35 Burst results for "Nobel Prize"
Optimize Your Brain: Fighting Cognitive Decline With Nutrition & Lifestyle
"What is it about age or maybe neurology that makes people set in their ways as they get older. It is a weird thing right. It really is more difficult to entertain new ideas. I think it varies from person to person but in my experience just comfort you know when once you set a path in. You're comfortable with it. Your brain doesn't really allow you to change that math. It's like walking on a snow track. It's so deeply set in the walls or sol-solid that it's difficult for you to actually make a new pathogens and it requires a lot of reflection and judgment and being okay to make mistakes and the discomfort in being uncomfortable the comfort in being uncomfortable. They can help you set noise but it does seem like that becomes much more of a challenge. It does it does We the whole idea of change is not normal. I'm talking about chronic change acute chain. We're good at it because an acute change we had to for millions of years. There's a tree there's a lion you know. Better make change in my decision making. I'm not going to go down. This stop long-term change were not designed for that were not our brains are not designed for long term change. That's a completely different mechanism. And and if we and if we don't address that i mean to be honest i know that it's not be recalled. Our political stances. Everything is around this concept of being with change. I always say about. Five percent of population is future seekers. Another ninety five percent is passed protectors And you have to be pass protector in many ways because protection has worked. Whatever has gotten you here as you depending on the past patterns right but all the change in society in the world around us is by those five percent. Whatever i'm using arbitrary number that are comfortable. This is weird. People comfortable with change with the unknown. The three hundred sixty degrees of are known. You're willing to go there and yet this house. that's comfortable you're willing to leave it to go to the next place. That's an unusual concept Were which comes with the frontal lobe but but That's why as we get older. We become more set on all the strings that connects us to the past. You want us. To sever sever sever suffers to go to a new path. That is unknown at a time. Where i'm already vulnerable. Yeah that's too much risk. Yeah yeah is there a genetic piece to that when you look at that five percent can you isolate out what it is that distinguishes them neurologically from very early. You can tell there. There's a genetic component environmental component that genetic anxiety is at the core of all this stuff or term that is like anxiety we using anxiety as a just as a word. That's as filler. But it's a little more than that. Our ability to deal with the world around us for the most part for at the beginning is genetically you can see children. We have two children both trust me. We're gonna talk about them. But they're very precocious. Yeah incredibly but the understatement of the century go ahead make very different very different. Alex is what you could see when you when you I'm not putting him down. Because this is not a weakness this is just our proclivities. We can change you when you put him on the sand when he was six months. Old us som- do this. He hated sand. Sofi would crawl to the ocean. Having right away. I mean that's a threat. Why are you not threatened. By very thing you're supposed to be threatened by north right so that threat aversion versus not the river part of it is intrinsically ingrained in us part of it is actually data shows part of. It's actually program how your mother reacts to anxiety provoking moments mother because the is there all the time wherever you're around the most and how they react know how they promote challenging situations and anxiety provok- situation how they react with it and how they deal with it is the forget about leadership masters. I got a phd. Forget about that ends and starts there. Yeah you create situations that are a little bit anxiety provoking. You fail nothing. My parents didn't react badly. You succeed great how you react. And how does micro environments of threat version threat response. Threat creation and response is the foundation of all leadership. Yeah i would think from an environmental perspective or i mean an evolutionary perspective that You know maintaining your membership in good standing with your community is paramount right. So if that community is welcoming to people who pushed the boundaries and try new things. That's one thing but if that sort of thinking outside the box is gonna alienate you than You there's gonna be some pushback right there's a disincentive. That's that's butting up against somebody's willingness to entertain new ideas or try new things always an and the culture that's been set in place that creates an aversion to change the language the micro languages that anything that somebody brings that his little threatening to the status quo. You have things out. This is a this is arrogant. The word arrogant to push away. People who have new ideas is universe. It's it's such a ubiquitous silencing technique and When you look at when you look at the main reason why people are not willing to change his the fear of being ostracized like you said. Nobody wants to get out of that comfortable zone. Because it's really difficult to be alone in your way of life in your new methodology in your new habits and that's that's the first step that people have to challenge themselves to take over right given that though it's interesting that most environments are not really that permissive when it comes to free thinking and creative expression and most are pretty regimented around. What's okay and what's not but it would. It would seem like we should be more encouraging to that permissive environments. And why is that. Why are we not able to make that more. The case as opposed to you know the slim five percent or whatever it is. Yeah well we have ghanistan and with taliban around us yet. That same mentality exists here in the medical community and by the way this is me not bashing dramatic medical community like part of the only the medical community here to know about just their mentality. that's all know. But but the stagnant comfort with the status quo. Right is the same thing. I mean the hallways of your limbic system are the same You might have put it better clothes and better beards and you know my beard was a little better here than that but if the mentality is i must maintain it's not always over. I must maintain the status. And i don't know even why because it makes me uncomfortable. It's a satan. yeah. I mean to In two thousand two before we met two months earlier. I'm an experimental therapeutics branch. That's as wonky as as experimental as it gets speaking with nobel prize winners two months later. I'm in afghanistan. Speaking with taliban leaders. Both places trying to bring change. And i can promise you. The the the language was much more sophisticated But the blockades same protection of the status quo. That's why i mean when we talk about. Dementia we talk about stroke. We talk about mental health. Even now that repetition of the same patterns over and over again. I'm now some other. Studies are starting with clinical trial with hundred people. Fifty people six. We're done. We know what works.
From wild idea to COVID vaccine meet the mRNA pioneer who could win a Nobel
"Renew and november. When the first cases started the pop up and wuhan china their description of the virus there description of how easily it was transmitted between families once. We heard that we knew that. This virus had the potential to be a bad actor at that moment in time we said. How are we going to get the sequence for this virus and we started calling our friends and china. We called our friends at the cdc trying to get the sequence of this virus the minute that was published. We started to make our vaccines back on. I think it was january twelfth. We started making the first aren a vaccine that day. It has all happened. Unfathomably fast has an at twelve months later and the pfizer and maduna vaccines have made their way through large clinical trials with good results into syringes and now already into millions of arms. But this quite a back story here. We thought that it would be useful in a pandemic. We thought it would be influenza pandemic but you back in two thousand and five. When we made the initial observation we knew that aren a had a great potential therapeutics. Who with his collaborator catala career. How is a good bit to win a nobel prize for the science driving. Mri vaccines. he's one of my guests on science fiction today. What's been lost in the fast pace race to develop covid nineteen vaccine. This past year is a hidden story of dogged. Pursuit of a nollie scientific idea over decades often in the face of skeptics and nice ideas we went through pharmaceuticals venture capitalists. All other people. it said. Hey we have a great new invention here. And they weren't interested. They said now aren as too hard to work with. We don't think it'll ever work and they just weren't interested now with a pandemic bang with suddenly counting on mri vaccines lock eyes and medina's to help save us. But before this pandemic this brand new technology of marigny vaccines had never been approved for use in humans before. It's incredible isn't it. The heddon even made it to the stage of large scale clinical trials in humans. I don't think anybody could have predicted. Just how effective these vaccines were. And i still get chills. When i remember the moment when that announcement was made a few months ago biologist onto fox is future fellow and associate professor at the university of western australia. It has proved the nice as wrong. I mean given that fifty percent effective is the baa that the world health organization would've liked to say as the minimum to be getting ninety. Five percent is just astounding really hardly any vaccines have that level of efficacy. Cullen pat and professor of pharmaceutical biology at monash pharmaceutical sciences. He's team is working on two different. Mri vaccines for covid. Nineteen in collaboration with the doughy institute in melbourne change from the point of view the future of emo toy syrupy and we haven't had a vaccine working against corona virus. Before i could understand the science. And i could see how theoretically it might work. But i just couldn't see how we could actually make enough to be the billions of doses needed for the world. And that's still looking doc- rod it's entirely contingent on just to pharmaceutical companies meeting. The world's entire supply demands including ours here in australia. Will you receive the pfizer vaccine together just before christmas. We did the vaccine driven by your discovery. Can you describe what that moment was like figuring. My family always yells at me. Because i'm not excited enough. And they're right for man who co owns the intellectual property licenses to medina and i dream osman humble kind of guy. We were incredibly excited. When we saw the results of the phase three trial that are vaccine. Worked and of a safe and had ninety. Five percent efficacy. I'm already moved on to the next thing the next back scene. The next gene therapy you. I'm incredibly excited. That this vaccine is working that it's gonna make a dent in this pandemic many think that there's a nobel prize in chemistry waiting in the wings for you and dr katie. Rico what do you make of that. So people tell the too modest. And i really don't do things for prizes or recognition or anything else.
Journalist In Myanmar Recounts Ongoing Military Coup
"No one quite expected them to do it. That's what a journalist says in Myanmar after a military coup. The armed forces have never been fully out of power in that country. But in 2015, they allow democratic elections won by the party of Aung San Souci. She had received a Nobel Prize for her decades long fight for democracy, including years under arrest. The military's partial retreat allowed me and Marta and its global isolation. Then this week, the military retook full power and on sans Souci is detained again. Parts of the Internet are blocked and Myanmar but we reached journalist Amen Thon and Yangon, which is a city of some five million. There's a curfew union go on at 8 P.m.. Every night, People have been going on to the bathroom ease or outside to the front of their homes and banging pots and pans. It's a traditional Berman's ritual to get rid of evil spirits in your house every night. It's been getting louder and longer, and you could just hear the sound echoing through the city. We should remind people that the coup was over and election result in November and had been feared for some time. Was there a great deal of suspense in recent months? Not really. But it wasn't a complete surprise, but no one quite expected them to do it. People assume that that this was, you know, posturing and threats. But you know, leading up to the last couple days before the coup. There were some really alarming pictures of a tank in London, as well as unusual movements by the military near military installations throughout man lost Even then, people didn't really think they would actually do a real coup. What did you hear from people when it became clear that it really was a co was quite a lot of despair. I think, especially for people of my parent's generation, so people the fifties and sixties and older, I think they just didn't expect it. You know, they worshiped essentially insensitivity all their lives, and I think they had a really difficult time really coming to terms that they hadn't won after all in 2015. I'd like you to explain that perspective because some Americans who follow events from Myanmar maybe only know Aung San Souci as a civilian leader who failed to condemn Genocide of Ranga in Myanmar. What was it that she has done over the last decades that made her someone that they would feel so strongly about? Sure, if you're just having a conversation here, and someone talks about a May your mother They're often talking about her. I grew up in the US, but our house is covered with pictures apparently had annual calendars that have her picture in it. Ah, lot of people breathing really admire her. They see her. Someone who wants she was young woman came back to me in life, despite the fact that she was living a perfectly lovely life in the U. K to take care of her ailing mother. And then stepped up when she could have left in order to fight for the Burmese people. And then decided instead of being with her family to stay in your more and you know people respect that. You're referring to the period after she won an earlier election in the 19 eighties, and it was not accepted by the military, which kept her In prison or in house arrest for many years. Yeah, for 15 years. She basically was in a position where the military said If you want to leave, you can leave. But if you want to be here, you won't be free. Other than climbing the pots and pans at eight o'clock each evening. What are people doing about the coup? There's been a lot of online organizing. There's a couple hashtags feeling around hash tag, civil disobedience movement as well as hashtag justice from you more But part of the civil disobedience movement is doctors and teachers, the majority of whom here work for government institutions essentially going on the strike doctors, especially since Cove, it Still providing medical care, but they just simply choosing not to do it. Government institutions. If I may, there could be some severe consequences for that. Yes, definitely. I don't think we're talking enough about this yet, but It's quite likely that we're going to see a spike in cold cases. What do you expect Ng over the next few days? I'm expecting just more of a reaction to the growing protest movement. There's been what seems to be Very clearly this information campaigns that are intended to kind of paralyzed people through fear and the lack of knowledge, But we're also starting to see more and more people going out into Streets to protest. Amen. Thon is a journalist who is in Yangon. Thank you. Okay.
Interview with Phil McAlister
"Hello and welcome to the skeptics guide to the universe. Today is sunday january seventeenth twenty twenty one. And this is your host. Stephen avella joining me this week. Or bob novella. Everybody cara santa maria. Howdy joy novella. Hey guys and evan bernstein skepticism. On a sunday. I love it. This is a rare sunday recording. We're doing this because of the twelve hour show next saturday. The saturday this show comes out. I probably will be posted in this up right before we begin to twelve hours. Show so if. You're listening to this on saturday that it comes out. We're probably in the middle of the twelve hour show. Why aren't you watching that instead. Leaving this to console you on sunday or monday because the twelve hour livestream is over priorities. So we're not keep saying like we're trying to get away from doing the covert thing every week but there's always stuff to talk about that has to recover recovered. Schwab one thing about it. Obviously it's still raging the numbers that getting scary high still is crazy but david kessler which was announced as the covert czar for the incoming biden. Administration you guys remember who he is. Yes cast that. He was in From london movie right cutler no he was a former head of the fda in the ninety s and after his stint in the at the fda in the nineties the president for a while of yale school of medicine. That's how i. I know you have on speedo him personally. But you know the commissioner of food and drugs for h w bush and clinton muslim sounds nonpartisan. I like that a he. He was very much opposed to the shea. Dietary supplement health and education. Act which was a terrible loss stills eternal and he was he was completely right correct in his opposition to it so hopefully because a lot of experience. Hopefully he'll will prove to be the right person for this job. And we're hoping to shift into high gear will along that line steve in three days. Yeah did you hear. That biden is elevating. He's making a cabinet of science. Yes yes scientists. -nology whatever is now going to be cabinet. Level is a cabinet level position for the first ever cap which will not be in the line of succession by the way. It's a cabinet level position. But it's not a cabinet position. I thought he was building a cabinet filled with cool science thing like curio cabinet closet of mystery. I remember that from what is this endless fascination with forbidden closet of mr really cool i mean. It's the first time the president has ever put somebody at that high. A level in science position which conferences shows his commitment to evidence based policy and also francis. Arnold who i'm super excited about you guys remember. She's caltech scientist who recently won a nobel prize. She's going to be within his his group. I'm not really sure how everybody's designated quite yet but within that group of scientists which is very exciting. I think it should be like the bridge of the enterprise. D where you've got the president the vice president and you've got the czar of science right up there with the big boys because that's where belongs in the position that the council the troy was in. That's what i'm saying. Sitting do truth be told captains left. I am kind of glad that it's not a. I shouldn't say this i don't know i don't know if i would want it to be a cabinet position because then because then they enter into the line of succession and i do worry that whoever is appointed could potentially be. Isn't that a worry about every single cabinet level position. Never i mean. Is there a cabinet member. You guys ready to become president on day one. I mean unless you've watched the survivor soul survivor. Some of those people have served in previous administrations have worked in government. It's obviously it's never happened. I it's so unlikely that i don't think someone's going to pick or not pick a cabinet member because they don't think that they're ready to be president. Yeah i mean why. Scientists are science minded person. Good as president. I think that's what we want. They wouldn't necessarily be it would be but they would still need to be somebody who has executive leadership skills all right. Let's get right into some news items. Is it true that astronomers were wrong about the number of galaxies in the universe. a what. Yeah they're often wrong about stuff like that so yeah. The estimated number of galaxies in the universe was recently cut in half. You are correct steve. So how the hell did this happen. And and more importantly what is the worst title for a news item covering this discovery. All all will be revealed So this all started years ago when the hubble space telescope did some deep sky surveys and it came up with the estimate for the number of galaxies which was two trillion lots of galaxies two trillion in the universe. It did this by using by doing deep field observations. These are observations. That take a really long time looking at the same patch of sky. So you're you're building up the photons right you just building up. The photons. seeing what's revealed and that would that reveals after a while that reveals the very very very faint galaxies. And then then it's easy. Yes sir but can we clarify. Are you talking about the observable universe so you just just just a good point to a good time to clarify that. The the observable universe is a subset of the total universe because like because some of the universe has moved beyond the on the einstein limit rights even traveling at the speed of light. The universe is not old enough for light to travel from there to here so we can't see it's outside of our bubble our light bubble right. It's a little complicated. But yeah i think primarily although not necessarily implies that it's it's just it's just observable we'll we'll see maybe we can. Let's revisit at the end okay. So then so then. Once you have this patch of sky that you've looked at for a while Then you and then you then you know how many galaxies right then you just multiply that little patch by how many similar how many patches in the in the sky are there. And that's and that's basically. What hubble did but we knew that. That wasn't quite accurate though that that's because there has to be other galaxies that are out there that are just too faint to be directly detected even with the best deep field observation that the h. The hubble space telescope could muster onto those super faint galaxies though they do create a suffused glow. Just a general glow in the galaxy and now this background glow that i'm talking about is called the cosmic optical background which is a term. I hadn't i hadn't seen before which is fascinating because it reminded me of maybe was well the cosmic microwave background which is the first light of the universe when it became transparent to electro-magnetic radiation the cosmic optical background that was the glow of all the
Biden announces new science team, elevates office to Cabinet
"Elect says science will always be at the forefront of his administration. And so he is elevating the post of science advisor to Cabinet level. Eric Lander, a pioneer and mapping the human genome is in line to direct the Office of Science and Technology Policy and service Science Advisor. Biden's also retaining Dr Francis Collins is director of the National Institutes of Health. And he's naming two prominent female scientists to co chair the President's Council of Advisers on Science and Technology. Caltex Frances Arnold, who won the 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry. And M I. T vice President for research Maria Zuber. Biden says the team will ensure everything his administration does is grounded in science, fax and the truth.
Biden: Science will be at `forefront' of his administration
"President elect Joe Biden says signs will always be at the forefront of his administration so he's elevating the post of science adviser to cabinet level Eric lander a pioneer in mapping the human genome is in line to direct the office of science and technology policy and service science adviser he would be the first to life scientists to hold the job Biden's also retaining Dr Francis Collins is director of the national institutes of health and he's naming two prominent female scientists to co chair the president's council of advisors on science and technology Caltex Francis Arnold who won the two thousand eighteen Nobel Prize in chemistry and M. I. T. vice president for research Maria's stupor Biden says the team will ensure everything his administration does is grounded in science facts and the truth Ben Thomas Washington
An elegy for Arecibo
"So air cbo. We've been calling this a post mortem which is pretty depressing. What's the status of the observatory. Now the observatory is still open but its main reason for being which is this enormous radio telescope which three hundred and five meters across is no more. It had a instrument platform suspended above it on cables that collapsed on or december and effectively destroyed the telescope and this is the culmination of a number of structural failures that happened to the telescope in twenty twenty. Yeah that's right. The first bowl broke in august. This was own auxiliary cable which had been added in nineteen ninety-seven when they added new instruments to this platform above the dish. So it needed more support so they added extra cables and it was one of these new ones not one the ones from its original construction which was fifty seven years ago or fifty eight. Now i guess and that cable pulled out of its socket. The soccer is the structure of the end of the cable that allows it to be attached to something and they just pulled out. We surprised everyone. No one expects a cable to fail in that way you went into a suspension while they investigated and ordered new cables to replace. Does hilary cables of which are six and then a second cable broke and then it was already perilous situation and the national science foundation which owns the telescope decided. It was too dangerous. The structure was not safe for people to work on and so they decided to have to be m decommissioned but before that could happen only a couple of weeks off to the second cable broke. More cables broke the whole thing. Came crashing down yeah. There's some kind of striking video of that. They're on the internet taken from a drone. I asked you before the interview if you've ever visited this site and he said no very sad about that now. I'm not going to get a chance to see it you know. It was a very spectacular instrument which was very beloved of astronomers and puerto ricans in particular but also filmmakers. You know it was used in two feature films. And i think the x. files as well used it as a backdrop. I always think of contact. This is such a striking image The way they show it in that movie and this is obviously a platform for a lot of science. What are some of the big accomplishments some of the highlights from astronomy at no. It's an interesting co scoop. Because it was used by lots of different sorts of scientists it was originally designed to be used as a radar instruments to look at the upper atmosphere so would send out pulses of radio waves and then receive the signal that was bounced back off the sphere. Which is upon the upper atmosphere where the air molecules are ionized by the sun. This is the first instance of its use and it wasn't even really for it was more for defense than anything else. The pentagon was looking for ways to track incoming ballistic missiles which you know in the late fifties and sixties was very new issue for them and so they built this telescope to try and understand the ionosphere better to see whether warheads trails that they could track them by. And that didn't really work out. And so it transitioned into being a a scientific facilities so people have continued using it to look at the ionosphere to this day. But they've also used things. Nasa used the radar to track objects in space that are near the up and could be threatening such as asteroids and also to look at other planets. It's been used to map. The surface of venus be seen with a normal telescope because it's surrounded by clouds and it can look far as saturn and then astrophysicists could use it to look at much more distant objects such as pulsars. Which are little dead stars that out a very regular metronome signal in radio waves and gas in galaxies in between the planets and it has a hundred uses and some of which made it very famous. People have won nobel prizes with work that they did. Don't aris the
A Big Dose Of Perspective With Jack Kornfield
"Jack. Great to see you and thank you for coming Great pleasure thank you. Dan also for having me. It's time when we. I think we need to all come together and use our best wisdom and understanding of how to navigate. I completely agree and so let me. Just start with your mind. What are you doing to stay even in your own mind. Of course i meditate some but more importantly arrested in place that has a lot of spaciousness in it and a kind of trust. I'm old enough at age. Seventy five to have seen revolutions. Common go and difficulties arise in pass. Have and i also see that. There's i guess it was martin. Luther king talked about the moral arc of the universe being long but advance toward justice. I see that there's ways that systems also regulate themselves so whether it's the pandemic that we are in the throes of that is really causing enormous amount of suffering and loss whether it's the political disruptions in the capital and otherwise were just the calls for racial and economic justice that we needed for so long. I feel we're in a evolutionary process with its fits and starts. And i think about people like one gary mata who won the nobel prize for the greenbelt in east africa. She started by planning one to ten. Twenty fifty trees got other people to do. It eventually was thrown in prison on. I think that's a requirement for nobel peace laureates mostly And ended up planning fifty one million trees in changing a lot of the face to be africa or or or ellen sirleaf in manga bowie also nobel prize winners who said their country. Liberia used to be known for its child. Soldiers in had these terrible civil wars and now it's known for its women leaders and so there is some way in which just as the green sprouts come up through the cement in the sidewalk. There's something about life in. it's also the human heart that wants to renew itself. And so i rest back in kind and loving awareness to say yes. Let me turn my gaze away from the from the needs suffering the things to respond but also to hold it in a much bigger context justice. I agree that universe in the world is breathing. And that's how i keep my mind on a good day not the mean. There are bad days a bad moments but mostly my heart is pretty peaceful but you know there are things. I get a call from my daughter. Dad you know. This terrible thing is happening. At the nonprofit she runs for getting asylum for all people whose lives are endangered. What do i do our calls from dear friends. Oh my family has covid. So i'm deeply touched by these things and responding. Sometimes they really affect me. And i can feel the pain of it. You know or give worried but with all of that. There's a rounded a field of loving awareness of spaciousness entrust. That gives a much bigger picture and there. I'm just going on back away trying to answer your question and also spread out a little bit. When i was a monk training in the forest monasteries in southeast asia as a buddhist monk the main forest temple i lived was in a province adjoining. Both laos in cambodia was during the war in vietnam and laos cambodia. So we would see fighter jets going overhead and bombers and you know in some of the branch monasteries you could even see flashes from the from the bombs and people would come visit us. I had friends who were working in. Vietnam laos people that i knew as i had been working on medical teams in that ray calm river valley saying what are you doing sitting on your you know. There's a war to stop. There's things we need to do and my teacher would say. This is the place where we stop the war.
Build Your Brain and Burn Fat with Shawn Stevenson
"Sean. Welcome back to the broken. Bring podcast brother. We re just been chitchat. A little bit. I feel like that was a whole podcast and itself like save. Save save save save. Save it for the audience to get into it and we definitely are so many topics to talk about today. And i was thinking as i was preparing for this Interview on my drive up from san diego visiting family. I was thinking. What kind of frame do i want to give this conversation and actually put out a quote that i came across recently from the author james. Nestor he tweeted it once before he wrote this book breath which is really great book. We have on the podcast. When read this quote. And i'm gonna tied into why it's so central to this conversation the first subjects. We're going to get into so this is from albert zafy gory a pri- butcher that a little bit nobel prize winner. 1937 was individual who was responsible for discovering vitamin c as a mechanism inside the body. He says more than sixty years of research on living systems has convinced me that our body is much more nearly perfect than the endless list of ailments suggest its shortcomings are due less to its inborn imperfections then to our abuse it and what i love about. That quote is that. And i posted on instagram this morning. So much of what we think of our body is messing up. Our body is failing us. Our bodies not showing up. How he wanted it to be is much of the by just trying to survive the crazy environment. We've put it in and nothing better describes as inside of your new book. It's smarter than how you introduce the world of fat to us and i'd love to start there so fat loss. Losing fat getting rid of belly fat. It's something that people always think of especially at the time to this. Podcast is coming out. Twenty twenty one. Everybody's like it's a new year. Let me get started. Twenty twenty was a tough one. Takes down the rabbit hole of what we do not understand and get about that. This is so good. And i love that quote so much you know. We're we're in a state where you our system is really focused on malfunction of the human body and not on the grace and the perfection in the beauty of the human body in all the potential you know. An an that's shifting. There's a shift taking place for sure and part of that overall assessment. Because right now we've seen it just run rampant here in the united states. We have about two hundred million citizens who are overweight or obese cry now things populations what three hundred ten. Something they'd it makes no like we can't rationally understand the magnitude of that and right now just shared a study yesterday. That within the next ten years half of the us population will be clinically obese. And we've we've gotten into where we're we're in a battle with fat. We're at war with fad. And i think that the war is a little bit misdirected. And that's wars that something on drugs on everything in that war inherently creates backlash. There's consequences to all of our actions. And i think that there's really just a lack of of well rounded understanding about what fat is because. Here's the the rub. your body. Fat is actually one of the most miraculous important things to your survival into your evolution as a human and so i wanted to start with that premise and kind of dive into fat in. Just open that conversation up because it's evolutionary adaptation that humans have that we've developed over time to be very good at storing fat. Our body fat is there for our survival and it's really really good at doing that. And during times of course we'd experience to our evolution. Where food is scarce. We want that fat to be there to provide a source where we can live to fight another day to see you know scavenger hunt or whatever it is to keep us going and now today however we've gotten we're in a war with this thing that is there for our survival in understanding how miraculous it really isn't so to start at the heart of it. Fat is an first and foremost. And as that's i think a big thing that even people who are in the world of wellness sometimes don't understand it. S just like the way that you would think about the heart. The lungs the brain fat and itself is in oregon. And and when you say it's an organ what are the characteristics of an oregon. That fat has so. This is okay. Psychologically we see fat as like this scattered random droplets of unhappiness at different points of our body right but there there are networks are communities of fat that i talked about in the book and so that i community is storage fats and this is what people are usually trying to target or we're talking about burning fat or getting rid of fat. It's these storage fats. And this goes under the umbrella of these white adipose tissue storage fats and again they're all interconnected and being that it's an organ it creates and produces its own hormones. It has its own receptor sites. It has its own management in cellular communication
How COVID-19 Has Changed Science
"Twenty twenty was a year like no other especially for science during twenty twenty alone have been more papers written about covid nineteen than the have been on many other diseases that we've known about for a much longer time. Things like polio and ebola. And that astonishing ed young is a staff writer for the atlantic and in recent peace he explores the massive shift. The pandemic has caused in scientific research in a. We have only known about this disease for a year or so and yet it has totally consumed the attention of the world. Scientists many many scientists have pivoted from whatever they were previously focused on to study covid. Nineteen he says. Take jennifer dowden for example. She's twenty twenty nobel prize winner and a pioneer of crisper gene editing technology. And she told me about how in february she was on a plane headed to a conference crammed into the middle seat and she realized like this is. This is crazy. This doesn't feel safe and this is probably the last time on going to travel for a while like she had the sense for her life was about to change and change. It did the next month. Her university shutdown her son's school closed jennifer and her colleagues realized the wanted to switch focus so they started testing in their own institution to serve the local community because they realized that testing wasn't sufficient they developed new ways of diagnosing the virus using crisper. And this is a clear example. I think of a scientist moved to studying covid nineteen because she saw this massive pressing. Societal need for science to rise to the occasion but in view goodwill pivots like the one that down to made. Don't tell the whole story about what changed in twenty twenty scientists not just a march towards the greater good to very human endeavor and as a human endeavor it has both good and bad sides at its best. Scientists are self-correcting march towards greater knowledge for the betterment of humanity but at its worst it is a self interested pursuit of greater prestige at the cost of truth and rigor and both sides of science were very much on display this year so today on the show we talk with ed young about some of the ways cope with nineteen could change science forever. I'm mattie safai in this is short way from npr this message comes from npr sponsor. Bank of america. You finally decided to learn how to ice skate. So you ordered the essentials. Every ice skater needs a pair of blades. And you helmet and a good set of kneepads and you used your bank of america. Cash rewards credit card choosing to earn three percent cash back online shopping rewards that you put towards the cost of an essential piece of plo skating recovery. A heating pad visit bank of america dot com slash more warding to apply now copyright twenty twenty bank of america corporation. This message comes from. Npr sponsor ibm a smarter. Hybrid cloud approach with ibm telcos. Rollout innovations with watson. Ai without losing speed. The world going hybrid with ibm visit ibm dot com slash breed cloud. Okay so today. We're talking about how the pandemic changed scientific research. Let's let's start with one of the core foundations of science publishing data. Something that in my experience doesn't traditionally happen very quickly. Yeah so traditionally The process of publishing is often very slow. It takes a lot of time for scientists to write up the results for that results to then pass through gone through. The peer review process can take many months. Is ill suited to a crisis. That is as fast moving as the covy pandemic has been but for many years now. Biomedical researchers have pushed for innovations that will speed up the process of science so they have started increasingly using pre-printed servers where they can upload early drafts of the papers so that their peers can discuss and build upon those results even before it goes through the peer review. Gauntlets and it really took off in the middle of the pandemic p- reprints were a major part of how science was disseminated over the course of this year and i think for both good and they meant that as intended. The pace of science was much quicker but in an environment where the entire world was hungry for more information about this new disease. A lot of very bad reprints were also circulated very quickly gained international attention and led to the spreading of misleading information. That hindered the controller cove. Nineteen rather
No acknowledgement, no thanks for Rosalind Franklin who made the discovery of DNA structure possible
"It's the centenary of rosen. franklin's birth. This year she who made watson crick's revelation of the structure of dna possible. Her photograph of dna made all the difference and was featured in western. Play called photograph. fifty one with nicole. Kidman who else is franklin. But it was after dna. According to patricia farrer of clare college cambridge that her work on viruses and irony made work like this year's fast production of covid vaccine possible all that worth two nobel prices so far. Thank you think just portrait by malcolm. I'm watson i'm creek. Let us show. You are trick. We have found the seed of life sprang from. We believe we're stew of molecular goo with a period of thirty four angstrom. So just think this means to our respective genes that sakes did not be disgusting or you girls. Try that trick of watson and crick and achieved. Double helix lusting cheeky was recited by james watson and francis creek at a symposium in june nine hundred fifty three to celebrate the discovery of the double helix in nineteen sixty two. They received the nobel prize for this work. Along with morris wilkins. They've been basking in the glory of his saints but there was another crucial contribution to solving the puzzle of deny that of the dock lady of dna roslyn franklin. He's francis creek acknowledging homework on bbc radio in nineteen ninety nine. It was fairly fast. But you know we were lucky. You must remember. It was based off the x ray. Were done here in london. Started off by. Murray's wilkins and carried on by rosen in franklin and we wouldn't have got to the stage of least having a molecular model if it hadn't been for their work will the story is very bleak. She was naps. Brilliant x ray photographer and this was how the physical reality of the double helix model was first. Seen because wont watson and crick quarrel remodelers that that is they were abstract scientists. They were thera- titians so they were making the model as it were in their heads out of those bubbles and sticks that we all know so well which made the double helix model. What roslyn franklin's incredible achievement walls that she was a technically quite brilliant with this new and difficult apparatus of x ray photography and she showed this first image. Hilary rose from city university london. She's been a sociologist. of science. Since the mid seventy s and the image is referring to is the x ray picture taken by rosalind franklin niners photograph number fifty one. It displays a doc. Black spotty cross shape which confirmed for watson and creek. They hypothesise that. The structure of dna is in fact. A double helix. Hilary rose is passionate about rosine. Franklin's contribution and believed her story is one of appropriation and rasiah without her consent. These pictures were taken by the third noble prize winner. Wilkins and they were shown to watson and crick in cambridge and this is appropriation. I mean there are harder woods for it. A ratio of course was dramatic in the nobel prize acceptance speeches. Roslyn is by then dead. So little people forget those no question hoping for price. 'cause they not give them to the dead they given to the living so the three man. None of them acknowledged her work public. What she gets is a footnote in morris wilkin so that's the asia and you would have thought on the occasion art a such a thing as the nobel prize. The woman is dead that there would have been case for little generosity. Not a hint of a three man. Just carry on as if she hadn't existed as she hadn't done the pioneering extra work. It wasn't a pool in shabby story. And there's plenty in the history of science strong views from sociologist. Hilary rose no matter which way you look at it though. The mystery of this dark lady is intriguing author. Brinda medics was so fascinated by rosalind franklin. That she's recently completed a comprehensive biography. He she is with robin williams. Rosen franklin's family very well off for intellectual whether or not they're very wealthy anglo jewish bankers they also had a publishing firm for the sons in the family who actually were inclined to banking rutledge and keegan. Paul you're very distinguished people very proud of their heritage and they trace their ancestry back to king david the founder of jerusalem. So i mean this is a family takes its ancestry seriously and so one of the problems i think was not so much her gender but class. She sounded aristocratic to them. She spoke terribly well very clipped and some people just hated that. And it's one of the many ingredients which actually made her disoriented and not as happy as she might have made a very clever little girl. And i mean as she was growing up quite small. She wasn't very clever. Little girl and i discovered family letter from her aunt mamie. Anyway she noticed rosalyn has a six year old and she rosalind is alarmingly clever. She does her sums for pleasure and invariably gets them right and i thought that alarmingly was very significant because roseland had three brothers but the fact that the girls should be the cleverest really did
Bob Dylan Sells His Entire Catalog of Songs to Universal Music
"Dylan sold his entire back catalogue of music to universal music group earlier. This month price wasn't made public but estimates range from three to four hundred million dollars. The catalog contains about six hundred songs composed over sixty years over the years. Dillon has sold more than one hundred. Twenty five million records and at seventy nine years old. He's still performing globally for the last several decades until the pandemic he performed more than one hundred concerts per year. Not surprisingly the ceo made su nami sized waves the new york times called it a blockbuster deal and said it may be the largest sale. In history of a single songwriters music dylan status is unlike that of any other musician in the twenty first century in two thousand eight. He won a pulitzer prize for quote his profound impact on popular music in american culture marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power in two thousand sixteen. He won the nobel prize in literature for quote having created new poetic expressions within the great american song tradition at the time. The nobels permanent secretary. The late sarah donahue's compared dylan to greek poets. Homer and sappho dylan is also the recipient of numerous grammy awards and the presidential medal of freedom. Moreover dylan is seen not just as a cultural icon but also as one who has kept the copyrights to his songs even while allowing many other musicians to cover them. He's also allowed his music to be used for some surprising commercial undertakings like twenty nineteen super bowl budweiser ad in two thousand four. Victoria's secret out. According to the wall street journal copyrights to the compositions themselves are distinct from recording and performing rights among the songs in the catalog at universal acquired or some that have gone down in history indeed changed history like blowing in the wind like a rolling stone and yes the times they are a and
The Dylan catalog, a 60-year rock 'n' roll odyssey, is sold
"I got a question for you. Are you doing fan. Bob dylan fan. I'm okay with them. But i'm not a hardcore you bet. If you're if you don't like dylan you better get ready. Because you're going to hear a lot more dylan. I'm telling you why. After i tell you about shed concrete this homeowners and builders out there you know what i'm gonna tell you. My brother-in-law greg at the folks that shake crete they have a huge selection of pre cast concrete steps. You got to check this out. There's a tv commercial. Would meet in it and you get to see all the great steps that they have to offer but you can do that on the website you can stop by and see whether you're building a new home where you need to replace an old staircase. Shay has great vibes with designs for any home. They're veiling concrete. You can customize your steps with beautiful stone granite or brick. New staircase can dramatically upgrade the front entrance of your home. Maybe that's tom brady. Inches el ni. They can't seem to unload. There's little bungalow thirty three million dollar home. Maybe they have to upgrade the steps. That's how you do it. Most cases can remove your old stairs and heavy walking a new set of front steps within hours. And just like that. Your host looks better houses worth more and maybe trying to sell it. Maybe it helps you sell it. It's new steps they can. They can really help you move that old home and make it look better and so quicker you can learn more about chase pre cast concrete steps steps at a concrete dot com to stop by one of their four state of the ad for scillies. All over new england. I bob dylan. And i love these stories because this this is what the taylor swift it. Which means that they will wake up and actually have some interest in this topic. Talking about my girl taylor. Swift sold her music catalog to what's his name scooter braun. Oh yeah and then complains. After bob dylan sold his music library for three hundred million dollars. That's right And by the way He sold is popularly. Seventy eight which is another one of those amazing miracles. The bob dylan still around still kicking. Well did you hear what he said about this jerry region. But here's what's going to happen you me. We'll be watching You know football game. We're watching wednesday night football thursday night football tuesday night. Football game mini mini games That around these days and there's gonna be a commercial for flow or he'll be commercial for you name it Gimme gimme some tv for apple apple. Lot of apple commercials. That's a good one apple amazon target. And it'll be Some of my friend is blowing in the wind blowing in the wind or something blue. What's blue some blue jet blue. And they'll be tangled up in blue. You'll go what bob dylan. His stuff is going to be of vera readily available companies to put in tv commercials. Because bob dylan sold out. It's bob dylan's if you don't like it if you think you know that he's Not that kind of guy that he wouldn't ever seventy-nine by the way he sold out. He took the money. God bless him his family's gonna why he needs the money but his family is going to be fabulously wealthy for generations but companies like target nap bullen and whatever flow what is flow sell insurance. Press gress yes i defense. They're going to be able to play. Dylan's pay whatever the going rate is and they could play it and you'll hear it all over the place just like you here. You know the rolling stones in some cases or taylor swift and other artists who was amazing. When i read the story it was about some of the other artists of fleetwood. Mac sold theirs for like. I get the number here here. It is eighty million dollars they sold. It wasn't even the whole catalog eighty million dollars. Fleetwood mac and dillon skate. Like columbine could probably name more wallflower songs and he can bog way. Bob dole i. It's right over my head. I have no idea i look. I'm surprised he got three hundred million. Based on the fact that that ship has sailed a long time ago dylan receives a lump sum between two hundred and four hundred I'm not sure what the what. The stevie nicks sold their publishing catalog for eighty million dollars. The dylan portfolio six hundred songs while other bands who have sold their catalogs sold. You know taking the money. Blondie barry manilow and the estates of john lennon and kurt cobaine. I believe john lennon the beatles. Paul mccartney bought them for like a ridiculous amount of money Like eight hundred million. Paul mccartney owns well. Didn't jackson by michael jackson and then mccray jackson and a falling out story there. But there's only one to look up jerry. Three hundred million eighty million two hundred to four hundred million. What did what did brian. Wilson's father sell the beach boys catalogue for another against the wishes without the kids. Even knowing and i think he sold it for like seventy dollars and a coke or something new never spoke to his father again obviously but if the beach boys is the one you would want because of the catchy jingles. Yeah that's true point and that the father sold it for nothing. He had no idea what he had. And what the value of wasn't a guy goes. Hey i'm gonna dig deep here. I'll give you five hundred dollars. Whereas i sold and brian wilson was never the same after it happened. It's a good point. But i think dylan's got a lot of those you know catch even though they you know might be whatever. The revolutionary songs at times they are a change in blowing in the wind and songs like that which will which will fit nicely in commercials. And we'll be sick of them all with and i'm sure he had control over it and limited the exposure but i guarantee you. He sold the rights to some two songs to some commercials. I assume right Yeah i guess. So i mean i don't blame me if you're gonna die soon and you wanna take care of you. Offspring kids grandkids. You say. What the hell. What do i care if not be capitalizing on all the different changes that are going on in the music industry. I bet it's like a five person team that he has controlling the catalog right. Like it's a he. He owns time. Bob no one said a need the money for anything the the couple couple of years ago. Long before covid were dylan on went on tour and performed at three hundred nights in a year three hundred nights in one year deal and he was like seventy five and i don't know anyone that went to see him. He wasn't playing the big rooms anymore but he's just addicted to performing and singing his songs and i must have just an insane amount of money already. I mean just. But it's like what bob cousy sold all his Collectibles always memorabilia. He said what do i need it for. This is going to pay for my grandkids education. And can you blame him for that. I wouldn't. I'm a big lira. Guy when it comes to rock and roll. If you consider dylan rock and roll and dylan for what i again. He's not my bag particularly. I don't have any bob dylan on my phone. But his his lyrics. If back on my i always think that you know if you get ten best lyrics of all time. You don't need a whether they know which way the wind blows is one of the great lines right and i'm with you. I'm a lear. Emma word man to and i love you know singing along to whatever tangled up in blue and he. He won the nobel prize for whatever writing. Poetry didn't show up for the award. You know. I believe. I believe greta thune. Berg was second so she'd go toward for him but no he won the nobel prize. I think he blew the market and show up to get the thing and these the only singer or songwriter to win to win it
Nobel ceremonies go low-key this year because of coronavirus
"The pomp and ceremony of the Nobel Prize events have been reined in this year the main measures to slow the spread of the coronavirus traditionally the leverage nubile ceremonies held on December tenth the anniversary of the death of price founder Alfred Nobel that's an old native city hall in Stockholm but this year it's rather more low key the first of the prizes was awarded Sunday the literature prize winner American put lease click during a ceremony in her garden now go to Penn rose bush scientists will be awarded his fifty six in London moving across the Atlantic Harvey also will receive his physiology and medicine ward at the National Institute of health in Washington DC well for the recipient Charles rice will meet with Sweden's consul general in New York I'm Charles the last month
Bob Dylan sells entire music catalog spanning more than 600 songs over 60 years
"Music publishing group is buying bob. Dylan's entire music catalog. The deal covers six hundred song. Copyrights dylan isolde. More than one hundred. Twenty five million records around the world over a career spanning six decades in two thousand sixteen. He became the first song writer to receive the nobel prize for
Bob Dylan Sells Entire Catalog of Songs to Universal Music Publishing
"Dylan has sold his music correspondent Erin Could. Turkey has that story. For a moment The sun was Bob Dylan Song writing won him the Nobel Prize for literature. He is selling his entire catalog now to Universal, the world's largest music label. Universal called it the most significant music publishing agreement this century, but declined to disclose the price. It is likely a record $300 million for one artist catalog, but consider the catalog. Hey, Mr Tambor, Een Man he loved Evan Stone, Aaron Carter. Ski. ABC NEWS New York
Ex-Energy Secretary Says Fixing Climate Change Is Tough, There's No Vaccine
"President-elect biden plans to change. us climate policies or rather. Pick up where they left off. Resuming efforts disrupted under the trump administration biden talks of the united states generating all its electricity by twenty. Thirty five without emitting carbon into the atmosphere. He wants the whole economy to run on clean energy by twenty fifty. If that can be done at all it will demand changes in technology so we called someone who knows the technology well. Steven chu was a recipient of a nobel prize in physics. He was also secretary of energy in president obama's administration and he says climate change makes the pandemic look simple. There will be no vaccine magical shot for climate change and it's going to have a more profound impact on the world at large if you can imagine that than what we're going through today. Steven chu says. Markets are moving in favor of cleaner energy. President trump's administration loosened fuel economy standards for cars and promoted coal but the coal industry kept dying on. Its own and car companies. Say they are ready to go back to stricter standards. Renewable energy like wind and solar is getting cheaper while oil companies are contemplating a different future. We've been interested by the news that some oil companies are forecasting peak demand Not that their production would peak but that the demand for oil is plateauing or declining in the next few years. Yes i would say it's more plateauing will be a long plateau which is not what they would have said ten years ago. It's in part due to the fact that they are into spain. Electric vehicles will become better and better and they will as they look towards the future. I think the more forward leaning oil companies are saying well essentially by twenty seventy twenty seven five. Whatever we need to be a very different business you're going to actually use oil or natural. Gas is then. The carbon can't be released into the atmosphere in past business cycles. The market has sometimes worked against renewable energy oil prices go up wind and solar lamar attractive by comparison but then oil gets very cheap as it absolutely has been during the pandemic and oil becomes much more attractive. Is there any reason to think that cycle would be broken this time. Yeah the technology is getting better. I go back to something like electric vehicles. Which for personal transportation you can imagine those at twenty twenty five thousand dollar car. That has a three hundred fifty mile range as four times less expensive to own and operate in terms of fuel and maintenance and pretend you can charge two hundred miles in five minutes. Six minutes and means the car batteries last longer than the human bladder. Which is the key criteria. I hadn't thought about that. People are going to stop for that reason. Okay go on. Yes and so. These type of batteries will be deployed so it makes much more sense. People will gravitate towards naturally. That's why the oil companies are looking towards other uses for oil natural gas particularly chemicals plastics. What they really love is if you could use that material to make construction materials that begin to displace cement or seal or at least supplement them in and lower the carbon footprint of those things. Oh because there's a big carbon footprint with those materials does construction materials as well. Oh absolutely cement. For example is responsible. Just cement is responsible for about eight percent of the entire carbon emissions so given the changes in technology and the changes in the marketplace is the biden administration which is set these relatively ambitious climate goals for twenty thirty five and twenty fifty. Are they pushing on an open door. Then no not really because in the end to get rule acceptance is got to be better cheaper and there's a nurse and so if you look at how you make these major shifts in infrastructure. These are half a century investments. How the lifetime of a coal plant. The lives of a national as planned. Lifetime of an automobile is fifteen. Two going on twenty years now. You can retire things before their natural lifetime. But then there's a lot of resistance to do that So the question for the government is how did give this a shove. How did they move things a little faster than they might naturally move on their own. That's right the real question is what will help people make electric vehicle choice. We'll first thing would be. The technology gets so instead of keeping your old car. You really want to have something. That's just better. But how do you retire things before. The national lifetime is initially now. You have to demonstrate that this change is going to be good for not only health but the economy and everything else. It has to be cost effective and cost effective e e. Could incorporate the cost of cumin house. Hopefully the american public will have no trouble trying to understand that when it comes to your own your family your children's health. It's worthwhile one of the reasons i wanted to call you. Was that you were in the obama administration when it was attempting to get climate legislation through congress. And it didn't happen. There was tremendous political resistance. Do you think the political landscape may have changed in a way that will allow more serious investment in fighting climate change. Yes in fact. I would go further and say i think some oil companies you know. I'm on a advisory group to royal dutch. Shell and i truly believe that the company wants to see itself in a completely new business that they cannot be a carbon company that emits carbon into the atmosphere and so there's also growing awareness as the public than companies themselves in. This is a problem. We have to be part of the solution. Even if it means that. We've got to have to completely reinvent ourselves steven chu. It's a pleasure talking with you. Thank you so much. Okay my pleasure.
The Long Legacy Of The Arecibo Telescope
"So let's step back for a minute edit and get a better sense of how the telescope has been used over the years. Tell me about what it does. What kind of projects it's worked on. So one of the really neat things about the The observatory that's very versatile. Scientific instrument most telescopes radio. Telescopes don't have the ability to send out light. They only capture late at the observatory. We can send and capture late when an asteroid coming by. We're pretty much a flashlight that we turn on we send out to. It comes back right. We can tell you how far these objects are down to a meters unbelievable add narrate and we care about where these asteroids are going to be because what if one day this thing comes around and gets too close to earth if we can let people know this is going to happen next year we can actually prepare for it like dinosaurs. They didn't have a space program so they can get to prepare for anything. That's true we do have that on the dinosaurs. We don't have much. But we have out of cbo and we have the direct understanding of asteroids because i also think just from an outsider's perspective like this telescope does really play a role in our cultural imagination. It contributes to our sense of off. You know about the universe. Like i think i remember in the seventies it was used to deliberately beam a message into space. You know like hey. We're here like i mean it really has like not only these scientific contributions but these cultural contributions it's like an it's an inspirational place. You know oh yeah. I love marvel. I'm love marvel comics. And things like that and i was watching. Although i'm a little old doesn't matter. I was watching a cartoon about the avengers and the avengers were flying off to the odyssey observatory to save it. Who was that still in the cartoon. Oh my gosh so yes it really is you know. It's not like one of those fields of science or scientific tools that really stays in academia right. It provides a broader context for understanding. The universe for non-academic says well which i think is is really special and important. It's like bench because of its versatility. It gets to be part of not only applied science but just part of typical day to day life. You may not see it. But it's there in cultural context. It's there you know saving your life making sure this asteroid is not coming towards you. It's really cool so it sounds like at this. Recent damage has big implications in terms of slowing down a lot of research. What kind of research are we going to be missing out on right now with it down well for personal perspective. I actually had some observing runs. We're gonna come up in late. September through october where we were going to be studying mars with radar this year mars was going to be the closest it was going to be and also observable from the osce observatory until the year twenty sixty seven so it. This year was literally a once in a lifetime. Opportunity to observe mars with other. See all twenty twenty twenty twenty worst year ever. Yeah okay so the damage that happened. This year isn't the first hurdle for the observatory right hurricane. Maria damaged the observatory twenty. Seventeen you you were working there right like. Tell me about that experience. Su twenty seven one hurricane. Maria came by not only was. I was still working at. The observatory actually stayed at the observatory. That's where i went for shelter so i got to see the winds combined and the damage For me one of the things that like hit me the most or make me realize the damage the most after the hurricane when we went outside. And when you look across the telescope and it's in the middle of a beautiful rain-forest greenery everywhere and that day after the hurricane when we went outside there's there is no green left it just nothing just brown. Everything was brown. The trees were dead. You see all the way down to the soil. It was impactful in the sense of. Wow this is the damage of the hurricane. Awesome packed full as a puerto rican. Who's used to seeing their island. Be beautiful and green selling costs high. Like that's gone all gone in day. That's tough that you know it starts being Quite a bit less about the science at that point. Oh very quickly. I mean after the hurricane when there was no utilities at all on the island we still had a couple of generators so people from of see what would drive up. We pump water for them and they leave with a bunch of water the to drink water. Well so okay. Let's let's let's talk a little bit about the funding struggles right because there have been ongoing funding struggles for the telescope. Break that down a little bit for me yes. The telescope which is owned by the national science foundation has had some funding struggles in that the budget that is used to operate. It has been going down. And it's gone down from anywhere from about fourteen mil per year with the expected current contract. They could go all the way down to two million gotcha into and so what will that mean for for the telescope and the people that work on it. So as there is diminishing funds going there They'll be less available time for people to go explore go observe pulsars and find the first evidence for gravitational waves which won the telescope a nobel prize in physics and nineteen seventy-three. It's
"nobel prize" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Us. These awards go out generally what mid to late september. We always come back and hit them in early november after. We're done with all of our halloween content and it's just a great way to dive back in two to serious scientific study. I'm not joking because granted. These are awards that that's celebrate and highlight studies that may seem a bit absurd and a bit comical but generally speaking we're dealing with with with actual research that does at least in some way expand our scientific knowledge of the world right even. If it's funny you can usually learn something interesting from it right so the basics on the ignore belt. Obviously it's a play on the nobel prize These have been awarded year since nineteen ninety-one by the annals of improbable research which is a publication. That you know prides itself on seeking out the absurd and the humorous and the whimsical within the realms of legitimate scientific research. The purpose of the award according to the editors is quote to honour achievements. That first make people laugh and then make them think. Furthermore they stressed that the ten prizes aren't necessarily meant to pass judgment on the winners instead. The official website emphasizes that the prizes quote celebrate the unusual honor the imaginative and spur people's interest in science medicine and technology and the key individual. And all this is editor marc abrahams. Who again has been heading. This up since ninety-one now in some previous years we've covered all of the prizes awarded. We're not gonna be doing that this year. We just wanted to pick out a selection and focus on a few of them. That seemed fun or interesting for one episode this year. We might come back with multiple parts in future years but this year. We're just sticking with the one right and if you want the full list of winners then you should go to. Www dot improbable dot com now. This year ceremonies happen entirely online on thursday september seventeenth And let's let's dive right in. let's see what. Which one are we going to discuss. I we've we've got to start with a knife made of feces because it seems like the perfect metaphor for the year. Twenty twenty is being menaced with the blade of of excrement blade of excrement it shall be. This was the materials science prize. And it does concern a frozen feces knife now to to put this in the correct You know frame of reverend so it's really prepare you for what we're specifically talking about here. I'm gonna read a segment here from shadows in the sun travels to landscapes spirit and desire This is a book came out in nineteen. Ninety eight by wade davis say canadian. Us colombian cultural anthropologist. No botanist author and photographer quote. There's a well known account of an old man who refused to move into a settlement over the objections of his family. He made plans to stay on the ice to stop him. They took away all his tools. So in the midst of a gale. He stepped out of their igloo. Defecated in the feces into a frozen blade which he sharpened with a spray of saliva with a knife he killed a dog using its ribcage is a sled and its high to harness another dog. He disappeared into the darkness. Whoa now that's that's that's a pretty awesome little tail there. That's beyond rambo. Levels of of improvised tools. I mean that's that's good stuff beyond macgyver beyond rambo Yeah so this is. This is the account or one of two accounts that the study we're going to get to is going to deal with I i do. I thought i would point out though for longtime listeners of the show you might recognize the name. Wade davis davis His britain numerous books over the years but he was perhaps most famously. The author of nineteen ninety five's the serpent and the rainbow Which is discussed in the show before put forward the hypothesis that Tetrotoxin is linked to zombie legend in haiti ipod and a hypothesis that proved somewhat controversial..
"nobel prize" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"A region much smaller than the solar system not four million times the size of the Sun. Right. If you calculate how big you think it should be about seventeen times the width of across. But four million times status. Grazie Razi Razi. So they go look it's really heavy. It's really small. It's a supermassive black hole. Lab. And by the way, this is our second or third hour the astrophysics community, our second or third Nobel prize in a decade generally, they used to destroy us a bone once it maybe ten years. Are you saying that you guys are the Meryl Streep of the Nobel? The price is in the category physics just to be clear. So we in my community, we're not living our lives wondering if we'll be considered occasionally, we do something that touches on laws of physics, and then it gets an and people take a note we got it for EXO planets, which is not itself the branch of physics, but it's a very interesting. Advance in our understanding of the world and the universe. So I'm just saying maybe they'll. We're done with laboratories on earth and the best laboratories on the frontier discovery or the universe itself. Well, it's it's fascinating because Hubble lobbied for astrophysics to be considered by the physics Nobel with the man Edwin. Hubble. Telescope right is not live tells Kansas, lobbying could have. Bad Be Awesome. INANIMATE? Still to this day not right but hobble real you know what it held it was so tremendous today Hubbell apps absolutely unquestionably won the Nobel Prize so. Feel for one in the same decade. He realizes that there are other galaxies. When Einstein was working in one, thousand, nine, hundred, five, one, thousand, nine, hundred, thousand, nine, hundred sixteen. He did not know that there was another galaxy besides the milky, way he's suspected but he wasn't sure right. So how will observes the first external galaxies which just be clear at that time? The universe was just the stars of the Night Sky Yeah and how far do they extend nobody knows? Exactly, and then the second thing which I'm sure I'm I'm guessing Neal's referring to is he then also notices that? Oh, by the way, all those galaxies are moving away from each other right and so he deduces that the universe is expanding. So. He'd lobbied to China he'd lobbied the Nobel Committee and what they say they said, no. I. Don't know if they were like formal letters exchanged, but there was certainly political. You know internal politics and they stood no for months I nineteen twenties they said no for another fifty years I don't think it was until the seven days the Nobel, prize committee considered astrophysics I think the first one was maybe the discovery of pulsars. Nineteen seventies under discovery made in the sixties. Actually we gotta take a break now but trusted you load up questions because this is a cosmic queries I got them all loaded up and ready to go, and there are ages up people. People love lack all all. Right when we come back more with our friend, Gentle Evan to get us through an understanding of black holes. You love your cat and you WanNa snuggle up Wanema much as possible. Cats are very affectionate and you want everybody to be able to give your cat love the way you do you know as many as one in five adults globally are sensitive to cat allergens. But here's some good news based on more than a decade of research. PURINA scientists discover a breakthrough approach that can safely and significantly reduce the allergens and cat dander and cat hair. It's called pro planned live clear and it's a revolutionary new cat. Food shown to simply and safely reduced the major allergens, cat hair and Dander by an average of forty seven percent starting with the third week of daily feeding. There are some super cool science behind it to that I know you'll love as a star talk fan the major cat allergen called fell d one is a protein that cast produced naturally in their saliva pro plan live clear has a specific protein source from eggs that binds to the fell d one in saliva as cats eat safely neutralizing it. Pretty cool. If only they had this when my little murphy was here. That's right. I'm a cat lover and I had a cat who was the love of my life name Murphy. Got To end this commercial now, can I keep thinking about Murphy learn more at pro plan live clear dot com slash talkradio that's pro plan live clear dot com slash Dr Talk Radio this ad.
"nobel prize" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"He proves that in fact, it is absolutely generic prediction of general relativity that collapsing body would create behind about horizon an inside a singularity. So he makes black holes inevitable. He made them real real real. Yes and it goes from this mathematical perfect silly platonic idealization to an inevitable reality. So. I'm now on the other side of that. Nobel Prize coin it'd be two people independent researchers who are figuring out that our galaxy has a supermassive black hole in the middle. But of course, you can't see black hole. So what light can you shed on on their discoveries? Did. You. Punch. Oh. Day. Did they demonstrated the opposite characteristics is as as powerful scientists slow and methodical? They looked at the stars for decades right two decades and watched the stars orbit an invisible object and just they don't even need to. Go at the center of the Galaxy It's twenty, six, thousand light years away in the of the Constellation Sagittarius? So we call the object that they were a bit. Saj. Star Sagittarius a star only because it's in that direction from our point of view. It's a cute little nickname. So around Sanjay Star, they see stores orbiting and they can follow their entire orbits take some one of them takes about sixteen seventeen years that that's kind of the one that. was most helpful to them just to be clear normally when we think of things orbiting of the things we think of planets orbiting stars. Yeah. No, you're talking about stars orbiting other things. Yeah. Exactly. Right. Exactly. So now you have a bunch of stars in the center of the Galaxy of bunch that are orbiting this day. Now you can't see this thing. It's definitely dark and it's very massive and contrary. I think of the popular imagination about black holes black holes aren't huge. The whole point about a cold is that they're tiny. So for how heavy are they're tiny. So this object, they just look at the orb introduced. Wow that thing is four million times the The sun. But it's fitting.
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"Is I think here we wanted to get a sense of the whole scale of the destabilization of our planet and what we need to stabilize it again unless a big little complex thing but. I hope feeling something direction in the first few days seems to suggest we go across the. You've made quite a few films in your case with national. Geographic about your work. It really does work to galvanize attention around an issue. Doesn't it I? Mean how have you found that? Interesting. palaeo-anthropology interest in in our human story and therefore people sort of sense of guardianship of the planet has improved through what you've done making telly programs that bring the science to people. Oh it absolutely does it. There's probably no more effective way to to reach millions and millions of people with with messaging but just to fall on what was being talked about the Sir David's done here you know we're we're living in a world scene cost of eight billion human beings Cova D- The destruction of natural habitats, the cost all living things. We need messages like this now because this is going to be the new norm, it isn't going to be waiting around for viruses when we reach nine billion and ten billion and twelve billion consuming humans we we have to make choices and we have to do it right now the expressive. Yes. I find this particularly poignant because I was a teenager when David Davidson life on earth came out and it was the thing when I was asked at university interviews made, you want to study science that was my answer. I think he changes a lot of people's lives and he's really determined now even in his tenth decade to keep. Changing our attitudes, the natural world it's really, very inspiring. And Call it are you able to sell to capitalize on the program in other ways beyond just to make your program and educating people? Are there other ways in which you can then take the momentum this created and then build on that to get more change or to get more activity off the back of it? Yes I think there is one of the things that's happened already in a day since we've released, it is very big companies as well as members of government getting in touch with us, and asking us to host screenings and to share it with employees would politicians and I think you find an hopefully we're gonNA find. This won't be suddenly find with documentaries that it can't be an interesting moment to provoke a compensation within companies and governments where changed can be made. So it lightning rods an issue that perhaps many people have been talking about some time and gives a focal point amendment. It feels we must respond to this and that's a sort of sense that we're getting at the moment I mean certainly days but it feels like there's a moment where employees are asking. That is what we can do about this. How shortly we've got to address these issues and it's not just from one documentary, but it's from a building of of of the over time, and then the documentary like this particular frontier by David tends to have a flash point that draws a lot of attention and forces people to make a statement one, one way or the other. And Lee is there anything we can learn from what happened to our ancestors that might help to focus minds today? We think that obviously every experience we're having is unique is there evidence that actually our ancestors went through times when the planet was under stress oversee not of their making like the present situation is in our case, but the outcome could nevertheless be the same. I think that the thing that humans should take away from the idea of studying the human historic past is that we should lose our arrogant extinction is the norm. There have been dozens and dozens of our closest relatives with brains like ours with adaptations like ours that existed to the last of millions of years and they are all gone and we can go that way to. The any passing thoughts music pretty poignant sobering note from family to sort of finish on. I am more of an optimistic and I hope that the human. That has got us into this terrible pickle will help get us out again. Let's hope. So call in look it's been great to have you join us. We hope the documentary goes well, thanks very much for joining us to share your experiences of making. That's call him but failed. He's the executive producer on Sedova data. Moore's new documentary that's just out his also with the WWF and we have to leave it there. I've got to say thank you very much though to you for listening at home and thanks to the people who joined us this week, our guest those were Charlotte somers Victoria, Gill Jim guzzled Sean Carroll and filter. You just heard there and thanks to our very special guests who joins us. Across the our Lieber and the bloom. Now next time you can join us for a walk in the forest. We're GONNA look at the science of trees from their lives and how a young tree is born right through to how they die what secrets are hiding in the woods. The naked scientists comes to from the Institute of continuing. Education at the University of Cambridge is supported by Rolls Royce. I'm Chris Smith thanks for listening I..
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"For Twenty Twenty I've been announced this week among the winning discoveries the virus that causes significant liver disease the gene editing technique could crisper and a supermassive black hole. You always need a supermassive black hole we give official tour of the NOBELS. Is BBC science correspondent Victoria. Gill. Victoria welcome to the program. Hello. Chris. How're you very well, thank you and thanks for joining us to give us his tour of the nobels. Let's begin with Monday the Nobel Assembly has today decided to ward the twenty twenty Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine jointly to Harvey J alter Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice for the discovery of hepatitis. C virus. So Victor did these men do what if they actually discovered? A. Beautiful. That wise theories of discoveries of hepatitis at the discovery of Hepatitis C. and also how to detect it. That's led to protests that led to treatments and cures, and the possibility that the potentially lethal virus could be whiteout the three types of hepatitis and hepatitis C. up until the seventies was unknown but it was found that patients got blood transfusions would getting this unknown cause of hepatitis. So alternates colleagues showed that blood from the. Hepatitis. In fact, he patients could transmit the disease to chimpanzees. So he sort of showed this disease causing agents, Ineffective People's bloods. Then Houghton took that a step further by painstakingly isolating and collecting DNA records from bees, infected chimpanzees. So he he founded the code of the virus and then rice took it even further to show that it was actually this virus alone by itself that Kacoos Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver which can kill you so. This this lovely step by step from the seventeenth to the nineteenth that Scotus from just unknown cause of lethal liver inflammation to a point where we know exactly what's causing that is the so close and now we have a way of potentially wiping out virus. We can set me test for it very rapidly tracing cure it did you foresee HEP C. Making a no bill this year Theo. I wish I could say so but I did read a prediction of it because I believe the scientists involved had received some of seen as the precursor prizes so they were certainly on the slate. Is An important problem now, isn't it? The the anticipated burden of disease caused by one hundred, seventy, million people around the world an it's a direct cause of liver cancer and disease. So it's pretty important as a pathogen the we now identified it and radical not even that I think is a prize weller and Disney absolutely, and it's sort of best comparison when we're all rather obsessed. With one particular virus at the moment, how long it used to take to identify the virus causing a particular problem and then prove the virus was the calls and we have taken for granted that a new virus that emerged in China late last year, we can already identify know that it's causing disease with great certainty and you know we will hope that we can vaccinate against pretty soon. Lee There's some suggestion, a number of years old now this suggestion. But when you compare the genetic makeup of Z and the genetic makeup of a certain group of viruses that infect dogs some people suggested that in fact, dogs gave us Hepatitis C.. And it would have been the very close proximity between. US domesticating dogs on those dog owners initially that perhaps enabled that jump to happen in a bit of a striking parallel. Theo's talk about the fact that we've identified. Kovic in record time. But the fact that we we could actually have virus that jumped out of Batson into be because covid. We've got a virus that jumped out at bats in out out of dogs people to cause hepatitis. c. a what do you think about that as scientists progress so incredibly particularly over the last decade, you know we're going to be able to test that question and we're not far from being able to do that. We have from the archaeological record in some genetic record. You know we've domesticated dogs inside the last thirty thousand years and as we begin to get ancient DNA, we should be able to clock that and and Tessie idea you know. which came first the hepatitis C. or dog domestication. Well, we've onto the Nobel Prize for physics, which is also come out this week. One half to Roger Penrose. For the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity. And the other have jointly to Andrea gears and reinhard cancel for the discovery of the supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy. That's one way of putting the supermassive compact object at the center of Galaxy. There was actually a lovely quote vic from Christopher. Berry who's a physicist at northwestern university and resonated with me because he said, black holes capture anything that gets too close for them. This is equally true about our fascination. Once you start learning about black holes, they can be no escape. So Watch out if you report on them too much you get sucked in. At three. Really Nice. I think my favorite response to the physics. Nobel came from another physicist Cox Invested Cambridge who tweeted that. Wooding the physics Nobel first massive chasm of infinite dark necessary twenty, twenty we. Really, hit the nail on that. This was a fascinating one and it was a wonderful British scientists, eighteen years. Old Roger Penrose gets off this prize and then the other hawkish between reinhard cancel and under gets here is only the fourth woman to win a physics ninety miles that. Relates a lot of day you know intrinsic problematic with the byles in this ongoing issue with the patch. Be problematic academic hierarchical system that the nobels is kind of famous for but it's also just this real celebration of absolutely fundamental science. What Roger Penrose Dede's is suitable I mean to me him sort of applying general relativity to come up with entirely new calculations. The fact that a black hole can be a real thing can actually form in the universe is kind of another level of thinking for me. Well. Let's move straight onto chemistry because that was the third and final prize that was announced this week. Emmanuel shop to you and Jennifer Dowd now for the development of a method for genome editing. This is, of course, the technique otherwise known as crisper. Did you see that one coming Theo? This one looked very likely at some point because the crisper cast nine technique has so revolutionized the way that. Researchers can edit DNA including the fact that we believe that someone actually used it. Illegally and ethically to edit the DNA in unborn children but it's clearly something that has changed. The whole way that let Kabbage is down and in contrast to that hepatitis C. from the nineteen seventies nine, hundred, Ninety S, and which by the way to three men, this prize has gone to two women for work done in the past decade and that's exciting on both counts. I think by studying basic biology they've come up with what is a tool that has changed. Basic Science already, and is likely to change medicine as well. The Countess crisper actually work. What does it involve? What will enable us to do? It's actually the ancient immune system of a bacteria which essentially has this component could trace RNA, which cleaves it. Snip sounds a bit of DNA from whatever is attacking it. So it's basically kills what is attacking its immune system has this pair of genetic scissors what these two amazing scientists have done and they collaborated together to kind of bring together the genetic knowledge in the molecular biology. This is the real kind of chemistry of life stuff. They got together to figure out how to simplify that bacterial immune system this cleavage into a pair of much simpler molecular. Genetic diseases that can be used anywhere essentially, you can just as if you were editing a piece of tape and you can sniff out and then stick it back together you can do that with a genetic code. So you can just imagine the actually the Swedish Academy themselves said that it's only imagination that holds that the limitations of what we can do with this technology I. Think Canoga important postscript to that is that our morals and ethics is also going to play a big role in terms of what humans will do with this technology because the possibilities. Molecular are boundless. Victoria. Thank you very much. That's Victoria Gill. She is the BBC's science correspondent. Thanks to the pandemic we're entering a world that's more online and thanks to what many are calling the fourth industrial revolution. It's world that's much more automated and data driven. Jim guzzled director of the Institute for Continuing Education at the University of Cambridge and has been very much at the forefront in the front line of having to respond educationally to the challenges thrown away by Covid he's with us now Jim. Jim We've seen in the news stories of universities which have got huge outbreaks of covid among their students. Now, we hope that Cambridge University isn't going to join their ranks but just before we get into the educational side of things, do you think it was the right decision to get young people back into university?.
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"Have you loud and clear. Welcome. Signs and that is the same physics medicine nature. Brain. Hello welcome to the naked scientists. This is the show where we bring you the latest breakthroughs in science technology medicine. I'm Chris Smith, and this week we do this about once a month we're looking at the science behind the headlines on the menu as Donald Trump is treated for corona virus infection. What have we learned about Managing Kovic since the pandemic started also the Nobel prizes out so who has one what and David numbers new films launched will hear a bit of it and talk to the. Producer the naked on his podcast is powered by UK fast dot coach Uk. With me this week are one of the world's leading Patio Anthropologists. He's at the University of voters rand in South Africa, and that's Lee Burger. We'll have the British medical, Journal excecutive editor, Theo blooms. Hello to both of you great to have you with us. Hi Chris in between us we'll be talking to a range of guests who are going to be joining us over the next hour. LE- I think. It's actually this year thirteen years almost to the day since we first met in Johannesburg thirteen unlucky for some. But definitely, not for you I gather that you've discovered not one not two not three but now four new species of ancient human ancestor. It's only three new species. So we'll work on that though with these new discoveries I'm. In the middle of discovery right now and Cova kind of pushed us into a strange space and figure out something to do when we get back once lockdown levels and covid actually lowered here in South Africa and I'd already dispersed my my laboratories in there was site that we had discovered early on in the exploration activities back in two, thousand, thirteen and It was a difficult site. It was going to be a site that was hard to work. It was going to be a site that had every reason it was dangerous that I didn't do it and. I decided to take a chance on day one we hit an extraordinary discovery that that we're in the middle of right now, and so this is really the third big discovery that we've had. It's full of hominids and we're very fortunate to be able to work under these conditions. So this is a cave signed is this where Homo Naledi the smaller ancestors were burying their dead. Inside this I two hundred meters away from where we discovered Homo Naledi. It's different cage system. It was right in front of us. It's an entirely different kind of creature from Homo, Naledi. It's big tooth and it's extraordinary and how old is this? I have no idea this this whole discoveries three and a half weeks old when he heard about it here on the naked scientists first theo over to you for second what does it been like running a Medical Journal juryman covert? We've heard from what it's like trying to fill work as you make extraordinary discover new Ford what's it been like at the J.? Busy is is the one word that comes to mind I mean we. Probably most medical journals have seen attend to one hundred fold increase in submissions of papers with people very anxious to get out the latest findings about covert and we've had to sort of scale up to handle those, and of course, we've been trying to get results out very quickly if they're important the public needs to know as soon as possible. So we we're working round the clock and a lot of my colleagues working. At home with small children and nevertheless trying to do more than they ever did before. Too busy time. Is a mixed bag in terms of the quality of what you've received received some stuff that you think my goodness. That's amazing and if you also receive some stuff that makes you my goodness, I can't believe someone actually sent that to journal did their toddler ride this Yes we we we pretty much always get a range of quality I think what's happening now though is that Everyone thinks every single funding about covert is really really important and they want to get it out as fast as possible maybe when it's not quite ready. Of course, the the most recent high profile person who has succumbed to the new current Avars is Donald Trump and his doctors interesting. They've put him on a whole raft of different treatments including an antibody therapy might by the American company general also a number of other drugs and supplements. It has been unclear though how ill he actually has been summer saying he's actually been downplaying his symptoms. It's been a very interesting journey. I learned a lot about cove. I learned it by really going to school. This is the real school. This isn't the let's read the book school and I, get it and I understand it and it's A very interesting thing going to be letting US know about it. Charlotte some as intensive care consultant, she's at Adam Rex Hospital in Cambridge. She also advises the UK governmental managing the condition. CHARLOTTE, what what was your reaction to the cocktail of treatments that the president of the United States was or appears to have been given? After that it was quite surprised. They pass when the best dogs verity that I would have weeks four had I been? Lacking off the him I think most. Is probably the gentleman therapy, but he had ten of two antibodies. I'm the ADS to neutralize the virus I'm actually the company that makes these had any the I h of miss a few days before they were given the president and it was any based on two hundred and seventy five patients on trials ongoing. So we actually know whether this therapy what's not so I was slightly surprised that a very experimental therapy. Promising is greed given to the president of the United States. The rationale fusing people, these is, of course that's what your own immune system makes when you have an infection and if you people those, perhaps it will help to soak up some virus and bolster your own immune response. Have we not though seen something of a checkered response to the.
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Science Show
"Plate to work on SARS covy to and the pace at which new discoveries are being made and I hope or impact the. Control of the pandemic is really staggering. In physics. One half of the prize goes to the University of Oxford's Sir Roger Penrose, ten years after the Death Feinstein Sir Roger demonstrated the black holes could exist and that their existence in fact follows Einstein's general theory of relativity. He furthered that the heart of a black hole always hides a singularity, a point at which space and time cease to exist. The. Other half of the prize was split between professes hot Denzil and Andrea against for their work showing a supermassive black hole lies at the center of our galaxy. By measuring the orbits of the Bright Stars close to the center of the Milky? Way. They revealed the existence of this enormous black Hole Sagittarius Star, which is pulling the stars around it ever closer. Professor Gez is only the fourth woman to win the Nobel. In physics here she is on the science show last year describing the monster in the middle of Galaxy at four million times the mass of the Sun. In fact, our galaxy harbors at its core, a black hole or supermassive black hole that's kind of on the light side but our galaxies also on the relatively small side. So it kind of skills and that's what we expect the Nobel. Prize in chemistry went to two women who made one of the biggest leaps forward in modern science a man well, shop and Tia and Jennifer doubt for their work on crisp has nine the genetic scissors that allow us to the DNA of organisms while studying a bacterium back in twenty eleven professors shop and Tia discovered a previously unknown molecule called trae Rene. It's a part of the immune system of bacteria allowing them to disarm viruses by cleaning DNA. The pair work together to recreate and simplify this effect in test tube giving scientists the responsibility and power to rewrite the curve of life. Uptake of these genetic scissors has been widespread and the technology has underpinned many recent discoveries in basic science. It's spurred new cancer treatments currently in clinical trials, and it's also hoped crisp has nine may one day cure inherited diseases. He's Jennifer Dowdell. It's only as me every day to see the ordinary work that's going on now globally with this technology and thinking back about how it really started with just a curiosity driven project. Thanks James James Pulling produces the health report on our end and I'm delighted to see Andrea gets as a laureate assange regular, and now the fourth woman in history to win a Nobel for physics and of course, to women scoring for the first time in chemistry..
"nobel prize" Discussed on Short Wave
"Died after the announcement. So the argument here is that if you open it up to dead people, then like chaos could rain because there's so many scientists throughout history that could get the Nobel I mean like who like Galileo You know trouble is you can make a super critical contribution to something but if you just happen to die before the Nobel deciders get around to honoring you that's it. You're out of luck and you know I used to wait every year to see if astronomer Vera Rubin would get the physics prize and everybody you know I think almost everybody thought she deserved it for her work. On dark matter which is super important right but she died in twenty sixteen without getting the prize and that was it. Yeah and I mean I think the thing that bugs me the most about this role Nell is that you know we're only beginning, uncover and understand the contributions of people who were not and are frankly still not celebrated by science. It eliminates kind of our ability to write some of the wrongs of our past people who are maybe left out due to sexism or racism, and they're are arguably quite a few of those people. Yeah. People have been left out I. Mean I think that's Undeniable and you know there's another side to it, which is that the Nobel Prize is never revoked, which means that whatever you do after you win, you will always have the prize. You will always represent science to the public on the highest level and you know James Watson? One of the people who won for the discovery of the structure of DNA he's been ostracized by many in the scientific community for making racist and sexist remarks. But his Nobel Prize hasn't been revoked end. You know add to that the fact that Rosalind, Franklin's experimental results which were completely essential to doing the work that want him the prize. no-one nominated her for the Nobel before she died. So she will never be recognized with the Nobel I. Mean. There's just so many aspects to this that strike people as being you know kind of unfair. Okay now. So we've hit the main points. These prices are exclusionary they're set in stone. They also distort how science is actually done, which leads me to my final question. Should we continue to celebrate these words like we do there are good things about the Nobel prizes you know the people I talked to who've even expressed concerns about the disparities in gender or racial representation still feel like it's an opportunity for science and scientists to be recognized on a global stage once a year you. Know and it means that people stop and reflect that something they use every day was made possible by people doing basic science like for example, there was this prize celebrating the development of Lithium batteries, which we all use in our phones and our computers, and you know it's nice for people to just take a moment and think about what made that possible and how science can really change the world change our lives. So that's positive. That's a good thing and it reminds people that science matters. But you know I wonder whether there are other ways to achieve those goals that may become with less and. you know thinking about at Rockefeller, university that thing called the dude wall that was covered with those you know portrait's of prize winners I mean they're actually redesigning that wall to include the winners of other prizes. You know other big science prizes and so you know adding more those winners you add more women you can add you know more racial diversity I mean it just makes me wonder if there are things we could be doing that would keep all the good parts about what we want when we think about the Nobel prize coverage without falling into these problems that it's just seems like it's hard to get around them if you're covering the Nobel. Okay. No Greenfieldboyce. We always appreciate you. Thank you for coming on show. Thanks for having me on the show and you know it's GonNa be exciting. How well to find out who the winners are this year I feel a little weird talking about this when we don't even know true. This episode was produced by Brit Hanson fact checked by Ariella Zabidi an edited by from `field. I mattie sify. Thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR..
"nobel prize" Discussed on Short Wave
"Okay now so we are sticking to the traditional science, Nobel's today, Physics Chemistry and physiology or medicine another reminder here for audience we recording this before the twenty twenty prizes are announced. Okay. Let's start by talking about how all this works. Now, it's run by the Nobel Committee and each year they invite specific scientists to nominate people people who are quote competent and qualified to nominate right so not just anyone can nominate you know you have to be invited I couldn't nominate someone unless. Someone makes me and that hasn't happened, and after the nominations come through, you know different committees select up to three winners for each discovery and the whole process is pretty secretive. They don't release who is nominated for like fifty years. I talked with one researcher who studied the Nobels Lisa Lotte Jofre at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen Hanging. On fashion that the that is still secret. Yeah. It's super of and you know only those who are nominated can win in the makeup of those winners. The types of people who most often win is arguably the biggest problem with the awards. So it probably won't shock the shortwave audience that the majority of Nobel Prize winners in the sciences are men, but how large that majority might surprise you yeah. I mean in physics of the total two, hundred thirteen individuals who have won three are women that's listen to percent, and it's about the same for chemistry. Little better for physiology or medicine I mean a little bit about five and a half percent of the winners are women. So you know you might see that and think, well, you know it usually takes a while before someone's work is recognized for being you know of significant importance like a couple of decades. So maybe what we're seeing is just a reflection of the lack of women in academic science decades ago. But the researcher I mentioned she did a study looking at that she looked at the gender ratio in these fields going back years, and she says, that is not the explanation. Even if you take into account this delay we have A. Few women that actually gets the noble price in what sit gender Rachel suggests and it really matters. You know I covered this thing at Rockefeller University in New York City is this thing that they called the dude wall that's not the official name but remember this wall just outside their main auditorium and it was covered with like thirty headshots of Nobel winners, winners of the lasker prize, which is often called the American Nobel and one hundred percent of them were men and you know one professor who worked there told me just walking passes every day sent this message that like the best science was done by men exactly I mean that's the message right and and we Haven't even talked about racial diversity I, reached out to the nobels organization to try and get a hold of the racial demographics of the winners, and now they told me in this Israel they don't keep those types of statistics. How can they not right right through this Guy Winston Morgan? He's a researcher at the University of East London and he said a couple of years ago when a couple of women one science nobels and there was a lot of coverage of that and how great it was for science and women and society. He wondered if it ever gone to a black scientist and he couldn't find any for physics physiology or medicine or chemistry the Nobel Prize if. On the cake, but it's really a reflection on society in the inequalities in society and that's to me. That's the more important thing. So matty, Oh, this could be the year that changes you know a science. Nobel could finally be awarded to a black scientists, and since as you noted, we're recording this before the Nobel in physiology and medicine you know maybe it was already awarded and we don't know about it. That would be cool. Yeah. I mean that would be cool and and maybe it has I don't make it sound like it wouldn't be a big deal or it. Wouldn't be important because absolutely would be but it's just it's not enough not after more than one hundred years of not recognizing black scientists. Well, you know yeah, you'd. You'd like to be more than one ideally going forward, right? Obviously. The Nobel Committee is aware of this kind of stuff and last year the organization said it was introducing measures to increase the diversity like asking more women to suggest candidates and asking nominators to consider the diversity of gender and geography, and you know the kind of science and ethnicity. So you know they say they're taking steps to try to improve this. Right. And whether or not you know that small change is going to actually you know considerably move things along remains to be seen. I, mean even if we have a record breaking year for women this year, it's still a problem I mean women have to win like every single science prize for something like seventy years before they up to men you know even more. So when it comes to racial diversity. So that's one aspect that's kind of changing although very slowly let's let's talk about the aspects of the Nobel prizes that are set in stone I. Think a really important. Critique is that these awards pick a couple of people to represent big scientific discoveries discoveries that often take giant teams of people. So the rules of the Nobel say that the prize can only be shared by at most three people, and this is simply not how a lot of modern sciences done. For example, in two thousand, seventeen, the Nobel physics went to three scientists for the first detection of gravitational waves and not too long ago I was talking with Ray. Weiss. One of the winners and he said there were lots of other deserving people. Why should I have a Nobel prize? who have had equivalent input into this thing? Right. I mean this is why some people think scientific teams should be awarded or the discovery itself instead of this like three people rule. Yeah and as a science reporter I can tell you that every year reporters play this game where we talk about like who should have gotten the prize was not recognized. I mean, let me give you one really poignant example in two, thousand and eight the chemistry Nobel went to three scientists who did work with green fluorescent protein. That's jellyfish protein that makes. Things light up and glow. It's used in lots of labs. But NPR correspondent Dan Charles, who covered the award he went and looked for other scientists who might have been worthy and he learned that two of the Nobel laureates got the gene for this protein from the guy who discovered it he's named Douglas Pressure. I went looking for Douglas pressure hoping for a good quote and reach him by cell phone on the job in Huntsville Alabama. Pressure is now driving a courtesy shuttle for a car dealership. I got a hard luck story. The transcript actually identified him as molecular biologists slashed car dealership driver, and so you know he told Dan Charles he just had trouble getting research funding and had to leave science and get another job. So you know to the Nobel winners invited him and his wife to attend the ceremony is guests and they thanked him in their speeches but this. Just shows you kind of what a crap shoot the Nobel can be. I think sometime scientists are chagrin because they're happy to get this prize. It's a huge, but the culture of science is that you share the credit and the rules of the Nobel sometimes don't let you do that. Yeah. They really don't. Okay. All right. So our next beef with the Nobels has to do with. How. The prizes are awarded since decision in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, four Nobel prizes are not supposed to go to anyone who has died unless they.
"nobel prize" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormack making we are revisiting a yearly tradition. That's right every year and pretty much about this time. We look and see what was honored at at this year's ignoble prizes the prizes themselves come out. I believe that the into September at the very beginning of October bad timing for us because we that's when we want to get into our Halloween content and so we always do steamroll ahead into the Halloween content and then afterwards after especially after the dust is sort of settled on the Nobel prizes is the the mainstream media coverage of the event has died away then we come back and we we pick through the winners and sometimes we cover cover absolutely everything. Sometimes we cover a few choice elections here in there and that's going to be the model. We're going to be employing here. Yeah we're just GONNA take a look at a few highlights stuck out to us so For those who haven't heard before quick refresher on the ignore bells yeah. They've been awarded each year since Nineteen ninety-one by the publication Gatien the annals of improbable research the purpose of the award. According to the editors improbable research is to honour achievements. That first make people laugh and and then make them think. Furthermore they stressed that the tin prices aren't necessarily meant to pass judgment on the winners instead. The official website emphasizes that the prizes quote celebrate. Celebrate the unusual honor the imaginative and spur people's interest in science medicine and technology and the principal individual here is editor Marc Abrahams. So yeah every year it is just a you know. It's making fun of the idea. A little bit of the Nobel Prizes which which celebrate you know key the advancements in key examples of work that are really pushing forward our our understanding of ourselves and the universe in nature and the Nobel Prizes prizes tend to highlight more absurd in trees but none not necessarily entries that are that are completely useless. And I think that's an important thing to stress and something then. We tried to stress in the past when covering the event is that studies that are honored by the Nobel Prizes. Maybe snicker inducing. They may seem seem a little silly at first glance but they are all works of a real science of real ingenuity and if nothing else air expand helping to expand the that the threshold of human understanding Yeah I mean I think one of our favorite things to explore on this show is realizing icing that. There's an interesting question in place you wouldn't have expected to find it and that's what a lot of this research does. And so on that note let us turn to the first ignoble prize winning study that we would like to highlight here today. And that is the two thousand and nineteen award winner in. Physics awarded awarded to Patricia Yang at all for studying. How and why wombats make cube shaped poop? Bats are so cute they are there they here are so adorable to look. I mean obviously the babies any baby animals going to be adorable but even the adults look like living teddy bear creatures like living teddy bear air marsupials. I bet they're just nightmarish. It's cute they are. I'm sure they kill thousands of people every year. Now I mean to be clear they can protect themselves and sometimes they do harm humans if provoked or I think there have been cases where like there is a law that had the main or something like that and it was there for for a little more agitated. So yes there they can. They are kind of tough customers in their own. RIGHT ON RIGHT THEY'RE NOT STRAIGHT UP Warren's or anything but they can they can look after themselves so this particular paper how to wombats make Cube Pu. This came this was presented at the seventy fifth annual meeting the APS division Asian fluid dynamics. And I believe this presented in Atlanta Georgia. Where of course we record the show? Yeah I think at least part of the team is Georgia Tech Right. Yeah yeah so the species here vom. Data's your sinus is a Pudgy herb. or roughly the size of kind of thick dog. Like a really thick. Doc Marsupial they have pouches. But since they're borough offers they have backward pouches so as not to fill the pouch up with dirt and endanger the young when the maybe within the Pouch Oh interesting so like if they're pulling themselves forward on their belly through the dirt the the the dirt does not go in right. Yeah because we can all imagine imagine the cartoon scenario that just filling up with dirt. Right right they have slow metabolism they feed mostly on grasses and roots and they're largely nocturnal or popular scheduler. So they're gonNA you know they're not going to venture out usually in the brightest light of the day they may come out though on particularly overcast days and they can again. They can put up a fight if threatened and you'll find them in Australia and in Tasmania they're cute. They're not endangered Despite being treated by vermin by some farmers and I I love this groups of wombats are sometimes called a mob sometimes just called a group but sometimes there are also known as a wisdom wombat so man that's better than a murder of crows that it is I just imagined these wise Cute elder wombats that have so much wisdom to share with the world. I don't mean to be mean but they don't necessarily look wise. They do they look more clever than wise. What would you? What would you referred to the mass snuggle of wombats? It'd be a snuggie of wombats that's pretty or a slang slang bats. I like that but one of the more. Puzzling attributes of the wombat has long been there poop because it is cubic in. We're not talking. Necessarily perfectly cubic geometry geometrical sense the yet for a world mostly devoid pretty much completely devoid of natural squares certainly natural biological squares. This is pretty darn cubic. Yeah totally totally. I mean if you come across these things in nature you would think they were made by humans. Yeah they look kind of like chocolate marshmallows like really square chocolate marshmallow unless you picture of them. Yeah the cylinder call marshmallow is like more old school like carved out ones with corners. Granted I think the image that we're both looking at here. They're dried a little bit but it's still fresh out. The shoot they are. They're cubic in nature. It is really hard to imagine how these things are made just pick. I mean I don't know how much time one wants to spend contemplating a wombat Amos but like it. Just doesn't seem like a normal thing that would emerge physically Lee from a what I would assume to be rounded. Ain't us well. The wombat anus is not immune from the inquiry of science and that's where Yang and her team come in and and again yeah. Gang is local based out of the School of mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech. She's a post doctoral fellow centuries local maybe we should ever on the on the show because She's not just a one time ignoble winner. She's a two time ignoble winner because she and Co author David who also shared the two thousand fifteen ignoble physics surprise for testing the biological principle. The nearly all mammals in empty their bladders in about twenty one seconds plus or minus. Thirteen seconds. I don't know the plus or minus thirteen seconds ends. Buys you a pretty big window there but yeah I find myself very often thinking about this one in the bathroom so having turned away from the world of urine the researchers searchers were interested by this puzzle of the the Wombat Poop so they looked at how differences and wombats digestive processes and soft tissue structures informed informed this curious structure so they investigated they used that I just of track of wombats that had been euthanized following motor vehicle collisions. In Tasmania. You have to you have to have some actual bodies to look at their right. Seems like a reasonable way to go about getting them. They found that the shape occurred towards is the very end of the intestines. As the matter became increasingly firm it became clear that quote varying elastic properties of wombats intestinal walls alls allowed for the cubic formation and the result is a cube. The only organic Cuban nature they say and it's not made Yang stresses by the two typical local humane methods of creating cubes. We because we tend to mold a cube or we cut Q.. Right we slice a cube out of something the subtractive manufacturing facturing. But this is the third way. This is the way of the wombat where it is it is. It is formed through the the excretion process of the lower intestines so this would be not cutting cube not molding acute maybe pinching a cube yeah pitching cube and then excreting cube. Now you're probably wondering what is the why of all of this right of the. WOMBAT is doing something entirely different with. Its poop there has to be a reason. Well scientists believe it comes down to the fact that these burrowing nocturnal herbivores depend largely on their sense of smell they largely communicate by smell and therefore like various other animals. that are also smell dependent. Their fecal matter is they're calling card. I mean you have a dog you know how the how they behave. Sort of the. The The heightened importance of fecal matter in the dog world. Yeah out on a walk in the neighborhood. POOP is like a facebook status update. Yes like you know you're interested. You want to check it out like we just see something we you don't WanNa step in. Maybe the in the sense data there is just telling us not to step in it but to a dog with heightened far heightened sensibilities. There's a lot of data data in the sense. Emerging from that poop is interesting stuff and so why something like a key while something like a cat hides its Pu because it doesn't want to be known to either. It's mini any prey animals or it's many predators. WOMBATS are a different matter today. WOMBATS don't have many natural predators certainly adult wombats and they I used piled feces Tamar territory and to communicate with other wombats and they don't live on prairie. There are ups and down to the topography. The of their natural habitat in placing their poops at higher elevations. Such is a top some rocks on top of a log or on a ledge. It makes it stand stand out more visually to other wombats and again they don't have great Great you know the sense of sight but still you put it up there on allege Moore Wilmot able to see it and then the wombats could come in and take a more informed a smell of the wombat poop in learn something about About its maker. So the wombat rectum is sort of designed by evolution to create poop monuments. Yeah like testaments to the will of the WOMBAT. Ah Occupies this territory. poop that stays put basically which is Interestingly quite the exact opposite of the round goat feces and into many of these probably seen emerging from the rear end of Goat which is believed to have evolved to roll downhill and essentially self hide in hilly or mountainous terrain gene? So as better. Maybe to throw off a cougar that could be pursuing yours right. Yeah like for the goat. It's better that the poop just gets lost But for the wombat the wombat has very specific needs require the poop to remain in sight and to be found. And so yeah. It's basically with the wombats. It's it's highly highly adaptive to be able to poop cubes that stay put. It's part of their language Arabic expression now nationally. There are potential bio mimetic possibilities. Here in the future future young says we might see human created cubes produced not by molding or cutting but by this sort of excretion. So I can't help but wonder if this will be the future of our Valentine's the entire day chocolate so yes like like a mechanical industrial Amos for pooping out chocolate and exactly that shade exactly delicious. So that's the physics there's express and Yeah I just love the story. 'cause wall mattress such interesting creatures and and this is ultimately extremely insightful. Like this this is not this. This is something that yes it's laughable because it's Poop poop from acute marsupial but on the other hand it's it really illustrates something amazing about evolution and and Isn't that also highlights where we might go in the future when it comes to making cubicle candy and if you want to learn more about this Patricia Yang also has a website Patricia. Yang thing dot net excellent. Well maybe we should take a quick break and then when we come back we can talk about dirty money everybody all the recent news about online security breaches..
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Science Show
"Of to see value out the point of creation in chemistry the prize was awarded to three scientists for their work in developing lithium ion batteries professes John Bay good enough of the University of Texas M Stanley Whittingham of being Hampton University in New York and Akira Yoshino of major university Japan the small size lightweight and energy density of Lithium Ion batteries have made them an appealing choice for electrononics smartphones and laptops but they are also found in electric cause and in space including on the International Space Station and in the MAS curiosity during the oil crisis in the early nineteen seventies Professor Whittingham began work on fossil fuel free technologies developing an early lithium battery good enough and Shane made further improvements to the power and materials of the battery eventually leading to the lightweight and durable tech we not today the award makes good enough the oldest Nobel laureate at ninety seven and he still works in the lab every day you never know they come out don't retire early and of course the Nobel Prize for physics. This year's winners were emeritus professors James peebles Princeton University Michelle Mayor of the University of Geneva and Professor Diddy Kello of Geneva and Cambridge for their contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and earth's place in it as Daniels put it in awarding apprise this year's Nobel laureates in physics had painted the sure over universe far stranger and more wonderful than we ever could have imagined of you or place in the nurse will never be the same again professor payables work is pivotal in our understanding of the primordial universe that time right after the bang in particular he focused on the thermal radiation from that early universe traces of which can be detected today this background radiation clues about how our universe formed professor payables research has also advanced the theories of doc motto and Doc Energy Nebulous Components of the universe I still don't understand Moore and callow received the other half of the physics prize for their work in discovering the first exoplanet a planet outside solar system this they achieved by observing the miniscule fluctuations in lot coming from a distant star evidence of a planet orbiting around it this finding kicked off an enormous search for other exoplanets we've found more than four thousand since the vast differences between these exoplanets has shifted understanding of how planets get made and the hope remains we might one day find life on one of them.
"nobel prize" Discussed on Capitalisn't
"Okay so it seems like the Nobel Committee's becoming a little more open minded about giving prizes too broad thinkers it there's a much more specific criterion that's important for the Nobel Prize Committee and what would that be Luigi so if you look at the statement of the price on somebody debt not only as contributed greatly to the field but also with some contribution as some practical application but improv actors if you WanNa try to predict who's going to get number price I think the first thing that you want to see is whether they are well site edge in the economic literature molded ten years ago I wrote a paper about the articles that more than five hundred citation at the time this was in two thousand and five there were only eleven authors who had at least three papers in that group of this eleven seven eight already got at the time since then got the nominal price and one of them unfortunately died so basically in this was could group of eleven they're only three that have now received a novel price yet so we're those three that didn't get the Nobel prize so one is Barrow and the other is Mike Jensen third one is David craps Robert bow is a vague good example of the Fox borrow research span across else many different aspects of Monaco why not the most important is his research on economic growth and particularly converges across country he tested whether it is true that feature countries go less and so we can hope to have a convergence solve were country at the same level of economic development which country and at least in his early walk this to be the case I think that in moist and he has the data the more mixed but at the time was pretty clear that erection ki as also very provocative paper that when a government issue debt in fact issued a promise to tax you in the future and so individuals are so rational than they understand taxes will go up in the future and so they don't see that as a net wealth but simply as a promise of future accession this India is probably too extreme but was paying for for a long period of time and quite important and also he had a maid role in the literature on microeconomics and time inconsistency the time consistency is a very simple but very important ideas that if I am a government I would like to Klay that I will never tax cap ethos so people in vast but one as they invested I'm very tempted to tax them because they can't undo fast that investment says for Mike Jensen I would say he's definitely a financial economist so to the extent that he's very much within one field maybe he's a hedgehog but within finance I think you sort of Fox or because he is known for a lot of different ideas for example Jensen's Alpha is now both in industry and enacted -demia a very popular way of measuring whether companies outperforming among other companies or the market and he's also well known for his research with meckling on the theory of the firm which among other things in forms us on how we should think about how executives make decisions I think my Jensen would be controversial candidate because he took some as strong position over the he is one of the papers these highly cited is a paper about the fact that ED executives were not paid enough that he wanted you see more pay performance TV in executive pays which by and large also meant more pay to his credit he is possessed Shinzo evolve over time he's always in war is about how the compensation my actually lead executives to lie and to bad outcome and he's most famous one is about agency cost of managers the fact that when manages round firm they might a apple pie value that firm and the reason why we need to have either contracts or financial structure to undo that risk is important driver for national decision so that that paper was Weeden back in ninety seventy six and as being extremely financial in the financial literature for the ex- almost fifty years he also shares with Jean Pharma the Mary to have invented a method that is widely used it is called the event study out to distill from the stock price the impact of particular news on the DOC price and separate to the effect of noise what happens otherwise he also call for with Gene Pharma some important walk on organizations and in particular the reputations play in discipline the board of directors the fact that they tried to behave properly in anticipation of what happens in the labor market subsequently but I think that he will be a fairly controversial figure even if he has been incredibly influential in EH field of financial economics the last person would be David Kreps at Stanford and he's best known for his work in Game Theory sequential games or dynamic games the sounds sort of complicated but I think it's actually somewhat intuitive you might have heard of the prisoner's dilemma where if you separate prisoners who let's say have done something wrong in theory might be best if they both said that they didn't do anything because then there would be no evidence that they didn't he wrong they wouldn't beautiful to extract confessions so they would both be best off if they cooperated somehow and lied and said they didn't do anything but the police are pressuring each prisoner separate league to confess or give a confession that the other person did it and if each one of those prisoners than rats out the other person they might both be in for a long sentence and so this is what's known as a one shot game by economists but there are a lot of situations in real life that are actually needed games where you have situations in which there are multiple players have to come to a decision and they have to make that same sort of decision over and over again in the course of let's say like managing a company or making some sort of corporate decision so the prisoner's dilemma might change if on the happens over and over again because you know that it's going to happen again and so in these cases something reputation might really matter like do you have reputation of being a liar do you have the reputation for cooperating and so this is the kind of work the David Kreps is done along with Paul Milgram and Robert will soon also from Stanford and they're very well cited for this work and they're probably in the running for Nobel prize if not this year than sometime soon he's walk can be used to analyze donald trump because reputation mattis if you have a reputation of being a little bit crazy people my he scared by you because in many repeated gain situation one of the problem is that you're not sure that the other person will buy through a threat because is not in Hazo her incentive but if you're crazy you do not behave always rationally that threat cons all of a sudden incredible and you can actually stare your competitors more of the people playing with you more by showing some signs that lease occasion yeah crazy so it's a very good description of the Meta rationality of trump's behavior yeah I mean I think part of the reason this work is owned financial is because it can be applied from everything to how our political leaders act to how business executives make decisions to how like children decide whether or not to lie to their parents by the way I tell you that I was in the prisoner's dilemma A few days ago you got arrested now wasn't arrested but I was trying to travel to a different country with my fiance and we had different reasons for traveling and for whatever reason to I guess the security on the US sides we're going abroad but they had security here in the US so they detained us and they separated US and they question us in different rooms so they were like looking for us to give different answers to something and I was like terrified the whole time because I knew what they were doing and part of what's difficult in our relationship is that like I go back and forth between Washington and New York a lot and so for questions like do you live together I don't really have a straight answer it seems like we're very suspicious and so we barely made the flight because they were worried that we were spies or something I think you definitely look like one thanks Luigia I'll I'll take that as a compliment absolutely Matahari Buick listen into capital isn't there's a good chance you're interested in pioneering research and groundbreaking discoveries big brains another podcast from the University of Chicago brings the work and ideas of the world's smartest thinkers straight ear buds with guests like David Axelrod if you know people if you understand something about them it's hard order to dehumanize him it's harder to hate them even if you disagree with them Richard Thaler those two words systematic bias that was the big Aha if there's systematic biases then you can make better predictions and imbuing we now in the past couple of decades have started thinking about schools not as things that we have rights to Ba- rather something that we are to consume ooh choose you'll hear the 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"nobel prize" Discussed on Capitalisn't
"So finally October and most people think this is a spooky month because of allowing Bot for older Lee The economist this is spooky month for a different reason where is would that be Luigi they really getting frantic about the possibility great honor to introduce the laureate of the various Rick Spanked Prize in economic sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel in this year the noble price economics will be announced on October fourteenth just a week away from this episode so speaking of people getting nervous are you nervous Luigi no because number one I'm not old debatable but most importantly because I'm not in the running how do you know that you're not running now or it's very easy to get a sense of who is in the League who is not and so in today's episode we are going to take a break from talking about capitalists and we're GONNA talk about Nobel Prize comics out do you win it why it's important and how do you make predictions who might win it or not from Georgetown University this is Kate Waldoch and throng individual Chicago this is Louise's in Gallup's you're listening to capitalism a podcast about what's working and capitalism today and most importantly what is it so let's start with Khleifi one important point and even the pecking order of prices the Nobel Prize in economics is a distant relative it's not even a real Nobel prize to be honest he's not a real number price they correct name is the veges Westbank Prize in economic sciences in memory of Alpha novel Oh so it was not instituted by nobble himself was instituted by the Central Bank of Sweden in nine hundred sixty eight so if you're a hard scientists like physicist Oh you might win the Nobel Prize for a major discovery like the discovery of the transistor and for something like biology you might get a Nobel prize for figuring out the structure of DNA and the question is our and why do you WanNa know what price and economics and to explain most of the novel Price comics I think he's useful to use a classification that if famous for is i Berlin us one between hedge walks and Fox and because hedgehogs are Spiky Fox's are soft I mean does this have to do with like the relative cuteness of these two animals no it has to do with a Luik of an inch and Greek poets that said Fox is no many things the hedge only one but beak and so the some economists who about one big idea and basically they won the Nobel price for that contribution and then there are others that are kind of all over the place they contributed so much in so many areas but they're not identify one big single idea so who might we put in the hedgehogs category I think one example might be someone like George Acre Lav and he's on for his work in Lemons my paper the market for Lemons explored how markets with asymmetric information right for example the buyer of a used car fears that she will be stuck with a lemon the seller of us ars sees how little she will pay for one in there for will not supply a good quality car because of this interplay have concerns markets they should exist collapse the best example is the market for Health Insurance it's for the elderly and the other category on the Fox cowdery we ever chantal he's accurately two most cited papers are his books one broken industrial organization and the other book on regulation and procurement and both these books kind of close field rather than opening to do before after those books around my work which has been awarded the prize is on the regulation of industries the regulation of industries clued what we call antitrust which means that judges and courts and anti-trust authorities check on behavior of large firms check the new abuse of dominant positions that large from don't abuse of power it also include regulation regulation of what's called network industries so data come in that industry `electricity industry railroad post offices and also little bit the regulation of banks which of course it's been a very topical issue lately so Luigi Do you think there has been any trend recently and whether the Nobel Prize Committee is going more in the direction of hedgehogs or more in the direction of Fox's I think that actually we started to introduce the Fox category relatively recently in the past people Goma as being incredibly across the entire sort of financial economics field but I think the nobble comedian now more into a key prices to people who have massively contributed to the field.
"nobel prize" Discussed on The Science Show
"For me, there's nothing to stop me doing some research. If I have the energy stood Martin reece's research, I believe was largely theoretical where he could make contributions by thinking and writing the solve area of research that I'm involved in this much more experimental. I do have a small research group. I have a small company that I set up and what I'm expecting to do is to spend more time advising the science in the company than trying to run a significant research group myself. So Gregory winter master of Trinity College in Cambridge on the sign show in two thousand twelve. He won the Nobel prize this week, and he mentioned his predecessor, Lord Reese. Now, astronomer Royal and Martin Reese talks about our future. Later in this side show I the Nobels, here's James Boleyn. Every second of every day, our bodies immune system fights, foreign agents, bacteria parasites, en- viruses. The might otherwise do Tom. In some cases, the immune system can recognize cancer cells as normal and kill them to the trouble is some cancer tumors have the ability to put the brakes on the cells of our means system, stopping them from working properly. This is Nobel prize winners in medicine, worked out different mechanisms by which this breaking occurs and how to stop it, allowing the immune system to fight and kill tumor cells. Professor James, Allison from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas in the United States and professor to sue Honjo from Kyoto University Japan jointly.
"nobel prize" Discussed on Inquiring Minds
"Concern. So I know he just wrote a book called losing the Nobel prize. But it seems to me a bit of species argument to say that scientists really about winning the Nobel that that really is the carrot that most scientists have in front of them. I mean, I, I don't know of any scientists who go into science in order to win a Nobel prize. I mean, we kind of joke about it, and certainly it would be the culmination of a great career. But seriously everybody knows that there's a lot of who Bris and a lot of luck that would go into that. And I don't think anybody starts out with that prime motivator. Yeah, I agree with that. I don't think any scientist. I know even ones that have when the Nobel prize would say the got into science because of this, but it is a really big deal even though it carries less money than the breakthrough prize and other prizes, it's the one. It's the most prestigious award in all of science and Yoon one might say, might be the most prestigious prize in all of the world. Like Oscars. All of that kind of stuff seems to waver alongside the Nobel prize because it's a legacy award. So I kinda understand his point from that perspective that they are really, really important. There's a couple of places that I think the argument falls down in the sense that he kinda intimates in the book that there were a few set of people that review the Nobel prize that that are able to nominate and it's much broader that he seems to indicate. In fact, every scientist in Sweden is able to nominate a new will someone for the Nobel prize, which I thought was kind of cool perk being a scientist and Sweden, I guess. But when it comes down to do you feel like the prize needs reforms. Well, I mean, yeah, it's a tough question to answer because I again, I think that the the prize is wonderful, and I think that it, you know it is it is a career maker reputation maker. It's like climbing. Mount Everest used to be right now. There are a lot of people that have called Mount Everest. So it doesn't seem quite as impressive. The Nobel prize still retains that that impressiveness to it. But again, I just don't think it's that important in science. I mean, I think that it's it's nice and it gets press and and there's a, there's a a soap opera around the call three AM that comes from Sweden and everyone. You know, it's exciting. It's like watching a America's next top model or the voice live, but for science. So yeah, that's interesting. But it's not like we spend the rest of the year worrying about it. I mean, it's like a few weeks in the fall. It's exciting, and then we go back to doing science. I have never heard America's next top model and the Nobel prize in the same sentence that's going to stick with me for. Well, I kinda agree like, I don't think the Nobel prize is important to science, but I do think it's really, really important to scientists and the institutions they work for. And yes, it is like a big deal for those three to six weeks. But what else? Like grinds science to a halt more than the Nobel prize announcement. So. And maybe coming from a place where I just feel like I have zero CHAD'S ever winning Nobel prize, and I still consider myself a good scientist. You have zero chance. I have a negative fan. But and you know. And I think that's true for a lot of people in particular fields, like there are just so many fields that are just very, very unlikely to ever get that. But I don't think it's a reflection of merit in that sense. I think that it's a reflection of a combination of luck and serendipity and merit for sure, but there's that element of winning the lottery. I mean, that's what we say. We win the Nobel prize. You don't earn the Nobel prize if you win it. Fair enough. I will say though, I think I think it's weird that there isn't one for math and other topically areas around sort of science and stem generally, and that's just are artifacts of Alfred Nobel's will I feel like that should exist just for consistency sake. The one re reform reform is probably a strong word for this is that I do think that propagation of the lone genius idea. I wanna see that evaporate over time, and I think the winners recently have done a good job of saying like, I didn't do this alone, especially with some of the physics prizes. So some sort of I would love to see the Nobel committee acknowledged how many people contributed to this, whether they were alive or dead when it comes to some of these big announcements because I did feel watching last year that ligon ounce -ment. Why Ron Dreavers named in come up more because you know he was the the head of that project for for decades. And so I realize, you know, he can't do anything with the prize, but I wanted to see that name listed an insult doing. I think they will recognize more women and people of color that have contributed to these projects and that acknowledgement will probably go a long way. I mean, I totally agree with you in the sense that I think, yes, I think that acknowledgment should should come in some more obvious form that it does. Now, which is usually just in the speech that the person makes, and you have to kind of rely on the person having enough humility to include other people and their speech, and that doesn't always happen. But I also think the Nobel prize is about telling the story of scientists and so there has to be characters in that story. There have to be characters and if and so that's why I think like just saying, we're look, we're going to, we're going to award this two thousand researchers that work at Sern. You know, to me that that loses one important aspect of the Nobel, which is the sense that it's a story about people. So on that note, that's it for another episode. I wanna thank you for joining us for this installment of enquiring mind. So we'd also like to thank our supporters on our patriotic campaign now more important to us than ever as we've left the mother Jones mothership, especially David Noel Clarke Lindgren Michael gal, you'll Stephan Meyer a walled, Kyle Rohullah Joel, Jonathan Worsely Yushi Lynn, Eric Clark, Jordan Miller, haring Chang, Shawn Johnson, and Nick Cadillac, and all of you news. Porters who have come online since we, we left mother Jones. You can visit our website at enquiring dot show, and you can support us at patriot dot com. Slash inquiring minds. Remember that you get at free episodes at five dollars or more per month. You can also find us on Twitter at enquiring show and Facebook, and you can send us comments, feedback, feature, guest ideas who you think should win. The Nobel prize is
"nobel prize" Discussed on Inquiring Minds
"Abolish the Nobel prize in literature. It's you may have heard is undergoing a terrible sex scandal where the the female director of the Nobel prize in literature, her husband committed adultery, and for some reason, they decided to fire her from her job. So it's it's very interesting. Accolade and I believe that it's become almost equivalent of an idol. You know, ironically for mostly atheist practitioners of science. And I think this is where it gets really interesting in a lot of ways like what happened before this. It was exceptionally dramatic, but it's just it's also a little bit of part of how science works in modern times. Like sometimes we get out ahead of our skis and fall down, but there wasn't a cover up. There was like a owning of the mistake, but what it shined a light on and something that's been coming out in science more and more is the pursuit of the Nobel is the shine on that prize. Like what has stood for in in common in in sort of like our common understanding isn't what it has meant. It doesn't live up to what is meant. And I think it's important to note a couple of things like they the Nobel prize committee definitely does reach out to a lot of scientists for their input on the on the prize awards, including a number of of scientists throughout Europe. But I think there there's been problems highlighted this award for a long time now, probably in the last ten years, oh, amongst the scientific community that there can be no award posthumously made, which which is challenging. I think it's actually saying that I think it's cruel because it rewrites the way that science is conducted luck in two thousand seventeen. The Nobel prize went to the lie, go creators except for the fact that one of the creators have passed away six months earlier in that rendered him or Andrea ver- forever invalidated from winning the prize. And to me what's worse is when I tell my colleagues while I think rendre Gershon still win it and they'll say, but he's dead as if. As the rules of this committee of five hundred, mostly white Swedish man really that their rulings in their arbitrary decisions are as inviolable as the laws of physics themselves like who says they can't get. I mean, they just made it up in nineteen seventy four. They wouldn't give it to accept they have given its at TED Swedish men before. So I worry for the prize if our the pri- about I worry but referee reformation most of all, and then within physics at self. Like if we just talk about LEGO, the prize went to three people, some great physicists, but underpinning them was the work of thousands of scientists, graduate students, post doctoral researchers, all the people that that did the funding, the engineering that went into the construction of the elections and they're not part of the fries, right? It's right. I mean, they are in terms of like the emotional resonance of the award, but they aren't in terms of the money and the actual. Recognition. And that's what you start to get to is. There's a way that the prize recognizes the wrong things in modern science that don't make sense in the way they may have when Alfred Nobel started the award. That's right. That's right. And you know, again, when I went to nominate the winners of the twentieth sixteen pros, I not only went back to offer Nobel's well as a primary source, but I went back to the first Nobel prize in physics, and I was given to Wilhelm rock mention for an invention of of something that everybody's familiar with the wrenching Ray, which is another name, the X Ray, the X rays back that now that had immediate benefit the within weeks of discovery, not just year after discovery weeks after discovery, doctors were using it, it had NFC humanity and and it was done by a single person. So and that discovery took place within days of Alfred Nobel running down his will so some possible to think that Alfred did not have an his. Mind, this notion that scientists done by loan geniuses working in isolation, and then that are have have a goal of creating an invention or patent or something like that, that will benefit humanity tangible. And how far are science has come in the hundred and twenty two years since will was written down is literally astronomical. So to to treat this this prizes, if you can't modify it, I think it's demeaning to the actual scientific method. I will add like, even though Nobel had his own personal wishes around this. There's a way though ward has what it's meant in society has transcended his own wishes, even though it still carries his name and I realize there's a little dissonance there, but there's that story has repeated in society a lot. We often talk about it in the US in the context of what did the framers. Meanwhile, when they wrote down the constitution, but there's a way that we we, we've sort of societies evolve past what they are. Are able to envision. So moving beyond that, I'm curious putting aside what Alfred Nobel's intentions were, what would you do to fix this? Or is there even fix for this while? Yeah, very, very good question. In the book I out on, you know, three specific problems with the prize that all relate to these three stipulations of the person preceding year in the greatest benefit. And then I come up with five projected reforms from the Nobel prize, and I believe if they were to enact them and I have communicated with members of the Swedish Academy of sciences and physics committee, and they agree with me. I run an bench for scientific American in October, and they forwarded it amongst academy, do not believe anything is going to come of it because the Nobel prize is a monopoly. There's no second Nobel prize. There's no close runner up even the prices that are worth millions of. More than Nobel prize Nick breakthrough, press those pale in comparison and many. Physicists said they traded in, you know, they're, they're three million dollars breakthrough prize for you know, one million dollar fraction of a million, three hundred thousand dollar one, third share of the Novell products. And I think shows you the lure of it, the luster of it, and what do all monopolies want to do? They want to maintain their monopoly dominance. And I think eventually, unless it's regulated in some sense and I and I see some hence of that happening with the scandal. Sex scandal with Nobel prize in literature because the king of Sweden is now personally involved in the scandal hoping to rectify. So maybe the king can can also spend some time in the physics prize because I think for its own good, the Nobel prize must be reformed and I lay out specific ways to do so in my book. Yeah. I mean, you talk about a number of specific things. One thing I wanna highlight if the Nobel prize was awarded it in times. In different times when we exist now and because of that, it highlights societal problems. That were embedded in insci- the fact that so few women have won the Nobel prize is not a reflection of an accurate reflection of women's contributions to science. It is a prejudice that has been built into the award for a long time. Are there of all the things you listed? Are there some that you feel like need to be enacted first and foremost, or should we as a scientific community start moving beyond the prize as as something that matters in the context of modern science look in the book. I talk about how you know I was always kind of laughed at the story in an Old Testament, the so called golden calf incident where you know these supposedly smart. Fellow Jews were relieving Egypt and they saw these plagues and they saw the sea split. I mean, if you take it seriously than you know, just a few weeks later they bowed down and worship a golden calf, and I thought how stupid that was, because you know, how could somebody who's intelligent, you know, bowed down to God that they themselves made out of coal and then came March, you know, a of twenty seventeen. Just about a year ago, I finished the manuscript. Pets submitted the first draft and Duncan Haldane came to UCSD with his Nobel cross, and he showed it off and he was very proud of it. And afterwards, people were there and they were taking pictures of it and they were taking sell fees and they were kissing it. Nobody bowed down to a, but everybody just wants touch it and it just it just made me think of an idol. And then all of a sudden it was in my hands and there's my iphone and I am taking a picture of me felty at this Nobel prize that I've been, you know, complaining about in my book for over a year. And I just realized right then and there that you know, even atheists, even non secular scientists need to have something that they aspire to in that, and that may be elevated to this idolatrous Stotts in. So I don't think the Nobel prize is going away anytime soon, but I think scientists should be a rare of what it's doing to their fellow scientists. As you said, women, you know, just don't seem to be able to win it and you have to ask what? Why is that? A one reason I discovered in the process of being nominated horror novel winners was that in a previous winners are able to nominate future winners for the rest of their lives. That means that if you're a Nobel prize, if you're the adviser has a Nobel prize air like five times more likely to win a noble prize than just a rank and file. You know, non noblest mentor d- graduates to. So what happens when no win win for fifty years, as the case has been since our new mayor. One thousand nine hundred sixty three. Well, you know, they're a no more role models. Or no living shemale novel winning or it's not. Can you call? And then they can't also you mentor students that can benefit from this Noblesse of lesions. I call it where they can have a higher shot of winning the Nobel prize themselves. So there's very concrete structural problems within it. And I think those need to change and I think that society, you know, perhaps needs to reevaluate the way that they look at these accolades and honors because you know if you go to, if you go to my university, I mean right here in San Diego, we have a street called Nobel dry, and that intersects with another street called Novon drive, which is Nobel spell back. It's literally built into the fabric of society around me, and I don't think San Diego's any more of an intellectual place in New York City or anywhere else. So I think it's Hennion traded so deep into society that it really need has a special obligation to be reformed era of human as much as you are physicists. So when the prizes are now nst again. Next year, what are you gonna feel in? How do you think people, especially our listeners should think when they hear the announcement? Well, I mean, I would love to feel that my book, Mike, an impact. I think it won't make an impact for for while if at all, I hope it stimulates conversation. I think as I said, I think the Nobel prize at its best can be a harmless game or kind of like staying up to see who wins the election or wins lottery or something like that. You know, there's not really that much in a day to day, but if things stop and think critically about the the way that the Nobel prize is affecting the fields, I like them to to at least think as to what is this doing to to younger people. I mean, I really wrote the book for the letter to young physicist. You know what? What did you aspire to? And I remember getting an email from a young lady who read my book and. She told me that at an early draft of the block, and she told me, you know, Brian, I really wish that I had your book when I was back in college because I had to leave my of astronomy program that I was part of, and and I said why. And she said, well, my father was a scientist. He said only you're only a good scientists to to win the Nobel prize. And I just wish I had my yearbook knocked down to give to him and it made me feel really good that that you know that people will perhaps read this book and perhaps the as I say that the real prizes the science that we get to do, it's the journey this destination, getting to Stockholm on that beautiful note Brian, Keating. Thank you so much for joining us. I think firing months, that's been a real pleasure concern.
"nobel prize" Discussed on Inquiring Minds
"This episode is brought to you by Phillips ever wondered what inspires someone to make a difference through their work. What get someone's neurons zapping during the nine to five, the spark is a new podcast about inspiration innovation and the mind at work as told by Phillips employee's whether it's Niki out of cancer wards or experimenting with laser-guided amp breathalyzers no idea is too big or too small, the spark available wherever you get your podcasts. It's Monday April. Thirtieth twenty eighteen and you're listening to enquiring minds. I'm enjoy the Scotus that I'm Kishore Hari each week. We bring you a new end up exploration of the space where science politics and society collide. We never to find out what's true, what's left to discover in wide all matters. You can find us online at enquiring dot show on Twitter at inquiring show and on Facebook, and you can subscribe to the show on itunes or any other podcasting app. And if you want an ad free version of the show, just pledge five dollars or more per month at patriot dot com, slash inquiring minds. Do you think the Nobel prize is good for science while I certainly think it brings a lot of attention to science, which is probably good for science. I mean, the Nobel prize is the Nobel prize of prizes, right? I mean, you can't discount the name and like the cultural value. Everyone knows what a Nobel prize is, but do the Nobel prizes make sense under the current rules. Let's take example last year. The prize in physics went to the people behind the LEGO project. The one that found gravitational ways the rules state only three people can be awarded the prize itself, even though we know probably thousands of people worked on that project, let alone the engineers that probably constructed the the instrument and whatnot. And one of the chief architects of the project rendre ver- actually, sadly passed away a few months before the award announcement. And another rule is that the Nobel prize can't be awarded posthumously. I sort of think those roles are antics. Waited because it perpetuates an idea of a a alone. Genius and science. Yeah, which I think is becoming less and less true as the tools that we use. Scientists become more complicated demand more and more people. I do think there's a halo effect. So if you even if you didn't win the Nobel prize, but you worked on LEGO or you know if you were in the lab of somebody who won the Nobel prize, there is some kind of reflected glory upon you the post to Mus thing. I'm up to minds on that. I mean, yes, it means that it's not going to be totally America Crecy because they're going to be people who died. Like a, not just Ron, Ron river. But another example is a most diverse Ke's. So Daniel Katamon won the Nobel prize, but not Amos. But also live longer and went on to do other things. So you could argue that you know it was in some ways more deserved, I don't know. But I do think that there's something nice about it's something scienc- about the fact that you know the Nobel prize really doesn't help the person if they're dead. It might help their estate. It might help the reputation, but it doesn't help that person. And I kind of like that. I have to say, fair enough. I mean, but you have to agree that the Nobel prize has a historical problem too. It's been awarded to very few women over over its history and chief among them that Rosalind Franklin was never recognized for her contributions to the discovery of DNA. Yeah. I mean, we, we could do tit for tat on this all the time. Then there's medically right? Who won to Nobel prizes who you know very few people in whether they're male or female have done. And I think I think science has women problem in history, so I don't know that it's specific to the Nobel prize. I think that it's it's more of a reflection of how science really does reward people who have been around a long time and have gotten a lot of funding and have developed their own prestige. And if that happens to be predominantly male and science and there, there's evidence that that that shift that's not. Merit based. I think that's a problem with science, but not with Nobel fair enough. But this argument comes up every year when the awards are announced a science writers and science, Twitter, especially seems to go off into this into this conversation about whether or not we need to reform. And so this week I interviewed someone that came close, accept things went very, very wrong afterwards. Bryan Keating is a professor of astrophysics at UC San Diego. He's one of the leaders behind the bicep experiment in ant Artika, and it successor bicep, two, which search for a signature and a wiggle and the cosmic microwave background. That would confirm that theory of inflation appeared in the very, very early universe and where there was rapid expansion, which explain sort of our large scale scale structure of the cosmos. Brian is the author of a new book called losing the Nobel prize about what went wrong after the detection was made it buys up to and how that made him. Rethink the pursuit of the grandest prize and all of science. So let's take a short break. Only back with my interview with Brian Keating.