35 Burst results for "Nobel"
U.N. Investigators Help Yazidis In Iraq Find Bodies Of Loved Ones Killed By ISIS
"Region of Iraq. It has now been six years since the ISIS genocide against the ancient ancient Yazidi Yazidi religious religious minority. minority. And And yet yet survivors survivors are are still still trying trying to to find find bodies bodies of of their their loved loved ones. ones. To To that that end, end, U. U. N. N. Investigators Investigators began began X X Hume Hume ng ng a a mass grave in October, MPR's Jane Arraf was there. In the village of Solo yellow tape ropes off what used to be a fish farm attached to a technical college laborers and investigators dressed in white suits and masks. Carefully digging and sifting through the Pachter as I walk up to take a closer look at one of the man is shoveling the dirt into this big rectangular sifter and then Fine pieces of dirt come out, and he flips the gravel over. The other one is now going through it by hand, trying to make sure that they don't miss any of the bones. Investigators have found at least 17, mass graves so far in the Sinjar region of northern Iraq. Things. One is known as the mother's grave, and it's believed to contain the remains of dozens of pregnant and the older women. Isis decided it didn't have any use for Including the mother of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Nadia Murad. And game ideas. I would frosty Sarah Holly in all areas born on this land, but in bigger Snus is her brother Side. Murad is among the Yazidis who have come here in 2014. Isis rounded up and shot almost all the men and older boys. And they're morons Village of coach. Oh, Sayid was wounded Overlooked among all the bodies he managed to escape. He could have moved to Europe is a refugee, but he doesn't want to leave this land where there's been so much tragedy, or did they come in? I shall remember of vision. And now for the dish they come up with. That number was born. I come and get you if you're not getting my mother was the most peaceful, charitable person in the world. If she saw a poor person and we had only one piece of bread, she would cut it into half and give it to him. No idea, And I didn't get enough time to spend with her. We needed to have her with us longer. He takes off his dark sunglasses and wipes tears from his eyes as he body movement quotes whatever he's in all of Green uniform, a fighter now Thea's Edie paramilitary forces here in Sinjar, it's taken years even begin to exhumed bodies to identify them. Some will likely never be found. Sayid returned here after US backed Kurdish forces drove Isis out. It was a year after the massacre, and some the remains were still lying on the ground. They got hot demand. Mama, where a ditty Rusty and Beef Acela's when they came back, and so this I was very depressed because I could see their clothes, some bones. They all disappeared. I don't know who took them. Maybe animals got them or some group of people took them away. When we came back after that, we didn't see their bones. People leaves that, along with his mother's body. The grave contains the bodies of his aunts and his uncles and cousins, wives against the backdrop of so much horror and loss. The only consolation for many of the survivors has to be able to find the remains of their loved ones and bury them properly. A community center still under construction in the village of coach Joe Yazidis have gathered to give DNA's samples. The International Commission of Missing Persons based in The Hague started working to identify victims and mass graves in Bosnia. 1996. There's still not done there. It will likely take years here is well. Woz Abdullah Bas, the commission's deputy Iraq director walks me through the process we start. Take the information. Take it. In our record. There is any missing formation. After that, we shift Do the second table just on here. He would give a blood sample. Ideally, each missing persons with $3 on it's better to be, you know, Close one. So mother, Father Sir. Planes. You know, parents, six year
The Long Legacy Of The Arecibo Telescope
"So let's step back for a minute edit and get a better sense of how the telescope has been used over the years. Tell me about what it does. What kind of projects it's worked on. So one of the really neat things about the The observatory that's very versatile. Scientific instrument most telescopes radio. Telescopes don't have the ability to send out light. They only capture late at the observatory. We can send and capture late when an asteroid coming by. We're pretty much a flashlight that we turn on we send out to. It comes back right. We can tell you how far these objects are down to a meters unbelievable add narrate and we care about where these asteroids are going to be because what if one day this thing comes around and gets too close to earth if we can let people know this is going to happen next year we can actually prepare for it like dinosaurs. They didn't have a space program so they can get to prepare for anything. That's true we do have that on the dinosaurs. We don't have much. But we have out of cbo and we have the direct understanding of asteroids because i also think just from an outsider's perspective like this telescope does really play a role in our cultural imagination. It contributes to our sense of off. You know about the universe. Like i think i remember in the seventies it was used to deliberately beam a message into space. You know like hey. We're here like i mean it really has like not only these scientific contributions but these cultural contributions it's like an it's an inspirational place. You know oh yeah. I love marvel. I'm love marvel comics. And things like that and i was watching. Although i'm a little old doesn't matter. I was watching a cartoon about the avengers and the avengers were flying off to the odyssey observatory to save it. Who was that still in the cartoon. Oh my gosh so yes it really is you know. It's not like one of those fields of science or scientific tools that really stays in academia right. It provides a broader context for understanding. The universe for non-academic says well which i think is is really special and important. It's like bench because of its versatility. It gets to be part of not only applied science but just part of typical day to day life. You may not see it. But it's there in cultural context. It's there you know saving your life making sure this asteroid is not coming towards you. It's really cool so it sounds like at this. Recent damage has big implications in terms of slowing down a lot of research. What kind of research are we going to be missing out on right now with it down well for personal perspective. I actually had some observing runs. We're gonna come up in late. September through october where we were going to be studying mars with radar this year mars was going to be the closest it was going to be and also observable from the osce observatory until the year twenty sixty seven so it. This year was literally a once in a lifetime. Opportunity to observe mars with other. See all twenty twenty twenty twenty worst year ever. Yeah okay so the damage that happened. This year isn't the first hurdle for the observatory right hurricane. Maria damaged the observatory twenty. Seventeen you you were working there right like. Tell me about that experience. Su twenty seven one hurricane. Maria came by not only was. I was still working at. The observatory actually stayed at the observatory. That's where i went for shelter so i got to see the winds combined and the damage For me one of the things that like hit me the most or make me realize the damage the most after the hurricane when we went outside. And when you look across the telescope and it's in the middle of a beautiful rain-forest greenery everywhere and that day after the hurricane when we went outside there's there is no green left it just nothing just brown. Everything was brown. The trees were dead. You see all the way down to the soil. It was impactful in the sense of. Wow this is the damage of the hurricane. Awesome packed full as a puerto rican. Who's used to seeing their island. Be beautiful and green selling costs high. Like that's gone all gone in day. That's tough that you know it starts being Quite a bit less about the science at that point. Oh very quickly. I mean after the hurricane when there was no utilities at all on the island we still had a couple of generators so people from of see what would drive up. We pump water for them and they leave with a bunch of water the to drink water. Well so okay. Let's let's let's talk a little bit about the funding struggles right because there have been ongoing funding struggles for the telescope. Break that down a little bit for me yes. The telescope which is owned by the national science foundation has had some funding struggles in that the budget that is used to operate. It has been going down. And it's gone down from anywhere from about fourteen mil per year with the expected current contract. They could go all the way down to two million gotcha into and so what will that mean for for the telescope and the people that work on it. So as there is diminishing funds going there They'll be less available time for people to go explore go observe pulsars and find the first evidence for gravitational waves which won the telescope a nobel prize in physics and nineteen seventy-three. It's
Ethiopian PM says troops ordered to move on Tigray capital
"Ehthiopian prime minister this morning has ordered his army to move on the capital of the tigray region in the north west of the country. This decision came after his seventy two hour. Ultimatum ended for tigray leaders to surrender. The central conflict here is between the new government of ethiopia and the old government of ethiopia. An aid groups have been sounding the alarm about a humanitarian situation that is deteriorating quickly. Tens of thousands of ethiopian refugees have fled the fighting into neighboring sudan. Npr's ada peralta is following this unfolding. He's in nairobi Good morning eater. Hey david let's start with his offensive. I mean the prime minister had been warning about this. It sounds like it's happening. Now what do we know. Yes so prime minister. Abby acclimate who won the nobel peace prize last year. He says that the last chance for this war to have been resolved peacefully has now closed and he says his troops are going into michaela to try to flush out the leadership of the left. The people's liberation front and he says that will try to do everything to protect civilian lives but michelle is a big urban densely populated city. Think of something. Like saint louis and and even the government has admitted that any fighting will result in civilian deaths in abbey's military has warned that they will use heavy artillery and that the left has said that they will defend the city so this war which has been going on for about three weeks now. Hundreds have already been killed. Tens of thousands have fled as you said and this will no doubt Be the most consequential battle so far. I know this is an incredibly frustrating situation for a year to try and cover this all but impossible to get in there and actually see what's happening firsthand But you know there's been weeks of fighting around the capital. What are you hearing about the conditions on the ground. It is hard to report. But i think we can safely say that there has already been Some pretty gruesome killings that the international community is saying could amount to war crimes We know for example that in a village near the sudanese border there was a huge Massacre videos from there have shown family members crying over bodies of their loved ones in the middle of the streets and the government's human rights commission sent a group of investigators there and they say that more than six hundred people were systematically slaughtered. They say that they were killed with machetes. Their houses were set on fire. They say that militants tied ropes to their necks and dragged them to death. The government commission blames a youth militia aligned with the rebels for this but the refugees fleeing into sudan say that it was the militias aligned with the government. Who did this. So we know with certainty who committed these atrocities but what we know for sure is that civilians have already suffered terribly in this conflict. Got it sounds like it. And what about these tens of thousands of people who are fleeing where they going. What are they facing so they are going into eastern sudan will. Carter is based there. He's a humanitarian with the agency norwegian refugee council. And let's listen to a bit of what he's been. Seeing many of total stories of happens not tillery and strikes and parts of western tigray region which is where most of the refugees we've seen have come from and of past couple of weeks. I guess troop movements militia movement through their this season. They've really fred for their lives. Are you suddenly and there. Was this one woman who spoke with who who had fled across the border and her story released stood out. Here's what happened to her. When the conflict began she was pregnant. Nine months pregnant when this broke out and have given birth on the way to the border crossing and had no one around that she knew it's women seeking safety stopped to help her deliver thankfully. There was no complications with the delivery and charges alive at the moment at least sleeping next to everyone in a big communal tent. So david i mean these are the kinds of situations and stories that show you just. What a tough humanitarian crisis. This has also become really What sounds like an awful situation. A dangerous one with a lot of people life. A lot of people's lives at stake
Challenges Await Next Treasury Head
"Former federal reserve chair janet yellen has been at the forefront of us economic policy for decades. If she's confirmed as treasury secretary she'll be taking on a new role during a time of deep political division and significant economic challenges. Joining me now to talk more about yellen's career and the roadblocks she could face going forward his wall street journal senior writer john hills and wrath. Hi john thanks for being here her. They're great to be here. So john janet yellen if confirmed would make history here as the first woman to lead the treasury after also being the first woman to lead the federal reserve. Tell us more about her extensive resume and what's led up to this moment. I don't think that's the big history being made here. The big history is that she's the first human regardless of gender to be treasury secretary chairman of the council of economic advisers and federal reserve chairwoman. So she's had a tri factor. If you add in the fact that she's also a tenured professor from berkeley then. She's hit a grand slam. This is an achievement that no person regardless of gender has achieved and the realm of economic policy. Making you know. I compare her to george shultz the republican. Who served as secretary of state for ronald reagan and also treasury secretary secretary of labor and director of management budget under richard nixon. This is just a person with about as complete resumes. You can get so. Let's talk a little bit about her previous roles as opposed to what treasury secretary rigby much less political role than treasury secretary. What about her past experiences in washington have prepared her for that. And where might we see some challenges if for her taking on a more political role. The fed is a very close in academic place. They kind of pride themselves on not getting into the mix of political debates and being. I wouldn't even say bipartisan. But eighty partisan nonpartisan. Janet yellen did serve as the chair of the council of economic advisers in the clinton administration in the late nineteen ninety s so. She has had exposure to political debates with big personalities. It's interesting though. She's married to george echo off. Who is a nobel prize winning economist in his own right and when he won the nobel prize back in two thousand and one he wrote in his autobiography about the challenges that she faced kind of managing the point ical heat waves of washington the role. He played in supporting her so she's walking in to an environment right now. That is going to be very heated in very point ical. There's gonna be a lot of fights over how much spending the government should do to get the economy out of recession and how much debt it should take on in the process. And she's going to be right in the middle of it. She's a very highly credentialed individual. And i think our challenge is going to be managing the human part of it the political part of it with republicans on capitol hill and the inevitable divisions that are gonna show up inside the biden administration itself. How do you think she will work with congress. She has support among democrats and republicans. Well you know. She knows her way around washington. That's clear and as fed chair. She did have to deal with congress. She had to go up there and testify on a regular basis to give reports on the economy and monetary policy and regulatory policy. So she knows her way around capitol hill one of the reasons that i think that president elect biden chose her is a because it does seem like she's going to have buy in from the progressive wing of the democratic party. She's actually very close to elizabeth warren and also moderates among democrats and then i would say she has a chance with some moderate republicans to try to win them over republicans in the senate in particular to try to win them over on some big debates. And that's where. I think she's going to end up focusing a lot of her attention. You know if she can hold the democratic party if i should say biden can and then win a couple of middle of the road republicans than they might be able to get their way on really big questions about fiscal policy and stimulus and driving this economy out of recession. That was really devastating and twenty twenty and that brings us to some of the key challenges. What do you think some of her first actions will be treasury secretary. And what are those big challenges. She'll be facing from the start. There's so much and this is one of the issues where the job. The treasury is much different than the job at the fed. The job at the fed comes down to two or three things. They gotta make a decision. Every eight weeks about whether interest rates should stay the same or go up a little or go down a little. And then they've got to be they're very involved in the regulation and oversight of banks and then they've got to be ready to deal with crises financial crises at the treasure. You have the tax portfolio you have sanctioned portfolio with international sanctions against countries like north korea and iran. You have the debt portfolio. You have some say in the budget. Portfolio is just a very wide and expansive portfolio. I think the first thing that she's going to confront is a decision that her predecessor will have made. Steven mnuchin called on the fed just a few days ago to end some rescue programs that were aimed at small and medium-sized businesses related to corona virus. The treasury had been designated some money to contribute to the fed program and secretary mnuchin said. The program had expired in the feds gutter return. What's left of the money but you know the new treasury secretary is going to have to decide whether the end that program as mnuchin has set out to do or renew it when that gets to the bigger issue. which is the economy itself. Is it a major crossroads right now. We had a devastating downturn the economy effectively shut in march and april it reopened. We had a very large bounce back in the summer. But it shows signs of slowing. And it's incomplete this recovery at a time when the corona virus is spreading again. Some states are putting in new restrictions on economic activity and there is a race for a vaccine to control the virus. So there's just so much happening right now and it's gonna be yelling role to guide. President elect biden on how hard the government should push to help the economy through a period where it can go one of two directions. It could go back into recession. Or if we get to vaccine quickly enough we could be into. You know a really strong extension of the recovery that we had earlier this summer. So there's just a lot of uncertainty and a lot hard choices to
Biden chooses former Fed Chair Janet Yellen to be Treasury secretary
"Bite and reportedly nominating former Federal Reserve chair Janet Yellen as Treasury secretary, if you would become the first woman to lead the department? Since it was formed in 17 89 74 year old labor economists has succeeded at the highest levels of the male dominated economics field, including being the first woman, a service fed chair and the first woman to head the president's Council of Economic Advisers. Economics is a subject that yelling family likes to talk about a lot of home. Janet Yellen is married to a Nobel Prize winning economist. You met in a Fed cafeteria during the 19 seventies. They have one son in economics
Dylan papers, including unpublished lyrics, sell in Boston for $495K
"A collection of bob dylan songs and other writings have sold at auction and american music. Legend once told a friend in nineteen seventy one that quote. A lot of people are under the impression that jews or just money lenders and merchants end of quote. And that is what prompted robert zimmerman to change his name to bob dylan musings like that. Along with a treasure trove of dylan documents including unpublished song lyrics sold at auction. This past thursday for nearly half a million dollars. Boston-based are auctions handle the sale and says the collection once belonged to the late american blues. Artists robert glover a close friend. And confidante of mr dylan. Most of the key pieces of the collection went to an unidentified bidder in addition to being a member of the rock and roll hall of fame. Bob dylan was awarded the nobel prize for literature in two thousand sixteen
Iconic Arecibo Observatory faces demolition due to damage
"The search for planets, asteroids and extraterrestrial life is about to suffer a loss. The National Science Foundation says it will close the huge telescope that's operated for 57 years. At an observatory in Puerto Rico used by scientists worldwide, contributing to Nobel Prize winning research and featured in at least two movies, the agency says snapped cables and recent structural damage make it too dangerous to continue operating. The 1000 FT wide dish,
Can I Prune the Top Out of My Indoor Hibiscus Which Is Getting Too Tall?
"He has a question about high biscuits. He says mine has been inside for two years but now it's too tall for the living room. Can i cut some off the top. Well mark the answer is definitely yes now I'm going to make a it was mark. Basically what just happened to my trees down. His best is obviously a tropical. And and it's apparently doing quite well and yes he can print now as crewing goes It will depend on the looks and condition to the plan. But i would remove any cross branches and things are right up against the trunk or staff i would then think going out even on each branch tip to about nobel no more than one third of the way from the tip back toward the trump and he could trim every branch tip on that plant He can because of obvious need he can take well. I have to guess at its height. But i'm gonna say he can take between twelve and eighteen inches the top so that it's more room size and then He would want to taper the plant. So it's just not at that point. He'd want to trim off more than one third of the tips of the branches as we get closer to that top so that it it will be If we will Think in terms of a bullet about very very strong copper jacket. Bullet is very very precise and thin and tall. My his plan is gonna because he's so he's going to be using something like the old musket forty five caliber ball where it'll be more rounded in there in terms of time I know of a few plants where this has been done. Oh my over the years. I don't know how any got to be but there there is proving that can be done it and be done now or if his plant does tend to defoliate In the middle of the winter at that point would be good time to do this the trimming back and so on so yes it can be bad I would try to be as cautious as possible. Try to as we really recommend on all plants outdoors oriented doors. Try not to remove more than twenty five or maximum thirty percent of the plant at one time so a good percentage of being in that top where he's got a short and down then the tip trimming and sending and so on By all means go for
Nobel UN food agency warns 2021 will be worse than 2020
"The un's world food program is warning that the pandemic could result in a widespread hunger next year unless governments come up with the funds needed to prevent it lease line reports the agency fears. This humanitarian catastrophe could result in hundreds of thousands of deaths. Head of the world food program. David beasley says fifteen billion dollars is needed to avert calls multiple famines of biblical proportions and provide millions of manners. Children with the food. They need to survive earlier this year. One hundred five million people faced crisis levels of hunger by the end of the year. Wfp analysis find the economic impact of covid. Nineteen lockdowns will if push two hundred seventy million people to the brink of starvation. The agency reports twenty countries of conflict are likely to face acute food shortages in the next three to six months and require urgent
Ethiopia: a Nobel Peace laureate goes to war
"There is no hostage to fortune. Quite like the nobel peace prize. Just as the peacemaker of today you can often be the munger of yesterday. They can also be the warmonger of tomorrow. Abi ahmed. Prime minister of ethiopia was two thousand and nineteen nobel peace laureate recognized for finally ending eighth european hostilities with its neighbor and former province eritrea a year later ibm prize. Looks like one of the nobel. Peace committees hastier. Garlanding along with those of yasser arafat. Suu she and henry kissinger ethiopia is at war with tegray. A region in the country's north the immediate cause was to graze decision to hold in september a local despite being told not to by abbey national government sheduled elections across the european were postponed due to the covid nineteen pandemic behind that lies to gray and resentment of amid efforts to reduce to graze dominance of ethiopia's national politics before abi ahmed became prime minister. The to gray in people's liberation front had effectively governed all of ethiopia for nearly two decades. It's hard to know exactly what is going on into gray right now. Phones down. the internet is off. It's not much easier to speak to theo. Paeans elsewhere in ethiopia several people. We asked to participate in this program. Responded that they were simply too scared but over the news there is none of it is good
Latest On A Military Conflict In Ethiopia
"Prime minister, Maybe Achmed won the Nobel Peace Prize. And yet less than a week ago, he launched military operations in the country's northern region. Now that conflict is threatening to turn into an all out civil war. NPR's later Peralta walks us through what's happening and later to begin. Give us a sense of why the prime minister had won the Nobel Prize. He changed everything in Ethiopia. I mean at home, he ushered in a raft of democratic reforms, and then he also made peace with Ethiopia's mortal enemy, Eritrea. During his Nobel lecture, he talked about how he fought in that war, and he called it the epitome of hell. Let's listen to a bit of that speech of Sin Brothers slaughtering brothers on the battlefield. I have seen all their men, woman and Children trembling in terror under the really short ofthe bullets and alterations. You are makes for betterment, heartless and savage mint, he says. War makes for Bitterman heartless and savage men and when I became to power, people on the streets of Ethiopia told me that he was sent by God and now He has started this new conflict in the same part of the country where this war between Ethiopia and Eritrea happened and his air forces now bombing targets in his own country. What's the cause of the conflict? And at this point, how bad is the fighting? So it's complicated because, but it's essentially a power struggle. Document came to power in 2018 after huge popular uprising, and one of the things that he did was dismantled Ethiopia's ruling party, which had run the country with violence and brutality for almost 30 years, the guys who ran the show, where the TP left the Ti Guy People's Liberation Front. And they were sidelined. Since then, Abby has accused them of destabilizing the country by stoking ethnic tensions. Abby's allies have accused them of assassinations, including one attempt against Abby himself in last week. The government says that the TPLF sent forces to attack a federal military base, and that's when Abby ordered his army into the ticket region. Now how bad the fighting is, has been hard to report because the government has shut down phone lines and the Internet is often the region. I'm still waiting for a visa. Reuters, which does have reporters on the ground eyes reporting, hundreds are dead on each side. Sudan State media has also said that many refugees have started fleeing to their country. So it's serious. What are the TV I fighter saying at this point, it's It's a lot of bravado. They're calling the government dictatorial and treasonous. And those are the same words that the government is using against them. And they say that they're open to talk. But at the same time, you know, they also say that if they're hit hard, they plan on hitting back Justus hard. Either. We talked about the threat of civil war. How higher the stakes here they're huge. Some analysts say that this could be like Yugoslavia where Ethiopia breaks up in Ethiopia, by the way, is The second largest country in Africa by population, and the conflict also has the potential to draw in Eritrea and even Sudan, and if it's protracted, it can really destabilize the region that is already super vulnerable. And we can't really think of thiss as just a regional government against a powerful federal government. I mean, this is really one well armed, well trained military against another well armed, well trained military in a really fragile A place in Africa. That's NPR's ater. Peralta speaking to us from Nairobi. Thank you. Thank you. A
Having Made Peace Abroad, Ethiopia’s Leader Goes to War at Home
"Overseas. Ethiopia is approaching civil war The country is Nobel Peace Prize winning prime minister ordering the military to confront a well armed regional government in Ethiopia, accusing it of a deadly attack on a military base. The U. S and United Nations urging and immediate de
"nobel" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"A region much smaller than the solar system not four million times the size of the Sun. Right. If you calculate how big you think it should be about seventeen times the width of across. But four million times status. Grazie Razi Razi. So they go look it's really heavy. It's really small. It's a supermassive black hole. Lab. And by the way, this is our second or third hour the astrophysics community, our second or third Nobel prize in a decade generally, they used to destroy us a bone once it maybe ten years. Are you saying that you guys are the Meryl Streep of the Nobel? The price is in the category physics just to be clear. So we in my community, we're not living our lives wondering if we'll be considered occasionally, we do something that touches on laws of physics, and then it gets an and people take a note we got it for EXO planets, which is not itself the branch of physics, but it's a very interesting. Advance in our understanding of the world and the universe. So I'm just saying maybe they'll. We're done with laboratories on earth and the best laboratories on the frontier discovery or the universe itself. Well, it's it's fascinating because Hubble lobbied for astrophysics to be considered by the physics Nobel with the man Edwin. Hubble. Telescope right is not live tells Kansas, lobbying could have. Bad Be Awesome. INANIMATE? Still to this day not right but hobble real you know what it held it was so tremendous today Hubbell apps absolutely unquestionably won the Nobel Prize so. Feel for one in the same decade. He realizes that there are other galaxies. When Einstein was working in one, thousand, nine, hundred, five, one, thousand, nine, hundred, thousand, nine, hundred sixteen. He did not know that there was another galaxy besides the milky, way he's suspected but he wasn't sure right. So how will observes the first external galaxies which just be clear at that time? The universe was just the stars of the Night Sky Yeah and how far do they extend nobody knows? Exactly, and then the second thing which I'm sure I'm I'm guessing Neal's referring to is he then also notices that? Oh, by the way, all those galaxies are moving away from each other right and so he deduces that the universe is expanding. So. He'd lobbied to China he'd lobbied the Nobel Committee and what they say they said, no. I. Don't know if they were like formal letters exchanged, but there was certainly political. You know internal politics and they stood no for months I nineteen twenties they said no for another fifty years I don't think it was until the seven days the Nobel, prize committee considered astrophysics I think the first one was maybe the discovery of pulsars. Nineteen seventies under discovery made in the sixties. Actually we gotta take a break now but trusted you load up questions because this is a cosmic queries I got them all loaded up and ready to go, and there are ages up people. People love lack all all. Right when we come back more with our friend, Gentle Evan to get us through an understanding of black holes. You love your cat and you WanNa snuggle up Wanema much as possible. Cats are very affectionate and you want everybody to be able to give your cat love the way you do you know as many as one in five adults globally are sensitive to cat allergens. But here's some good news based on more than a decade of research. PURINA scientists discover a breakthrough approach that can safely and significantly reduce the allergens and cat dander and cat hair. It's called pro planned live clear and it's a revolutionary new cat. Food shown to simply and safely reduced the major allergens, cat hair and Dander by an average of forty seven percent starting with the third week of daily feeding. There are some super cool science behind it to that I know you'll love as a star talk fan the major cat allergen called fell d one is a protein that cast produced naturally in their saliva pro plan live clear has a specific protein source from eggs that binds to the fell d one in saliva as cats eat safely neutralizing it. Pretty cool. If only they had this when my little murphy was here. That's right. I'm a cat lover and I had a cat who was the love of my life name Murphy. Got To end this commercial now, can I keep thinking about Murphy learn more at pro plan live clear dot com slash talkradio that's pro plan live clear dot com slash Dr Talk Radio this ad.
You Can Ring Nobel
"A video is making the rounds on the internet this week caught on one of those smart doorbell cameras. It's 2 a.m. And a man is anxiously knocking on his neighbor's door trying to wake him. Does the man need help? Is there an emergency is the neighbor's house on fire? Was there a Prowler in the area or some other kind of threat? No doubt. The man Robert Wilson is trying to wake his across the street neighbor to tell him that they just won the Nobel Prize. My name's Moxi and this is your brain on facts. A good reputation is more valuable than money for lilias. Serious a Syrian living in Rome at the time of the big b c a d change over we have no way of knowing if Alfred Nobel ever read publilius, but he definitely had reputation on his mind the Swedish chemist engineer and industrialists found a novel way to combine good old Gunpowder with the exciting new discovery of nitroglycerin to form a truly earth-shaking invention Dynamite. It was a game-changer for Industries like coal mining and it killed people like it was nobody's business both intentionally and through many many Factory explosions. Nobel got richer with each Improvement on the dynamite then his brother Ludovic died a French newspaper ran an obit for Alfred having gotten their lines cross somewhere along the way they were shown the remote As more the paper proclaimed. The merchants of death is dead. Dr. Alfred Nobel who became a rich by finding ways to kill four people faster than ever before died yesterday. That's gotta sting. Nobel had no children and a sudden intense concern about his legacy. So he decided to put some of the money he'd made into the service of repairing his name with a real long-term strategy in his 1895 will drafted the year before he died Nobel instructed that most of his fortune the equivalent of two hundred and fifty million dollars today be set aside to create an award five annual prizes quote to those who during the preceding year shall have conferred the greatest benefit of mankind provided you benefit mankind by way of physics chemistry physiology or medicine literature and problematically vague more on that later long piece. Wait a sec. Say those of you with better recall than me. Where's the Nobel Prize for economics? There wasn't one. There still isn't a part from the one that they're kind of is. The bank of Sweden prize in economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel was created by Sweden's Central Bank in nineteen. Sixty-eight. What about mathematics game popular Apocrypha is that Nobel lost the woman he loved to a mathematician and so did not consider mathematics to be important enough. There's no proof for that story sadly wage and while no one knows for sure the reason it could be as simple as Nobel really wasn't a math guy. I feel you there. Winners are announced in October and November the culmination of a Year's preparation more than six thousand people like Nobel laureates AKA past winners School in various fields and officials from various universities are invited to nominate candidates about a thousand of them for each prize, which usually results in between 150 and 250 nominees. It's not just names in a hat. You have to write a detailed proposal in favor of your nominee and no no matter how much you want to know how cleverly you think you can get away with it. You cannot nominate yourself. Also. You must be alive. Nobel prizes aren't awarded posthumously at least not any more than a few were in the early days, but it was decided in the 1970s that that wasn't their bag anymore, but exceptions make the rule and there is one notable exception in 20 job. 11:00 Canadian immunologist Ralph Steinman received the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine but he passed away between being nominated and the prize being announced akong assignments daughter. Her father had actually joked about getting the Nobel Prize shortly before he died. They don't give it to you if you've passed away. He said according to her I got to hold out for that. He didn't quite make it but they gave them the prize. Anyway, Steinman must have had a real sixth sense when it comes to convoluted award schemes because non-winning nominees are kept secret out for fifty years in part to prevent a sort of Susan Lucci situation. For those of you who don't recognize the name Susan Lucci is an American soap opera actress who was nominated for a long time. Emmy Award nineteen years in a row before she won. I always suspected that she got the Nam as a running gag after a
Pompeo: The United States is a ‘Force for Good’ in the Middle East
"Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is aiming to remind the world that the US is a force for good, he told reporters. That goes for a number of conflicts around the world where America is trying to find a resolution that includes the battle between Armenia and Azerbaijan along with ongoing issues in Belarus. Pompeo also noted the recent Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the United Nations World Food Program. There are no criminal charges or a public report of the so called unmasking probe. The report in The Washington Post comes after the departure of US Attorney John Bash last week. He was appointed by Attorney General Bill Bar and tasked with investigating if Obama administration officials did anything wrong and asking for some people to be unmasked unmasked means that the names of the people would be revealed even though intelligence documents didn't name them. This is I news.
Do The Last Thing on Your To Do List by Bradley Charbonneau
"Do the last thing on your to do list by Bradley Charbonneau of the SOUR CREAM DOT com. Mathematically it's an easy equation the joy you get from getting to do task off. Your list is huge. Even more mind boggling for the greatest Nobel Prize winning minds. It often doesn't take much to get it done. So why does one equal to? Why do we let those tasks? Linger unfinished are unsorted. Even they might bug us every single day. Maybe even a few times per day but yet we do nothing. Nothing more than wonder why we don't do them or worse. Get FRUSTRATED WITH OURSELVES. That were non doing them. The solution seems no mid is so simple just to the task. Be Done with it but we still don't do it. What is the mental block? Accountability part of it is often the lack of accountability. If no one knows what we're supposed to be doing then probabilities are high. That no one will know. We haven't done them the more people who know the harder it is void. That is if those who know are people whose opinions respect I suppose if you told the bank teller that you're going to quit smoking and then you see the same bank teller in a month and you hadn't quit smoking. You could number one go to a different teller number two stock her hours go another time. One number three till the teller. You didn't quit. Is People. Tell their friends are going on a diet or quitting smoking. Or it's why they don't tell their friends but should we be strong enough to not need accountability from someone else but should be enough to be accountable for ourselves. I guess that's where it comes down a character and inner strength in who you are. Those empty window frames downstairs the worst and simultaneously. Best part of all this is when you do finally do the task. The roared is almost incomprehensible. Two days ago I ordered greeting cards for the upcoming holiday. I'm not sure what him. E But have an inkling our D- poster-size prince photos. It took me fifteen minutes to find photos that were high enough resolution. In of course nine shots that I want on my wall the next day I picked them up the next morning. My wife and I said let's do this thing. We spent maybe forty five minutes measuring glass cleaning cutting and then taping in hanging man. We were done maybe two hours for the whole Shebang. These were windows. That used to be the windows of my kids room. I didn't know what to do with them for a few years. Then someone suggested I hang them on the wall and make photo frames. Outta them. Wonderful idea. three four years ago now he measured. The wall drilled holes installed strong hanging screws even painting quality wire hanging system to make sure we could adjust to tilt the window. Frames have been waiting for photos for years. Now stun now I walk by and stop and look at them and admire our work. Actually stop and look and admire even just for a second. We did it. Do we need to be challenged to get anything done? So what happened in the past few days? I was different from the past few years. I was challenged. I realized that seems to be my answer for everything lately but it also happens to be true. I've just been experimenting. I've been going strong on my right every day. Challenge for the past thirty plus days. I've been drinking some form of Jews for the past three hundred plus days. Are these now habits. Will I now do everything on my to do list? Only because I think that I can do them because I've done the math. Do the math as a math major in university. I like math and science. I liked it. There are definite answers as partly what I've been learning through experiments also because I can't seem to get anything done otherwise quite simple actually number one do the thing you want to do but in bite sized chunks number to keep doing it for a while say month number three see what happens. The math is quite elementary. My six year old can figure it out one plus one plus one plus one over and over again. Thirty Times equals thirty if I do one task per day for thirty days is possible. I finished thirty tasks. It doesn't get much simpler. What's holding us back? Here's what it is. Is that big number? It's the thirty. Were scared of thirty a whole lot. More Than One. So take one at a time. Just one want an added bonus for pure entertainment and much delayed gratification. Take the oldest. Dust covered really annoying item from your to do and do that. Just do that one. Then when you're done stand back and admire it
"nobel" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"For Twenty Twenty I've been announced this week among the winning discoveries the virus that causes significant liver disease the gene editing technique could crisper and a supermassive black hole. You always need a supermassive black hole we give official tour of the NOBELS. Is BBC science correspondent Victoria. Gill. Victoria welcome to the program. Hello. Chris. How're you very well, thank you and thanks for joining us to give us his tour of the nobels. Let's begin with Monday the Nobel Assembly has today decided to ward the twenty twenty Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine jointly to Harvey J alter Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice for the discovery of hepatitis. C virus. So Victor did these men do what if they actually discovered? A. Beautiful. That wise theories of discoveries of hepatitis at the discovery of Hepatitis C. and also how to detect it. That's led to protests that led to treatments and cures, and the possibility that the potentially lethal virus could be whiteout the three types of hepatitis and hepatitis C. up until the seventies was unknown but it was found that patients got blood transfusions would getting this unknown cause of hepatitis. So alternates colleagues showed that blood from the. Hepatitis. In fact, he patients could transmit the disease to chimpanzees. So he sort of showed this disease causing agents, Ineffective People's bloods. Then Houghton took that a step further by painstakingly isolating and collecting DNA records from bees, infected chimpanzees. So he he founded the code of the virus and then rice took it even further to show that it was actually this virus alone by itself that Kacoos Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver which can kill you so. This this lovely step by step from the seventeenth to the nineteenth that Scotus from just unknown cause of lethal liver inflammation to a point where we know exactly what's causing that is the so close and now we have a way of potentially wiping out virus. We can set me test for it very rapidly tracing cure it did you foresee HEP C. Making a no bill this year Theo. I wish I could say so but I did read a prediction of it because I believe the scientists involved had received some of seen as the precursor prizes so they were certainly on the slate. Is An important problem now, isn't it? The the anticipated burden of disease caused by one hundred, seventy, million people around the world an it's a direct cause of liver cancer and disease. So it's pretty important as a pathogen the we now identified it and radical not even that I think is a prize weller and Disney absolutely, and it's sort of best comparison when we're all rather obsessed. With one particular virus at the moment, how long it used to take to identify the virus causing a particular problem and then prove the virus was the calls and we have taken for granted that a new virus that emerged in China late last year, we can already identify know that it's causing disease with great certainty and you know we will hope that we can vaccinate against pretty soon. Lee There's some suggestion, a number of years old now this suggestion. But when you compare the genetic makeup of Z and the genetic makeup of a certain group of viruses that infect dogs some people suggested that in fact, dogs gave us Hepatitis C.. And it would have been the very close proximity between. US domesticating dogs on those dog owners initially that perhaps enabled that jump to happen in a bit of a striking parallel. Theo's talk about the fact that we've identified. Kovic in record time. But the fact that we we could actually have virus that jumped out of Batson into be because covid. We've got a virus that jumped out at bats in out out of dogs people to cause hepatitis. c. a what do you think about that as scientists progress so incredibly particularly over the last decade, you know we're going to be able to test that question and we're not far from being able to do that. We have from the archaeological record in some genetic record. You know we've domesticated dogs inside the last thirty thousand years and as we begin to get ancient DNA, we should be able to clock that and and Tessie idea you know. which came first the hepatitis C. or dog domestication. Well, we've onto the Nobel Prize for physics, which is also come out this week. One half to Roger Penrose. For the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity. And the other have jointly to Andrea gears and reinhard cancel for the discovery of the supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy. That's one way of putting the supermassive compact object at the center of Galaxy. There was actually a lovely quote vic from Christopher. Berry who's a physicist at northwestern university and resonated with me because he said, black holes capture anything that gets too close for them. This is equally true about our fascination. Once you start learning about black holes, they can be no escape. So Watch out if you report on them too much you get sucked in. At three. Really Nice. I think my favorite response to the physics. Nobel came from another physicist Cox Invested Cambridge who tweeted that. Wooding the physics Nobel first massive chasm of infinite dark necessary twenty, twenty we. Really, hit the nail on that. This was a fascinating one and it was a wonderful British scientists, eighteen years. Old Roger Penrose gets off this prize and then the other hawkish between reinhard cancel and under gets here is only the fourth woman to win a physics ninety miles that. Relates a lot of day you know intrinsic problematic with the byles in this ongoing issue with the patch. Be problematic academic hierarchical system that the nobels is kind of famous for but it's also just this real celebration of absolutely fundamental science. What Roger Penrose Dede's is suitable I mean to me him sort of applying general relativity to come up with entirely new calculations. The fact that a black hole can be a real thing can actually form in the universe is kind of another level of thinking for me. Well. Let's move straight onto chemistry because that was the third and final prize that was announced this week. Emmanuel shop to you and Jennifer Dowd now for the development of a method for genome editing. This is, of course, the technique otherwise known as crisper. Did you see that one coming Theo? This one looked very likely at some point because the crisper cast nine technique has so revolutionized the way that. Researchers can edit DNA including the fact that we believe that someone actually used it. Illegally and ethically to edit the DNA in unborn children but it's clearly something that has changed. The whole way that let Kabbage is down and in contrast to that hepatitis C. from the nineteen seventies nine, hundred, Ninety S, and which by the way to three men, this prize has gone to two women for work done in the past decade and that's exciting on both counts. I think by studying basic biology they've come up with what is a tool that has changed. Basic Science already, and is likely to change medicine as well. The Countess crisper actually work. What does it involve? What will enable us to do? It's actually the ancient immune system of a bacteria which essentially has this component could trace RNA, which cleaves it. Snip sounds a bit of DNA from whatever is attacking it. So it's basically kills what is attacking its immune system has this pair of genetic scissors what these two amazing scientists have done and they collaborated together to kind of bring together the genetic knowledge in the molecular biology. This is the real kind of chemistry of life stuff. They got together to figure out how to simplify that bacterial immune system this cleavage into a pair of much simpler molecular. Genetic diseases that can be used anywhere essentially, you can just as if you were editing a piece of tape and you can sniff out and then stick it back together you can do that with a genetic code. So you can just imagine the actually the Swedish Academy themselves said that it's only imagination that holds that the limitations of what we can do with this technology I. Think Canoga important postscript to that is that our morals and ethics is also going to play a big role in terms of what humans will do with this technology because the possibilities. Molecular are boundless. Victoria. Thank you very much. That's Victoria Gill. She is the BBC's science correspondent. Thanks to the pandemic we're entering a world that's more online and thanks to what many are calling the fourth industrial revolution. It's world that's much more automated and data driven. Jim guzzled director of the Institute for Continuing Education at the University of Cambridge and has been very much at the forefront in the front line of having to respond educationally to the challenges thrown away by Covid he's with us now Jim. Jim We've seen in the news stories of universities which have got huge outbreaks of covid among their students. Now, we hope that Cambridge University isn't going to join their ranks but just before we get into the educational side of things, do you think it was the right decision to get young people back into university?.
Trump's Treatments & Nobel Prizes
"With me this week are one of the world's leading Patio Anthropologists. He's at the University of voters rand in South Africa, and that's Lee Burger. We'll have the British medical, Journal excecutive editor, Theo blooms. Hello to both of you great to have you with us. Hi Chris in between us we'll be talking to a range of guests who are going to be joining us over the next hour. LE- I think. It's actually this year thirteen years almost to the day since we first met in Johannesburg thirteen unlucky for some. But definitely, not for you I gather that you've discovered not one not two not three but now four new species of ancient human ancestor. It's only three new species. So we'll work on that though with these new discoveries I'm. In the middle of discovery right now and Cova kind of pushed us into a strange space and figure out something to do when we get back once lockdown levels and covid actually lowered here in South Africa and I'd already dispersed my my laboratories in there was site that we had discovered early on in the exploration activities back in two, thousand, thirteen and It was a difficult site. It was going to be a site that was hard to work. It was going to be a site that had every reason it was dangerous that I didn't do it and. I decided to take a chance on day one we hit an extraordinary discovery that that we're in the middle of right now, and so this is really the third big discovery that we've had. It's full of hominids and we're very fortunate to be able to work under these conditions. So this is a cave signed is this where Homo Naledi the smaller ancestors were burying their dead. Inside this I two hundred meters away from where we discovered Homo Naledi. It's different cage system. It was right in front of us. It's an entirely different kind of creature from Homo, Naledi. It's big tooth and it's extraordinary and how old is this? I have no idea this this whole discoveries three and a half weeks old when he heard about it here on the naked scientists first theo over to you for second what does it been like running a Medical Journal juryman covert? We've heard from what it's like trying to fill work as you make extraordinary discover new Ford what's it been like at the J.? Busy is is the one word that comes to mind I mean we. Probably most medical journals have seen attend to one hundred fold increase in submissions of papers with people very anxious to get out the latest findings about covert and we've had to sort of scale up to handle those, and of course, we've been trying to get results out very quickly if they're important the public needs to know as soon as possible. So we we're working round the clock and a lot of my colleagues working. At home with small children and nevertheless trying to do more than they ever did before. Too busy time. Is a mixed bag in terms of the quality of what you've received received some stuff that you think my goodness. That's amazing and if you also receive some stuff that makes you my goodness, I can't believe someone actually sent that to journal did their toddler ride this Yes we we we pretty much always get a range of quality I think what's happening now though is that Everyone thinks every single funding about covert is really really important and they want to get it out as fast as possible maybe when it's not quite ready. Of course, the the most recent high profile person who has succumbed to the new current Avars is Donald Trump and his doctors interesting. They've put him on a whole raft of different treatments including an antibody therapy might by the American company general also a number of other drugs and supplements. It has been unclear though how ill he actually has been summer saying he's actually been downplaying his symptoms. It's been a very interesting journey. I learned a lot about cove. I learned it by really going to school. This is the real school. This isn't the let's read the book school and I, get it and I understand it and it's A very interesting thing going to be letting US know about it. Charlotte some as intensive care consultant, she's at Adam Rex Hospital in Cambridge. She also advises the UK governmental managing the condition. CHARLOTTE, what what was your reaction to the cocktail of treatments that the president of the United States was or appears to have been given? After that it was quite surprised. They pass when the best dogs verity that I would have weeks four had I been? Lacking off the him I think most. Is probably the gentleman therapy, but he had ten of two antibodies. I'm the ADS to neutralize the virus I'm actually the company that makes these had any the I h of miss a few days before they were given the president and it was any based on two hundred and seventy five patients on trials ongoing. So we actually know whether this therapy what's not so I was slightly surprised that a very experimental therapy. Promising is greed given to the president of the United
Neighbor knocks on man's door to tell him he won Nobel Prize
"This year's Nobel Prize in economics is going to two researchers from Stanford University for their work on improving how auctions were carried out Paul Milligram and Robert Wilson, not just colleagues, their neighbors, and Milgram says he learned that they'd won the prize when Wilson knocked on his door this morning. Share the news
Two American Professors Win Nobel Prize In Economics
"Professors have won the Nobel Prize in economics. They were awarded this morning for pioneering research into auction theory, Acuity sciences, Kevin Stark explains. In Stockholm. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences handed the prize to professors Paul Milgram and Robert Wilson. The two men developed a new auction format that has been used in a wide array of transactions from art auctions to Internet sales and from home purchases to California's market of pollution allowances to mitigate global warming Academy, says the two Stanford economist Research has improved how goods and services are bought and sold around the world. Benefitting businesses, consumers and taxpayers. I'm Kevin Star News.
"nobel" Discussed on The Indicator from Planet Money
"The Nobel Prize in economics. It's a big deal right. I mean I've heard of it. You know it's it's not not a big deal. They announce it once a year. It's been They've been giving out since nineteen sixty-nine and the winner gets a lot of money to get about a million dollars. Yeah unless more than one person wins and then the winners split the money and this year. It was a kind of three way tie economists. Micheal creamer estrogen flow Avid Banerjee. All won the prize together and they all all work in a branch of economics known as developing economics. They do a lot of their work together. Actually and basically what they do is apply economic principles to problems in the developing world and between the three of them. They figured out how to improve school. Attendance Children's house crop yields and social conditions for millions of people across Africa and India. In fact the Nobel Committee Committee estimated that the work these three economists have done has impacted millions of lives. Plus Esther diplo is the youngest person ever to win the economics prize. She's only forty-six Yup and only the second woman and her fellow Nobel Nobel avid energy also happens to be her husband and they both oth teach economics at MIT. This indicator for planet money. I'm Cardiff Garcia. And I'm Stacey Vanek Smith Today on the show Estra do flow and Abba Cheat Banerjee talk about their work work and what happens when you win a Nobel prize support for. NPR are comes from national car rental. Who wants you to know that with a membership in our complimentary Emerald Club you can skip the counter and choose any car in the aisle at participating national national locations? You can even select an upgrade without paying extra learn more at national car dot com slash. NPR My name is Estella. How'd you flew? I'm a professor of economics at Panaji and professor economics at Mit as well Nobel Prize winners to well. Congratulations thank you thank you so much. How did you guys find out? Where were you when you found out? You'd one considering they call you at a quarter to five. We were in our bed. Then we put it on speaker phone and I said free bad in in our house and we are not awake so we fumbling with revolt human. They couldn't hear us that we couldn't hear them and we hang up on them and whatever that but by and by hi we got of God to the destroyed pretty quickly than the past phone to someone who said he was very happy to inform me that I had being awarded the Nobel Prize in economics. And then my question was with whom and said always for southbound algae and I I said Oh great. Do you want to talk to him. It was so they said yes and I I give him the phone They instructed us that since Estero it was a woman and they wanted a woman to be the spokesperson. She would be the one person who will be depressed conference. They said it like that there were like we would like the woman to be the spokesperson resting. Okay and given that I went back to sleep and there was a way said it is. Let's go back to three like no. The man said I have to make some tea to be ready for the last one is that you have to make some D- psychot- up and since I'm like nothing but a diligent student. I made some team your co-winner Michael Kramer said that. He celebrated the news by upgrading. From Diet. Coke to regular coke. I'm curious to know if the two of you did something similarly extravagant no no no no we would never uh-huh neither of US drink coke okay. We didn't really have Easy option do you mind talking about your branch of economics of Vertical Development Economics. How do you describe it? Well It's economics off for countries in a sense it's sort of asking questions it's like. Why are some people very poor wire countries pork? Is there something we can do to help them. Get Out of it. It's kind of dancing around this question of off the origins and responses to poverty for a long time One of the criticisms of economics six was that the mathematicians the theorists were the ones who were sort of dominating the field It seems like your work was a shift in a different direction and that that shift is being rewarded by this prize. Is that an accurate characterization. In the last twenty twenty five years in general has been in economics and move to world a much more Regards geller ports to problems boosts in developed countries and in developing countries so libor economists. Study issues like you know. The impact of the minimum wage or the impact of migration on the wage of native eighteen workers. Always these kind of common concern that we also have notwithstanding the theory is what are the facts on the ground saying and if batons out that the facts are totally inconsistent with your Eden is probably the theory that needs to be rethought. Not The fact that you you should change one of the questions that you have. Tackled tackled is about absenteeism among teachers. Do you mind just talking about what the problem was. And some of the different solutions that you try absolutely to this. The problem is that you find in many developing countries that are the absence of teacher is very high so on average country which been measured. It's about twenty ninety five percents or every day that you go to a school. The teacher is absent so one of the early project I was involved with is to set up a Honda Honda mice controlled trial of. Make any him to try to improve teacher present. We give the teachers a camera and ask them to take a picture of themselves in the key twin to come to school so we get to school. A camera on one of the kids took your to every day at the beginning of the class and At the end of the class. And where was this. We did that in rural area in the Indian Hudson in district they will and what what we're finding is that is very simple. Conceit of asking not just to take a photo of themselves and tying their payment to the number of days did increase his presence it did increase effective teaching. That didn't just come and sleep and then go home. It has altered in to increase TESCO's the Nobel Committee also noted did that. The two of you are part of kind of ongoing conversation in economics about the uses and the limits of field experiments and randomized control trials. And a lot of times what that debate centers on is whether the results of randomized controlled trials or these experiments are generalized whether they can be applied to you other places except where they were specifically performed and whether they can be like scaled up to a lot more people so that for example something that works in a a sub Saharan African village will that work in you know all of India or in parts of the developed world that kind of thing. Can you just kind of give us your thoughts on like how you see the path forward. What you're learning from any particular experiment is rarely or never ooh tag that program and do it everywhere just to wait was what you're learning is potentially some locally useful a knowledge for example this particular and you can decide to scale that puck come up to keep it which is something that they I did? And in term of what's marginal useful for the world is oh this is an important problem. Absenteeism is fixable Saburo because teachers are sensitive to incentives attorneys in some context This is something that we could explore with different programs in different places. We'll thank you both for talking with us. Thank you so much. For having a Esu flow in Apogee Banerjee are both economists at Mit they just won the Nobel Belt Prize this year and they have a new book out called Good Economics for hard times. Today's episode of the indicator was produced by Jared Marcel. Back Checked by Nadia Louis. Our editor is Paddy Hirsch. An indicator is a production of NPR..
"nobel" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Bulletin with UBS
"Hello and welcome to the Timothy. UPS Or monocle twenty four inch we hear from the sharpest minds and freshest thinkers in the world of finance taking you beyond the numbers in the height and getting to the heart of big issues and works to shine a light on the complexities and challenges of our fast changing world back in two thousand seventeen. UBS took the Nobel perspectives initiatives the next level with a two day event in Singapore marking the beginning of what's now a regular events series called Nobel perspectives live following events in Singapore Shanghai New York and London in September two.
"nobel" Discussed on The Indicator from Planet Money
"N. P. R. Before we get started you mind if I get your name the way you'd like it and your title the way like it Micheal Creamer So non dairy creamer and my titles actually gates professor of develop into site is in the Department of Economics at Harvard and Nobel laureate I think you definitely have to put that on there I should think so he'll pry I mean you know that to Converse much the peak because when someone wins the Nobel Prize the whole world is going to acknowledge them as having contributed significantly to their field and in this case to humanity meaningful way. It's hard to think of how you even celebrate that actually found out our reporting at was diet coke awesome upgrade to the Diet Coke Survive and that ladies and gentlemen is how you celebrate winning a Nobel Prize you upgrade for it diet coke to irregular nothing so mind now Micheal Creamer just won the Nobel prize for his work in what's known is element economics along with his colleagues esther flow an advocate Banerjee the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said that the work of the three economists had quote dramatically proved our ability to fight poverty in practice visit indicated from planet money I'm Garcia and I'm Stacey Vanek Smith Today on the show we talk with Nobel laureate and regular coke drinker Micheal creamer about development economics what it is how it has helped change the way we think about economics and how it's even changed the world support for this podcast and the following message come from Zoom Zoom is used by millions to connect face to face through a single APP for videoconferencing phone calls group Chat Webinars and conference rooms visit zoom online to set up your free account today meet happy with Zoom so economics as a field it can have the reputation of being kind of abstract cerebral yes that's true if matty lots of CIGNA's you know complicated financial instruments ivory tower stuff Michael Creamer our newly minted Nobel laureate says he here's this from people all the time people have a view of economic says only about the stock market talks next. That's the question that you get when you sit makes people on airplanes there like is the stock market GonNa go up hopefully classic questions going to the I I also much place on that one now is a Nobel prize so you really want to know if he thinks. I got this doctor from a Nobel Prize winner and the response he might give to somebody who asks him for stomach that look development economics is something different branches mixed focuses on improving conditions in developing countries so Michael's research is looked at different ways to improve health care education agriculture social conditions all these different things in those developing countries Michael got started in this kind of economics when he was visiting a friend who was teaching in Kenya his friend was working for a nonprofit and had been put in charge of a bunch of local schools and they were trying to figure out how to best run these schools and where to invest their very limited resources we weren't sure uh what the best approach was they had several different ideas that they were interested in China and as we were talking I suggested that perhaps they could try some approaches in some schools and other approaches and other schools and they did that systematically they could learn what was what was working best and evaluate the impact of what they're doing much isn't Medical trial much as in a medical trial real world trials are used in many of the sciences but applying them in economics was groundbreaking in some of the most noted work of Michael Kramer and his colleagues they looked at where to best allocate resources impoverished schools in Kenya so for example would students benefit more from free textbooks or from free meals it turned out neither of those things actually made a huge impact for the students what did make a huge impact for the students another study uncovered a pretty unexpected answer to that hyphen free access to de worming medication. Hookworm whipper roundworm worms that actually used to be in the southern United States. take the medication to treat worms was quite cheap but it did still cost some money and there were a lot of parents who are still not getting it for their kids what made a huge difference was when kids were given free access to de worming medication Michael says the impact it had on their education was extraordinary we found that topic for much more like quitting school absence from school what by one quarter reflect when they had access to the medicine Michael and his colleagues followed the students for years all the way through school and into the workforce and they found that free access to de worming medication just kept paying off this was a while ago Alga young adults we see that they're actually earning more and consuming more and the girls are more likely to onto secondary school so huge impact relative to the really tiny costs lose medicines cost really pennies per does investing in De worming medication as it turned out had a much bigger impact on the educations professional lives of kids than textbooks or school meals and economic mixed figured that out the solution was not obvious it emerged after a series of rigorous experiments that were systematically trying different approaches until they found the most active efficient solution Michael and his colleagues presented that information to the Kenyan government you want to help kids and keep them in school put your money here in best in de worming medication and it will affect major change it will move the needle they were excited about it and they decided they wanted to launch an national program and then Indians state governments heard heard about it and then the national government of India introduced a similar program so now Aw Th Indian program is reaching more than one hundred million children every year and I think I remember reading that The program actually did a pain for itself through increased tax revenue because people did become more productive when they were healthier is that is that right that's exactly right recent follow up work we've looked at the economic impact of us now that students at the time of original de worming are now in the labor force and see the people are earning more Ah The free just do the calculations turns out of the extra tax revenue alone would have been more than enough to pay the cost of the program. It's estimated that the work of Michael Creamer in his fellow laureates this year has changed the lives of hundreds of millions of people around the world and Michael Says he's very glad to see that a more hands on kind of economics is being acknowledged invalidated in such an important way we're trying to do work that is very rigorous that is using the Ah Tours of of economics but that is also engaged with practical problems it's easy to see the problems of global poverty and to think that there are intractable that we can't make a difference but actually there's been huge progress there will be more progress as economics is applied to different problems in the developing world he thinks he can help find simple practical solutions that can actually make a big difference. Michael says he is incredibly excited to see economics being used this way and of course peace excited about winning the Nobel yeah maybe we'll even figure out how to celebrate it properly congratulations thank you so much and I think you should upgrade to regular coke for at least a week paid lip balm yeah there you go there now we're talking we're talking this episode of the indicator was produced by Lena. San's Gary edited by Paddy Hirsch Our intern is Nadia Lewis indicator is a production of NPR. Yeah.
"nobel" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Bulletin with UBS
"Stream when of the Nobel prize in two thousand sixteen for his work on contract theory, and the potential pitfalls of contract design today amongst other things he discusses his more recent work on these stability of financial markets. And why despite plenty of evidence to the contrary he retains an optimistic view on the direction the world is headed. Banked homes stream welcome to the bulletin with UBS. Great heavy with us today. Let's start by talking a little about the stability of financial markets. If we go back ten years to twenty eight did happen. Then did that change your big picture perspective? Did it change the way that you looked at problems you've been wrestling with for for a number of years, or in a sense? I guess did it conform to certain expectations understandings that you had. Was it something that revolutionized anything in your approach all didn't affect the way that you look at the world economic? Yeah. I think it taints. Everybody's mind every corner mind, but even the public, and so it has been traumatic event in many ways and at the same time for quantum is. Of course, also an interesting event, why did it happen? It's safe to say nobody expected to happen. The US than know that they even thought it would happen in Europe, financial crises of courses happened around the world all the time. But seventy years without the real big financial crisis in the US suggested that will never have one. And it was a real wake up call that it happened. And so in that sense, it it did change my resorts considerably. I had been working on financial crisis issue since Finland had of financial prices. In fact, Scandinavia and had one in ninety ninety one ninety two, and that's what piqued my interest because my feel this contract serious it's called, but it's also about organizations and structures contacts very broad field. And this involves a lot about contracts debt contracts are very central to the financial crisis. But just pick up on that point you made about Finland, of course, you born in Helsinki. Do you think that you have a a Finnish sensibility at particular? Finish perspective is such a thing. It's hard to look from inside and say what special about things now also stereotypes, but I'm unusual. Maybe in this. I'm a Swedish speaking of the only less than three hundred thousand people in Finland and moreover, my background is actually very mixed. So I didn't think myself in so genetic sense as finished, but culturally, I think yes, Finland the Orphee, you know, home Galway's influence, you a lot. I am still just his forty years in the US, and it must make a handy the Nobel presentation army. I guess if you're a sweeter speaker, you could send everything. Well, yes, I understood at least what they said it was. Very glamorous. And it was hard to absorb everything. But it was a lot of fun to a bit more about some of the issues we talking about two thousand eight this being a great deal of discussion about transparency and regulatory issues in the author of that. I know there's something the written about and talked about often, and you mentioned data moment ago, and there's an interesting sort of it's not really paradoxical this idea that actually certain markets. They're not like the stock market presentable that requires a this kind of complete transparency level playing field some areas in finance require almost some smoke and mirrors some fiscal Sion. He tells a bit about that. And how I don't know has the public misunderstood that. What that means one way to explain this big short has been a big hit, and Yvonne really condenses the book and the movie in one sentence. It is you know, I didn't Wall Street. No anything. Why didn't they ask any questions? And the answer that comes out in the movie, and the book is that will they just blind in some sense, and they have and these five, you know, rather unique characters did a few trips to Florida down realize that this this is all going to hell, and so people out the feeling that goss- wall, supposedly stupid or ignorant, or maybe collusive or or drugged or whatever..
"nobel" Discussed on The Science Show
"For me, there's nothing to stop me doing some research. If I have the energy stood Martin reece's research, I believe was largely theoretical where he could make contributions by thinking and writing the solve area of research that I'm involved in this much more experimental. I do have a small research group. I have a small company that I set up and what I'm expecting to do is to spend more time advising the science in the company than trying to run a significant research group myself. So Gregory winter master of Trinity College in Cambridge on the sign show in two thousand twelve. He won the Nobel prize this week, and he mentioned his predecessor, Lord Reese. Now, astronomer Royal and Martin Reese talks about our future. Later in this side show I the Nobels, here's James Boleyn. Every second of every day, our bodies immune system fights, foreign agents, bacteria parasites, en- viruses. The might otherwise do Tom. In some cases, the immune system can recognize cancer cells as normal and kill them to the trouble is some cancer tumors have the ability to put the brakes on the cells of our means system, stopping them from working properly. This is Nobel prize winners in medicine, worked out different mechanisms by which this breaking occurs and how to stop it, allowing the immune system to fight and kill tumor cells. Professor James, Allison from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas in the United States and professor to sue Honjo from Kyoto University Japan jointly.
"nobel" Discussed on Global News Podcast
"Dish academy and it's been in turmoil since november when off the back of the star of the metoo campaign eighteen women came forward and said that they had been sexually assaulted by a man with very close links to the academy joan called honor he ran a cultural project that received money from the swedish academy and he is also married to katharina franzen he was one of the members of the academy until loss week she's one of the people that has resigned amongst a huge wave of resignations following a bit of a spat really between different academy members over how these sexual assault allegations which we should say the photographer denies were handled and how this week academy has reacted in general to to all of this and following this wave of resignations a lot of media criticism here in sweden and so last week swedish academy said that it accepted it had lost credibility both in sweden and around the world that led to this statement that off the of all of this it was going to spawn the nobel prize for literature this year handing it out instead in the ceremony next year dodging is this not just to the nobel prize for literature but more widely to the nobel foundation i think it could potentially be pretty damaging i mean here in sweden swedish academy we should point out it's not just in charge of of the nobel prize at also hands out other awards it gives funding to cultural institutions and even decides which word should go in the swedish dictionaries and that's one of the reasons that people here really wanted this internal crisis in these internal divisions to be sorted out as well of course as because of the prestige surrounding the nobel prize and i think a lot of swedes have been concerned and upset about this it's been a story that's played a very big in the media here because swedes already proud of the nobel prize setup up by this we dish chemist alfred nobel to try war the best in literature signs and peace and they want to keep that respect and reputation more has to.
"nobel" Discussed on Global News Podcast
"Dish academy and it's been in turmoil since november when off the back of the start of the metoo campaigns eighteen women came forward and said that they had been sexually assaulted by a man with very close links to the academy joan crawled honor he ran a cultural project that received money from the swedish academy and he is also married to catharina franzen he was one of the members of the academy until last week she's one of the people that has resigned amongst a huge wave of resignations following a bit of a spat really between different academy members over how these sexual assault allegations which we should say the photographer denies were handled and how this we should kademi has reacted in general to to all of this and following this wave of resignations a lot of media criticism here in sweden and so last week the swedish academy said that it accepted it had lost credibility both in sweden and around the world that led to this statement that of the back of all of this it was going to spawn the nobel prize for literature this year handing it out instead in the ceremony next year dodging is this not just to the nobel prize for literature but more widely to the nobel foundation i think it could potentially be pretty damaging i mean here in sweden swedish academy we should point out it's not just in charge of the nobel prize it also hands out other awards it gives funding to cultural institutions that even decides which word should go in the swedish dictionaries and that's one of the reasons that people here really wanted this internal crisis in these internal divisions to be sorted out as well of course as a because of the prestige surrounding the nobel prize and i think a lot of swedes have been concerned and upset about this it's been a story that's played a very big in the media here because swedes really proud of the nobel prize setup by this dish chemist alfred nobel a determine wall the best in literature science and peace and they want to keep that respect and reputation more has to.
"nobel" Discussed on Planet Money
"After the credits pierrerichard richard thaler get the phone call after winning the steady three expects to alfred nobel prize in economic signs case at the right way you know what's the full the full as studies riksbank cries in economic sciences in memory of alfred nobel support for this in pr podcast in the following message come from slack used by companies all over the world to get everything done we're every part of work from documents to decisions is stored archived and searchable in seconds slack where work happens find out why it slack dot com email us at planet money at npr dot org you can also find us on facebook or twitter today's episode was produced by nick fountain bryant first at his our editor head of our nudge unit alex book special thanks this week to richer taylor's form student deemed karlin and two failures golf buddy eugene if you're looking for something else listen to check out a first it's a podcast from the people who make morning edition it comes out every day you can listen to it you can find out what's happening and it's the podcast you can listen to it whenever you want wherever you are i'm kenny malone and i'm jacob goldstein tillis the royal swedish academy of sciences has decided to award the specific spunk price in economic sciences in memory of alfred nobel.
"nobel" Discussed on Arms Control Wonk
"So is not their fault it's the fault of people it's all of the fault of the nuclear weapons powers who did not get involved in this process yep so you know i i think that um my congratulations i can is a sincere congratulations like they set out to create political pressure to advance the disarmament it to advance the elimination of nuclear weapons a goal i share and they were incredibly successful at it i think the political process that they injected themselves into broke down and it broke down because the obama administration didn't want to play its role right it decided make common cause with the russians on this issue and we ended up with the treaty that i don't think it's helpful but i you know that's i i've i lay that at the feet of saint berry of prague not not a not at p finn i mean she's gonna as it barn burner vis speech which she gets that brive i've get like it and i think some of the snark out there is directed at the nobel committee to be honest with you because oh yeah i mean that when when i first heard the news people were making fun of the nobel committee i mean because go questioning not the sort of weight and gravity of being nobel prize winner but of the institution as a whole well elections i should say look vague give out aspirational prizes right i mean they gave barack obama a nobel prize for eliminating nuclear weapons.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"And it's been held ever since then it's told in a big theater biggest theory harbored a place called sanders theater which rand old majestic clings it's also the biggest classroom at harvard fits 1100 people in the audience it's always filled on a bell night we been webcasting it every year since 1995 and the audience use as entertaining to all of us on stage at think as we are to the audience also brings paper airplanes that's a tradition started in a second ear and they throw them at the stage people onstage camps throw them back at the audience uh up on the stage waiting to greet the new ignoble winners are bunch of nobel prize winners the criterion is little unusual for these prices different from all other prices ignoble prices are four things that make people laugh and then think and uh we have a policy that in almost all cases when we choose a winner we get in touch with that person with that group very quietly we offer them reprise and give them the chance to decline this great honor to happily for us almost everyone who has offered an ignoble christ decides to accept because it is kind of a little bit of kinda i guess a sendup of it i mean i is it it does it have to be good science does it have to be peerreviewed science i mean what kind of these these scientific requirements because it is a little bit of a a up of the concept of'scientific prizes in a way the answer to all those questions is 'no and it doesn't have to be science as you do with any it doesn't have to have anything to do with science remember again the requires clings achievements that make people laugh and thanked now many of them most of them do have some connection to science but as too good or bad has two valuable or worthless that really does not enter into it at all part of the reason for that is that if you look back over the history of things especially history science medicine technology.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"And also they are being on benificiary of uh what i i ended up calling accumulation up advantage uh which held at a quick trip time on mark krikorian bishop nobel prizewinner it also marks the korea for people that don't get nobel prize sara uh our number of great great scientists for wonder is there another don't get nobel prize and kodori scientific i read is indeed made up of nobel winners but when you talk to knowledgeable scientists they know they know that there are others who honor have made cast of important contribution but who for one reason or not i haven't gotten all about pride now you're talking a lot about this kind of accumulation of advantage on that kind of takes place these higher institutions that have these incredible um these incredible advantages of things like equipments and people those higher institutions and that scientific elite is not very diverse it tends to be white men of european descent in europe and the united states is that what does that mean and is that changing over time i couldn't get means that uh from eight three early part of the career to these people but from time they were in undergraduates school i day and prices may wangka undergraduate were full of white man and uh the number of women who i have have begun career in high infant create eric great britain iraq thirty years meet very greatly you're now beginning to be women holding major perhaps our ships in major universities near now beginning defeated women leading elected to the national academy of highland uh which would only uh you know a minute little number uh four or five decades ago will now i women are beginning to komo van to loop in fat i have a it might but my my friend and that the people that study it with fired are the kinds of people get their man of more or less for fame agent had studied wetted now it's important for you to note that one way thank diversity we think gender but it also white women are either very few uh uh.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"First in your work you have interviewed more than a hundred nobel laureates what are some of the overarching seems that you kind of yet from your interviews with them are there things they have in common other than you know having won the nobel prize on gay darrar uh there i i think it's important to stress at the very beginning they have many things in common but that doesn't mean that there are the things i'm dying dimension art all fell pratt and other very good giant antiinflation i've eager people who i at least the one that i now and talk to i important to recognize that these are people who worked in the united states now that every name that they aren't uh are are different from optout from europe and other places object they uh for the most part were educated a very small number of uh graduate school of here we are lift shrine now that you can't do really major scientific work without having a ph day and that on where whining goes to graduate school if you're very important start for the career how the nobel laureate said i got eight a main might how claire degrees added a half of them cook their degrees at kent five pike and i that i would have very striking hinding at striking uh book like one has to ask what radka that uh what real quick high fat uh and i actually i predicted uh that that question uh with them it turned out that they were shaken uh to get their scientific training with uh giant senior scientist move him out were at the forefront of work in their field how even as they know where uh online might called hot crying for being done and the other side of it which i thought was a in many lane and i important i also quite talked her to remind i interviewed about their students.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"Dominated so many are so many times of thirty or forty times slip noble price also or various achievements that was really the problem is nominated jews then liz like we theme carbocation use price worthy be because of than of this from a busy with who have different accomplishments and the noble committees looking or one groundbreaking of his feet discovery amounts of wide rage uh achievements so for nominators is also so basically you need to achieve one big thing but not true many things and have a lot of very good friends that's in summary news thank you so much for your time you we've linked more information about knows hanson's work at science with people that see a next when most people think of the nobel prize they think of people like einstein or polling they think of older white guys in icy covered institutions why is that and what does it mean for science see teams signs for the people it's a weekly radio show and podcast that explores everyday life scientific respect member of the skeptic network collection blocks podcast and video content focusing on science had critical thinking to find out where science people heirs were to listen to past episodes check out a website signs for people thought a you also find links sports at peachtree on with us on facebook and twitter and to subscribe cast and now the nobel prizes are famous for offering good science in the process they've created kind of eight new bility of science a scientific elites if you will to talk more about this i'm here with harriet zuckerman a sociologist of science at columbia university and author of the book scientific elite nobel laureates in the united states doctors eckermann thank you so much for joining us while it's great to be here.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"And interestingly enough he was also on the short list ninety exceeding but andy was evaluated quite positive me as well a but during the first world war or east you'd the first war years the nobel committee decided not to award mobile prices in this yo you immense them so still we do not really know how good is johnson were in our the ninety six and he was never at least to my knowledge nominated again arkley because the whole signs sender institutes trimmed went donald hill until it got the revival in the 1970s eight east with the nautilus comes up if you compare it is a juice from from around 1900s you not to list devices today in we disease thumbing similarity that's the fascinating mobile christ summary 1960 now and so we've mentioned people who you know maybe were a little too visionary they're just kind of two ahead of their time or there were just too many people as though nobody got apprise so what does it seek to win a nobel prize what what has happened yes that would be if you look at the lower ribs they also have some some factors in in common well first of all you need to become loria you need good friends in that in signs in the scientific community that rides very good nominations that's another fact dry up disgust papers when i looked at many nominations i see that some are that for that if you have friends writing such nominations who needs enemies and one example this uh the new resurgent brain surgeon harvey cushing from the united states walls it was.
"nobel" Discussed on Science for the People
"Thanks first of all the nobel prize was given for the first time in 1901 named for alfred nobel can you tell me who he was and why he wanted to give out a gigantic cries of nobel was forevermore well swedish family he had a relative many different countries and travel though of the world during his lifetime noon the end up it's a life lived in in italy and france and there is an addict though i'm not sure if that's entirely correct but one day eat was reading the the newspaper and it said that alfred nobel had dis and his legacy to mankind was yet you'd vented dina mike ricci had a better be used for or emerging in the tens of thousands of thousands of people uh actually uh that was kind of a mistake because he hadn't dives and the be in the newspaper referred to his brothers who that had died uh and that then he started thinking well should that really be my legacy in vendrell dynamise terror around the world and he started to euro figuring out alternative legacy so the story says that he sat in a bar in paris and roads his will uh it's really willis renew shorts it's like the size of a napkin some a mcgrigor way said well i wanted to give away a large part of my money was very wealthy man at the time to a foundation this should hand out uh prices for the greatest benefits of mankind that's i would grace in this this will and mentioned five categories physics chemistry physiology were met at the medicine of peace or literature.