35 Burst results for "Nineteenth Century"
Playing Fair with Eve Rodsky
"I wanted to talk to eve because even for me. A professional feminist this balance has been elusive. And it's humbling. Because feminists have been trying to address this. For many decades nineteenth century feminists created a professional field of home economics to bring value to domestic labor second way feminist tried renegotiating the terms of marriage and coined the phrase the politics of housework recognizing that was often seen as a personal struggle is part of a whole system that doesn't value or support caregiving and domestic work. Today many women in higher paying jobs outsource chelsea karen housework but that work is still being done by other women lower paying jobs who are often women of color. Covert has really laid bare. How imperfect and unjust the system is but as. We re emerge rebuild. That insight may give us an opportunity to renegotiate the terms or as eradicate would say. Reveal the deck. You've created a system that recognizes the true value of caregiving and seeks to redistribute it like all feminists revolutions. It started with a very personal moment. And that's where we began our conversation. I did have a series of experiences. That sort of changed. The course of my life and one of those experiences was a text. My husband sent me nine years ago. That said i'm surprised you didn't get blueberries and the passenger seat of my car. I had a diaper bag and a breast pump at a newborn baby at home and amidst all this chaos racing to get my older son zach at the time he was three. I had a client contract in my lap. And every time i would hit the brakes. Penn would serve stabbed me in the vagina making me completely. Saban pullover to the side of the road. I live in la now and so we don't take traffic lightly so for me to pull over and be laid to pick up zach. Something was really wrong in my marriage. And that was a the fact that i was the fulfill his smoothing needs and literally every single other task for my family was seemingly falling in my lap at the time but more importantly i did not have the career marriage combo i thought i was going to have all those realizations. Were sort of raining down on me that day. When sesame that tax
Jameson Whiskey and Cannibalism
"Whiskey today. Suck is soaked in whiskey. mostly jameson. Some irish whiskey a great drain for some fun times kicking back and enjoy the taste of one of the best exports. The emerald isle has to offer also popular drink in my experience for people to torture with by buying you shot after shot after shot until you're spending and puking in the parking lot talking about jameson will lead us obviously into talking about cannibalism. Yup john jameson. The founder jameson was originally a lawyer from a loa in scotland before he founded his distillery in dublin in seventeen eighty and eighteen o five. He rejoined joined by his son. John jamieson junior who took over the family business for the next forty one years junior built up the business before handing it over to his son. John jameson the third and eighteen fifty. One they were killing it by the turn of the nineteenth century. Jameson distilleries were the second largest producer in ireland of whiskey in one of the largest in the world producing a million gallons annually. Dublin at the time was the center of world whisky production. It was the second most popular spirit in the world after rum. An internationally jamison had h five became the world's number one whiskey and then almost a century later at the end of the nineteenth century. The jameson name would get tarnished a wee bit when reports came back from the congo. The john's great grandson. James s jameson. Jimmy james paid to watch a young girl be killed and eaten. Cannibalism not a great pr moment. Hard to build a successful ad campaign around some cannibalism. What the hell happened in the congo
A Brief History of Neuroscience
"So neuroscience. The study of the nervous system has had an interesting history of being both extremely old and extremely new Ancient greeks and egyptians went back and forth whether the brain or the heart was the center of intelligence and hippocrates argued that the brain was the center though this wouldn't gain traction until the roman physician galen proposed it It took until an understanding of electricity. In the nineteenth century before we could really understand the brain the experiments of luigi gala vanni and the electrical activity of the body pave the way for research in the nervous system for awhile. Neuroscience research was divided into different fields such as physiology anatomy zulu psychiatry etc David roche helped integrate these fields creating the neuroscience research program at mit in nineteen sixty two. james mcgowan established the first department of neuroscience at university of california irvine in nineteen sixty four and later major neuroscience organizations were created including the international brain research organization. Or i bro. because it's a bunch of bros. Working on brains at that could be like your pneumonic for it That was established in nineteen sixty one and the society for neuroscience was established in nineteen sixty which is known for its annual meeting. One of the largest scientific conferences in the world so we're gonna start with neurons aka the small stuff so adam is and again. This is all adams words. I i am not the data scientist or the neuro scientists in this situation. I am just. I am the female voice of adam. Large in this specific instance. Everyone so all my words are his words. Except when i do inside you'll know when that happens on many less syllables. Yeah it would be those. Those observations will be much
Supreme Court Affirms American Indigenous Man's Right to Hunt in Canada
"The supreme court of canada friday ruled seven to two in favor of a washington state man who was charged with illegally hunting and canada more than a decade ago. Emily swing reports in two thousand ten. Rick data crossed the us. Canada border into british columbia. Where he intentionally hunted for elk without a license back in nineteen fifty three the last surviving member of desautels ancestral tribe. The cynics passed away in british columbia three years later. The province reclaimed cynics lands and canada's federal government officially declared the tribe extinct does to wanted to prove his people were anything but extinct. He was acquitted in two thousand seventeen but the province appealed twice and lost now. The supreme court of canada has sided with denzel via zoom defense. Attorney mark underhill delivered. The news to desa tell his wife linda and dozens of other cynics who had gathered to celebrate the rooms on behalf of canada. Welcome we want. This is the first time. The supreme court of canada has interpreted what it means to be an aboriginal peoples of canada in the majority opinion. Judge malcolm rowe wrote but cynics rights are protected by canada's constitution and that to exclude aboriginal peoples who were forced to move out of canada would risk perpetuating the historic injustice suffered by aboriginal peoples at the hands of europeans loggers miners and white settlers who moved into british columbia in the nineteenth century proved to be hostile. Neighbors and many strikes were forced to move south across the border onto the reservation of the confederated tribes of the call ville in washington state. Rodney causton is the call chairman. He's also cynics. He says his tribe will now work to protect cultural resources and sacred sites in canada. We will begin looking at are averaging title back to orlando are traditional homelands and also the recognition that we do have rights as the first nation in canada.
Living in The 49th Parallel
"Hi you have reached. The alice obscure podcasts. I'm going to leave me a message about a strange unusual or surprising. Place that happens to be near where you grew up or where you live. Now hi patty mccaskey and we live in kind of time-warp it's a small fishing village. Just a few sips south of the canadian border It's still very much fishing village Both right and fisher native people go out fishing every day and night that they're allowed and really a free move the founder. The diesel engines. There's nothing that's going on today. haven't grown on. It takes me back clouds thousands of years. He can see the way the life just continues on the way it always has something very timeless about one of the cool things about playing. Is that in the late nineteenth century. This is where the americans and the british. I bet to establish the forty nineth parallel separating our two countries and mercury number one is right outside. Live on my sailboat Outside i can see it from my my vote. And then they took it across the country across the forty ninth parallel all the way out to i guess newfoundland We also have the peace arch and that is A beautiful monument celebrating the longest undefended border international border on earth. That's kind of cool. I wasn't born here We sailed up here. Six years ago thinking we would continue unto alaska and then go down to mexico but there is something captivating about this place. There's just something that brings the past allies. Thank you bye.
Ghosts movies and the real deal
"Welcome to kits myths and mysteries. I'm your host. Ken crammed today in my month. Long investigation into the spirit world and ghost will go hollywood and then we'll look at some facts about goes. I'll start with a dark and stormy night. That's under ship. The trees from their very roots bolts of lightning struck. The earth surface burning holes deep into the soil. What was inside. The house was ten times as frightening. Livingston's had goes several black monstrous floating creatures. They would not lamps off. Tables push pictures off. Walls throw close out of closets and drawers. They killed the family. Dog fluffy and eight to guinea pig actor. The cats pugh brown phone from his mouth and moaned incessantly. The livingston's wanted to know when this reign of terror was going to stop green. Smoke would burn out of the nostrils of these unwelcome guests. The red eyes glared the dark. Purple slime dripped from their mouths. Nothing could stop or tame these horrible visitors from the world beyond they were out to destroy the family home and drive. Mr and mrs livingston insane. They hated with a vengeance. They showed no mercy on the children day. They tied them up and chopped off their toes. They were horrible. Villainous monster slowly taking over and destroying this beautiful nineteenth century victorian home just as an evil lucky spectre looms towards mr livingston wielding a bloody axe. Someone in the back room to cut us. Do the scene over there you go. That's what we hear a lot of variations like that about ghosts but here are some facts about at are quite so hollywood ish. The difference between a ghost spirit is very simple. They're both soles. That are no longer living in a body but a ghost is a soul that has remained on earth in a spirit is a soul has moved on to the other side and has begun a new life there.
The Introduction of Football to Spain
"Which i shall hereby refer to as football for the rest of the episode to appease my european listeners didn't originate in spain but it did arrive there rather quickly. In the late nineteenth century. Spanish workers and students who lived in england brought back with them. The game of football the first football club formed in spain was recreativo de huallaga which was founded in eighteen eighty nine by british workers for the rio tinto company the club's still exists today and currently plays in the second division in spain's professional league football clubs spread quickly through spain in the late nineteenth and early twentieth. Centuries nineteen to the idea was floated to have a single elimination knockout tournament. In honor of the coronation of king alfonso the thirteenth. It was called the copa de la coronation. And it was won by a team from bilbao. Which was the precursor to athletic. Bilbao the current team. Which represents the city of bilbao the next year. Nineteen thousand three. The tournament was brought back. This time being called the copa del rey. Or the king's cup. The first two copa. Del rey's athletic. Bilbao today. Barcelona has won the cup. Thirty times with alec. Bilbao winning twenty three times and real madrid winning nineteen
The U.S. Has A History Of Linking Disease With Race And Ethnicity
"Okay. So today we're talking about the suspicion and harassment of asians and asian americans as the krona virus spreads and this kind of fear actually has a long history in the united states right gene a very long history and actually what we learned from. Eric lee is that the seeds of this discourse of china and asia being unsanitary and crowded those seeds were planted long before chinese immigration to the us the teeming hordes of millions living in health and then as americans who travel to china and then came back to the united states. They spread those ideas. Unfortunate the own brand for the us low so right in the mid eighteen hundreds you have the first waves of chinese immigrants coming over to find fortune in the california gold rush and they also become a source of cheap labor working as farmhands building railroads etc and eventually this becomes a source of tension. Exactly so when the domestic economy takes a downturn different immigrant groups start competing for these previously undesirable jobs and you start seeing harassment even massacres of chinese workers but erica says that the idea of chinese immigrants being dirty and disease. That's still with us. We know from the very beginning As americans in general are starting to debate the so-called problem of chinese immigration. They are explicitly tying china chinese people chinese spaces with disease and contagion. Historians have shown that the rhetoric is about chinatown as plague spots as pools of laboratories of infection. Erica says that way back. In the late nineteenth century we really started to see specific policies that reflect this thinking around chinese as a threat to public. Oh okay give me an example of that. So erica told us about quarantine that happened in one thousand nine hundred in san francisco when the discovery bluebonnets plague in chinatown Bannock plague that's a potential deadly bacterial. Disease the black death right. People believe rats. Broad across the pacific steamship was unlikely. Source of the disease. Erica says san francisco officials at the time. Saw the chinese immigrants as vermin infested. So all of chinatown was placed under quarantine. And there were these periodic. Campaigns to quote disinfect chinatown flooding basements in that district with acid washing the walls with lie tearing down old buildings that rhetoric by the way erica says has been applied to a lot of immigrant groups throughout history but there is a particular way in which it has been racialized with chinese chinese as dog eaters as eaters of weird and strange animals including rats and mice and that they if they are eating and consuming rats that are known to spread disease than chinese people as a race are also carriers of disease so what happened then was. San francisco's quarantine. So the plague became racialized blamed on a group of people. The city ordered an immediate quarantine of chinatown with orders to remove all whites from the affected area so so white. Residents of san francisco were ordered to leave chinatown but chinese people could not. It's such an intense thing to know and accept this history and realize it's been with us for a really long time. It's been with us. And we haven't really grappled with all of this of course is happening against the backdrop of the chinese exclusion act which was passed in eighteen. Eighty two and it prevented chinese laborers from entering the united states. Which this time of heightened anti-chinese rhetoric and sentiment that law would actually mark the first time the u. has banned the immigration of an entire ethnic group. So when you and your co hosts shreen. Marcel marashi spoke to eric harley. Eric told you a very personal story about her grandfather. And what happened to him when he immigrated to the us and it's really relevant to what we're talking about today so erica's grandfather came to the us through angel island right angel island. It's the ellis island of the west coast. It was in san francisco bay and there was this whole special system of scrutiny for chinese immigrants in particular so erica's grandfather like so. Many chinese immigrants angel island was pulled aside and inspected separately from other asian immigrants because people believe that chinese immigrants were carriers of disease. What a way to come into a country and she said that her grandfather never told her that story directly but she was interested in it and because she's historian she actually took the records of her grandparents interogations and specifically. She found her grandfather's medical exam from angel. It was it was nothing like anything. I've read before. Immigration officials ordered my grandfather to be subjected to the most invasive medical exam that i've seen in hundreds of these records so they had the medical doctor at angel island examined him for for diseases but also to measure every aspect of his body. His teeth his his genitals his. You know it's a his height to determine what age he was to determine weather his claim of being seventeen when he was immigrating was actually true and they included just all of these detailed notes in a record and it was. It was quite shocking to read. That's really just I mean i hear the story. And i think it's important at a time like this to hear stories like this so We've been talking specifically about chinese immigration but as you mentioned earlier this history of public health and hygiene efforts and how it gets mixed up with race and ethnicity. It's also happened to other immigrant. Groups right i mean. This is something that erica talks about a lot in her book which is of course about xenophobia in the united states but it wasn't just chinese immigrants who were being targeted in this way. I mean if you look at what was happening around the same time on the southern border mexican immigrants. The us were being treated very similarly. This is one of the ways in which to phobia works. It's it uses an already existing playbook certain immigrants are are threats there there threats because they bring crime also because they take away jobs but also because they they are starting genetically carriers of disease. And surprise american policymakers setup immigration procedures for mexicans. That looked a lot like what was happening to the chinese. On the west coast and when mexican immigrants arrived across the border they were routinely subjected to invasive humiliating and harmful disinfecting baths using pesticides to route out laos but also to cleanse mexican people's their clothing and their baggage before entering the united states. I mean just the fact that mexicans were seen as carrying disease in the same way that chinese were and that this pattern is repeated. Is really interesting. This is much harsher. Then what happened at ellis island where european immigrants certainly faced scrutiny. But the the medical exams were known as six second physicals and chinese people in particular. Still carry around that stigma. And we're seeing that procession playoff when it comes to corona virus. Absolutely i you know. We're exile eighty and fear out there right now about getting sick. That is getting tangled up in this legacy and you know. I'm picturing who are listening to this and they're thinking yes. This history is real. I know this sounds really bad. But i'm just worried about eating at a chinese restaurant gene and emily just buried and i i just. I'm worried about sitting next to someone who is asian. what do i do. That's not how disease works. We actually put this question to erica and she said With each headline with each new case with each new bizarre choice of photo for a new story lines the flames of anxiety right now in the us but racist scapegoating and outright discrimination does not have to accompany the things. It is an unfortunate echo of the past. But it doesn't have to be
How Big Food Controls Our Food Cravings
"Yesterday was national potato chip day. But there's no show on sundays. I'm bringing it up now and it's not like we need an extra excuse to eat potato chips anyways. In fact if author michael moss's research is correct. We really don't need any excuse at all. Potato chips are one of the most addictive foods on earth. Moss is the prize winning author of salt sugar fat. How the food giants hooked us and his new book similarly titled hooked food free will and how the food giants exploit our addictions. It's a sequel of sorts focusing in on the ways. The food giants manipulate the foods they make and our psyches to get as buying more in a review of the new book. The new york times compares potato chips to walnuts inviting you to imagine putting a fresh bowl of each out on the table in front of you trying the walnut i and taking in its many flavors and then the potato chip which is lacking in the complexity of flavor but so crispy and salty making you want to eat more and more of them in a way you rarely would with walnuts and not that this should be a measure of nutrition but walnuts actually have twenty five percent more fat per ounce than the average potato chip so if that was the only metric that you cared about eating the same amount of walnuts as potato chips would result in more fat gained from the walnuts bullet apart from the fact that walnuts have all kinds of other health benefits. Why don't they get a bad rap like potato chips. Because no one eats walnuts in the same quantities as potato chips or if they do they're not doing so for the same reasons that someone eats potato chip after potato chip. I mean no one ever said once you pop the fun. Don't stop about walnuts. Quoting the new york times says describes how foods can be engineered to trigger the brains on switch mostly the neurotransmitter dopamine and inhibit. Its off switch. A region called the prefrontal cortex these switches in the instincts that turn them on and off have deep evolutionary origins that likely helped our ancestors survive and thrive when food was scarce and wow are the hard wired instincts to eat these foods powerful more so than those that push toward addictive drugs like heroin and nicotine even seen the pictures of certain foods can cause us to salivate. In unforgettable language moss describes how less than a second after you bite into a luscious chocolate or glazed donut flavor sensations derived from a combination of sugar and fat as well as other smells and tastes. Hate your brain. Interact with memories and release a flood of neurotransmitters that stimulate and perpetuate fundamental cravings. It sometimes said that for some of us sugar as addictive as cocaine but from an evolutionary biological perspective cocaine is actually as addictive as sugar because it takes advantage of ancient mechanisms we inherited from our distant ancestors that helps them acquire rare but needed calories to stay healthy in our current modern food system consumers have to overcome instincts and make choices over which we have little control and quotes and that memory thing is huge. It's what drives a lot of seasonal tastes purchasing power. Like i mentioned last fall with regards to pumpkin spice and how it's a uniquely american phenomenon in part due to are manufactured nostalgia for thanksgiving pumpkin pie the dates back to the nineteenth century and has been multiplying on top of itself ever since quoting again multinational food companies in gastro orwellian fashion hook us by expertly tapping into our memories. Introducing endless new varieties and combining sensations and ingredients rarely seen together in nature like sugar and fat brittle and soft sweet and salty. None of us are immune. According to moss big food is relentlessly and cynically to maximize their share of the stomach industry parlance for how much of the food we eat. They can supply beyond hunting for genes. That predispose us to particular cravings or quantifying. Sugar our brains prefer these corporate peddlers perniciously play with serving sizes on nutrition labels to deceive us into thinking. We're making healthy choices and quotes. None of this is exactly news. But it's not exactly comforting to be reminded of either. We like to think we can make our own decisions when it comes to our personal health and nutrition but how many decisions are being made for us long before those bags of chips arrive on the grocery store shelf for us to choose from
Ask Geoffrey: Chicago's Old Passenger Rail Stations
"Chicago's old passenger railroad stations for decades acted as the city's front door where people from all over the country arrived seeking a better life or just the thrills of the big city. Jeffrey bayer takes us back to the golden age. Rail travel in this week's ask geoffrey. Hey geoffrey good to see you paris all right so we have a question from larry gardner of skokie he says. Could you do a story on the old train stations that once stood in downtown chicago. Well of course we can. There is as you mentioned. The the late nineteenth century the early twentieth century this was the golden age of rail travel when people traversed the country on trains. And of course right at the center there at the hub of it all was chicago. It's hard to believe. But as recently as the nineteen sixties there were six passenger train stations in downtown chicago today. All passenger trains that come into the city from beyond the suburbs. Go through the last one standing union station which is now owned by amtrak. It's designed including this now. Demolished concourse was right along the river there and the colonnaded main building which is still standing right behind it. In this picture of those things recall the grandeur of rail terminals in those glory days of designed to wow the traveler of the way many airports do today met with. Certainly the goal of another neoclassical designed terminal. Check this one out owned by the chicago and north western railway you know classical buzzards and it stood at what is today. Ogilvie transportation center which is operated by metra. That station included ornate concourses. Waiting rooms even dedicated spaces for barbers and hairdressers. People traveling across the country The chicago north western railway traced its roots to chicago's very first railroad. The galena chicago union established back in eighteen forty eight. By chicago's first mayor actually will be ogden. Certainly the golden age of travel there and then another key player. Of course you hear references pop culture all the time the illinois central oh absolutely That country that company billed itself as the main line of mid america. It was a dominant player. Both in passenger and freight rail their main passenger terminal was called central station once stood just just south of grand part right on the lakefront there. The railroad built this mammoth terminal in one thousand nine hundred three in part to accommodate the influx of visitors. That were expected for the world's fair that year you'll notice almost all of these terminals have clocks or clock towers so people hurrying to catch trains didn't have to fumble around for their pocket watches that of course they had watches it. All central station was also an important point of entry for many african americans who came to chicago from the south during the great migration with like so many of its contemporaries central station met the wrecking ball. In this case in the mid one thousand nine hundred seventy s amtrak diverted there trains to union station but there is still an active platform. Eleven street serving the metra electric line and i gather it's the inspiration for that residential development around their central station. Which i believe. Richard m daley lived there for a while and not to be confused with grand central station. Of course right. That's right and yes. We had our own grand central station. here in chicago. Not new york's wasn't the only one ours was at harrison and wells on the western edge of the loop. Read along the river for about eighty years. It was just north of if you know we're river city's development is today Traffic declined grand central after world war. Two this photo with the board of trade there in the background was taken in nineteen sixty seven at the end of the stations life. It was torn down in nineteen seventy one and this is one of several places in the city. were abandoned. Railroad land is being redeveloped during construction of the new development on this old site buried. Stones from grand central station were actually unearthed and they've been re purposed for a river walk. One chicago train station of actually is still standing So in addition to union station is dearborn station. South loop although of course. It's on train station anymore. You can see its clock tower visible all the way from the north side of lube looking south down on dearborn but what happened to the top of that clock tower. Take a look at this early photo. And you'll notice it once had this huge wooden flemish roof on top of it but in one thousand nine hundred twenty two. It caught fire. Look at these incredible photos from the scene as crowds gathered. Luckily firefighters were able to save the building. But but not that tower roof. I the nineteen seventy s. Most of the train. Shed was demolished but the facade and portions of the terminal were preserved as part of a mall. Serving printers row by the building is still called dearborn station. In fact peres as you just pointed out. Many old stations live on in the names of new developments of the one. You mentioned central station. Just south of grand park word. Mayor daley used to live and then a new apartment building at harrison and wells is using the grim central name
Is This Ancient Biblical Forgery Actually Real?
"So close to a century and a half ago. A man named moses wilhelm shapira found fifteen manuscript fragments in a cave near the dead sea. They were written in an ancient hebrew script and contained. What shapiro claimed was the original book of deuteronomy blitz despite interest from the british museum to the tune of a million pounds. The manuscripts were found to be forged. Shapiro was disgraced and the documents disappeared but now a scholar named don dershowitz is questioning. If those documents might have been real all along so while the british museum was examining the manuscript fragments for authenticity themselves. Back in the nineteen th century. A few of the fragments were also on display to the public already attracting tons of visitors. The news of the possibly oldest ever discovered biblical manuscript had made headlines around the world. While awaiting the museum's official decree of authenticity. Someone else decided to take matters into their own hands. Charles simone clermont. Is you know who the times describes as a swashbuckling french archaeologist and longtime nemesis of shapiro's end quote examined the fragments for a few minutes and immediately went to the press to say that they were fake. The risk he played on his cursory examination paid off when the british museum experts agreed. Shapiro was humiliated by this and ended up. Tragically dying by suicide a few months later. The documents were sold at auction for a fraction of what they were originally expected to sell for. And most people soon forgot about the whole thing now. Dershowitz from the university of potsdam germany has published a new paper and companion book making the case that the manuscript was real all along quoting the new york times but dershowitz makes an even more dramatic claim the text which he is reconstructed from nineteenth century transcriptions and drawings is not a reworking of deuteronomy. He argues but a precursor to its dating to the period of the first temple before the babylonian exile that would make it the oldest biblical manuscript by far and an unprecedented window into the origins and evolution of the bible and biblical religion dershowitz. His research closely guarded until now has yet to get broad. Scrutiny scholars previewed his findings at a closed-door seminar at harvard in two thousand nineteen are divided. A taste of fierce debates likely to come but of dershowitz is correct. Some experts say it will be the most consequential bible related discovery since the dead sea scrolls in nineteen forty seven and quotes the times. Sagely points out that it's much tougher to prove something authentic than it is to prove. It's fake but there's an additional hurdle to be jumped. In this case the physical fragments themselves may no longer exist so back in eighteen eighty three there was a mad rush at the time to find biblical artifacts that would prove or disprove various points of contention emerging in biblical scholarship moseley around the documentary hypothesis. The idea that the first five books of the bible or the pentateuch were actually written by various authors. Not just one traditionally thought to be moses. It was in this climate of aggressive archaeology that shapiro. I established himself as an antiquities dealer in jerusalem and during which time he and clermont no became enemies. After camacho correctly denounced a collection of pottery. That shapira had sold to the german government. It's also important to note that shapiro was a convert to christianity having been raised jewish in russia so he was viewed with some skepticism from the other biblical scholars and archaeologists and also faced intense antisemitism after the deuteronomy manuscript was denounced. Fast forward to now. Dershowitz says one of the main reasons he thinks the fragments could have been real is because their contents differs quite a bit from the deuteronomy in the bible and many of those differences lineup with discoveries that were only made when the dead sea scrolls were found in nineteen forty seven sixty four years. After chapitoulas discovery of the fragments dershowitz also investigated. Some of shapiro's personal notes archived at the berlin state library and found three. Handwritten pages of shapiro trying to decipher the fragments. Filled with question marks and transcription errors. Dershowitz said quote if he forged them or was part of a conspiracy. It makes no sense that he'd be sitting there trying to guess what the text is and making mistakes while he did it end quote while some scholars of the evolution of biblical text or undershoots side cautiously believing the deuteronomy fragments may be genuine. Most pig refers people who study inscriptions are the ones that usually authenticate documents. Most of them aren't convinced they say the original fragments bear the hallmarks of modern forgery. That they agree with the notes made by the experts who examined them at the time and since no one has the fragments to examine physically now. It's a closed case and as for the content being impressions christopher rolston leading pig refer at george washington university said quote. Forgers are pretty clever with regard to content and they've been very clever for twenty five hundred years and quotes despite dershowitz his published paper and companion book. The jury is still out and who knows if it will ever truly be born ounce. It would have some pretty huge complications. If it does due to some of its key differences for example. It's missing all of the laws of the deuteronomy were familiar with in the bible. Ones upon which traditions and entire libraries have been founded. It would also bolster the theory that are tons more stories and traditions out there than just the ones that have been preserved in the hebrew bible.
Arkansas governor signs near-total abortion ban into law
"Arkansas governor. Asa hutchinson on tuesday signed into law legislation banning all abortions in the state a sweeping measure that supporters hope will force the us supreme court to revisit its landmark roe v wade decision but opponents vowed to block before it takes effect later this year. The republican governor had expressed reservations about the bill which only allows the procedure to save the life of the mother and does not provide exceptions for those impregnated in an active rape or incest. Arkansas is one of at least fourteen states. Swear legislators have proposed outright abortion bans this year hutchison said he was signing the bill because of its overwhelming legislative support and my sincere and long-held pro-life convictions. The bands were pushed by republicans. Who want to force the. Us supreme court to revisit. Its nine thousand. Nine hundred seventy three roe. V wade decision legalizing abortion nationwide conservatives believed the court is more open to striking down the decision following former president. Donald trump's three appointments to the court must abolish abortion in this nation just as we abolished slavery in the nineteenth century. All lives matter republican senator jason reports. The bill's sponsor said in a statement. The legislation won't take effect until ninety days off to the majority republican legislature adjourns. This year's session abortion rights supporters. Say they plan to challenge the banning court before then. The american civil liberties union of arkansas called the ban cruel and unconstitutional.
The History Of The Cola Wars
"In the late eighteen eighties. Pharmacist named john doc. Pemberton decided to get rich selling homemade cures and elixirs. We should note in spite of his nickname. Doc wasn't a traditional doctor. He hadn't trained in mainstream medical practice instead advocating for alternative treatments and remedies and he wasn't alone in his passions late nineteenth century doctors and patients. We're wild about drugs. And even pharmacists could get rich quick selling inert or sometimes dangerous products as cure all remedies before pemberton's time even something as benign as ketchup was marketed. As a treatment for diarrhea jaundice and rheumatism bayer pharmaceuticals pedaled heroin as a cough suppressant and a safer alternative to morphine and literal snake. Oil salesman claimed that rattlesnakes fluids could cure their gullible customers. It's no wonder that. Pemberton figured he could brew his own dubious remedy in make a fortune. His first hit product was called. French wine coca. It contains several ingredients that would raise eyebrows today but they were considered healthy at the time. Things like wine and coca leaves which contain cocaine. Pemberton claimed that french wine coca was an energy drink and a remedy for morphine addiction and the people loved it. Unsurprisingly the beverage sold well but it wasn't long before pemberton ran into an obstacle just months after french. Wine coca hit. The shelves at the end of eighteen eighty five fulton county georgia outlawed alcohol atlanta based dot. Pemberton had a new problem realizing he probably never strike it big with his mental tonic. Pemberton went back to the drawing board. He wanted to replicate french wine. Coca success but with a non alcoholic beverage. Luckily he had a new product in. Mind it too featured coca leaves but he added the kola nut a west african fruit pit. That's high in caffeine. The mixture of coca and cola gave customers a mild buzz and inspired the drinks name. Coca-cola the beverage sold modestly in its first year unfortunately. Pemberton wasn't particularly skilled with marketing. and distribution. so shortly before his death he sold the business to a fellow druggist with more business. Sense acer candler from their candler built a beverage empire through soda fountains in the nineteenth century. Chola manufacturers generally sold syrup to local businesses. This was more efficient because soda. Bottling technology was fairly new and not widespread yet. They're carbonated water was added to the syrup. So the coke was fresh and fizzy when it was served. Gamblers forward thinking mindset. Didn't stop there. He knew he could reach more customers if he didn't limit his avenues of distribution so in eighteen eighty nine. He sold bottling rights to a plant in chattanooga tennessee. Now customers didn't need to visit the nearest soda fountain for a glass of coca cola. They could buy it the corner shop and drink it at home then. Candler made another even bigger shakeup. He altered the coca cola recipe. We don't know all the changes candler made to the recipe. But we know one of his goals. He didn't want to sell cocaine to his customers and he had two reasons why first candler was very religious second and more importantly he was racist. Most soda fountains were segregated. So only white people could drink coca cola on tap but once he started selling bottled coke. Southern newspapers began printing rumors of quote negro cocaine fiends. In quote white supremacists suggested that the soda drove people of color to commit violent crimes including sexual assault hypocritically. Nobody expressed any concern. That cocaine might drive a white people to commit crimes and to be realistic. There probably wasn't enough cocaine in the beverage to spur consumers to violence although it's hard to say because it doesn't seem like anyone was tracking how much they were using in the recipe. Regardless candler was committed to eliminating the coke from coke.
The Art & Science of Rock Gardening
"Thinking about it from the gardening perspective. When you say a rock garden will start there. What what what is a rock garden mean exactly. Well you know. It's a books of unwritten about it. Hundreds of books matter of fact but graham stuart thomas wrote the classic but it really can't comes back to the nineteenth century and victorian so to speak and europe is well when tourists started going to use. There were just stunned by the beauty of the flowers. And they want to take them home and they did they dig them up and take them home and they'd started by building these raucous and they were pretty dreadful and you can still see him an old neighborhoods around stuff so it really was about taking that the app spec home but that was the beginning. There's another beginning. Of course that goes back to china in in the third century when the poet chen or being during the six dynasties period here he describes a building a garden with rocks and wildflowers. So that the the asians have been doing that not alpine so much more woodland plants and that's really what most americans do because especially in the east and the west coast. That's what you go best woodland plants so my vision of rock guiding is not strictly alpine although the outlines of pretty cool you know your audience can't see the screen behind me but it's actually a garden in and utah. The belongs to a man named john steiermark and it's nothing but dry land plants from the american west and africa and a spectacular fall any alpine vista. So the truth be said what for me. What rock gardening as i had to sum it up in a sentence would be recreating a something natural around you so that you can have fun with nature and learn so for me. A rock garden could be a bog. Could be a prairie. It could be a a border of plants. Big ones little ones. that are more or less naturalistic. The bottom line is really wild plants. More than anything else i mean. We have cultivars of of these plants but for me in my experience rock gardening. Because i've been a member of the rock garden society for example for about fifty years and the scottish and english as well and was astonishing. Is this this community of people who really know. Plants like nobody. I mean botanist. I guess not planning on way but rock gardeners have this extraordinary ability to know the plan from the time it's the seed till it matures. And it's the rock gardeners. I think of the world who are some of the greatest explorers and plant worshipers. Shall we say yes certainly. And that is my favorite thing about these very specific groups and yes botanists an ecologists. They have their own interaction. But there's few people in the department. At least that. I work in in many of the departments. I know of that can grow a plant or really truly get to understand plant. Quite like gardner does and those specific groups when you start to find people that super specialize they are encyclopedia's of both knowledge and the artistry of it. And that's what excites me. The most about rock gardening is it. Is that sort of emphasis on species which excites me. I liked cultivars plenty enough but to me. The species did at the best nature invented the best and has unparalleled. But then you get to express yourself a little bit and try to recreate something this this honoring of nature honoring the landscape and rock. Earning really emphasizes that more than a lot of other types of guarding. Perhaps by is just trying to recreate or at least honor something. That nature has done over millennia. Which isn't easy but it's also very rewarding. When you do something come out of the other
Portugal's Art and Architecture
"Let's start today's travel with rick. Steves in portugal. The architecture and the art of portugal to tell the story of that small country squeezed between spain and the atlantic ocean. You can wander through museums classical and romantic paintings to styles with the largest impact on portuguese painters or you can take in the beautiful. Blue azoulay zhou tiles. That ornament many of portugal's buildings to learn more about portugal's art and architecture. We're joined in our studio by two portuguese guides. Christina duarte and refco christina and raphael. Thanks for joining us. Average abuse here. Rick christina so often to understand the art of a country you need to understand its economy. There's money behind the art. How does money shape the art in the architecture of patrols. When you have money you want be surrounded by beautiful. Things actually is universal. Everybody wants to be surrounded by beautiful things. The thing is that you don't afford it many times and when you afford them you have them in portugal much money then because they have great art from five hundred years ago yes well. It is a combination of two major. Factors the fifteen hundreds with the discovery. Spirit that allowed us to have for the first time money enough for our trade with many places in the world so automatically the royalty had many the nobility had money and the church have many and the coincidence is that your have money and you have also religion behind it so which. She's being major catholic. Contrary in thinking that you want to give your best and you'll beauty to your your glorify gone exactly to glorify god so They were two kinds of ways of spending that money in art. Which was the private and that will be for palaces that nobody will see and to god in churches and i consider that public art so review. All you have this money coming in from the trade in fact the churches were actually nicknamed spice churches. How how does the space tie into the building of churches. Well when portugal arrived to places like india and china and we started to bring all of these new products. Back to portugal. They revolutionized portugal they revolutionized our economy and from there on the society started to change and that is one of the interesting aspect of art is that it reflects the other dimensions of society. So the spices. There were They were a major factor. For example the jeronimos monastery that began to be built precisely with the money that came from the spices. Which bases were these that were so valuable. So you had Pepper you had cinema And many others in christina. Why would people spend so much money for pepper and cinnamon app to preserve no sleaze to preserve refrigeration also to Pigments of any kind for linen. Or tying dying yes. it was something exotic. It was different. People never seen it before. So imagine the first time you are smelling coffee or you're tasting pepper or you're smelling cinema. Imagine the impact that you had imagined how it sparked your imagination so the wealthy people would want this. It would be titillating for them now. You mentioned the monastery at toronto's same just outside of lisbon b. l. e. m. I believe that was men. Welland style architecture. What is men whalen. What we're does that word come from so The men willing style is named after our kingman. Well actually the name was given only in the nineteenth century during the romantic period but kingman while he was one of the most important kings during our age of exploration so he ruled from the time of columbus until fifteen twenty began to rule in fourteen ninety five until the fifteen twenty s in the nineteenth century. They figured out that. We had a several monuments throughout portugal. That shared the same characteristics. So what are the characteristics. If you look at the front of a church what will you see and you go. Oh that's men welland from fifteen twenty so the manor line is late gothic style so you have the basic structure of the gothic and then over that basic structure of the gothic. You have a very specific declaration. You have for example. Maritime mothes you have the strong. Heraldic of manuel specially to miller rece- fear so that the coat of arms of the royal family and then themes from the sea because the money came from the see exactly like the rope the rope a rope with an art. He's a very very important symbol of maryland.
How to Build a Successful Value-Driven News Membership Model
"Read many stories about news innovators in europe and the united states. But what is it like to lounge digital bone outlet in the global south. What are those challenges and opportunities for funders who take the plunge in those countries. Our guest today is one of those founders. He's name is tiny gut. He was editor chief. John one of argentina's newspapers and in two thousand seventeen. He laughed to find rhodesian one of the most innovative examples of digital newspapers in the global south today china will talk about membership human journalism and social empathy and how to measure success of audience participation chine- welcome and thank you for being with us today. Thank you very much thirty for this invitation for having here. I'm regulatory audience of this podcast. So pleasure and a privilege to be thanks. Thank you so much. So i want to start with a personal question. What did you do. Why did you leave a good secure job at an established newspaper to lounge a small new startup. that's a person in question and to make the long story short. I would say i when i was twenty seven year. Old longtime ago any flow very particular path. Down there are a decider graphic. satoru Decided rector innovation director and finally eighteen chief and twenty one is at the company and for years eight chief. I decided to step down And i would say sort of to change the nature of of my challenges. Of course it was a big and beautiful challenge to lead that talented newsroom of almost two hundred people And we work and we do have a lot of fun and success in bringing into the twenty first century Great media brand Born in the nineteenth century But on the other hand today i feel that is also an enormous and also beautiful challenge to create a new media bencher from scratch So to bringing a small but also very talented team That by building this this new media we are trying to answer some essential questions to to our craft journalism and also to me. So how can we acknowledge the the media fatigue And media avoidance phenomenon for example. Or or how can we cover the most pressing social issues we face as society and covered in a different way and probably the most interesting question. A how does this. But equally experience of the twenty first century people's participation can affect journalism. So i would say that the coral of of We are trying to hook like the broadcast. One way or the model per line that was born with us media And he's one of the challenges. Our industry spacey facing. I'm sorry it wasn't short. The the answer but i have two more things to say. There is almost no secure job now. Our industry I think everything is at risk An acknowledging daddy. I think it's a good thing on the other hand. I believe that in the end. I guess That why i step down being there to of great media. Well i guess it has to do a lot with a very personal calling on that I read a sentence which i found very very interesting. What you said. Human journalists can rebuild social empathy. Can you explain to us what it means Yes we believe that the problems we are facing us society. The challenges are very complex and of course Demands complex many times complex solutions and we are not going to find those solutions without an open dialogue between institution politicians and citizens So pariah station. For example. it's it's it's almost the name of the social conversation today at is preventing us to find those solutions. An in-depth sense. i believe. Journalism has an important role in terms of showing Other words helping us understand other opinions For amd we'd take this very seriously advocates axiom. So we been trying sort of new full matz that help how to help us our own To have more empathy with different lives people that lives in a different way of thinking in a different way than myself So it has to do with how we build a more robust set citizenship. That helps that public dialogue to evolve and on find real solutions. Gus dose dilutes might should have at the end semaine back in personal and institutional decisions
A Victorious Transformation in Holborn
"The striking nine story victoria house in hoping is built in the neoclassical style and is complete with portland stone facades. It's actually described as being built in the neo. Grech style which was a neoclassical revival. Style of the mid. To late nineteenth century there was popularized during the reign of napoleon. the third reigned from eighteen. Fifty two to eighteen seventy the neo. Greg style was inspired by eighteenth century. Excavations at pompeii and lanier became popula. In the mid nineteenth century the style combined elements of the greco roman pump magician styles into richly eclectic bland.
The History (and Erasure) of Black Brewers
"Despite the overarching image of whiteness. When it comes to beer there is a vast history of black brewing culture. Which like so many things has been largely erased from the history books and cultural consciousness. James bennett the second dove into this for a recent peace in eater. He acknowledges the huge influences of german and irish culture in america but points out. That's not the only source when it comes to beer quoting eater. The ancestors of african americans. They were fermenters. They were really good at making their own liquor and making their own beers and also making wine from fruit says the culinary historian and writer. Michael w twitty one of our african 'isms in fact was producing all of these things and one of the reasons why we did. That was because it was related to our traditional spirituality libation twitty. Ads is the heart of african spiritual worship. He recounts seeing this firsthand on a trip to takhar village in cameroon. They pull out a big ceramic vessel full of their traditional beer. He says and even though a lot of takhar our muslim this is one of the traditional religious practices that they keep alongside islam. What beer-drinking may be nonexistent on friday. Would he notes. You better believe that at social functions to honor youth. Celebrate a marriage or the deceased in the ground. Alcohol is poured out and passed among the elders and quotes alcohol and in many cases. Beer was and is important. Spiritually and culturally to many different communities in africa throughout the ages as european colonizers began enslaving people and forcing them to work on their stolen land. The knowledge and skill sets of many enslaved black people surrounding bruin were exploited quoting again. The prevailing image of enslaved black person is that of someone laboring in the fields were being ordered around the big house but american slavery built in sustained a pretty much every aspect of this american life and that included beer again the west african societies. From which so many bodies were stolen. Were no stranger to the mechanisms of fermentation. We know that. Enslaved africans and african caribbeans were brewing beer or were cultivating hops or other grains. That would have been used in the brewing process. Says theresa mccullough of the smithsonian's national museum of american history. Black brewing skill was no secret. She adds advertisements for enslaved. People who were skilled. Brewers -absolutely wanted posters that identified fugitives as skilled brewers or otherwise involved in the brewing industry. As american as apple pie. Peter hemmings enslaved at monticello was a master brewer and quote but even if their expertise was being used to produce beer many black individuals who were free at the time. Weren't drinking much of it. Part of it was because temperance. Got rolled into the abolitionist movements. Most abolitionists were anti alcohol. Seen it as a toxic influence and a tool of the oppressor now. That's not to say that all temperance advocates were abolitionists. Far from it but most abolitionist were teetotalers. But there is also a practical angle. Bennett explains black. People were wary of being taken advantage of by white people while drunk and also simply didn't have the money or time for drinking while they were figuring out more important matters like getting an education job and securing semblance of safety in a dangerous climate then in the second half of the nineteenth century beer and cider went from being a smaller mostly at home type of operation to a profitable business largely. Thanks to the influence of german immigrants in america and of course now that it was profitable. Black brewers were shut out and being that beer was now more something to be purchased at an establishment like a saloon versus consumed at home. Black people were also often refused service. Then prohibition hits and when it was repealed with many federal regulations in place breweries were fearful of being shut down so they leaned hard into patriotic. Branding the kind of whitewashed stars and stripes apple pie type of america that is definitively white as been it says. Advertising has more to do with what we buy than most of us care to admit and by his accounts that adds up with the consumer trends that we saw throughout the second half of the twentieth century as white flight brought middle and upper middle class white people to the suburbs where they could host parties at home and had a bit of bigger budget a lot of them swapped beer for cocktails and thinking that they could get them back with a beer that had as high as cocktails beer. Companies tried to sell the white suburbanites on malt liquor but the attempt flopped most likely minutes opposes. Because it's something of an acquired taste so then a pivot happened quoting again. How did malt liquor go from garden. Party aspirated two boys in the hood levels of despair. The exact y. Is a matter of law but jane. Nicole jackson beckham diversity ambassador for the brewers association has a pretty good idea. The story i've been able to get is that there was some kind of persistent market research saying that. Urban audiences make more purchasing decisions based on. Abc and that urban audiences tend to buy for volume. She says the decision was made to market malt liquor not as an upscale product but a specifically urban products and to put it in a large vessel boom the forty and quotes
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KQED Radio
"In the. Nineteenth century widely investors rewrote the rule. So they could buy up farm, south of San Francisco, and it was all about water. A lot of times, they would enlist the aid of the courts and might have the lands condemned a ten cents on a dollar. I'm Brian watt. My colleague, Rachel, myrow tells us this not so crystal clean story today on morning edition. Hear that story at six twenty two and eight twenty two on morning edition on K. Q E D. It's morning edition from NPR news. I'm Rachel Martin. And I'm no Wilkin. Good morning. The White House is losing another high profile staffer this time, it's press secretary, Sarah Sanders. She talked for a short time at an event with President Trump yesterday. It's one of the greatest jobs, I could ever have. I've loved every minute even the hard minutes. NPR White House. Correspondent Tom Keith is on the line. Good morning, Tom. Good morning. So Sarah Sanders is one of the original members of President Trump's team, and this is the White House. That's really struggled with high staff turnover. How did she manage to last so long, but fee came from the campaign, in fact, and she was both super loyal, and came to accept that President Trump was the real press secretary of this administration, she publicly avoided contradicting him, even if that meant contradicting the truth? And there's one glaring example of that. From shortly after then FBI director James Comey was fired. Well, I can speak my own personal experience. I've heard from countless numbers of the FBI that are grateful and thankful for the president's decision. And even in that moment, reporters pushed back, that she insisted really real. On between like Email. Text message is absolutely, yes. Sixty seven anyway, look, we're not gonna get into a numbers game. I, I mean, I've heard from a large number of individuals that work at the FBI that said that they're very happy with the president's decision. So what we know now from the Muller report is that simply wasn't true. She made up the countless numbers. She says it was a slip of the tongue and another comment was just in the heat of the moment as a result of all that, she lost a lot of credibility with the press. How would you describe how she did the job of press secretary? We'll see completely changed the job of press secretary the press secretary to come out into the White House press briefing room on a nearly daily basis and speak for the president of the United States, and by extension for the US government to the world, essentially, not just to the White House press corps. Now that's President Trump. Whether by tweet or by standing on the south lawn with a helicopter behind him. Sarah Sanders has killed. The daily White House press briefing. It went from being daily to being monthly and it's been ninety five days since there was a press briefing, ninety five days. Wow. Yes. So she's taken into the driveway, I, she goes, she does FOX hits. She walks away from those cameras, and she is greeted by a throng of members of the White House press corps, hungry for information that they just aren't getting Tim is worth running through a list here. You've got an acting chief of staff a vacant communications director position. You've got no press secretary, and the top economic adviser is leaving so who is running White House, fewer and fewer people. And there are fewer people that are close to the president or are sort of originals that he trusts names that you have left are as Stephen Miller, and Kellyanne Conway and Dansk. You know, the social media director who helps the president with his tweets and his family, Jared Kushner, the son-in-law and his daughter, Ivanka Trump NS for Sarah Sanders. Any idea who might replace her? No, no idea. I asked yesterday and did not get an answer on that. But one thing that we can be certain of the daily press briefing as it was known through multiple administrations is over at least for now. NPR's White House correspondent Tim, or tempting so much. You're welcome. Wildfires are starting to light up, California and other parts of the west again vegetation from very wet. Winter is drying out. And so the chief of the US forest service is warning of another catastrophic fire season. And she's pushing to change how the country gets ready for and fights wildfires. NPR's Kirk siegler has the story at the historic forest service headquarters off the National Mall, chief Vicki christianson is deploying resources for another long summer of firefighting, while also trying to keep an eye on a future of deadly mega-fires, and she says, fires are the only disaster, we actively go out and try to stop as they're happening. We don't do this with floods or hurricanes, and fires shouldn't be much different. We asked the public safety of officials to prepare the communities to order, the right of accusations to get the support and help to work on mitigation to work on resiliency in the west cities continue to expand into flammable. Forests setting themselves up for potentially worse fires. These woods are stressed from climate change and overgrown from a century of suppressing wildfires in the last two years. California has seen its most destructive fires on record, including the deadly campfire that decimated. Most of the foothills town of paradise I wanna say it's a game changer. I wanna say it's the call to action to implement what we know we need to do about doing business differently. So after the campfire, the Trump administration order, the forest service to prioritize restoration projects, including thinning and brush, clearing and forests controlled burns and logging. It's how we work before the fire starts that is most imperative and how we change our paradigm, christianson is not the first forest chief to try to change this paradigm, and spend more money on upfront mitigation. But the agency's budget is still mostly status quo, this year, they're forecasting to spend upwards of two. Point five billion dollars to fight fires compared to only four hundred and thirty million on that pre-disaster work like tree, thinning or controlled burns. This is a hard thing to try and turn around getting hotter. There's more fires. And you sort of in a whole before you even start to talk about mitigation rich Fairbanks is a retired federal Firebaugh. See now runs a forestry company in southern Oregon. It's great that they're talking about scaling up, what until now have been sort of experimental burns and experimental findings and so forth. But he says the need is tenfold, what that budget is allocating experts who studied disaster response also, say more of that work, and the costs of firefighting should be borne by local communities in these high risk forests Alice hill was a climate advisor to President Obama, there needs to be focused on where and how we build and the federal government has levers available to it to encourage better behave. You're in other words, if local governments had to shoulder more of the firefighting costs. They might start restricting new development or enforcing tougher building codes in the west summer preparing for this possible. New reality near Lake Tahoe. Truckee fire chief Bill selene is walking through a wooded neighborhood. Whereas department is thinning forests to create a.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"People in the nineteenth century understood that if you were speaking of America, you were speaking of the Americas the whole region that changes in eighteen ninety eight partly out of this desire to find a new way to describe the country shorthand for it America. It's vaguer more expansive term and the president who takes office after the war with Spain. Teddy Roosevelt uses the word America in his inaugural address. And there's a two week period where he uses it in different speeches more times than every past president has used it collectively in the entire history of the country and ever since then it's off to the races. Why was eighteen ninety eight and imperial shopping spree. What was going on the United States? Balkans. The Pacific the census in eighteen ninety had issued a report suggesting that the frontier was no more and inspired a few such as teddy Roosevelt to try to make new frontiers to find new places where the United States restore its vigor. So explain the Philippines, partly has to do with teddy Roosevelt. He's the assistant secretary of the navy. His boss leaves the office for an afternoon to visit an osteopath and Roosevelt springs into action and orders the fleet to prepare to invade Manila. If the United States has a war with Spain and his boss doesn't countermand the order possibly fearing looking weak. And so in the United States does go to war with Spain engages the Spanish fleet defeats it. And suddenly, the United States has the Philippines on his hands. Not suddenly takes awhile, right? The actual conquest of the Philippines. Takes an enormous amount of time. Part of the reason the United States is in a good position vis-a-vis, the Philippines, is that the United States has allied itself with Filipino insurgents who've been fighting against Spanish colonialism for quite a long time. And they think that they're doing so in the name of liberating their colony with the aid of the United States. They're able. To conquer the archipelago. The United States ends the war by purchasing the Philippines from Spain. But then it has to deal with these Philippine insurgents and ends up fighting along excruciatingly, bloody war that Philippine archipelago isn't restored to civilian rule until nineteen thirteen. It was only recently surpassed by the Afghantistan war is the longest war in US history on what grounds did the US go to war for the Philippines, because the US was still hesitant to say. We do this for the sake of empire. The US was never quite as Frank about this as say, the British were well, this is a really interesting and rare moment in US history where the leaders of the country will start talking like the British the reason that the United States needs to fight the Philippines and fight to retain the Philippines is in order to civilized and uplift Filipinos the most famous poem justifying empire. Roger. Kipling's white man's burden.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on Pod Save the People
"And he made his dramatic statement in the fall of twenty fifteen in which he called for a new gospel of wealth, basically, overturning Andrew Carnegie's late nineteenth century the tract called wealth in which he laid down this notion essentially of extreme giving. Sorry in which he laid down this notion of extreme taking followed by a period of extreme, giving Carnegie really believed like you gotta be ruthless. He got a pay as little as possible. You gotta really screw your workers, but then with all those prophets, you should keep as little as possible for yourself and build libraries and Bill this private stuff to help others. And that schism of be ruthless. Here in the Jenner chair has kind of become the Americans gives them. The only problem is a lot of Americans today follow the ruthless part of the equation to actually don't give as generously as Carnegie and Carnegie felt it was actually a responsible to like hold. On your own wealth. That's not something that you know many rich people today believe. And Darren, I think very much because of gender and sexuality and poverty and understanding class said charters wrong. Any called for a new charter that was built on Martin Luther King's understanding that philanthropy itself is laudable, but you can't ignore the circumstances of economic injustice that make philanthropy necessary. And he called for basically a new gospel of wealth. And I don't think he would have done that if he hadn't been able to see the world through lenses, that many of the kinds of people who ascended those jobs don't have available to them. How do you make sense if somebody like Darren and not just thinking about the four foundation, but you think about the big on gates, you think about. MacArthur. Oh, aside that it I said, even if you get a person like, Darren, he'll get to the top that so many people still experience the program officers is the exact people that you write about in other parts of the lake. They sort of got to these elite places and they really are just gatekeepers for the elite nece alike. You get Darren, who has his vision and do that. But the people actually decide where so much of the money goes like, aren't those people will be my experience? How do we actually change philanthropy at the root? Not just wishing for a million DARREN'S. I would say two things one in the biggest way to change philanthropies. There'd be less of it in the society will working right. It'd be less money to give away. Okay. Because people would already have it'd be in wages, right? It would be spent on giving women maternity leave..
"nineteenth century" Discussed on WORT 89.9 FM
"Archives and found all kinds of letters that people were writing to elected officials like mayors, but also teacher union leaders over the course of the nineteen seventies. And I just found so much material that it ended up being, you know, a really great for my opinion. Anyway, I really engaging and and and good dissertation. Right. And so right. It ended up making me think it helps me to understand actually how profound education was in American politics in in the sixties seventies and eighties. And of course, that's continued today. So I started off trained as a labor historian, and then ended up kind of as an interloper in the field of history of education because I had to engage in that, literature, and and work. In that field. Okay. So last week, I hosted answer politics, David Graeber on Labor Day in his book. And this is an abbreviated version of the title Bs jobs a series. He writes about caring work, and the inverse relationship between what people who do caring work are paid. And for me. It's very hard not to associate caring work with women's work and reading your book, I realized I had no idea that there were women teachers finding to unionize and improve pay in the late nineteenth century could talk about that a little bit. Yeah. And and just a plug for his book. I haven't had a chance to read it yet. But it's a really important book. I've read a bunch of reviews of it. And so if your listeners haven't had a chance to read that they should yes. So a lot of people don't think about teacher unions, necessarily as being a feminist endeavor. But its roots most definitely worse. So in the late nineteenth century. In fact, the first real teacher union was teacher union of was a union of elementary school teachers and Chicago led by a woman named Margaret Haley, there were others, of course. But she was kind of the most famous, and, you know, your listeners probably know about the national Education Association, which is a now pretty much a union the roots of the NEA actually go back to the mid nineteenth century, but the NEA for most of its history was not really a union. It was it was led by administrators largely although teachers were. So members and the idea was just it was kind of hierarchical, right? The men kind of ran the game and and made the decisions, and you know, it's sort of basic task was to to advocate for public education. Well by the late nineteenth century, and I don't wanna get too much into the weeds here. But sure a lot of things changing in education, especially urban education systems. There were these sort of attempts to reform things and to to really simplify things take a lot of the power away from teachers in the classroom now by the end of the late nineteenth century the teaching force especially in elementary schools had become almost entirely female. That was something that happened over the course of the nineteenth century and actually to your point about care work. This is I was I was find this particularly interesting. The fact that the United States has basically universal provision of public education, really. In the nineteenth century really only happens because they school district seminars their workforce, right? And because they can they do there are these assumptions that you can pay women less money because they don't have to support a family and all these things, right? So by the end of the nineteenth century teaching forces and elementary school, again, we're almost entirely women so Haley and some others in Chicago, you know, solve what was happening with the labor movement. Elsewhere and said, let's unionized. Let's actually think of ourselves as workers. Haley has a really interesting history. Her father was a was a labor organizer, actually. And so she's conversant with this, you know, with this kind of stuff, and so she convinces others in Chicago to to basically, you know, unionized and one of the big issues for teachers right away. We don't often think about this. It wasn't pay necessarily. Although they they certainly did advocate for higher pay was actually pensions. And so this really connected. The. Gender because women teachers at the time in the late nineteenth century were forbidden from marrying. Right. Was it? They could be fired. If they if they tried to get married because the idea was that they should should essentially give their entire lives to their students right to your point about your work. So what happened when a teacher retired? Well, if they didn't have a pension, and they didn't have a spouse, they basically had nothing they had to rely on charity, essentially. Yes, if they were lucky they had a, you know, a sister or brother who could support them in their old age. So actually, the sort of first thing is really about pensions. And then over the teachers, you know, get a actually are able to get pensions three unionizing, and then really early on after that in the early twentieth century, some of the the big issues are really about what teachers can do in the classroom class sizes. Right. Because again, you have these sort of progressive reforms trying to really take away a lot of the initiative of teach. So pretty much, you know, a lot of the issues that teachers are dealing with now. They they they're they're kinda there in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with the Chicago teachers federation, I was I was really captivated reading your book. At just how consistent those those themes are, especially the themes of are the teachers productive workers. And should they be working with smaller smaller class sizes? And this is something that I hadn't really quite grasped as being such a significant issue even as early as the nineteenth century were you surprised by that? So. Yeah, I mean was I surprised that's an interesting question because I can't really remember process. I mean, again, this is like ten years ago when I started doing this. But you know, what is interesting is when you think about class sizes. Let me step back again. Do you think about when you think about public investment for education, and that's intimately related to class sizes? Right. So in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as you have all these people moving into Chicago. It's industrializing what you really needed was more money for the schools to reduce class sizes. But instead, what happened was they, you know, the you've got people, you know, kids coming into these schools and class sizes just got bigger because they, you know, the the school district wasn't willing or able to make the investment as you're intimating that continues to be a problem for most of the twentieth century, probably the kind of normal class sizes that were you know, that that we're accustomed to now. Right. Like if your listeners are following what's happening in Los Angeles. You know, that student class sizes are a major issue in what could potentially be, you know, a really really large strike in early October the teachers there have already. Authorized a strike those. So these so, you know, I think one of the things that is being talked about there is that you know, you've got class sizes a forty and that's unacceptable. Well, one of the reasons that I think Americans have basically gotten to the point where they accept these as normal like lower class size is twenty five thirty students calms because of teacher unions in the fifties and sixties actually an an, and especially the sixties unionizing and making class is a really key component of their of their bargain, what they're asking for in bargaining right making class size into a labor issue. I I don't think a lot of people realize that that the lower class sizes that that we've come to accept and that we really see as being important for student learning come because teachers push for them through unions in the fifties. And sixties it wasn't. It wasn't uncommon in a place like New York City before the before the teacher union gets involved free to have really large class size in some of these. Areas, you know, forty fifty students and that was just accepted as normal because he was going to really say very much about it. And and how much does this tie into the the rise of the US as an industrial state, and and teaching students being both a way of educating them about, you know, everything that we want our students to be educated about. But also that idea of training them to be prepared for the workforce and the workforce being industry. Yeah. Absolutely. So that that's those questions about what teacher should be teaching in schools. And and and what students should be learning. They're intimately connected to the American economy. So one of the earliest shoes actually for teachers especially in the early twentieth century, I kind of glided over this a little bit. So I'm glad you brought it back was one of these progressive reforms in Chicago. For example, was the idea basically, creating a two track school system. So the the superintendent of the schools in the early twentieth century in Chicago, and he was under pressure from some businesses in the area to do. This wanted to set up a two track school system where basically middle class students who would you know, be trained for, you know, the professions would have a classical education and would would get access to history, and and, you know, philosophy, you know, the and foreign languages and all these things. And the students of the working class would get basically kind of manual training. They would get vocational training. And so it's hard for us to maybe think about this now because so much of the way we think about education on the US now is is so tied the jobs, but actually working people and teachers like Margaret Haley and others in Chicago. They're really push back against that. Because it was a long history in the nineteenth century thinking about education in terms of preparing people for citizenship. Yes. So so, you know, working class people as early as the eighteen thirties when you know, you're getting the really advent of public schools in places like New York, they weren't calling for schools because they they were like I need my kid to learn math. So that you know, he or she can get a good job. They were doing it. Because they were like if our if my children are going to be able to to be citizens in a democracy, they need to learn how the world works. And so that. That was actually part of that call for public education in the really early days. And so you've got working class people, and sort of allied with teachers and a place like Chicago. But this happened other places to really pushing back against the idea of a two tiered education system. So absolutely. That's a that's a big part of the equation. And then when you get into the postwar period, it's it's really interesting because and this is, you know, potentially a future book project for me, which is you know, how Americans think about the relationship between education and economic opportunity, but it's really only after World War Two that policymakers start specifically thinking about the connection I'm talking federally now mostly, but also, you know, some state policy makers to start thinking more specifically about the connection between very specific skills that are necessary for students to succeed in a basically a white collar world, right, right? And so that actually in my opinion that actually gives teachers more leverage during the collective bargaining era actually in the fifties. And sixties there's there's a couple of reasons to get leverage. I mean, one is because the labor movement is strong in the private sector, which we can talk more about if you want. But the other reason is that Americans are starting to connect education with economic opportunity in ways that they hadn't before. So, you know, this if you think about nineteen sixty five for example, and some of the big federal policies that are passed that year, right? Part of the Johnson great society. Pro right. You've got things like the elementary and secondary education act. You've got the higher education act, which gives enormous support to to to public education from pre K all the way up into higher, Ed, but one of the premises is, you know, so if you think about title one of of elementary and secondary. Education act. The idea is that you can compensate for historical inequalities. And now we're talking about economic inequalities you can compensate for that by providing education, right, and, you know, giving more education to to folks who have been left behind so within that kind of like mill you it really does give teachers a lot more a lot more power. And to kinda bring this all the way up to the present..
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KOMO
"A brazen prison break in france the inmate flying away french authorities are confirming a daring escape from a paris area prison a torius gangster escaped in a small helicopter helped by several heavily armed men who created a diversion at the prison entrance while the helicopter landed in the courtyard the forty six year old has been serving a twenty five year murder sentence police say extensive manhunt is underway abc's jennifer eccleston cattle rustling not just a nineteenth century thing and it's still a crime in four states abc's mona rivera says a rancher in wentworth missouri is taking a unique approach to security for his heard cows and calves owned by sam hayes are protected by a llama he's very territorial son kyle hayes says the llama runs up to strangers animal or uman spitting and snorting he really wants to stain on his hind legs and he's about eight or nine feet tall whenever he does that truly intimidating they've named him tony llama girl while we were going to name it dolly we'd had the dalai lama and a very safe heard montereau veira abc news in japan a hello kitty bullet train debuted the eight car train painted pink and white showcasing hello kitty images and trademark ribbons is making the run from osaka in the east to for coco in japan's west this is abc news komo news time is six zero four time for aaa traffic every ten minutes on the force curtis calhoun has the latest southbound five all lanes are still closed off and highway five thirty just north of marysville due to a serious accident investigation you can use five three one to highway nine to get around that also northbound five slow through the areas well all lanes are open northbound through that spot though both directions of i five lights sewing through downtown seattle northbound four zero five single slowing at a.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"The world's languages is most dangerous which is the most endangering language nncholas ostler is a linguist who specializes in endangered languages english has been very much endangering force in north america and in australia particularly in the nineteenth century but i don't think it is so much so now now the threat that english is is two major regional languages in the world saying essentially you could do better in reaching the world as a whole by switching to english i don't really see it it's use for international communication and so forth as really being very relevant to what the small national regional tribal languages need to do and they have a lot to contribute to world culture ultimately people will as long as they continue to exist people will get to know what they have to say but in order to go on doing what they do well what's happening with english and it's it struggle with the languages of other global and regional political power is pretty much relevant there are still an estimated seven thousand languages being spoken somewhere on earth but a quarter of of them are at risk of dying out completely another forty percent said to be vulnerable and eighty percent of them a spoken by fewer than one hundred thousand people lisbet rausing is a philanthropist and academic who has a special interest in endangered languages she's cofounder of the arcadia trust which is a wooded more than five hundred million dollars to cultural heritage and other projects i have a question for her given that we're all human beings why have we ended up speaking so many different languages two we says dasa languages when this isolation and the others lack of isolation so languages splendidly develop on islands in mountains in forests on despots in tundras but they also developed to celtic contact and trade languishes and conflict languages and so as we record both i think the thing is becoming the centene second language and they also think that most language isn't what a profoundly influenced by english so we changing and incorporating particularly vocabulary into our own languages but languages are meant to change it's a good thing languages change we can't police them.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on As It Happens from CBC Radio
"Something similar to nineteenth century power politics i see things like balance of power swells of influence i think trump temperamentally a mistake is attracted to that i think john bolton who has a brilliant mind but he is an aggressive unilateral nationalist and that is the way he wants foreign policy to go i think he is quite happy with notions about unfair of influence and we could be seeing a twenty first century rebirth of something that was absolutely common to international diplomacy in the nineteenth century i wonder if that photo of the seven leaders which was to become quite famous that one with angolan mirko leaning over him and all of them standing around when he full his arms is that emblematic of what you're talking about i think it's photo that will live in times internally that will come someday a path as an emblem of what is going on today shopped allies led by chancellor merkel confronting donald trump whatever it was on i assume they were talking taras or something like that i don't think she was asking him the time was and in the background you say john bolton standing there with a look on his face thing when my god his mustache is going to drop off at any moment i think it's very dramatic indeed and it's not the kind of thing you want to see we will leave it there christopher thank you for your insights thank you sir christopher mayer served as the uk's ambassador to washington from nineteen ninety seven through two thousand three we reached him in london and if you'd like to listen to that interview again or share it it is on our website cbc dot ca slash eight i h.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KQED Radio
"A woman it's a mask and my father was taken back by the beauty of this face and he says that's the face i'll use this is a mass is what kind of mask was this it was a death mask what's the death mask all right i'm gonna go back even further here stay with me for milk in it back in the nineteenth century commonly people after they were dead they'd have masks made of their faces because you want you want to preserve their countenance so right after the prison dies pretty much you take a bunch of clay and you stick it on their face and you make a mold fill the mold with plaster and then you've got plus masking can reproduce it and reproduce it was especially common in paris hey radio lab is a sunny cold peres october morning and make makers workshops that existed around paris hundred twenty years ago there's only one left about to visit lorenzo which is which is like a mask making shops coming up to the gate we asked her prince kristen clark and tomorrow's readily to drop by their force call this incredible workshop and you got some rickety narrow wooden stairs and you get to the top i'm that's just pranks of faces rows and rows of people that look like they're sleeping death mosques of who is the one at the top everybody know napoleon and bullying here robespierre vis vis hovis pr he was in the friendship mozart and beethoven chopin the composer looking at you from the wall and from the scene out of their eyes are closed face after face to face and they're all famous historical figures but also among these this girl she's not a poet she's not a conqueror anybody we got to be somebody who's the story that emerged after she died in this is maybe fact but the sources are lost to us so we were not sure exactly what happened but she was young early to mid twenties came from countryside not from paris you know she was poll on educated woman but she came to paris meets a man and demos a love affair which then turned sour the stories that maybe she was pregnant and abandoned maybe she was just abandoned she goes to a bridge stretching across the same might be the one by the lou steps to the edge and she threw herself into the river.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on BBC Radio 4
"Of late nineteenth century britain when the steamier was over but the age of electricity was yet to begin the male has a contrasting from beijing with adler brexit brexit britain's booming it says the predictions of those at kohl's romaine do mangas have been thwarted employment figures showing a record thirty two point three i'm sorry free oddly written a record number of people in work anyway thirty two point three million people the males leader column calls on britain to use this considerable leverage to extract a generous brexit deal from brussels at a time when other european economies are struggling a number of the papers in scotland lead with holly roots refusal to give its consent the government's eu withdrawal bill the national which supports scottish independence says westminster has been told no in its attempted a power grab downing street has been sent a warning according to the scotsman it says the u k is now an uncharted constitutional territory in an editorial the guardian highlights the case for a federal united kingdom both the snp in westminster right jews politics to fight their corners the paper says but in the longer term such standoffs should be resolved by law as happens in canada and germany cool boy mp's for the big four accountancy firms be referred to the competition regulator is the main story for the financial times it says the recommendation made by two parliamentary committees in the scathing report on the collapse caribbean comes amid calls from watchdogs and policymakers for the auditing joins kpmg deloitte e y m p wc to be it up there ts lex column says it's only the auditors a paid by the organizations they scrutinize and lucrative consulting work represents a clanging conflict of interest and.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KBOI 670AM
"Wellknown of nineteenth century bio of his was on andrew jackson entitled american lion and in that book he can't avoid the forty year long passage toward america's second civil war in eighteen sixty one he actually has to to sit down and discuss the issue of slavery sixty two times in that book all the while whitewashing andrew jackson as this fantastic american much like he's doing among more i should say less controversial american presidents in this new piece of his but the reality is that america in the eighteen thirties and forties and fifties had more in common culturally it was in a sense a kind of collective identity but what it was wasn't was a collective try it was not bound together by kinship and this is a process i call uttering so even though americans were coming together in in terms of of a broad cultural makeup they were not sharing their identity but rather going in opposite directions and that's what i think is happening now and i think deeply subconsciously him and jim fowler's understand that this is happening in america today and they're alarmed by it i mean if anything american life today is is closer together in terms of the the stitching that binds americans everyone goes out if they're young and celebrate cinco de mayo or saint patrick's day of the same chain stores dominate the.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on History On Fire
"They recruited served any water to sky to get a guy was named a will get a again at some point in the podcast forties plan to work the all of them need to be out of jail mentioned was the first one to get out and he sent to sail his he's weekly segment of cocaine in but he's on thanks to some guards with you know the classic thing that are often more that i've seen but he's there are outside until sailing to got out in nineteen seventy eight but thurs out saxon mancini were not the only ones that i mean big in only in the nineteenth century charles darwin alford rouse russell wall lost both came up with the theory of evolution is about the same time almost twenty five hundred years ago dice loud so or whatever was the author of the doubt cheating and the greek philosopher by us they wrote down nearly identical concerts at the same time despite knowing about one another any enrollment the late nineteen seventy someone else and nolte's that the lack of uber powerful gang and the fragmentation of the creamy align their ward offer who's opportunities ripe for the taking and in our story the man was going to emerge as the first main leader of the molina gang franco jews approach aka air nego or the black one due to his somewhat darker complexion dues a futures father have been a baker so a family down connected with crime then well not exactly scenes giusepucci stat at a side job as at all over and according to some sources that up getting killed in a shootout with the police this is these people ever have seen some sources report otherwise.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"The nineteenth century understood they understood the implicit need for violence to get what they wanted they felt that violence was being used against them they were right they just didn't have it nailed down exactly how and they felt like the only way to get that you know i should say i was going to say to get us to stop they don't want it to stop the violence they just want it turned around and facing against somebody else these rich people these rich powerful people suck we need new rich powerful people that's all they've set right are rich powerful people will be better than they're rich powerful people is all they ever said and you know there's some more some societies that are more galateri in than others but you know so like let me ask you if your if the lowest quintile in america is richer than it was thirty fifty one hundred years ago is that good or is it that if in order to get there the richer got richer but the lowest quintile got richer too but at a slower pace is that acceptable to you is it important that the rich only rise at the rate that the poor deal if so you're not talking about pulling people out of poverty you're talking about ending envy good luck with that so i've just find this to be an interesting topic all around anyway just to see where it's moving because again it seems like it's just another angle towards you know some sort.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on Liberty Talk FM
"Believe me the socialists of the nineteenth century understood they understood the implicit need for violence to get what they wanted they felt that violence was being used against them they were right they just didn't have it nailed down exactly how and they felt like the only way to get that i should say i was going to say to get it to stop they don't want it to stop the violence right they just want it turned around and facing against somebody else v these rich people these rich powerful people suck we need new rich powerful people that's all they've set right are rich powerful people will be better than they're rich powerful people is all they ever said and you know there's some some societies that are more galateri in than others but you know so like let me ask you if your if the lowest quintile in america is richer than it was thirty fifty one hundred years ago is that good or is it that if in order to get there the richer got richer but the lowest quintile got richer too but at a slower pace is that acceptable to you where is it important that the rich only rise at the rate that the poor do and if so you're not talking about pulling people out of poverty you're talking about ending envy good luck with that so i just find this to be an interesting topic all around anyway just to see where it's moving because again it seems like it's just another angle towards some sort of a communism socialism sort of comes from the you remember the god what was the the movie called zeitgeist zeitgeist change different those are two different movies zeitgeist there was a series of them for the same people that was an i'm not aware of that could be but zeitgeist kind of spawned this cult following that because it repackaged some old pitch from the nineteen seventies apparently and the idea was that there would be these cities where would all be computer controlled in essentially it's marxism with robots was housed on new defined it and it's very it's very accurate.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KTLK 1130 AM
"The nineteenth century was always thought of as like a vacation destination people from atlanta and charleston would go to the mountains because frankly is just cooler there right is in other places in the south and so people will go there to kind of to begin with and then people started seeing the craft beer movement really take hold their popularity expanded by a whole bunch indian so it made sense to kind of role in the messaging there that hey you know where this is kind of a beer mecca and i think that there's a lot of so much to offer from the outside looking looking in for people who want to come to the twin cities for whatever whatever reason or minnesota in general and that beer is really the icing on the cake and you come here and you you find really great restaurants you find really great outdoor activities and cultural activities on all of the things that draws people from the outside in and then on top of that you have a really great beer seeing that you're willing to invest the time and the effort to promote i mean that's that's a win win yes so my my takeaway was those last two sentences a great beer scene that you want to take the time to invest in and promote and maybe that's maybe that's the missing key i don't see that debt from maybe the the municipalities who are willing to invest in and promote in the local craft brewing who do you think the burden of promoting minnesota's beer seeing to other places like say new england say colorado say carolina you know who who who is who does that burden fall upon who should be out there telling all these other areas hey come here and checkout surly checkout summit check out all these amazing craft breweries and tap room's that we have here in not just the twin cities but the entire state i mean there are some amazing beer being made in this state that's a good question you know address your letters to visit minnesota national could speak to that a little bit i mean they they have a really strong local guild and asteroids national brewers alliance that was really big the north carolina craft brewers guild which is the statewide alliance that did a lot of good work in.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KGO 810
"And runs through july twenty third drew has been called does the decades most eloquent theatrical statement on race in america today by the new york times here with me in the studio is lance gardner who is oh part the cast of an outdoor unluckily theater real good to have a key thanks for having the alqaeda i noticed it when he came in as looking at what you're doing in the show you're playing three roles in i'm told that the the play right was very specific about one actor playing three roles tell me about it that's right so this play is it's a framing of a nineteenth century melodrama by dion brusco and so i play a kind of a a metaph theatrical version of the play right himself he jj and i play two roles within the original melody drama george and mccloskey okay tell me the story for for those who are not familiar with the eu seats restaging of of the story is based on it is so the original story is not an october ruin but it's the auction room written by an irish playwright who came to america and worked here in the nineteenth century and the original play is set in louisiana and follows the struggles of a plantation owner who has inherited this plantation from his dead uncle and and the the slaves there on the plantation and a girl who is an oscar to ruin or one eight the black and who is the illegitimate daughter of his uncle i say a so i was shocked to ruin and at quadrant was one was one quarter that's right muslim quarterback and in soandso so tell me if there's a central theme in and and to take away what is well on the show what what what's the play right trying to say for this production.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on KQED Radio
"To a change to the whole idea that food expires is a rather modern concept we're now used to going to a grocery store our and seeing an expiration date on a package that's an and stamped their in a factory and that's completely new the idea that there is a sort of ticking clock on your food and that on one day it's good and then you wake up the next morning and because the date has changed it suddenly bad this is hell invite she's associate professor of history at me yes you can state university a lot of people in developed countries now look at the expiration date and they'll sort of take that as gospel and they'll throw away a half gallon of milk or a yogurt because the date on the package changes instead of using their senses looking are smelling or or even feeling potentially and those were skills that people an early generations in the nineteenth century certainly in the eighteenth century that's what they used all the time they use their senses and i think modern people have much less of a tolerance for food that's going slightly bad for example back in the nineteen th century there was a whole culinary genre for foods like souring milk there was an appreciation for the tang that sour milk could give to dishes i think there's much less appreciation now for the different tastes of food at different stages of decay what you do see lots and lots of our cooking techniques that we would think of today is a former preservation potting or pickling or salting or smoking for many people in the nineteenth century that was what you naturally did to food that would both lake at last much longer and also produce special taste and texture is that people really valued.
"nineteenth century" Discussed on The Past and the Curious
"Still of you heard about something like this happening and you knew the tomato was related to and also looked like plants such as mandrake or night shades which are in fact very very poisonous you might think twice about eating tomatoes too and in america there were many places were tomatoes were eaten with smiles and long healthy lives but not everywhere you have to remember in the early nineteenth century information didn't travel easily and people tended to stay in one place for most of their lives so knowledge that you knew or discovered my only stay in your town if folks were communicating with others over great distances it probably wasn't to share their favorite soup recipe so son still believed tomatoes to be poisonous even in the 1800s so a famous story comes from salem new jersey which fits south of philadelphia near the delaware river a wellknown man colonel robert given johnson was an avid horticulturalist or one who breeds grows intends to points he also according to the story had a full layer for the dramatic robert had grown tired and frustrated with everyone in towns refusal to eat tomatoes which he saw as a wonderful option to farm in the summer they were great crop nutritious filling versatile and delicious he knew it was falling not to grow and use them but the townsfolk they were not convince rubber decided he was the man to convince them of the truth he just had to do something big.