7 Burst results for "New Negro Movement"
"new negro movement" Discussed on Black Agenda Radio
"So it's things like that you spoke of his fatigue of deploys or at least boys in his position during World War One but this Guy Harrison interacted with everybody household names now eight, Phillip, Randolph, Marcus Garvey, and Cyril Briggs and a whole host of people could you talk about his interaction with Marcus Garvey? Yes that's going to be a very significant section of volume two. Because Harrison introduced scarver to his first major talk in Harlem in nineteen, seventeen and Garvey. joined. Harrison's organization. He was a follower of Harrison first. But Garvey's started going his own way and has many details into how Garvey finally takes off in Harrison says, you know what I was up I always extended a hand to Garvey. I'd have haven't come speak at my meetings or speak afterwards, but he never got the same extension of courtesy from Garvey, but Garvey starts to take off and starts building a large. Mass. Movement and Garvey Ben Asks at the end of Nineteen. Nineteen. Garvey asked Harrison to lead a Negro college that Barbie wanted to set up and Harrison of course, a great educator and he was interested in that Harrison had five children and he was always in search of work he living in poverty all the time and it was interesting but as soon as. Harrison kind of reported for duty if you will. Garvey. told him. You know and made clearance real intention was to have harassing at the Negro World whose paper which Harrison Dangerous Housing loved journalism and was doing that. So after Harrison's working for a few months to Garvey, he starts laying out some of his criticisms. I, he talks about how he reshaped the Negro. World and that section alone is just a wonderful piece of historical importance that I think you again and others will be interested in a great chapter in the history of black journalism because how he talks how he changed the headlines. The articles how a was innovative with Book Review Sections and poetry for the people and a host of other things that he does. But. In the course that he he gets take more intimately know Garvey and he becomes increasingly disillusioned with Garvey and he details this in his diary. So a lot of this stuff has not previously come out and he criticize Garvey for his bombast, his exaggerations but particularly, he's critical Garvey for his handling of monies in terms of monies collected for the Black Star line and Liberian construction and again there's a number of. Things Harrison's very critical Garvey and I think what people will find in this volume is probably the strongest and most informed criticism of Garvey by one of his contemporaries and will offer much food for thought for people not that Harrison is perfect by the way in my book and introduction I open up with a quote from J. Rogers a few quotes quote from Eugene O'Neill who harrison corresponded with J. Rogers and even Harrison himself. When he writes in his diary he kinda wrote his diary for those who come after him and he put down and he goes I'm writing it here now but I don't WanNa hide things I wanna lay out as I understand them and I think later on some things will be important some things less important but so his diaries quite honest and frank for the most part but then Eugene O'Neill says when you're writing. About a person tell the true story don't try and just propagandize at bat somebody being great and tell a truthful story and I quote from on O.`Neil in the introduction but then Rogers who knew Harrison very well Jay. Rogers sometimes lived with Harrison and his family and they were very close until Harrison. Harrison. died and he has one passage which quote in the beginning of the book that no man is perfect to his valet. Words we all got our faults, but in the case of Harrison, that's no reason to deny his essential greatness. So getting back to Garvey now I lay out of the things I. I'm very honest about things Harrison does go to read it aside you know where he's right where he's not but he has very strong and pronounced criticisms of Garvey and in Garvey's era, there were some of the contemporaries others you know several briggs was a big critic of the. Do, boys WHO's a critic? You know a lot of the people you mentioned critics, Barbie but it was also contended by some that Garvey was running a Ponzi scheme. If you're familiar with that phrase, it was just a hustle and because the money was not accounted for he was selling stock for ships that he didn't own things like that. So Harrison goes into that it's gotta be controversial. Actually expect. Eight Phillip. Randolph is remembered by most as Labor leader of but in the early twenties when he and Hubert Harrison were moving in the same circles eighth Randolph was quite radical. Yes. He was and he was in the Socialist Party and its Rambagh who describes Harrison as the father of Harlem. Radicalism and he kinda gets moved and direction of socialism by. Harrison. But Harrison has a certain distance from Randolph after point because Randolph is tied up with own channel Owen and they at first, they were dabbling with the established political parties and then they went from one to another and Harrison criticized Internet, and then you know. They started getting involved ultimately with the Messenger but one key thing Glenn that I found very important when I'm talking about Harrison and his efforts sometimes failed with his publications and Y do boys had some success with his publications and breaks had some success with his publications and Randolph in Owen a key thing is to follow the money and see where they're getting their funding them and I go into this in detail who supporting them. For instance, do voices getting money from being on in the early years, and then later he gets sums of money from foundation called the girl in fund the Garland Fund gives her randolf and. Breaks gets money from the Communist Party Garvey gets money from his financial schemes if you will. So disorders very complicated. There's lessons in this and Harrison for instance, Harrison refused to take money. Cly He wants to be independent and black directed publications. So he refused it was said that in nineteen seventeen, eighteen, he refused ten thousand dollars from white donor because he said, he wanted us to control the direction of this publication. So there are things like that at a gun into in the public. So you want to put Hubert Harrison in the Pantheon of black notables, not just of that era but of black politics in general how in a phrase? Remember Hubert Harrison. In a phrase, he is an outstanding race conscious radical internationalist founder of the militant New Negro Movement and the most class conscious of the race radicals and the most race conscious of the class radicals of his day by the way when you mentioned before about Harrison, getting some recognition finally a couple of years ago he received some recognition and Museum of Afro American History in Washington DC African American. History American history where he's now shares a wall with Elaine Lock on the new Negro as a that was kind of significant development. But again, Harrison is a militant religious conscious in class conscious, radical, internationalist, and brilliant in all those areas that I mentioned journalist writer editor order he belongs up there. Some of his contemporaries consider him the leading black activist and radicals his day and I sight them. Harrison was a brilliant or die tactic working class race in class conscious writer or editor educator book reviewer, political activist, and radical internationalised. The historian Joe Lay Rogers said he was perhaps the foremost African American intellect of his time and one of America's greatest minds. A Phillip Randolph referred to Harrison as the father of Harlem radicalism. Richard be more a major activist and bill filed who worked with the Socialist Party African blood brotherhood. Communist Party, and movements for Caribbean independence fedaration described him as above all his contemporaries and you steady emphasis than a vital aim was the liberation of the oppressed African and other colonial peoples. So dressed Glenn the importance of readers and listeners to try and put in a request early to get Harrison the harassing booking their libraries you know. So others can have access to him. You know that's very important..
"new negro movement" Discussed on Black Agenda Radio
"Then when it first was discovered in the United States with at least a half of the new infections being African Americans yes. Black communities could take. A really suffer from HIV and we can all recall perhaps a couple of years ago. The CDC's very fatalistic description that within a few years that one of every two black queer man would be positive. Those kinds of rhetorical strategies which are I guess at least intended by public health officials to galvanize people are actually there. Fatalism is actually performed live in the sense that. It creates the conditions that dude then allow for that kind of disease burden to be distributed. In that way. The thing is we need to knicks all understanding of HIV AIDS ask some kind of issue of pathological behavior. We know for example, that when it comes to drug use in illicit drug use that white college age men are the worst users. We know that when it comes to risky sex quote, unquote black folks are not any more likely to engage in risky sex and many populations. If you do the of division where are less likely to engage in risky sex than their white counterparts, what that tells us is that it's not about behavior it's about the context in which behaviors happened, and so when we think about, for example HIV in relation. His sexuality we really have to think about sexual segregation, the violent demarcation of waters around set, which again drives epidemic like HIV because you have smaller sexual populations were isolated and contained, and that is actually what draws the conditions not who's having more sex without condoms or not kt Ron is working on a book to be titled Dark Agra's insurgent black social life and the politics of place in twentieth. Century Philadelphia. In the first quarter of the twentieth century an emigrant from the Virgin Islands named Hubert Harrison influenced a whole generation of black activists including Marcus Garbagey, a Phillip Randolph and the entire so-called Negro Movement. Activist and scholar Jeffrey. Perry has spent more than a decade chronicling the life and works of Hubert Harrison and will soon release the second volume of his biography titled Hubert Harrison the struggle for equality it's the first multi volume biography of an Afro Caribbean, Full Life Multi volume biography of an Afro Caribbean and only the force of an African American. So he is really I think a giant and in his era he was arguably the most class of the race radicals and the most race conscious of the class radicals he was a brilliant. Auto died active working class race and class conscious writer. Or? Editor educator. Book reviewer political activist and radical internationalised. And in this volume that I've just completed, there is so much material I believe for current and future generations to draw from in. So many areas whether it be his political activism his. Reviews, his comments on individuals but I also look key understood. What's very crucial for struggle still today is understood the centrality of the struggle against the primacy. To radical social change efforts in the US and when he was with the Socialist, he raised that issue and he wound up losing socialist because he saw and concluded that the socialist and Labour woman put the white race I before class. So he broke the net, he had previously concluded and wrote about it that politically the Negro in the words of the day, the Negro is the touchstone of the modern democratic idea and true democracy and equality for the Negro implies revolution startling to even think he understood I think how central that was. That was one of the things that appeal to me I. But after he left the Socialists, then he did some independent work for a while. But then he kind of went out on his own and he founded the first organization and the first newspaper of the militant new Negro Movement. That was the paper in Liberty League was the organization is around nineteen seventeen, the voices eight years before Elaine locks new Negro. Harrison. Then at its publication called the new Negro in nineteen nineteen, sixty s before lock and very significantly in nineteen twenty he becomes principal editor of Marcus Garvey's Negro. When that paper sweeps the globe and so he's saying extraordinary generalist which you in particular but others I think again, we'll find much to draw. He's a hundred years before you, but he's hitting on many of the same. Topics which are still confronting today. Well Uber Harrison clearly is right in the center, and in fact, one of the movers and shakers and shapers of this New Negro Movement and even folks with a cursory. Knowledge of recent history know about the new Negro Movement but lots of them don't know the name Hubert Terrasson why is that? I elaborated on some of it volume one, but it's more even that I'll comment on. Now he was ignored for many many years for some pretty traditional reasons. He was poor he was working class he was an immigrant he was dark skinned. He was challenged a church, the strongest institution, the Black Community, a number of things like that, and he had no long lasting organizational ties and he dies young he dines at forty four and nineteen, twenty seven. But what I've come to really understand more fully now is that it's got a lot to do with how history gets written. And how things get passed on particularly in the academy and people just kind of PAT each other on the back and reprint things and they say things, they often don't do good digging. You know in terms of primary sources. One of the things I think readers will find of great interest in help in this second time of my biography is it is rooted in primary sources, including Harrison's diary and his papers, and what's particularly unique about this is wherever possible I try to include links directly to the original documents. So Harrison writes something in his diary I have a link to we can go and read the original source. He considered himself the first regular reviewer book reviewer in quote Negro newspaper them, and if he's reviewing a book in Nineteen, twenty, two or twenty three, you can now read his comments but then you can go directly to the book that he was reviewing back. Then because I've searched hard to find links on permanent sites like Happy Trust or the Internet archive where these books may be available and so I really wrote it to stand the test of time you know one hundred years I wanted to be a tool that people can use, but it's got a lot to do with how history is written. One example I'll give. Great. Detail now, but I do discuss it in my book. My reprint edition of when Africa awakes the inside story of the strivings of the new Negro in the Western world. That's Harrison's Book Nineteen Twenty and in my commentary on that I, comment on one of the leading scholars if you will on the new Negro and how in one of the books that he puts out and someone else put out things you I think it's eight or ten Harrison articles. This is finding it's starting to recognize him but of those articles. I think seven are totally misstated. They put the dates back longer you know after Harrison wrote them. So it loses a little of the priority and preeminence of Harrison's work and they say things like Harrison was moved his political radicalism during World War One because he was a follower of wbz voice when in fact, Harrison was doing world where one the leading critic of do voice for the voices position during World War One, which harassing criticize an article dissenting voice where do boy says, we must forget a special grievances, special grievances being lynching segregation disfranchised, and close ranks behind Woodrow Wilson's war effort so more and more. I come to appreciate that the way history is written has had a big effect on Harrison that being better known but I think that's being overcome because when I started out years ago and the first came out when I google terraces named the Google County wasn't might have been forty sites and then it was up over a hundred and some odd after a few years with lots of talks and but then Google changed their algorithm, but it's still way up there now and I'm really hoping to reach a lot of younger activists and scholars with this work and I'm hoping people like that will help get word. But another thing I'm trying to do and that's one reason I'm putting out information on this volume early is because I'm trying to encourage people to not only if they can. You know get it themselves, get both volumes themselves, but try and make it a point to reach out to their public libraries and school college university libraries to get copies of one or both books so that the public has access to this Harrison was a great proponent of free public libraries. He thought they wanted great institutions in this country he often spoke freely at libraries. Way To. Reach the masses in his day and it's still a way to reach the masses and that was a primary concern of Harrison. He always sought to educate the masses. So I think the standard reasons he was not better known what I mentioned earlier, but he was a critic also many of the leading activists of his day and so people sometimes got stung by his criticisms. It wasn't mean spirited criticism, but they made it a point not to mention him later. But increasingly now I've come to see a re things and I think Harrison G he should have been in there. Somebody's writing on a new Negro and totally Miss Harrison because he founds. The first organization in nineteen seventeen, he has the new Negro in Nineteen nineteen he writes a book in Nineteen, twenty subtitled the inside story of the new Negro in the Western world and yet everybody says, Oh Elaine Locks nineteen twenty, five new Negro and partly because locked he's more palatable to more middle class arts based movement in Harrison's more politically driven..
"new negro movement" Discussed on Studio 360 with Kurt Andersen
"Gwendolyn she was actually a few years older than Lawrence very beautiful woman and she had gone to Howard University but because of the depression had left on back to Harlem born in Bridgetown Barbados. Nineteen Thirteen Gwendolyn. Like Jacob became a foster child when she was seven years old. I think if you know a little bit about Jacob I think by the time he was thirteen or fourteen he. He and his mother didn't get along. He was a foster child when he went to Harlem so Gwynne was from her mother given to a family to come to the US because her mother thought that she could have a better life here so in a sense they were both orphans. Barbara Earl. Thomas is a Seattle based visual artists. She met the couple when she was a graduate student and when the couple grew old she became their caretaker. So when Gwen and Jacob finally got together they were very much on their own and I feel like people were older quicker. I mean this long childhood thing we have going on now. That's just you know that just wasn't happening you know in your fifteen years old and you're sixteen years old. You were making your way. Augusta savage also recognized. Lawrence's Talon once. You found out that he had dropped out of school to focus on painting. She made sure it wouldn't be in vain. Nineteen thirty seven thousand the officers on the project. They said I was too young but she. They advised Back next year I went back to all of Wasn't the anymore. She had not forgotten and she took me back. A sign me up. I was signed on the EASEL. The almost comically bureaucratic name easel division referred to the Group of artists who paint conventional canvas works for public throughout the city. A turning to six weeks and salary was a fabulous our at twenty. Three thousand aces. This was a major turning point. Lawrence's career here. Again is Patricia Hills. He was very involved with showing the history of African Americans in this country and also like to Saint Louis Latour in Haiti. Lawrence was twenty years ago. He was inspired to paint too sought lower from conversations. He overheard at the three. Oh six black. History had never been a major part of his formal education so he immediately immersed himself in research and it became clear that a single painting wouldn't do justice to the story he wanted to portray. I mean people don't know that that revolutionary history but the the Haitian army fought on the side of the US against the British during the revolutionary war. He wanted to bring out that history. Lawrence would choose a serial format and create work focusing on the mistreatment of patients by colonial farmers as well as low richer struggle to educate himself fight military occupation forces and achieve independence for his country completed in nineteen thirty eight. Lawrence's series the life of to Lower. -Ture consists of forty-one panels in many ways this series. What serve as a template for the more astonishing works yet to come. He was a historian as well as an artist and was very important to him to get his message and get the teachings of history across. So that's why he decided to do series so that he would have captions to each one of the pictures so that they were there almost like storyboards for a movie you know. In which you you know you go. From scene to scene and he weaves together in their rhythms really returning back to what? Elaine lock was calling artists to do in the nineteen twenties and thirties. Melanie Harby as a professor of Art History at Howard University nine that African legacy in using tools and strategies from that period to address our contemporary moment. So we see figurative representations of African Americans and powerful stances going back to New Negro Movement and Times revising African American representation. The fact that in the nineteenth century there was a whole visual program a by individuals like not only Richard Alan. The founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church the oldest African American denomination in the states but also individuals like Frederick Douglass. Either beat truth literally using their representation as a way of redefining identity. National Right so in some ways we can think about. Even what Jacob Lawrence grows to do right as a building on this kind of visual strategy of correcting misrepresentations histories of oppression. Laurence POWELL TO SALT. Literature series additional works depicting the lots of big years including Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman. But his most ambitious work was yet to come.
"new negro movement" Discussed on Studio 360 with Kurt Andersen
"And this prolonged absence will cause Lawrence's parents to separate with a pregnant rose Lee taking the children to Philadelphia and giving birth to Jacob's brother William in nineteen twenty four a struggling mother of three. Rosalie thought best move to New York City and build a life for young children. She will leave them a foster care. That was a common practice at the time. It would take six years before thirteen-year-old Jacob join her in Harlem. It was a place that some referred to as the spiritual center of Black America Shoemaker. In New the the ICEMAN. Here's Lawrence and conversation with historian Henry Louis Gates Nineteen ninety-five. You knew the minister. You knew these people and you knew a person liked the Probably used to run down the street throwing imaginary hand-grenades he was he was he was a shell. Shock Better World War but the community new communities are took care of them and he was a part of the community. So this is all a part of this community was a sense of longing. I belong to the community. The community belongs to me if they had been paradigm F parliament hidden. Then mouth a Mike. That's Ozzie Davis. Reading one of links and hues this essays toast to Harlem Heaven State of mind. I commented you mind that simple draining. His glass from Central Park. One hundred seventy nine river to river. Holum mind during the nineteen twenties voices like Hughes along with contemporaries county color or no Hurston. Jean toomer catapulted the Harlem community onto the national stage. It's really a a catalyst for what historians called the New Negro Movement historian and civil rights. Professor Kevin Games and the new Negro represented this militant political and social movement with the demands for equality. You had as part of the new Negro movement black nationalism and black nationalism was led by the movement organized by Marcus Garvey who is Jamaican Immigrant. That brought together. African Americans in the south with black people in the Caribbean with migrants from the Caribbean. Repealing desire all over the world kind of Canadians of America for the American of England English Soprano Rental Germany for the Germans do think unreasonably we the black by over there with the man. We represented new it back again to what we do not Black Socialism of African American Socialist and labor leaders like Hubert Harrison and a Philip Randolph. Around one hundred thousand African Americans fought in Europe in World War One or were stationed in Europe in World War. One and they're meeting folks from the French colonies in West Africa. They're meeting Senegalese blacks english-speaking African American intellectuals like Langston Hughes and Jesse Faucet are meeting French speaking black intellectuals and activists blocks who migrated to urban centers like Harlem were more readily able to unify politically and culturally so with the passage of the fifteenth amendment. In eighteen sixty eight African American men could vote and hold elective office throughout the south. There's this tremendous white southern democratic backlash with the political representatives of the former plantation slave owning class. Really trying to thwart African aspirations. It culminates in a movement from roughly eighteen ninety to the early twentieth century in which African American men are barred from voting and the great migration happens at this low point and African American politics while the country was still debating over what it owed newly freed. Slaves southern blacks were confronted with more pragmatic obstacles but Amos Spencer crew were at the National Museum of African American history and culture. And I'm the acting director of this museum. Conditions in the south are getting more difficult for agriculture. There is a flood that takes place in the south at pushes a lot of African Americans who were tenant farmers and sharecroppers off the land. There's also the attack of the Boll Weevil which is tax cut than which is the primary crop.
"new negro movement" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Convict lease system meaning you could just roundup black men for standing on the street being vagrants put him on a chain gang and put him back on the plantation so that the cut remain the leading export the United States through the nineteen thirties somebody had to pick the cotton and they were not going to pay them a fair wage now we get to the present and I wanted to give the vast majority of the segment over to the actual history so that not everything is trump trump trump all the time yeah but you do right quote few historical periods are more relevant to understanding contemporary racial politics as the reconstruction era how so well think about the key issues of reconstruction who's a citizen who has a right to be an American who can become a citizen who has the right to vote think about all the voter suppression that's going on as violence the rise of white supremacy and the refusal of the president of the United States to denounce that white supremacists terrace violence the relationship between economic and political democracy all these issues continue to royal our society in politics today and they're all reconstruction issues the reason that we're dealing with them today is that we never dealt with them in reconstruction the robot most remarkable thing about reconstruction is how short it was slavery lasts for a quarter of a millennium and reconstruction last twelve years and the roll back to reconstruction continues today and you can eat you know if you put it in a a pithy phrase reconstruction is twelve years of a black freedom followed by all right roll back Barack Obama eight years of black political power and freedom followed by all right rolled back it's obvious and so my partner dealing again I'd you'll find this interesting we have a list of black history series that we are one of bank for PBS what is on the black church one is on the Great Migration one is on reconstruction so before the last presidential election we were having a hard time explaining to people the relevance of reconstruction but guess what as soon as that the bike the next day it's in our faces we we could put that show on a hundred networks that but of course we put it on PBS that's right here's a clip of Obama and I think it's relative relevant to a couple of things you talked about the so called new Negro movement right a kind of politics of respectability from a century ago right we had to show them that we were clean we could speak proper English that we were Victorians you know that we were middle class right and it got criticized even then by some as no we don't have to show them that we're only the best of the best in order to have basic human and civil rights right that's right and and so here's Obama on talking talking to some corners of the Democratic Party who he's afraid of politically doing the wrong thing going toward twenty twenty and one of the things I do worry about sometimes among progressives in the United States maybe it's true here as well is a certain kind of rigidity where we set out I'm sorry this is how it's going to be and then we start sometimes creating what's called a a circular firing squad where you shot shooting at your allies because one of them as straying from purity on the issues so that was a bomber from this spring similarly vox writer Matthew Yglesias wrote recently what he calls the great awoken name which tracks the shift that he described as white liberal views on race getting further to the left of black Americans by and large I I wonder where either you know the Obama clip we just heard about that idea from Matthew Yglesias fit into the narrative as you see it of today well the I think the date it's hard to figure out what's going on his ring with the field of potential presidential candidates in the Democratic Party is just at the beginning there are a lot of people out there and and there's a lot of improvisation is with the bar stuff myself by putting a lot of riffing and signifying going on but I think that that's that that's a healthy part of democracy the field will be weeded out and sooner or later one or two strong candidates will emerge no one knows if the parties to go to the left or to the right right now people are still you know that feeling being hit in the stomach and it wouldn't even the wind knocked out I'm Donald Trump knocked the wind of the Democratic Party and in fact much of the country as far as I'm concerned so everyone still trying to get their breath we don't know we have a low unemployment the economy is rolling no one knows exactly what to do but I think that the party will find its voice Henry Louis gates his new book is still only the road reconstruction white supremacy and the rise of Jim crow there's also a young adult related book called dark sky arising reconstruction and the dawn of Jim crow and a two part PBS series called reconstruction America after the civil war such an honor to have you here in person thank you very much thank you my brother at W. NYC we rely on listener support but what exactly does that mean I'm Nancy Solomon W. N. Y. C.'s managing editor for nature's because of our listener support we have journalistic independence when reporters pitch story ideas to me I do not think about advertisers I think about you.
"new negro movement" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"But if you're up for a day of interesting history, there is a, a lot of other stuff to check out that day. So come and see us. So now to the topic at hand this year is the hundredth anniversary of the wave of racist violence in the United States that came to be known as red summer. And we talked about. This just a little bit in our twenty fifteen episode on the Harlem hell fighters. But that was a long time ago, and it was just like a little bit in part, three of the episode. Not really enough to do it Justice. And honestly, it was a whole summer. You could do an entire podcast just on this, but with one hundred anniversary it seemed like a good time to return to it in a lot of ways. The violence of red summer was a response to, to earlier and sometimes overlapping events, and those were the great migration and the return of black soldiers who had fought in World War One to the United States and to be clear. Neither of these things caused red summer red summer was a backlash to them. The these returning veterans and migrating families were not to blame for what happened. But since this is part of the historical context, today's episode is going to start off with a little bit about those two events before getting into the violence that stretched this summer and fall and a case. It is not clear. This episode includes a lot of violence, including sexual violence. Some of it is just particularly horrifying in nature. The great migration was a mass relocation of black Americans out of the south and into the cities in the north and mid west. It peaked in the mid to late nineteen teens. But the same pattern of migration continued for decades afterward. There was also migration within the south from rural areas into southern cities, most of the people who were moving had been sharecroppers doing essentially the same work as their enslaved ancestors, had done sometimes even on the same land, and for the same landowners, sharecroppers rented the land that they lived and worked on. And then they paid their rent by giving share of their crop to the landowner, but it was almost impossible to make a decent living as sharecropper, many sharecroppers were in debt to their landlords, owing money for things like the tools and supplies that they needed to do their jobs, unscrupulous landlords could make the situation much worse. But even if a person's landlord was honest, and fair share cropper often earned a. Distance level living at best sharecroppers face the same threats to their livelihoods as any other farmer did, including pests, and bad weather, and fluctuating prices the Boll weevil, which had been introduced to the United States in the late eighteen hundreds spread farther and farther into cotton territory in the nineteen teens destroying the crop as it went. And then in nineteen fifteen widespread flooding effected many of the same areas that had just been ravaged by weevils as the southern economy, shifted after the civil war. White farmers had also been caught up in the same system of share cropping. It was exploitive, regardless of who was doing the farming, but the system was stacked most heavily against black sharecroppers who face the additional hardships of systemic discrimination, and racism, including segregation, political oppression and racist violence in the nineteen teens black southerners started hearing about new opportunities than potentially better life in the north in the mid west this included. Jobs with better wages and better educational opportunities for their children people heard about these opportunities through word of mouth from friends or family who had already moved word also came through advertisements placed by businesses and organizations that were hoping to attract new workers to their area after the United States entered World War, One some of these jobs were specifically connected to the war effort between nineteen fourteen and nineteen twenty roughly five hundred thousand black Americans left the south and moved to urban areas. Elsewhere in nineteen twenty Emmett j Scott described it this way quote. They were in the frame of mind for leaving they left as though they were fleeing some curse they were willing to make almost any sacrifice to obtain a railroad ticket, and they left with the intention of staying this led to labor shortages in the south and sometimes entire communities were abandoned, that also dramatically shifted, the racial demographics of cities, like Detroit, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia will. Be returning to that shift and just a bit the United States became involved in World War One as the great migration was happening and the war directly affected. The nation's black citizens as well after the United States declared war on Germany in nineteen seventeen people were eager to enlist in the military. This included at least twenty thousand black men who volunteered in April, and early may this actually presented a problem for the military though. The marines didn't accept black recruits at all the navy and the coast guard. Technically did but only in menial roles so overwhelmingly black men were serving in the army, which at least in theory accepted black men in most areas of the service and practice, though, the army was racially segregated with only a very few all black units and existence at that time. So after the declaration of war on Germany. The army reached its quota for black recruits and just about a week in may of nineteen seventeen congress passed the selective service act. Which required men regardless of race to register for the draft. The army began creating new all black units and trained, one class of black officers at fort Des Moines in may of nineteen seventeen sending most black officer candidates after that point to train at camps in Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Hawaii or Panama. Ultimately, about three hundred seventy thousand black men served in the US. Army in World War, One, these men faced persistent discrimination during their service, all black units were often assigned to menial, work like digging trenches and unloading cargo and removing unexploded ordinance, and while it's true that this was all work that needed to be done. And somebody had to do it disproportionately. The people doing the army's hardest dirtiest, and most degrading work. We're black black soldiers, also experienced day-to-day harassment and discrimination throughout the war. There's more about all this in that past episode about the Harlem health, fighters support for participation in the war wasn't universal within the black community. One line of thought was that it made no sense for people to put their lives on the line for a country that at best treated them as second class citizens. This was a specially true because the United States had framed its involvement in the war as making the world safe for democracy. So it seemed. Hypocritical to fight for a country that was refusing to do the same within its own borders. But many civil rights leaders and organizations, really took the opposite stance arguing that this was a chance for black citizens to demonstrate to the rest of the nation that they were human beings and patriots worthy of respect who were actively making a positive contribution to the nation, the experience of military service during the war motivated, many of these soldiers to actively fight for equal rights, after they returned home. W E e do boys described it this way in the NWC magazine the crisis, quote, we are returning from war, the crisis, and tens of thousands of black men were drafted into a great struggle for bleeding France in what she means and has meant and will mean to us and humanity and against the threat of German race arrogance we fought gladly into the last drop of blood for America, and her highest ideals. We fought in far off hope for the dominant southern oligarchy entrenched in Washington. We fought in bitter resignation in the senatorial boys went on to describe the United States as a shameful land saying that it Lynch's and disenfranchises at citizens encourages ignorance and steals from an insults, black citizens. He concluded by saying, quote, we return we return from fighting. We return fighting make way for democracy. We saved it in France, and by the great Jehovah, we will save it in the United States of America, or no. The reason why James Weldon Johnson, who coined the term red summer described it this way in his nineteen thirty three autobiography quote the colored peoples throughout the country were disheartened and dismayed. The great majority had trustingly felt that because they had cheerfully done their bit in the war conditions for them would be better, the reverse seem to be true earlier civil rights advocacy had tended toward a conciliatory approach. But after the war do boys and other civil rights. Leaders were increasingly direct lobbying very aggressively for equal rights legislation and for anti lynching laws this advocacy became part of what came to be known as the new negro movement, which was rooted in assertiveness, and confidence, and was also connected to the Harlem renaissance membership in the end CPI really surged from about nine thousand members before the war to one hundred thousand afterward. Compounding that many of the people who moved from the south did not find the north to be what they imagined it to be many schools neighborhoods, and public accommodations were still segregated by custom if not by law, many industries were clues to black workers and many of the ones that weren't involved manual labor or service, work discrimination, and harassment may have been less overt in some ways, but they were still there all of this folded back into that growing advocacy for equal rights and equal treatment. So it was a whole system in which. People who had moved, or people who had come back from war, or people who had done both of those things where fighting themselves still facing all of this discrimination, and then simultaneously, people of all races in the United States were competing for scarce jobs and housing immediately after the war, the first red scare was going on. And that created a climate of fear of communism and Bolshevism also immediately after the war. The nation was very nationalistic and Xena phobic, and all of this together fed into this backlash that came to be known as red summer. We'll start talking about how it.
"new negro movement" Discussed on News-Talk 1400 The Patriot
"Out the clock. Down. Get down. Alright. Alright. Alright. Alright. Alright. Alright. Alright. Hey. Oh, I we're doing it. We're doing it live. Come on in come on in on the Facebook. We got it. We got a set up for you today. Great show in store today. I want to talk about Bette midler. I wanna talk about. What's his name, man? The new supreme court Justice Brett cavenaugh wanna talk about B K and B M Brett midler Brett cavenaugh and just generally kind of the state of affairs in the country. This week has been a very interesting week. Locally as well as nationally. If you missed it, Lachlon McDonald. The case against the cop was settled there. I think he was charged with second degree murder in that case. If you don't remember the Kwame McDonald incident, it was in Chicago where Chicago police officer shot a sixteen year row seventeen times. And man, you know, the nation was shocked as a part of the longer compensation. About police brutality police misconduct, and and those kinds of things, but. Yes. So so that happened this week also happening this week? There was a lot of controversy. Around, you know, Brett Cavanaugh being confirmed FBI investigation now. So sure exactly what the FBI investigated at all good afternoon. Everybody. And so that happened is we if you're in Detroit, you think about the lions that they lost last week. You know, there's a sports show that happens on the patriot after this show, and let me get get a little bit of that patriot in there. And you could be a part of that desk sports conversation. But the lions lost last week in Dallas looks like they're gonna do well today. And and so all right there, we go in if and if you're tuning in Facebook, you can you can hear the engine he's he's gonna definitely make sure we're we're locked. And look I want you guys to join the show on Facebook joined the show on on on Twitter and halo halo. My brother is is. Good too. Good to see you. Good afternoon. Everybody. Of course, we're broadcasting live from the patriot Detroit WD, you can listen at patriotdetroit dot com. You can listen on Facebook. David Alexander, bullet dot com to people show dot com. Also, you can call in and be a part of the conversation. And we're here for the whole hour is great. You know, Sundays. I'm settling in Sundays. And i'm. I like a lot higher feels Bette midler. We gotta talk Bette midler. Let me pull this up. All right. I love when you have. I got the computer right here. Bette midler is clueless. White lady of the world. All right killer. Mike accepts Bette midler apology after racist tweet. Okay. I show. Here we go. Let's see if we can get. Yeah. Bet Miller apologizes after her tweet causes backlash. Bette midler tweets. Women are the Nukus. Can I say that the Nukus of America? Yeah. Women on a Nukus of America. Now what what was the whole thing? I want to pull the whole tweet up bet Miller sorry for deleted tweets calling. Women in were. All right. So here we go Bette midler Bette midler and to share this show because you know, I used the N word sometimes myself, and if you saw if you saw the video when I was a cop put his hands on me in front of my church. I was I was very unfiltered. But I was clear, you know, I was good afternoon April. I was like know y'all somebody scare this negroes. I've ever seen in my life. And so then the news is like Reverend David Bullock activists and local pastor and Highland Park from reality TV fame, and has used the the a racial slur. He used the N word now black folks buried the N word. A couple of years ago. But I want to have a conversation about the N word because I'm not so sure Bette midler should be getting backlash. Now, I definitely got some things that I want to say about who should use. How should be used? But I want to say tonight on the show people use the N word all the time, particularly black people, and we use it for a reason, you know. We're we're there's a there. There are different ways. Spelling using utilizing the N word you got in IGGI, right NWEA. Good afternoon. Phyllis Ojeda G g a so we I mean, so I mean rappers use it all the time. You got in I g h. Jig for all my I'm just saying. So then you got energy ER Randall Kennedy wrote a great book called. G G R. I remember I was at a high school on the suburbs. And I was trying to do a lecture on the different permutations of the N word and how they don't all being the same thing. It is a term of endearment in some communities. I haven't met a successful rapper to hasn't used the end were yet. And black people use it all the time. Black people use all the time. You know? So it's amazing to me like when when people are saying in the back seat of a police car. Everybody was like, oh, I can't believe David Bulat use the N word. I use it all the time. Then using it. You know, I grew up on all the music. I listen to high school from a MGD NWEA man, everybody even even tribe called quest those people use, and then if you go to church, they used the word negro, so let me just establish the today show. If this offends you please be offended, please. But just stay tuned. Whatever you to be offended and watch shared his show. We use the word all the time. In the black community. Now, I don't think white people should use the N word McKay. Will why we'll because when white people use it is tied to a particular different history. Okay. To history slavery history. Segregation degradation. White folks don't need to use the N word. They got a whole bunch worse. They can use brother sister, Mr., sir. Hello. Your last name your first name. But as far as like the black community at the end of the day is not going anywhere. We're using it. We've been using it, you know, and it has certain per mutations. Can I can I get deeper certain permutations that we use? And we know what we say in part to number two. So number one, we use the word all the time number two. There's a difference between as Chris rock has so many times being black and being a mid grow. Right. We know that right. It's a difference. A me. Like when I was in the back seat amok like so let me just let me go slower because I'm going fast. We've had this dialogue man since at eight eighteen eighteen what's Booker T Booker T Washington died in one thousand nine fifteen he when he died, Marcus Garvey, call him an old negro versus the new negro you had the old negro versus the new negro movement negroes were radical revolutionary want to self-determination old negroes were accommodate accommodation. This is just one of the bad on an easy lapdogs to white supremacy and white power. Okay. There's always been this concept of, you know, whether it's negro with a lower case in or negro with a big in. And. Are know when black folks use it. We're saying something, right? And you know, some folks is black some folks African American. Some folks Nukus, right and. Look is helpful like all right. So now, I just wanted to get that up because we can't have a conversation above Bette midler using end were until we're honest about the fact that black people use, and we're all the time. And that we know exactly what we say. When we say it in have you disagree? That's fine. The phone number's eight hundred nine two three one eight hundred nine two three nine three eight five. David alexander. Bullock, live the people show broadcasting lot from WD TK. We do if one hour four pm to five pm. We'll talk about Bette midler. Okay. Yeah. So I see you Dobie a see you in the queue did us. Good. Thank you. A C. You w we go to get you because I wanted to establish those two things black people use it all the time not going anywhere, despite the fact NWPP buried it rappers are famous as sale records because they use it. And in some really significant sense. There is a way to talk about different kinds of black folks by saying, hey, where you are in a you black African American you UCLA out, and you this we have all these categories now that being said, let's be clear Bette midler should not have used the N word in the tweet. Because what she did is she really tried to whitewash would admit to be in Agha. I'll white women going to be the ends of the world will wipe white women the ends of the world, and what a black folks, I'm a comeback. Let's call it. A phone lines Dobie is on the line. I was supposed to be at a press this post Buick work. Uh-huh. Is he on? Do I have the hit it? One more time. Did I.