so the story goes like this apparently one of the assistance at the Oxford lab showed up for work one day in nineteen forty one with a cantaloupe that she'd bought at the market because it was covered in a weird looking golden mold which is great because this would be the one case where somebody is picking over the fresh produce to like find the moldy one <hes> the mold on this cantaloupe turned out to be a strain of penicillin called Penicillin Chris O._G._S._M.. Which markle says naturally produced at least about two hundred times as much penicillin as the original strain that they've been studying and <hes> then later markel writes the the same strain was subjected to mutagenic processes in the lab so like bombarding it with x rays and stuff to produce a mutated strain that would make up to a thousand times as much penicillin as the old school fleming mold so by nineteen forty one penicillin is on its way to becoming a viable medicine all right on that note? We're GONNA take a quick break. When we come back? We're going to look at the impact of penicillin and we're GONNA look at it <hes> in and I think a fun way by considering really interesting arresting. What if.