19 Burst results for "Nichole Davis"

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

12:51 min | Last month

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"With a number vaccine candidates against the corona virus sharing promising results in clinical trials and a growing number of studies elving into our mean response to infection. The spotlight has turned once again. On the body's defense mechanisms. I think two questions that really relate to the ability of the vaccine to protect us and our ability to fight off a second infection and so that is the quality of the immune response and the duration of the immune response this week. I'm joined by professor. Eleanor riley from the university of edinburgh to dove into these questions and more. I'm nichole davis. Welcome to science. Weekly ellena you came onto the podcast in july and talk to us about immunity and covid nineteen specifically the relationship between antibodies and immunity. So let's start with a recap on the major players in the immune system that are of interest when it comes to an immune response and potentially immunity so antibodies are protein molecules that are produced by immune cells kobe cells and these cells live in our spleen and narrow and they secrete antibodies off. They've been exposed to a foreign organism such as virus. There are two types of cells that produce. Antibodies on short-lived cells that produce. Antibodies for a few weeks national to the first line response and then some of those cells transition into lonely cells that goto a bone marrow and can produce antibodies for months years. Possibly even to case and then on top of antibodies. have that can kill virus. Infected host cells t cells the two types of t cells one of which we think of such of the conductor of the orchestra of the immune system and these kotei health cells and they very much help the b. cells to make antibodies produce. Growth factors may direct the direction in which the be cells developed and they will still give them signals to turn into cells and then there are the cdte cells and they actively kill virus infected cells and then <hes>. Antibodies can also bind to these specific cells and help them to kill cells so they recognize little bits of virus on the infected cell bind to the infected so and kill it and then there are cells which are less specific cells that we call macrophages are neutral fills and they just recognized that. Something's not quite right with the cell. They don't necessarily recognize the infected with the virus and they kill it actually or bits of the immune system work together a little bit like you need a whole orchestra to make a good tune when you need all of these cells working together to make a good news arms. And i know you said in july that at that point it was too early to tell how quickly people were losing their antibodies. And we've got to remember here that it's a relatively new virus. What's the latest research saying that seems to have been some movement on that now. What we're seeing is if you all the data together. There's an early peek in the antibodies wants. Lots and lots of antibodies are produced to mop up all virus. That's in your body and then as that virus goes away the antibodies start to decline a little bit. Because you don't need them any antibodies anymore and they settle into a of steady class. O of antibody production. And that's very typical. This kind of two phase response the only peak lots of antibodies followed by sort of standing level of antibodies. That nick for a long time. That's very typical of an antibody response and it sort of relates to the short lived long lived cells. You have lots of short-lived cells making lots of antibody that off and then the long lived cells who that fewer in numba keep on producing. Antibodies for much longer so yes. Let's talk about these long-lived b. cells in the no said the t. cells. What is research telling us about what happens to them and how. How long do they hang around for. So we don't have much data on those are actually quite difficult to look at in humans. They tend to live in the bone marrow for example not very accessible and so we tend to rely on mathematical modeling of the change in the dynamics of the antibody concentration to predict what's going to happen even though we haven't actually been able to see it because it hasn't gone on long enough so the moment the infants is that we have suggests that things are probably okay these cells behaving as we expect them to the was one pay published early on suggesting may be a little bit of a fault with the production of these long midsouth. But i'm not sure that that's been replicated in other studies. I think i saw a preprinted study. That hasn't been peer reviewed yet. Which jested that these visas and t so's lost for at least six months is that. What are the problems here in terms of measuring this so we only have six months data at the moment and the virus really hasn't been around that long so what we can say the moment. Is that the cells assisting for as long as we are able to measure them at the moment obviously in six months or another twelve months time. We'll be able to go back to those people and say have they still got those cells. Yes or no. But in the meantime just looking at the change in the dynamics of the response and mapping it onto what we know the other viruses. My prediction is that these that there will be some long lift immunity to this virus. He said there might be some long term protection. How long term are we talking here. I mean i've seen a lot of people saying well current viruses such as that of course common code some codes of course by coronavirus is of course the protection only lasts for say a year or so. Do we think that our protection against the corona virus that causes covid nineteen mike baxter timeframe or or could it be longer. I think it's very difficult to say at the moment. Say all of the data. We have suggests that these antibody responses are going to be at least as long lived as response of corona viruses. And possibly i might think even probably going to last longer your immune response tends to be proportional to the level of threat that you face so the common cold corona viruses really only colonize our upper respiratory tract so on nose throat and so the virus doesn't go very deep into apology and we make rather grief that effective noon response nose and throat that controls it this coq nineteen causing virus goes much deeper into our bodies it goes down into our lungs into bronchial and therefore the immune response tends to be stronger and they struggle we call systemic immune responses do tend to last longer because they are recognizing that there is a more serious threat that has to be dealt with. Do we know if factors like ethnicity gender age factor in the scale of the immune response. She said stronger. Immune response to your first. Infection is is more likely to me. You have great protection against the second infection. Those factors correlated at all. There's very little day to so far on ethnic differences in the immune response the data. That's coming after the vaccine trials suggests that there aren't any major differences in at between ethnic groups in terms of whether the vaccine protects them will not but we haven't yet seen lab data on their antibody responses with at t cell responses. There is a lot of genetic variation in the immune response. People be aware that some people unfortunately have very severe genetically determined immunodeficiencies. That's just the tip of the iceberg of genetic variation in the immune response and some of those differences do have geographical and ethnic components to that certain genes that either make good or bad immune response on more common or less common in groups <unk> countries. But we don't yet know if any of that is going to influence really the totality of their immune responses. We just don't have any evidence much by age. It feels like ages is. It's very important given that the older you are the more risque from caveat nineteen so there are two components to that one is whether you are able to make an immune response again's a virus. You've never seen before and there is. I think really quite good evidence that you ability to make a completely new immune response does decline as you get older. The other component is that a lot of the disease we say in coke nineteen excessive inflammation. And there's also evidence that we get older with less good controlling inflammation so it's a little bit of a double whammy as we get older way are less able to make an immune response to a new virus such as the covid nineteen virus and if we then get the viral infection where less good at controlling the inflammation that it causes a so we know there are several different vaccines. Which looking very promising. You have the rene vaccines at you have vaccines which used a chimp. Virus to bring genetic material from the corona virus into cells. The question is is the immune response that generated the same as it would have been to a natural infection and do the t. cells and so on hang around in the same way. The vaccine is just a tiny component of viruses this spike protein which is on the surface of the virus and so if you vaccinated with spike protein. You make antibodies in tesol responses just to that protein. If you get the virus itself then you get many many more pro teams that you're exposed to a new may make antibodies to some of those. So you responded more limited but you might also say that your response is more focused because it's actually antibodies to spike coaching a really important for neutralizing the virus so the vaccine in juices a narrow immune response but one would hope it would also be focused on therefore stronger on the base the matter and would it be expected that this will provoke a stronger. Immune response natural infection. I've heard some people say that actually vaccine can producer a strong response it coun- if they initial infection is quite mild say with virus like sauce covy to which induces very mild infections in some people i would expect the vaccine to tobacco to jason mewes which is much stronger than you would get after nascent dramatic or mild infection. People get serious dose of coca to make a very strong immune response. And i doubt if the vaccine it doesn't need to be any strong national adopt if it is when it comes to and viruses the coups common code. It's been some concern that these viruses somehow elude the memory b cells. and so. that's why even though we have thousand cells to to the common cold viruses. We will often get reinfected with them. I wonder if they're those same concerns about the coronavirus behind covid nineteen so there is a little basic data. There's one paper that suggests that the sauce kofi to virus that causes covid nineteen disables particular pathway in the b. cell response leading to a poor long term memory response but these experiments done in the lab in a in a in a petrie dish. And i think it's too early to know if that's really what happens in humans so i think we do need to be a little bit cautious and we need to be aware that it might happen. Good news is that the proteins that are believed to cause that problem are not present in the vaccine so even if it's a problem in natural infection it shouldn't be a problem with a vaccine

nichole davis Eleanor riley university of edinburgh professor
What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

The Guardian's Science Weekly

12:52 min | Last month

What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

"With a number vaccine candidates against the corona virus sharing promising results in clinical trials and a growing number of studies elving into our mean response to infection. The spotlight has turned once again. On the body's defense mechanisms. I think two questions that really relate to the ability of the vaccine to protect us and our ability to fight off a second infection and so that is the quality of the immune response and the duration of the immune response this week. I'm joined by professor. Eleanor riley from the university of edinburgh to dove into these questions and more. I'm nichole davis. Welcome to science. Weekly ellena you came onto the podcast in july and talk to us about immunity and covid nineteen specifically the relationship between antibodies and immunity. So let's start with a recap on the major players in the immune system that are of interest when it comes to an immune response and potentially immunity so antibodies are protein molecules that are produced by immune cells kobe cells and these cells live in our spleen and narrow and they secrete antibodies off. They've been exposed to a foreign organism such as virus. There are two types of cells that produce. Antibodies on short-lived cells that produce. Antibodies for a few weeks national to the first line response and then some of those cells transition into lonely cells that goto a bone marrow and can produce antibodies for months years. Possibly even to case and then on top of antibodies. have that can kill virus. Infected host cells t cells the two types of t cells one of which we think of such of the conductor of the orchestra of the immune system and these kotei health cells and they very much help the b. cells to make antibodies produce. Growth factors may direct the direction in which the be cells developed and they will still give them signals to turn into cells and then there are the cdte cells and they actively kill virus infected cells and then Antibodies can also bind to these specific cells and help them to kill cells so they recognize little bits of virus on the infected cell bind to the infected so and kill it and then there are cells which are less specific cells that we call macrophages are neutral fills and they just recognized that. Something's not quite right with the cell. They don't necessarily recognize the infected with the virus and they kill it actually or bits of the immune system work together a little bit like you need a whole orchestra to make a good tune when you need all of these cells working together to make a good news arms. And i know you said in july that at that point it was too early to tell how quickly people were losing their antibodies. And we've got to remember here that it's a relatively new virus. What's the latest research saying that seems to have been some movement on that now. What we're seeing is if you all the data together. There's an early peek in the antibodies wants. Lots and lots of antibodies are produced to mop up all virus. That's in your body and then as that virus goes away the antibodies start to decline a little bit. Because you don't need them any antibodies anymore and they settle into a of steady class. O of antibody production. And that's very typical. This kind of two phase response the only peak lots of antibodies followed by sort of standing level of antibodies. That nick for a long time. That's very typical of an antibody response and it sort of relates to the short lived long lived cells. You have lots of short-lived cells making lots of antibody that off and then the long lived cells who that fewer in numba keep on producing. Antibodies for much longer so yes. Let's talk about these long-lived b. cells in the no said the t. cells. What is research telling us about what happens to them and how. How long do they hang around for. So we don't have much data on those are actually quite difficult to look at in humans. They tend to live in the bone marrow for example not very accessible and so we tend to rely on mathematical modeling of the change in the dynamics of the antibody concentration to predict what's going to happen even though we haven't actually been able to see it because it hasn't gone on long enough so the moment the infants is that we have suggests that things are probably okay these cells behaving as we expect them to the was one pay published early on suggesting may be a little bit of a fault with the production of these long midsouth. But i'm not sure that that's been replicated in other studies. I think i saw a preprinted study. That hasn't been peer reviewed yet. Which jested that these visas and t so's lost for at least six months is that. What are the problems here in terms of measuring this so we only have six months data at the moment and the virus really hasn't been around that long so what we can say the moment. Is that the cells assisting for as long as we are able to measure them at the moment obviously in six months or another twelve months time. We'll be able to go back to those people and say have they still got those cells. Yes or no. But in the meantime just looking at the change in the dynamics of the response and mapping it onto what we know the other viruses. My prediction is that these that there will be some long lift immunity to this virus. He said there might be some long term protection. How long term are we talking here. I mean i've seen a lot of people saying well current viruses such as that of course common code some codes of course by coronavirus is of course the protection only lasts for say a year or so. Do we think that our protection against the corona virus that causes covid nineteen mike baxter timeframe or or could it be longer. I think it's very difficult to say at the moment. Say all of the data. We have suggests that these antibody responses are going to be at least as long lived as response of corona viruses. And possibly i might think even probably going to last longer your immune response tends to be proportional to the level of threat that you face so the common cold corona viruses really only colonize our upper respiratory tract so on nose throat and so the virus doesn't go very deep into apology and we make rather grief that effective noon response nose and throat that controls it this coq nineteen causing virus goes much deeper into our bodies it goes down into our lungs into bronchial and therefore the immune response tends to be stronger and they struggle we call systemic immune responses do tend to last longer because they are recognizing that there is a more serious threat that has to be dealt with. Do we know if factors like ethnicity gender age factor in the scale of the immune response. She said stronger. Immune response to your first. Infection is is more likely to me. You have great protection against the second infection. Those factors correlated at all. There's very little day to so far on ethnic differences in the immune response the data. That's coming after the vaccine trials suggests that there aren't any major differences in at between ethnic groups in terms of whether the vaccine protects them will not but we haven't yet seen lab data on their antibody responses with at t cell responses. There is a lot of genetic variation in the immune response. People be aware that some people unfortunately have very severe genetically determined immunodeficiencies. That's just the tip of the iceberg of genetic variation in the immune response and some of those differences do have geographical and ethnic components to that certain genes that either make good or bad immune response on more common or less common in groups countries. But we don't yet know if any of that is going to influence really the totality of their immune responses. We just don't have any evidence much by age. It feels like ages is. It's very important given that the older you are the more risque from caveat nineteen so there are two components to that one is whether you are able to make an immune response again's a virus. You've never seen before and there is. I think really quite good evidence that you ability to make a completely new immune response does decline as you get older. The other component is that a lot of the disease we say in coke nineteen excessive inflammation. And there's also evidence that we get older with less good controlling inflammation so it's a little bit of a double whammy as we get older way are less able to make an immune response to a new virus such as the covid nineteen virus and if we then get the viral infection where less good at controlling the inflammation that it causes a so we know there are several different vaccines. Which looking very promising. You have the rene vaccines at you have vaccines which used a chimp. Virus to bring genetic material from the corona virus into cells. The question is is the immune response that generated the same as it would have been to a natural infection and do the t. cells and so on hang around in the same way. The vaccine is just a tiny component of viruses this spike protein which is on the surface of the virus and so if you vaccinated with spike protein. You make antibodies in tesol responses just to that protein. If you get the virus itself then you get many many more pro teams that you're exposed to a new may make antibodies to some of those. So you responded more limited but you might also say that your response is more focused because it's actually antibodies to spike coaching a really important for neutralizing the virus so the vaccine in juices a narrow immune response but one would hope it would also be focused on therefore stronger on the base the matter and would it be expected that this will provoke a stronger. Immune response natural infection. I've heard some people say that actually vaccine can producer a strong response it coun- if they initial infection is quite mild say with virus like sauce covy to which induces very mild infections in some people i would expect the vaccine to tobacco to jason mewes which is much stronger than you would get after nascent dramatic or mild infection. People get serious dose of coca to make a very strong immune response. And i doubt if the vaccine it doesn't need to be any strong national adopt if it is when it comes to and viruses the coups common code. It's been some concern that these viruses somehow elude the memory b cells. and so. that's why even though we have thousand cells to to the common cold viruses. We will often get reinfected with them. I wonder if they're those same concerns about the coronavirus behind covid nineteen so there is a little basic data. There's one paper that suggests that the sauce kofi to virus that causes covid nineteen disables particular pathway in the b. cell response leading to a poor long term memory response but these experiments done in the lab in a in a in a petrie dish. And i think it's too early to know if that's really what happens in humans so i think we do need to be a little bit cautious and we need to be aware that it might happen. Good news is that the proteins that are believed to cause that problem are not present in the vaccine so even if it's a problem in natural infection it shouldn't be a problem with a vaccine

Elving Eleanor Riley Nichole Davis University Of Edinburgh Mike Baxter Inflammation Nick Cold Infection Mild Infection Jason Mewes
Training dogs to sniff out COVID-19

The Guardian's Science Weekly

09:28 min | 3 months ago

Training dogs to sniff out COVID-19

"They can sniff out counselors late blood sugar levels in diabetics, drugs, explosive chemicals used in bombs, and as many dog owners know any food in one hundred meter radius. dokes have notorious powerful noses with hundreds of millions of central sceptres that can pick up traces of substances at just one pop trillion. And so now teams around the world from Lebanon to the UK attesting out dog's olfactory abilities when it comes to sniffing out cubic nineteen. One of those putting hounds on the viral hunt is Dominic Cork a professor at the National Veterinary School of. In front first phase is to train the dog to put his nose in coon and sniff. So we knew that if he story then we put some positive sample in this goal and dogs are going to one whole week but they'll in the cones and everything is made as a game I'm Nichole Davis, and this is science weekly. We Got Dominique on the line to ask him a bit more about how you actually train dogs to sniff out a disease. Unfortunately, the audio isn't great so about that but the first question I wanted to ask Monique was exactly when he first decided to ton his dogs noses towards K. Nineteen well, it's I'm a I'm head of a Canine Sports Medicine unit that the vet, school in our fault. And and we are working a lot on working dog I'm also involved in search and rescue dogs instead thirty five years as firefighters. And I've always been working on Doug affection actually. So we also have a big program in the. Vet. School, which is Naza. He's in the goal of the program is to develop the medical detection dogs in in France and so when when the COVID did show up, we had a meeting It was on the ninth of March I remember and. The. First question was, what are we going to use samples? So we checked everything in the graffiti and we saw that the the the sweat under the armpit that would be very few chance of bessie of contamination and actually has no passive condemnation. The dog is not sensible. So we make so that the dogs do not tach at any moment, the samples than we started with such rescue dog from different fire departments. Minute Ducasse what two weeks to consider that it was working in the. And that's what we've been doing for six months. So, let's get to the nuts and bolts here. What is it that the dogs are sniffing Anita? You say you take samples from People's armpits. Similarly, people use an awful lot of deodorants and other toiletries at does that get in the way of things dogs sniffing the virus sniffing the? Effects of the virus when the virus enters add a sale, the viruses replicating also using the Senate. To produce his own proteins he's on molecules and these chemical molecules they have to go out of the buddy. They can go out food the European through the feces for the tears and through the sweat. So that's what the dogs are looking for, and that's been a quite a few studies in the past showing that insalled cultures different virus were producing different others. Let's go nemo. Valetta. Organic compounds. And that's what we are looking for now to answer questions regarding the utterance in perfumes and so on. The key point for these dogs is to have some top quality and fresh positive samples in all the to make the in printing. So we're GONNA need roughly eighteen positive samples that are fresh. We don't rely only on a on A. Positive results also asked samples to hospitals coming from people who have chemical symptoms. The scan that he's typical etcetera etcetera, and if you do it this way while the dogs reading in memory, the specific other and you can put any type of the. or perfume this is not a problem. It would be a problem if the people who are using only one brand of the audience in the same product. But the Zillions of different types of the in perfume. So the only Common Otter, the dogs are finding in the eighty something samples that they are sniffing at the beginning is the the covid and that's what we want to focus on that. Domini, how do you train the dogs I'm what do they do? Once they find a positive sample today sit down or bark or how do they signal that they found something To train, the dogs are using some what we call a faction guns that. Developed that's a good way to not have the dog in contact with the samples and so the first phases to train the dog to put his nose in the cone in sniff, and so we do that too. If he story then we put some positive sample in this in the dogs are going to for one whole week. Now going to put down those in the cones so that the imprinted with the specific honor of the positives and then with more. With some neutral, which means the swabs without anything, and then we put some negative samples and wing prisoner amount of corns. We increase the amount of negative samples. We put some some lines. We've only negatives on the positives and everything is made as a game. In other words, the dog is getting his story when he finds the positive most of the time, we asked the doctor sit in front of the. That's pretty easy to obtain. But if the dog is marking differently barking or scratching or whatever I don't care because it's the important thing is to have the dog marking correct simple. What is important is to keep the motivation of the dog and the motivation of the dog is coming through the interaction with the duck hander and through the fact that he's rewarded when he works good and plays with his a duck handler. Happiness is to keep going for working dogs. A key issue that some skeptics of this approach have raised is that you might be able to tell someone with covert from somebody who doesn't have cable but can you really tell apart someone who has covered from someone who has another virus like flu? For example what do you say to that? We are starting right now to check if the dogs are mocking? Some people with other types of virus infections or other type chronic disease like lung cancers, auditees, and so on. But there has been some studies a lot of studies trying to identify the volatile organic compounds coming from different types of virus that have been put in south counter and each time it shows that the other print of the virus coming from these vetting are any compounds is specific to a virus. Would we see in terms of practical results is that there's a lot of times where the dog has been more accurate than the PCR. We've got some people with negative that were marked by the dogs. Samples were remarkably the dogs we send back the anonymous number of these samples to the hospitals, the remade the PCR, the our positive. We also have some negative people that were marked by the dogs. We have a refugee at ten cases like this where we told the hospital. Okay. These people are positive for us and they couldn't get in touch with these people but these people went back to the hospital a few days later and they were clinically covid nineteen and most of the time they were with digestive simple. You have to keep in mind also that that when you when you look for virus in the nose. You don't look for the virus at the other end of the buddy. Just. How accurate is this at? What kind of results are you getting with dogs? The accuracy of the dogs is measured for two terms of sensitivity which means that the doug doesn't miss some positives and specificity which means deduct doesn't miss some negatives. Sensitivity is the most important and. The values that we obtained are between ninety up to nine hundred, nine point five percent in Dora sensitivity and the specificity is always close to a hundred percent. So this entity is that say ninety five percent while it means that you might have some false positive, but it's no big dipped. One or two percent of positives. The big deal would be to miss some positives and actually this is not something that happens with the dog. So you can take that in any sense results are good as long as the dogs are well trained.

Covid Doug Dominic Cork Nichole Davis Coon Dominique Naza Monique Senate Professor Canine Sports Medicine Lebanon National Veterinary School Ducasse UK Bessie Common Otter Anita
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

01:36 min | 5 months ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"When any disease emerges, one of the most crucial ways to keep infections under control is to monitor and track spread and identify the source of outbreaks. On population wide scale, this could be a real challenge for COVID, nineteen public health bodies have been rapidly establishing testing programs, collecting surveillance data, and as you can hear about in one of our previous podcast episodes detecting the in sewage systems. Another wait to picture your transmission is to understand how the virus changes as it travels through community. By looking at small differences in the genetic material that the virus, we such cases and even find out where they may have originated. We set up a system where we were able to rapidly sequence the viruses we've been collected and information about the patients, and we analyzed both the genomic data to look for similarities and acting logical data to the credit that breaks one team in Cambridge in k. have been doing just that acting as detectives in a local battle, we found a large cluster of genetically identical. To viruses, we found that in fact, most of them belonged to patients within a cat home, but the other viruses will either from care workers in the. From paramedics and also with a few patients within the hospital. I'm Nichole Davis, and this.

Nichole Davis Cambridge
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

05:34 min | 7 months ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Over the last couple of months, we've all had come to terms with new ways of life whether that's working from home for extended periods of time away from loved ones. But we've also had to come to terms with. New terms like the UH number two. When you have a large epidemic with thousands of cases, it gives you a very useful some value. What's going on with your work? Scientists talk about it. Politicians talk about it and now say the we. But as parts of the world begin to slowly ease lockdown with our as their guiding light. We thought it'd be good to have a look at why this term is a lot more complicated than you previously been led to believe that really affects the classic statistical as you get smaller amounts of data the unsaid. He becomes greater needs to be McAfee new measurements, I'm Nichole Davis and this is science weekly. We can just not by making clear. The difference between this number and something could are not. Can you just make sure that we get not straight? Start with yes. So definitely military reuse these values as a measure of. The amount of transmission. This is to Adam Kucharski an associate professor at the London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine. So. It can be thought. As the kind of baseline level of transmission in the early stages outbreaks when he didn't have control measures in place you Initi- have these outbreaks taking off. Without that's typically will on I. Two and I covid there's evidence is probably in the to three range to each. Infectious person on average is leading to the others in the early stages of the outbreak. Of course is countries book until medicine that may change the opportunities for Transmission Change People's interactions and he would use the average transmission case so often we talk about the reproduction number will are. To transmission accounting any changes that might have occurred since the early stages of the Berg and say when we're talking about our it south not are not but are. Not of things go into how that's calculated. Can you talk me through some of the factors that affect our? This fool main factors that drive the value of awe that we would. We'd say given point in time. For those dots dot asked. D is The duration of infections. Imagine from the point of view, someone who's infectious, the longer they have, the infection, the longer they're shutting virus, the more they can concentrate transmission they use. It depends on what they do, infectious or the opportunities. Obviously if someone has a lot of interactions per day while they're shedding virus. Chrysler more opportunities this trump mission to happen, but it also depends on what happens during those interactions transmission ability are when someone comes in contacts. He might imagine that you have health care worker who interacts quite low people, but they're wearing peak so actually. The risk of transmission puck on tax might be lower than it would be if someone who say in a ball. And, then the fun factor depends on whether the person who's having a into interaction with the infected case is susceptible, so the s in dots is susceptibility, and if the Abbot of the set of the population is lower than that's going to reduce the production number intern, if we reduce one of the things we have one of those things increases whether interactions or or sept ability then on that will have a direct effect on March transmission. We see sin that sounds like an. We've seen this in recent weeks. That the number four particular virus in this case for the coronavirus changes over time. This isn't a static number. Exactly it will vary over time. The most notable change obviously in recent months is is those opportunities. Transmission interactions within the population have massively changed. Davidge says contest people have per day in lockdown dropped by about seventy eight percent and oversee the had an effect on Russian number. One of our listeners Lindsey in Halifax wanted to know how our calculated, so we've talked about some of the factors that go into our in that can influence our, but when it comes to coming out with the kind of numbers that we hear about. In these briefings and so on, can you give us a feel for what data goes into that? How is that how the nuts bolts actually calculated? Yeah, there's two main ways one is to use top level approach, and if you think about the definition, which is on average, each infectious person spreads it to all number of of additional people than if you know the delay from one generation fashion to next in other words, if you get on a given day, the. The person you in fact when they gave that gives you the time scattered the outbreak and the ratio of change in the number of cases over that given time, which is about five days we'll give you a measure of the reproduction number, so if you have ten cases, today takes about five days for that generation of infection, and you have twenty cases in five days time. You'd estimate that the all would be about two, so that's one way of doing it. The other is to use. This approach to look at the basics of what drives transmission go out and measure people search into actions and look at how the sexual contacts changing. And estimate will that means.

McAfee London School of Hygiene Adam Kucharski Nichole Davis Initi Berg Davidge intern Chrysler associate professor Lindsey Halifax
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

06:14 min | 8 months ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"But while US we're exploring some of the most pressing questions surrounding the virus. We don't want to miss out on all the other incredible science happening and form your emails. It seems you don't either. It's been great to hear you enjoyed a bit of scientific escapism as much as we have this week. We're looking at moody teenagers. But not the human ones. I'm Nichole Davis and this is science. Weekly puppies go through what we call a sensitive period and this is quite early on in their life and that sensitive period has an impact on the whole the rest of their life. That's Lissi Asher. Senior lecturer in the School of natural and Environmental Sciences at Newcastle University studies behavior patents primarily in chickens and humans. Best Friends dokes lease. See you've been studying. The Pavia of adolescent would be guide dogs which sounds like one of the Mace Fund research topic. She could possibly choose. Just tell me what do we mean by adolescent? Dog's what age we talking about here in the threes. We stopped eight. We believe outer doesn't starts around six months of age so we start to see changes in behavior around that time and it seems to start to improve around twelve months of age. Now's you said this is studying guide dogs so we're looking at upper door. Retrievers golden retrievers German shepherd dogs and crosses at those so it could be different in different breeds of dog. And what do we mean by adolescence? Dog So is adolescent sort of something that happens to animals lesson to something that we know to happen in mammals at least and it is this period of time where we change from a juvenile to an adult so we know that the brain actually models itself so their physical changes in the brain. Happen between being a juvenile. I'm being an adult. We know that there's lots of changes in terms of reproduction. I'M THE HORMONAL. Changes that go with that so we neither these physical changes. Why did you want to start looking at behavior? What we knew. Is that a lot of dog. Trainers had previously reported this change in behavior around the edge of essence. But we didn't have any proper evidence to support it and working with guy talks a lot of their focuses. How can we better understand? Behavior in order to provide better for folks that can train the blind or partially-sighted. Godo gainers say they need to understand behavior from a very practical point of view. I'm this was an under-researched time if life has very little done on the outer lesson phase across lots of different species but almost nothing had been done in dogs. So how do you go about looking at this? So we're trying to understand specifically if there was an adolescent phase behavior so this is changes in behavior that curve around adolescence and in people. We knew that there was this low level conflict behavior that happens between parents and their teenager adolescent children. So we look for something analogous to this kind of conflict. Not Behavior which is generally ignoring. You parents these kinds of behaviors so we started with looking dogs to their response to training one of the commands that we're particularly interested in was the Sitka Monde. And that's because it's the first mom that you'll training a dog so when we're able to study before adolescence. Who are able to see that. There's a before during an after effect of adolescence on this command because you can see it on. He sits so we're able to studies that command and then we were able to look more generally responses to training. And we do this using question. Now these aren't just any. Oh questionnaires. These questionnaires that we have very carefully validated over a number of years against observations of behavior. So we know they're measuring what we think they're measuring am. We're able to use those to reach bigger population of dogs and so with the with dogs that are sitting. Hopefully if there were behaved in front of you what did you find? So we found that dogs `obedient reduced around the time of of adolescence or puberty before puberty at five months we find dogs respond to the sick man. If we focus on on that response eight months it's reduced and then if we look at the questionnaire data we find the same effect so five months dogs are rated by their caregiving quite trainable and then around eight months that reduces so that not as trainable and it pops back up it bounces back up to the levels. We see before around twelve months. That's very interesting. Because we find the specifically in response to the person who's caring for the dog but the response to a stranger or another trainer is very different. So they do tend to be more responsive even during adolescence to a trainer or a stranger whereas for the caregiver responsive during so there is a sort of parallel that almost with a human teenagers about kicking back against your immediate carers rather than necessarily everybody. Yeah you hear anecdates. Don't you about people who who have real difficulties with their children at home and they go to parents evening and the teachers say they're fantastic? So you definitely do do here. Anecdotes of of that in human teenagers too. And that there's some scientific evidence to support as well see you also looked at the links to security. How secure dog was in that bond to their care key. Just tell me what. We mean by these secure and insecure attachments. But what does that mean? Dogs form attachment to values. And anybody WHO's owned? A dog.

School of natural and Environm Nichole Davis Lissi Asher Sitka Monde Senior lecturer Mace Fund Newcastle University
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

03:17 min | 8 months ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Best metric when comparing different countries or regions and evaluating countermeasures given the differences in testing demographics healthcare systems mortalities recovery rates. And so on. So can you really compare countries? I think we can certainly learn a lot from other countries. And we've learned a lot from previous pandemics. What I didn't really agree with is having a very fine league table saying the waiting waiting list in Spain and so on because there's death limbs are relatively similar. I'm Nichole Davis and this is science. Weekly the first thing that I'd like you to do is just give me your name and affiliation just introduce yourself so that we have in white formats is a senior lecturer in the Department for Mathematical Sciences. At the University of the most of the author of the book the months of life and death ticket. Let's get back to the early days of the pandemic so there was the outbreak in Wuhan in China and there was a possibility of it coming to the UK We were relying heavily on what was happening in China. What metrics will be looking at to try to get a feel of what might happen here? So certainly the most important numbers that was coming out of hand. We used in all modeling studies to stunned. What my up in the UK was this number that we're having a lot about the moment. Aw which in mathematical terms who called the reproduction number it tells you for each infected individual. How many people though pass the disease onto during the coach of their infectious period? So it's really important number because if it's above one it means that each person is going to be passing disease onto at least one of the person the infection. The epidemic is going to grow and spread. If it's below one then it means that the epidemic will die out because each person is possible disease onto fewer than one individuals on average during the course of their infectious period. So that's one of the really important numbers we're looking for and what will be learning from from what was happening China will. What was that number so coming in at in the early days there? Yes the number that was used in in Neil Ferguson's imperial college modeling paper which is a lot of the scientific That the government's being given has has been based on was a number of two point. Full that is saying that on average Each person will pass the disease onto point. Full people doing the culture that in fact she's paired which means that the infection will grow and it will spread in the initial stage will grow exponentially so We were having to go on data from China but we know that this reproduction number isn't perfect changes from country to country. So it's really important to understand so we never are is NAS EFFECTS. Number as you've said of varies not just from country to country but within countries in different regions different settings what factors playing into these differences. How easy they tease apart. Right so all as you mentioned is not fixed function both of time and also of of human social interaction than behavior organizations so Things like population density really make a difference. We've seen the worst outbreaks in the UK in places like London for example which has high population density which makes transmission easier..

China UK Nichole Davis Spain senior lecturer Department for Mathematical Sc University of Wuhan Neil Ferguson London
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

02:56 min | 9 months ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"We heard amber in Nottinghamshire. He asked would recovery mean immunity. Many more of you have been writing in with questions on the topic of immunity so in today's episode we're exploring how immunity works and what it means to have immunity to viruses sells a pot of like the master controllers of the Immune System when they get activated Done many different parts depending on the type of detection Nessim Bowl. I'm Nichole Davis and you're listening to science weekly just before we start will also working remotely earn very occasionally. The tech doesn't go quite planned it. The line here isn't as great as we'd like but it's an important episode so bear with us. My Name is don't gentlemen Turkey. I am an immunologist. At University of Sussex Hygienic. Thank you for joining us on science. Weekly and keeper having me when you were last here on science weekly you were describing. How our immune system works take us back to the beginning again. What happens when virus enters the body so when viral particles enter Example SARS Colby to entering the of the research retract and the virus will infect ourselves so it has this little rock in key mechanism. It contains proteins on its surface that fits with proteins on the surface of ourselves. That line are virtually tract which allows entry and this is something. That's quite unique by viruses. They rely on ourselves to reproduce. They need to get inside ourselves than the hijack. All of the cellular machinery to make copies of themselves and the thing expires Look different molecular -ly from our own cells so they have patterns on them that are unique to viruses ambitious. The first thing that our immune system uses to raise a red flag so the in meets immune system the nonspecific women. It's looking all the time for patterns of danger or pathogens and a citizen detect something onto awards that start a rather broad known specific antiviral response where the instruct with immune cells and those delicate sales at liner airways to produce these Site kinds and break titular ones. That are involved in a viral infection or the interferons and these are the. Ho- cascade of fighting infection bears toxic to you viruses so they make the whole environment very uncomfortable for the viruses. They start to call. In more of these nate immune cells and more site. Two kinds are being produced in these. Stop to give us these familiar. Symptoms of being on wells is actually being response is inflammatory response to call it. It gives the fever of the headaches. Muscle.

Nottinghamshire University of Sussex Hygienic Nichole Davis Turkey fever Colby
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

04:22 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"The. The god. Do you ever wonder how we got here on earth? That is scientists have been trying to answer these kinds of big questions for centuries and in doing say have provided frameworks to help explain the world as we see it today. I've always been interested in deep foundational questions while the laws of physics where do they come from? What is a human being why we hear time travel space travel destiny of mankind and all that sort of fun stuff. One such person is fear radical physicist who Davies who among other endeavors has been trying to find the solution to one of humankind's difficult big questions. What exactly is life? There are three great origins questions and sounds origin the invests the origin of life and the Arjun consciousness, and in my view, the origin of the universe. We figured out cosmetologist. And so I think we understand how the universe came to this the origin of life is a tough one. But we're hot on the trail the origin of consciousness, we don't even know how to frame the question. In his new book, the demon in the machine poor looks at whether or not we might have all the tools necessary to come up with a solution to what life is or if we might need something fundamentally new a new kind of physics yet to be discovered to answer. This question. We invited him onto this week show to talk about living mice dead mice and everything in between. I'm nichole Davis. This is science weekly. Tell me about when you first became interested in physics how long ago was that was that sort of an early love of yours or was it something that you came to enjoy while I was born of physicists say goes back into the mist of time. There were one or two childhood events that stand out. I was certainly interested in anything that happened in the sky from the age of about seven or eight because I can remember when to besides Nike member eating atoms. I was always fascinated with things unseen the fact that we live in this barring world, and it was barring I grew up in London in the fifties. It was full of steady. There was no fan, but this wonderland. That was all around us of hidden falses atoms and stuff in the sky, all that really inspired me. But what I'd like to tell people, and it's true is that I was propelled on my scientific career by none of Margaret Thatcher. Who gave a startling when I was sixteen. This was my level prize. He was the of the school. I went to north London. So that's another sort of land. My career. But I always wanted to be a physicist so many scientists have worked extensively on what life. Does you know? How do you define sort of life in terms of sort of how it manifests itself so unit reproducing or breathing or those sorts of things? But you're hoping to look at what it is. Why did you want to tackle that? I mean, it's a pretty big question. It is a Christian. And I'm not the first person to addition what is life? There's a famous physicist. Evan Schrodinger one of the founders of quantum mechanics who seventy five years ago published a book called what is life? And I read that book when I was a student, and I thought well, yes life is amazing. It's bizarre of physicists, it looks just like magic. If we're how can these stupid atoms get together and do such clever things I've been deeply intrigued by ever since another landmark event in my intellectual Grammy was in nineteen Ninety-three when. Martin REEs university. Cambridge convened a conference called from matter to life. And that really got me thinking, I met some of the world's greatest biologists, and cosmology and thinkers in general puzzling over how is it that Matic and transform itself into living matter, what is it that gives it that that we associate with knife acting..

physicist London Nike Margaret Thatcher Martin REEs university nichole Davis Grammy Matic Evan Schrodinger Davies Cambridge seventy five years
"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

01:33 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"Where will you turn making news, and the weather turns this year? Stormy need to get there on time. And where will you turn easy news watch never stops? WBZ NewsRadio ten thirty. Always always local this is Boston's NewsRadio WBZ ten thirty. Iheartradio station. Twenty-five partly cloudy skies right now in Boston at one thirty. We've got a winter storm watch out for Saturday afternoon. More details on that storm in just a second. I'm I'm nichole Davis. Good afternoon. Here is what's happening. Yes. We do have the first big winter storm of twenty nine thousand nine on our doorstep. Forecasters have their eyes on Saturday. That's when the storm is expected to move in after we get a little bit of rain and snow tonight. WBZ TV's Terry Eliason says if you're north and west of four ninety five you are getting the jackpot Dale very easily foot of snow. I think that's probably at this point. That's very conservative. I think there could be much probably one to two feet of snow and a lot of areas north and west of four ninety five and certainly up into the central and northern mountains of New England. And it's not just the snow. We have to worry about. Forecasters say rain will fall along the coast can even see some sleet mixing in with all this and then on Sunday night temps will start to free fall into the single digits. It'll be in. In the forty s on Sunday and Saturday. So this means everything that falls is then going to freeze, of course, you can turn to us throughout the storm for traffic and weather together every ten minutes, we have it.

Boston nichole Davis Terry Eliason Iheartradio station New England Dale ten minutes two feet
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

03:51 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Once the crater had been identified the impacts hypothesis gained popularity its grip was so strong that textbooks rewritten and the school curriculum was amended in some ways that has become science fact, not just an excellent high pulses before the discovery of the radium in the crater. There were many other ideas about what caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Hopefully, many many theories of range from the sensible to the absolutely ridiculous. And I don't know to what extent people were proposing these things seriously, but you know, the ridiculous end of the spectrum we've had things like aliens arrived and more hunting dinosaurs. And things like that. I have to bet my favorite almost death by boredom. Almost hundreds of these days and many of them are quite easing ridiculous. The majority of scientists found the impact hypothesis the most compelling and the most convincing explanation given the evidence. The physical evidence is over whelming. I don't think anyone would argue that we weren't hit by a very large Mitri. We might even have been hit by several the arguments are about whether or not the impact was responsible for the extinction and the main competing contender at the moment relates to what coke. And one of the main scientists behind this vocalism theory is to Cala she studies a set of Indian volcanoes called the Deccan traps, and she told nichole Davis why she thinks these are the cause of the dinosaurs demise. My name is good covered professor in geology and Paeleontology at Princeton University instant New Jersey. So I'm going to stop by us can get a lot of the work that you have done around the demise of the dinosaurs in this whole extinction that we're looking at here is linked to somewhere could the Deccan traps. Now, many of us that doesn't really have any particular image. Can you tell us where this is? And what it looks like set the scene for us a bit rather contracts. The result of a Super Bowl, Keno that means massive eruptions that essentially in India stretched for about seven hundred fifty thousand years today, what you see in India in turn all the mountains essentially in India that can trap mountains that means lava flow on top of lava flow on top of lava flows up to over three thousand two hundred meters high and it is absolutely spectacular. Now. It sounds like quite a dramatic landscape. And my understanding is your hypothesis that it was also dramatic series of events that had dramatic consequences. Can you talk me through your hypothesis for the extinction of the dinosaurs? And how that ties in to this CPA volcano you talking about okay? The Kushner's Valois start. Essentially, let's inning. Most people think that it was a meteoroid impact that killed the dinosaurs instantaneously, and basically do not think about the environmental effects of a super volcano. And I have spent a lot of time like twenty five years trying to prove the impact scenario, and I failed..

Deccan India professor nichole Davis Mitri Kushner New Jersey Princeton University Valois Paeleontology seven hundred fifty thousand y three thousand two hundred met twenty five years
"nichole davis" Discussed on Rob Has a Podcast

Rob Has a Podcast

03:55 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on Rob Has a Podcast

"Do you feel like that is Nick onto something with naming these alliances because you have to name all these fantasy football teams or you just a straight cash homey in every league, I got I'm straight cash in. I want to say six or seven of the eight I know him sole survivor in one SOU L. And I don't know. I think I might be I might have one other one. I can't remember. Most streak cash over. Yeah. I don't know. I'm not big into the name. In the second season. Second chance we did have tasha was coming up with names for it was like God. I'm not going to remember who it was. It was b- Tosh. Maybe it was Spencer in. No, no. It was me Tosh. Fish Fischbach in Sierra. Maybe. Okay. And I can't remember what the what the nickname was that we had some nickname and everything like firewater like, I don't know. What's the point of naming them? It's supposed to bring you together to make you feel like you to listen, if someone feels like like that that makes you feel tighter than bombings name it. But I don't think it brings you any clothes. I don't feel like any more of a bond than anything. I always feel like everybody's after be really Baranov as it is. I don't have a feel like. I'm safe with except for when gimme I like Jimmy's dog coming. You have a nickname with your alliance with Kimmy felt safe. Juicy j was awesome, juicy j the chicken. I wonder maybe like if you're feeling paranoid. You could just like go up the people. Hey quick. Let's let's come up with a name for our lions. Let's put a name on it. And the other is like. No, we don't need it. Don't worry about it. Tomorrow. We'll come up with the name. But like if they care about it. It's like a relationship, right? It's like if they really really no it can't be that can't be has to be something. Good. But you could have like how much they're invested in of having a good name for the alliance. My problem is I will be out there. Now have all these different names for everybody. And then I'll forget him. And losing my mind the wrong one. Yeah. You don't want to now four nichole Davis. I mean, what would be the plan for them? If you could come in and coach them like Cochran did a couple of seasons ago or for for Nick and Davey. What would be the plan? Was it? A so Mike is coming after go after my just went after Mike we Christian get voted out by five people or it was a split vote where three people voted for Christian. But then people voted for. I guess David. Okay. So I go I go, I take Nick. Yeah. And then Davey and Christian voted for Allison. I take Nick. And I say we have to go talk to Mike together. And we meet in the back of the woods and say, listen, there's gonna be a all girl alliance. Oh, if one of us are gone, they're going to take over and is going to be three women in the final tribal. Plan. The women could vote out Mike at the final four does the five. This is the fire making change any of that equation..

Nick Mike Tosh Kimmy Davey Spencer football tasha Sierra nichole Davis Jimmy Allison Cochran David
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

02:22 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"He is there any other accolade you want to want to ski poise about now just finding the time for the seat. So other areas of interest in your research. So so I have to say things like the Nobel prize or what I call knock-on effects, including the raw society presidency. These are not really part of signs. They're what you might call fringe benefits and signs it doesn't mean that you signed suddenly start. I mean might stop. If you got the prize for something you did twenty years ago, and you're not retired. You haven't done any signs for a while. But if you're an active scientist does always the next level of problems to pursue. And what we are trying to ask us how a rival Soames regulated in the cell. How do they know where to start and when to start and how efficiently to start making protein? Nhs how to viruses hijack Ribes homes to make their own proteins? And so there are lots and lots of problems and one thing I do say in the book is often, you know, you're on the path to goal, and you think you're reaching a summit. But actually when you get to summit, you realize you've only reached a little foothill and his whole range of mountains that are still there, you know, before you and van of our Bush who was very influential in forming postwar US science policy referred to science, the endless frontier. So there really is no end pointed science, you just keep on doing it until you're tired or you're and then you know, you let the next generation takeover. Thank you Christian. Thank you so much for joining us on science weekly. Thank you. That's it for this week. If you want to get in touch with us, you can just IMO science weekly at the guardian dot com or tweet at guardian audio and a link to Vancouver book, gene machine can be found on our website. The guardian dot com forward slash podcasts. The producer was Greg Jackson. I'm nichole Davis. Thanks for listening to next time. Goodbye. For more great podcasts from the guardian. Just go to the guardian dot com slash podcasts.

Nobel prize US Nhs Soames nichole Davis scientist Bush Vancouver Greg Jackson producer twenty years
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

05:02 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"I can like walk on my own without someone they're gonna. To catch me if I fall so so to speak while literally some working on that sort of trying to see what else this thing can do as one hundred now. It's almost impossible to comprehend how tough it must be to start learning to control your legs all over again after such an injury, but having Jeff story makes it clear that even beginning limited movement can have a huge personal impact. I wanted to get a sense of how results received by the wider research community, but disseminate Giovanni the new gist from Imperial College. London he we heard from earlier. I think it's it was very interesting observation to see some of the spacious do have an improvement in the so called Asia score, which has specific clincal scores to that analyze movement and sensory functioning this patient's. Therefore, I think it is an exciting field, but the does need to be developed in one way, we need more control than largest studies so that we don't make this. It's not edgy. The might be tailored just too few patients, but most patients and the other general thoughts are have is similar to what I was saying earlier. I think that the strategies alone will not be able to to conclusive repair recovering these patients because ultimately we need to work on enhancing reconnect TV which is still lost in this patient's to these trials suffer from any sort of general problems than about how people are selected of the selection of patients is. Let's say that every study has just a few patients can suffer from this kind of issue. They try for example, in this paper to patients with some different level of impairment and incomplete more or less incomplete completions. But it is mainly in the numbers. The problem lies, because if you have a large randomized trials and then than decision does not exist. So there is also Tang surely, but I don't know the specific studies, but this potentially an issue with patients who are more prone to undergo specific programs wearability program electric simulations versus others. So this might create some kind of bias in particular, numbers are low. And maybe last thought on this that I would like to share is the fact that why it is a. Great achievement to be able to enhance a movement in a limb. For example, that does not have any movement beforehand, the gap to be filled from this kind of movement that we have observed to fully control them fine tune movement will be very important to further enhance. The quality of life of the spacious is still a big up to feel. And while I'm optimistic, it's very difficult to give a time line and therefore the studies are exciting should not send the wrong message that we found a cure for sparkle danger, though that we are very close to it. Despite the success, then we need to be cautious about extrapolation results of this more trial and assuming that technique will offer benefits for all those paraplegia or even that it's necessarily the best option. But this EPA, Joe stimulation has clearly been a game changer for Jeff and some of his Co. participants across the research community. It feels like there's room for optimism with different angles of attack in the field and new votes emerging that a change in the lives of those paraplegia. Special. Thanks this week to Jeff monkey Claudia angelie in Samondo Giovanni for coach into the show. If you want to find out more, check out the links in the episode description on the guardian website. And if you want to get in touch with a science, weekly team drops align at science, weekly at the guardian dot com. Thanks for listening. I'm nichole Davis. This is science weekly. Pass from the guardian. Just go to the guardian dot com slash podcasts..

Jeff Giovanni London Imperial College nichole Davis Asia Samondo Giovanni EPA Claudia angelie Co.
"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

02:47 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"Nichole Davis in for Deb Lawler this morning top stories now. Former state Senator Brian Joyce was awaiting trial on federal corruption charges has died. At the age of fifty six was first elected back in nineteen ninety eight and left the Senate after not seeking reelection in two thousand sixteen and gas line purging continues today in the Merrimack valley those affected by the historic fires and explosions two weeks ago and the as hticket dot com sports studio. I'm Adam Kaufman. Ryder Cup underway. In Paris Red Sox will start at three game set with the Yankees tonight at Fenway Celtics preseason opener tonight in Charlotte Hartford Whalers throwbacks returning to Boston. All right. Our futures. Now, the Dow futures down thirty two points, NASDAQ futures down a quarter, the s&p futures down half a point now back to our top story. Senate Republicans say they're moving forward with a committee vote today on the nomination of judge Breyer Kavanagh to the supreme court CBS's. Pam Coulter reports this comes after yesterday's extraordinary and powerful day of testimony over allegations he sexually assaulted Dr Christine Blasi Ford in one thousand nine hundred eighty two Dr Christine Blasi four described and alleged highschool era sexual assault by supreme court nominee Brett Cavanaugh. I was pushed onto the bed and Brett got on top of me he began renting hands over my body and grinding into me cavenaugh testified he never sexually assaulted anyone. This whole two week effort has been a calculated an orchestrated political hit President Trump tweeted Kavanagh's testimony was powerful honest, and riveting and said the Senate must vote CBS news special report, I'm Pam Coulter. And for more on how the president. Viewed yesterday's testimony. Let's turn to political analyst Eric ham. His presidency was staked on his ability to actually nominate these types of judges. And so he thinks that he got a win that we saw Cavanagh actually come out and attack attack attack. Which is what Donald Trump wanted to see. And I think it's very important to know what we saw from judge Cavanaugh was that he was actually performing for an audience of one the president. But CBS news legal analyst Rikki clemen says cavenaugh did not give in to suggestions that he allow further FBI investigation into these allegations. He was not going to get involved in any of their questions or direct to ask the president to talk to Tom again. I mean, he was not going to get involved in anything that was going to prolong his confirmation process. Today's vote is scheduled for about nine thirty this morning. Be sure to stay with us here on WBZ. We'll have continuing coverage. And if you won't be near the radio, don't forget, you can all. Also, take us anywhere using the iheartradio app. WBZ news time five twenty one jersey shore fans one of the housemates is calling it quits with their spouse. Jay, wow, was getting unwed..

Brett Cavanaugh Senate President Trump CBS Pam Coulter president Breyer Kavanagh Senator Brian Joyce Dr Christine Blasi Eric ham Adam Kaufman Nichole Davis Dr Christine Blasi Ford Merrimack valley supreme court political analyst Deb Lawler Hartford Whalers iheartradio
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

02:30 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Journey that they have been on it's important because today we're trying to understand for example how the plant genome works how you go from genome to an organism and part of that story is written in the fossil record so that helps us interpret the plot gene today it's also vitally important because plants have a huge influence on the earth system itself through the compensate production of oxygen and so forth weathering effects that production of soils these have huge huge influences over periods of ten fifteen twenty million years at one to stand how the world can be habitable over very long period of time one needs to understand the story of plants a sentiment echoed by both guy and jemma back at the hampton court palace flower show i think another thing that is going to be really interesting visitors is not anything plants of come from but potentially where they're going to go we hopefully going to be around for quite a while longer say it's interesting to think what might come back i think is interesting of it self we can understand understand why plants are as an is very writing point tonight points the way to future where with climate change we can expect the conditions plants have face to change rather more quickly and we can see from the past what plans have done to to survive a changing climate and what they'll have to do to survive a changing future we'll need them to do where to survive as well so after that it seems that dinosaurs might have had some impact on plants and the plants likely had some impact on dinosaurs t that perhaps even more important than that this journey has shown me how surprising and intriguing the schnur plants is how the twists and turns in veg ernie through time is every bit is intriguing as that these big beasts the dinosaurs that we all know and love a huge thank you to pool guy and jemma as well as the natural history museum and rhs hampton court palace flower show for letting us record onsite if you'd like to get in touch with us you can the email address is science weekly at the guardian dot com or you can tweet us at guardian audio i'm nichole davis and this is science weekly for more great podcasts from the guardian just go to the guardian dot com slash podcasts

nichole davis jemma hampton court palace rhs hampton court palace ten fifteen twenty million yea
"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

03:58 min | 2 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Welcome back to science weekly i'm nichole davis for the break we heard about proto indo european the hypothetical common ancestor to hundreds of the world's languages from french hindi we heard from andrea collude about how linguists can look clues in p iit's daughter languages to try and create a family tree of what it might have sounded like and how it evolved over time much like geneticists can do with eva leash new family trees but exactly when where and why he i came to prominence is still something of a mystery so i wanted to find out a little bit more this is paul hegarty researcher and linguistic prehistory and also archaeology and genetics at the metrolink institute for the science of human history in you know in germany i spoke to pull down the line and started by asking him what other clues we can use to explore pi coal we've already heard how scientists can you similarities in existing languages to reveal clues about this theoretical proto indo european language where can clues from biology come in it's from ancient dna so the human skeletons dug up from archaeological sites and usually they take a very small sample particular par skull near the base called the petrous bone because that's where the best chances are of of getting ancient surviving ancient dna from this kind of and once you have that and you can compare it with dna of other skeletons and modern people then you can whole new field is opened up billion last few years this about looking at where people were at different points in in time because we know that you dna doesn't tell us which language we speak so it seems a little counter intuitive in a way to turned dna tell us something about language well we the dna samples are taken from particular skeletons in particular of sites we can date with radiocarbon dating we know where they were that's where we dug them up and certainly there are for in regions where we know particularly spoken with dominant language at particular times when we have written records then we can be fairly confident we knew what language those people speaking and then we can look at jeans and compare them with more than speakers of languages or indeed with other populations in other areas where we don't know what languages were at the time it's not really i mean we can't do these simplistic matches of language genes we know that doesn't work but there are other ways of doing it you can you have sort of linguistic record of of the past from all the european languages compact we can take the back to put them into european we know that really they must have been this big geographic expansion through the past and you can see that in the languages but you can also see human expansions you know in the record you can also see human expansion it's now in the ancient dna record so what we're trying to work out is which of the expansions we see in the in the material culture they left behind which the expansions we see the genetics which of the expenses we know must have happened in mystics how they all fit together which ones go with a witch echoing andrea's earlier points this all has a touch of detective work about it trying to bring together findings in archaeology linguistics and now ancient dna to create a clearer picture of what might have been going on around this time if an ipod 'this here there but as you can imagine this picture will be clearer from.

nichole davis
"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

02:13 min | 3 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"Newsradio ten thirty where the news never stops wbz news time ten o'clock right now sixty gorgeous degrees in boston but we could see some showers this morning otherwise mostly cloudy skies high in the mid sixties traffic and weather together coming up i'm nichole davis wbz news our top story this hour grief in yarmouth today after a member of the town's police department is shot and killed in the line of duty wbz's karyn regal has more on how the community is coming together there's a memorial to officers loss outside yarmouth police headquarters another name must be added now sean gannon just thirty two killed while serving a warrant on a man with a hundred and eleven priors until his name is carved into the granite people have left flowers someone left a candle with a blue stripe and yarmouth police chief frank frederickson says everybody out there appreciates the work that cleese offs across the country to redo every day to become the victim of a violent crime like this is just intolerable in your mouth karyn regal wbz newsradio ten thirty i'm we're learning more about that man accused of killing officer gannon thomas lennon tanna which of somerville has a long criminal history is karen mentioned in her report before this incident lantana which had more than one hundred ten priors on his record the cape and islands da says he will be now now we'll be facing murder charges and we'll be rain later today in barnstable district court wbz news time ten oh one state police continue to search for suspects this morning in a kidnapping investigation officials say a man was allegedly kidnapped last night in lawrence and state and local police started searching for a great caravan around eleven thirty after officer said two suspects in that incident showed weapons not long after state police say the victim and the minivan were found in andover on grenada way but the suspects took off trooper's canine teams and a helicopter all searched for them didn't find anything so about an hour later police found a vehicle connected to the kidnapping on route one ten they were able to chase it stopped it on avon street in lowell one of those suspects was arrested and the.

lowell grenada andover murder karen gannon thomas lennon cleese frank frederickson boston kidnapping officer lawrence somerville sean gannon karyn regal nichole davis
"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

WBZ NewsRadio 1030

01:52 min | 3 years ago

"nichole davis" Discussed on WBZ NewsRadio 1030

"And weather together coming up on nichole davis wbz news our top story this hour boston police say they need your help to find a suspect after a man was shot and killed in south boston last night wbz's kim tunnicliffe has that story it was around eleven thirty last night when gunfire erupted in the area of castillo circle here in the d street housing complex a man in his twenties sitting in a car was hidden killed by a bullet according to police commissioner evans they found a meal inside shot once in the head he was taken from the he was pronounced dead at boston medical center obviously were canvassing the area we're looking for witnesses who are looking at cameras resident eleanor our back tells me she was caught off guard by news of the shooting walk my dogs here every morning and every night for like ten years i usually feel pretty safe walking around here in south he'd kim tunnicliffe wbz newsradio ten thirty after more than six weeks officials found the body of a missing man from eastern yesterday gregory glavin was last seen on february seventeenth leaving his girlfriend's house in north attleboro brockton enterprise reports the search for glenn went on for weeks after he disappeared when they hit nothing but dead ends has parents recently reached out to the states rescue and recovery canine team for assistance and it took only hours before they found cleveland's body next to his moped it was under a tarp off bay road near right farm his mother helen told the enterprise the search teams worked systematically and they really cared about finding her son officials say no foul play is suspected wbz news time ten oh one it appears old man winters really holding on with all he's got wbz tv meteorologist danielle niles reports for the next few hours it's true you might see some snowflakes out your window or spring snow on the way this afternoon it moves in it'll be a brief period of really only a couple of hours where its nose at a pretty good clip the roads will be wet not white there'll be some reduced visibility generally some scattered coatings to as much as an inch on.

nichole davis boston kim tunnicliffe castillo circle evans boston medical center gregory glavin glenn cleveland helen eleanor wbz danielle niles six weeks ten years