35 Burst results for "Nell Greenfieldboyce"
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on Short Wave
"Okay now so why did you get interested in this whole reflex bleeding thing well. I just saw this report by that guy. Sebastian hofer and i called him up and he told me that not too long ago he got a job at an island ecosystem research institute in the and so i was looking into what's around. What kind of animals are just scanning through the literature just to see what of questions could answer any read about. These local snakes called thunder snakes. That sounds very dramatic. Thunder thunder thunder snakes. Really it's just that they come out when it rains a lot. And i remember reading this from nineteen fifty five describing this behavior this auto hemorrhaging behavior in these snakes. And i just thought to myself. That's insane so there weren't any photos or any kind of detailed description. It just said. The snakes bled from their heads when handled so he did what most good scientists would do. I assume he went out on an expedition to fight snakes. Absolutely you know it. He absolutely did. He had a couple of colleagues went out looking under rocks flipped a ton of rocks until they finally found one and the snake made some defensive behaviors kinda rolled into this tight ball and it started defecating. And asking you know emitting this pretty bad smelling liquid and then sebastian applied a little pressure to its nose like just gently pinched. Its nose to see if they could trigger any bleeding from handling all right. Now you set me this video. And i'm watching a. It's like a little nose pinch. Maybe you know you pinch at like good. And but then boom the snakes is fill up with blood like immediately there are just too big drops of blood where the is used to be and then suddenly the is kind of clear up and then a drop of blood comes out of its mouth yes. Sebastian told me it was wild. Just because i've never seen anything like that. And just the fact of how quickly that i or the is fully flood with blood and then the blood exudes from the mouth and then the ice fully clear up again in just a couple of seconds. I was stunned. I was like this is mad. I mean that is pretty dramatic and you said other critters. Do this to right right some other snakes. You know the one that's been studied. The most is the horned lizard. That's a lizard that lives in the us in the southern us and what it does is pretty nutso. It shoots blood out of its is and the blood can fly several feet several feet. Yeah it doesn't happen that often but when it does it's so dramatic that it really gets people's attention. Indigenous people have known about these lizards for a long time. European scientists wrote about them centuries ago and for forty years. These lizards have been studied by wage. Sherbrooke director emeritus of the southwestern research station of the american museum of natural history in arizona and he told me at the beginning. He was just wondering if this is supposed to be a defensive response. Why would blood be a turnoff. For what is after all a bloodthirsty predator. Good question when you try to say well. Maybe a predator wouldn't like it depends on is going to eat these things you know. That doesn't make sense so <hes>. That's that's where i started. So he began watching the lizards in doing experiments. And what he found that. The horned lizard wouldn't always squirt blood from its eyes when threatened by an animal. And what i found was with roadrunners with grasshopper mice with <hes>. Leopard lizards with rattlesnakes with other snakes. They never squirt blood. They don't do it then so when do they do it. Do they squirt blood. He told me it's when the lizard is about to be eaten by something like a coyote. Or a bob cat and the reason is the blood has a distasteful quality to mammalian predators and it has to be. It has to arrive in the mouth. Okay so these lizards are not really trying to like hit. A predator from several feet away by sending streams of blood. Flying out of there is apparently not disappointing. It's more like a coyotes mouth clamps down on the lizard the lizard squirts out foul tasting blood. Way told me that when he goes out and handles horned lizards only a couple times. Out of one hundred. Will it actually squirt blood from its. Is you know he said. Humans aren't typical predator. So he thinks lizard is just kind of confused. It doesn't really know what to do and he told me he's actually tasted the blood no for a long time. I thought it basically tastes like my blood. I wish i was surprised that this took a turn to a scientist tasting blood. But i'm not look. This is science magazine science. So then you know after a while. Though he started thinking actually there is this kind of you know aftertaste. Kind of acid aftertaste that lasted for maybe twenty minutes. Or so he said it was really minor. But if he squirts the blood into the mouth of a coyote or a bobcat they have a really strong reaction disgusting immediately. They begin to celebrate quite a bit. They shake their head to all kinds of things like that to to they. They have different taste. Buds than i do okay. Okay so all of this kind of suggests that for these horned lizards. This is really a strategic specific defense that it's not just a random stress response. I mean you could imagine that if an animal gets like it's blood pressure goes up lead might just shoot out of a leaky capillary. Somehow i guess but this seems to be pretty specific defense move aimed at particular predators right and like i mentioned before. The horned lizards auto hemorrhage has more studied than any other creatures. Okay salikh what beyond reptiles you said. Some insects do this to ladybugs. Yeah actually quite a lot of insects do this. And if you're poking at a lady bug and some liquid comes out it might just seem to you like it was urine or feces or something you know in ladybugs it comes out of the legs underneath so it's hard to see where it's coming out. It's yellow you know so unless you know what it is. You'd have no reason to think. This thing is just bled on me. You know spontaneously was happened. And now i'm looking back and i'm like oh that was blood cool so i talked to michael nop. He studies ladybugs at the czech university of life sciences and he told me that reflex bleeding is a highly effective way for ladybugs to deter predators because their blood is full of substances that smell and probably taste awful two birds or small mammals and he told me that actually if a lady but gets attacked by ants the coagulating blood can act like a kind of glue that glues aunts mouth parts together during the attack. I mean that's pretty amazing now. But here's the thing. I don't understand about this doesn't a lady bug need. It's blood i mean like it seems like critters would be at a disadvantage of some sort if they went around anytime they got threatened. So like how much blood are we talking about. So for ladybugs. He told me it can be a lot like up to fifteen or twenty percent of all. Its blood wild. Why i mean for you that would be like if you lost a liter of blood like a couple pint blood so it is significant. And that's why he's been looking into the consequences of this. I mean you know he said bleeding could save a lady life but there are also some costs and we re better searching for physiological costs in our research he just published one set of experiments he and his colleagues forced young lady bugs to reflex bleed repeatedly like every day and then they studied them and what they saw is that the bugs immune system seemed a little weekend but the number of eggs they produced was the same their reproductive success was almost unaffected. You know maybe just some slight delays in the age at first reproduction but nothing major. So what i'm taking from this. Is that these insects kind of know what they're doing like evolutionary speaking. I mean do they filter the blood in any way to try to preserve the good stuff and week only just like the nasty compounds in it. His is actually looked at this and he told me that the blood that spontaneously comes out of ladybugs is exactly the same as the blood inside. And when i asked him you know exactly like what is going on. You're like is there an opening in the leg. He said no. Like somehow the insect is able to kind of injure itself to somehow create an opening in its skin or cuticle. But it's not like all the mechanical details of reflects bleeding have been well studied. It's still pretty obscure all right now. Well thank you for this mini tour of the world of auto hemorrhage
Water, Water, Every Where And Now Scientists Know Where It Came From
"Water is everywhere on Earth the clouds, the rain, the oceans and rivers even our own bodies were all that water originally came from is a bit of a mystery NPR's Nell. Greenfieldboyce reports that scientists may have found the answer inside some rare meteorites the earth formed four and a half billion years ago, compared to other planets in emerged pretty close to the sun there hot temperatures would mean, no water ice no ice to join with the swirling bits of rock and dust that we're running into each other and building up our young planet. That's. A. We do not know exactly were the what on Earth from why we need to find a source of water on Earth Laurette Peony works at a French research lab called CRP PG. She says that source of water could have been farther out in the solar system like maybe icy comments or water rich asteroids that hit the newly formed earth and watered it. This has long been the prevailing view to explain the the of the ocean and of the water engine on she wondered though if water could have been there at the start Sushi and. Some colleagues recently took a close look at a rare kind of meteorite. It doesn't look like anything special. It's like a gray rock, but it's also thought to have formed near the sun and is the same kind of primordial stuff that glommed together to create our planet and it turns out it contains plenty of hydrogen that's an indicator of its ability to contribute water to a planetary mix. In fact, if you built a planet out of this material, you'd have at least several oceans worth of water these findings described in the journal Science made on. Pay Liaise feel really happy I was happy because it makes it nice and simple. She's a planetary scientist at NASA's Johnson. Space Center in Houston Texas who wasn't part of the research team she says this old idea that Earth's water came from the outer solar system would have required something unusual like Jupiter having a little trip through the inner solar system to send water rich asteroids headed our way. So here we just don't need Jupiter. We're told me to do anything weird. We're just grabbed the material that was their form and that's what who are. Still, she says, even if most of the water was there at the beginning comets and such probably did deliver some of Earth's water later on Nell Greenfieldboyce NPR news.
Gene-Altered Squid Could Be The Next Lab Rats
"Okay Nell. Greenfieldboyce last year, you visited the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole Massachusetts. Tell me about it. What was it like? So it's sort of beautiful location right there on the coast of Massachusetts and you go inside. In you know, they took me to this room full of kind of burgling aquariums everywhere and. All of our exotic animals, the guy giving me, the tour was Brett Grassy and his official title. There is manager of Cephalopod operations. It's amazing title. So we've got our beautiful flamboyant cuttlefish. We've got our straight PAJAMAS, squids. These ones are native to Australia. We've got our octopus church, which is the pygmy zebra octopus, their native to Nicaragua small octopus species that doesn't get much larger than table. A. Table Grape. Nice. Yes. So they're they're looking at all kinds of squid and octopus is to try to find ones that you are easy to take care of that reproduce. quickly, that are going to be good to be sort of like the next lab rat and their work involves everything from the very latest high tech kind of gene editing tools to just like a bucket of rocks sitting on the floor. Why rocks? Well, they use them to make like little habitats in the tanks but they also use them to way down some of the lids. So octopuses are notorious for being able to kind of escape out of their enclosures. I've heard of this in aquariums. Octopus have been known to climb out and wonder around. Yeah, they're clever. You know. So when I visited Bret told me, there were roughly around three thousand cephalopods under their care there. But honestly walking around and looking in the tanks, you can hardly see any because they like to hide in those rocks and you know other little things, little containers. Keepers put in their tanks at one point read opened up this one plastic container and reached into the water and pulled out this little like like terra cotta pot and inside was this California two spot octopus. She's right down in there. Because see her eyeball, fairly see her. Yeah, and so basically, this is a kind of a common Dan either they're gonNA find rocks or. Some sort of basically dark enclosure sometimes. So this was a female octopus sitting on her eggs, and while we were looking at her, she's sort of shot out some water at us. She's of trying to skirt some water here. She thinks that I'm going to give some food or she's just trying to say you know I'm sitting in here taking care of my eggs and You know come back another time so now. Now. If you had a podcast called nell spies and octopus I would listen to it will we would have a lot to talk about because cephalopods are pretty crazy i. mean they have these sophisticated brains, they can solve puzzles, they can change their skin color like an instant. They can re-grow arms, they travel using jet propulsion. I. Mean. Some people have said they are as close to aliens living on Earth as we've got. that. is so cool. Honestly, we do a whole episode just about cephalopods, but I WANNA go back to this research question about using them as model organisms. So why CEPHALOPODS in particular? Well. It's all those odd features that makes them interesting to biologists I. Mean, for example, I mentioned their brains, you know the they're clearly sophisticated problem solvers, but their brains just look completely different from our own like they showed me one in a glass vial that looked almost like a triangle shape and you know there's brains that look like doughnuts that wrap around the Esophagus, you know at the same time, we know that some of their brain chemistry. Chemistry has got to be somewhat similar to ours because there have been experiments at how octopuses react to the drug ecstasy. Right? It seems to make them like little more friendly and cuddly to. So you know it's it's just fascinating to look at these creatures that are on the one hand. So different and on the one hand similar and studying, them could help scientists see what's necessary and what's not for being able to perform you know amazing mental feats. Feats like the ones people can do, and apparently you know some cephalopods seem
Miami - Astronauts Begin Final Leg Of SpaceX Test Flight: Coming Home
"Space X is getting ready for the final part of an important test flight as two astronauts will undock from the International Space Station and ride the SPACEX capsule home. If they're not stopped by the hurricane NPR's Nell, Greenfieldboyce has more. NASA astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Benkin blasted off in his space x dragon capsule back in May. It was the first time a commercial vehicle took people to orbit. Now it has to bring them back home. The capsule is designed to splashdown in the waters around Florida Bank says everyone is watching the weather closely he says if there's no safe spot to return they. Can always stay in the space station longer we won't leave the space station without some good landing opportunities in front of US goods splashdown whether in front of us. After they've undocked, they can orbit earth for a day or two if they need to before coming down, this will be the first time returning astronauts have splashdown since nineteen seventy, five
US astronauts pack up for rare splashdown in SpaceX capsule
"NASA astronauts are getting ready to ride a spacex capsule home from the International Space. Station. The plan is to undock this and return to Earth tomorrow afternoon. But as NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce reports of weather may not cooperate Doug Hurley and Bob Bankin blasted off in May the first people to ever ride a commercial space vehicles into orbit there, spacex capsule is designed to splashdown at one of seven locations in the waters around Florida though with a hurricane in the area mission controllers are watching the winds and seas closely. Hurley says they're prepared in case they get seasick. To get hauled out of the water, just like on an airliner there are. Bags, if you need them and we'll have those handy, we'll probably has some towels handy as well. This will be the first splashdown by American astronaut since one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, five, NASA space shuttles landed on a runway
The First Gene-Altered Squid Has Thrilled Biologists
"Some of the weirdest creatures on the planet are CEPHALOPODS, animals like squids and octopuses. Now, in the Journal current biology scientists say they've managed to tinker with the jeans of pod in the lab NPR's Nell. Greenfieldboyce, reports on why a gene-altered squid is such a big deal. Read Grassi's official job title is manager of Cephalopod Operations when I recently visited the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole Massachusetts, he showed me around a room full of burgling tanks. So we've got our beautiful flamboyant cuttlefish. We've got our straight pajamas squids. These ones are native to. Australia. We've got our. Church, which is the pygmies zero octopus, their native to Nicaragua very small octopus species that doesn't get much larger than a table grape. The work here involves everything from the very latest high tech gene editing tools to a bucket of rocks sitting on the floor the rocks are used to make habitats in the tanks and two way down the lids. So octopus are notorious for being able to escape out of their enclosures. These critters have sophisticated brains that look nothing like our own. They can solve puzzles, change their skin color in a flash and travel using jet propulsion Josh. Rosenthal is a researcher at the Marine Biological Laboratory. He says, these animals evolved completely independently from us, their relatives or. Things like clams in this provides an opportunity to compare them with us and see what elements are in common and what elements or you need. The problem is there's been no way to modify their genes and being able to do that is really important. Most lab biologists study just a few species like mice and fruit flies because the gene editing technologies for them have been all worked out. This makes it easy to study genes role in behavior, disease and treatments, but none of that was available for cephalopods. So Rosenthal and his colleagues have been building those tools I using a squid that lives in the waters around woods hole a researcher named Karen Crawford had figured out how to fertilize. Its eggs in the lab. So the team did that and then injected gene altering materials it wasn't easy. The fertilized egg is surrounded by a tough almost rubbery coating for months we have needles break. We couldn't figure out how they get it, but they finally did it and turned off a pigmentation gene that normally makes small dark spots on the squids skin. Those spots are missing on the altered baby squid pigment genes are easy because you can see them. Right. You can see if it's working as things develop Kerry Alberton is a member of the research team she says for her this is a game changer. This is something that honestly if you ask me five years ago if we'd. Be Able to do I would have just giggled and said I dream of it but you know I didn't think it would be possible and yet here we are other Squid Biologists or equally thrilled Sarah McNulty's with the University of Connecticut. She says, it's incredibly impressive that they've gotten this to work. This was like a huge advancement for staff upon researchers all over the wrong. We should all be pop bottles of Champagne. This is amazing. She says this particular squid can't live long term a lab it just gets too big but she says it's proof of what's possible and the researchers are already working with smaller creatures. They haven't those tanks to alter genes and them to Nell Greenfieldboyce NPR news.
Why Do Flying Snakes Wiggle In The Air?
"Madison Safai with NPR science correspondent Nell Greenfieldboyce. Hey, now. Hey, Mattie, so now you have. Both weird and amazing for us today which I feel like is Kinda right in your wheelhouse. Aright well I hope my repertoire is a little more expansive than either but I'll take weird and amazing Yeah, so you know how snakes kind of undulate or slither when there are moving around serpentine baby, let's go I like it, so this undulating is how they get around like on the ground or in trees. And in fact it turns out snakes that fly even do it when they're sailing in the air snakes on a plane. No, please sorry I just had to get one of it out. And now we can focus so okay. Okay? All right I'll give you I'll give you one. Yes, but we're not. We're not talking that kind of thing we're talking about. You. Know flying snakes like that live in south and Southeast Asia. You're aware of these snakes right? Yes, I am very aware, but I don't know necessarily that our listeners are so. Yes, there are real snakes that hand fly which I feel like for some people is the stuff of nightmares, but to me. It's just amazing now. I definitely have heard people say like. Do we really need to talk about flying snakes range. Twenty. Seven things gotten bad enough like can't. This is just like yeah, if you're not a snake person, this is a problem, but in the real world these snakes exists not to torment us, but to just live their lives. They cruise along the tree branches. You know up hunting things up in the trees, and sometimes to get down to the ground or another tree, these snakes actually launched themselves into the air, and they kind of glide down at an angle. The snake looks like swimming in the air. And when it's swimming. It's undulating. So that's Jake so high and he's a researcher at Virginia Tech and he's been studying these snakes for nearly twenty five years and one of the things he's been wondering about is like why snakes do these movements in the air. Why do they undulate and you know he thought? Maybe they're just doing it out of having. You know because like snakes when they propel themselves on the ground up a tree or in water. They do wiggle like this right, so it's not to think that when the snake jumps into. into the air, the snake goes. Hey, snake I under late. That's what I should be doing I'm just GonNa undulate snakes got undulate. Now. You know that's what they do. Yeah, they're in the air and they're out. What do I do? What do I do you know snake I snake. It seems plausible on the other hand. It's possible that these motions actually might have purpose like. Maybe they're doing something to help the snake. Why through the air
Scientists Find The Biggest Soft-Shelled Egg Ever, Nicknamed 'The Thing'
"This next story is about a strange fossil found in and Arctic as NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce. Report scientists were astounded when they finally realized what it was a couple years ago, a paleontologist named Julia Clark was visiting a colleague at a natural history, museum, and Chile the two were chatting about fossils SINISA. Hey, you know you should see this thing we collected. And he said we call it the thing. The thing wasn't a bone, but what was it exactly? No one knew it was about. The same size and shape is a deflated football. I just take one look at this thing, and it's the thing and. That is a giant deflated AIG a soft shelled egg to be precise, the biggest one ever found now today some snakes and turtles and lizards lay eggs with soft flexible shells, but they're rare to find in the fossil record. We did not realize said soft shelled eggs could even get this big Clark who works at the University of Texas at Austin collaborated with her colleague from Chile and. And other researchers to study this egg in the journal Nature. They say it was likely laid by a Moses Sore, a twenty foot, long marine lizard that lived some sixty six million years ago. The enormous egg thrilled paleobiologist like yaws Meena Vamon of university, I mean just thought Oh. This is fantastic. That's because she was making her own discoveries about ancient soft shelled eggs from dinosaurs in. In the past scientists assumed that dinosaurs had hard shelled eggs like their living, relatives, Crocodilians and birds, now in the same issue of the journal Nature Vehement and her colleagues described fossils from two very different dinosaurs. We're definitely here dealing with the very first evidence for completely soft-shell non mineralized shells. Their chemical analysis shows that the young dinosaur offspring were surrounded by soft shells much like the. The shells of turtle eggs, vitamin says it looks like the earliest dinosaurs started out with soft shelled eggs hard shelled eggs evolved later. The dinosaur calcified egg is something that is not ancestor that is not set of primitive feature of all dinosaurs, and now that researchers have shown how to find soft shelled eggs in the fossil record. Scientists will likely start finding more Nell Greenfieldboyce NPR
Coronavirus Fears Have NASA Urging Space Fans To Stay Away From Historic Launch
"Because of the corona virus pandemic NASA is asking people not to travel to Florida later this month to watch an historic rocket launch NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce reports two astronauts will be test flying a commercially built and operated spacecraft no astronauts have blasted off from American soil since NASA retired the space shuttles in twenty eleven NASA wants commercial space companies to take over transportation to the international space station and now two astronauts are going to travel there in a capsule developed by SpaceX Jim Bridenstine is NASA's administrator he says hundreds of thousands of people used to come out to watch space shuttle launches in Florida but with the corona virus that would be unsafe so we're asking people not to travel to the Kennedy Space Center and I I will tell you that that makes me sad to even say it he says people can watch the launch online or on TV it's currently scheduled for may twenty
Washington, DC's mayor urges more coronavirus data collection in communities of color
"The mayor of Washington DC says she wants a thorough examination of why the virus is affecting minorities that larger rates than white Americans across the U. S. and P. R.'s Nell Greenfieldboyce reports preliminary data from New York City shows that the death rate for black and Hispanic people is about twice the rate for white people the may your of Washington DC Muriel Bowser told CNN on Sunday that this country has a long standing health disparities we have been dealing with these disparities for generations fueled by certain Gration racism sub standard conditions stresses of poverty browser said pre existing conditions like asthma and diabetes seem to play a role in making some communities suffer more severe illness she says there needs to be a national focus on collecting more data on corona virus deaths Nell Greenfieldboyce NPR
Coronavirus Latest: Testing Challenges And Protecting At-Risk Elderly
"Hey everybody emily here so obviously. The biggest story in science is the corona virus and rising cases of its disease cove in nineteen. In the coming weeks. We're going to cover it a little more with regular updates on the latest news and science and today to help us do that. We are lucky to have not one but two colleagues from the NPR science desk correspondent Nell Greenfieldboyce. Hainault Hi Emily and correspondent John Hamilton page on high so krona virus. It's already impacting American society. And you're each going to focus on one part of the Krona virus story this week. Now why do you got for us? So one of the things I've been thinking about a lot is who is most at risk of severe illness from this virus and while there's a lot we don't know about exactly how deadly it is overall. We do know there are some things that we need to do for the most at risk people to keep them safe yes and John. You're recently in Washington state in Seattle. Which is the site of one of the biggest outbreaks in the nation? Votes rate is where the first use case of corona virus appeared back in January. Now it has hundreds of cases dozens of deaths and no efforts to slow down. The Corona virus have have really largely. Shut down the entire Seattle area. It's not quite a ghost town but it's pretty quiet there all right so in this episode. We'll talk about all of that efforts to get tested for the virus up and running in Washington state amid the slow roll out of testing kits by the Federal Government. And how we can help people who might be the most vulnerable to the virus. Okay now before. We dive into some of the details from the week. What's the latest on the virus and it spread and I should say we're taping on Thursday morning and things are moving. Pretty fast they are they are. I mean just in the past twenty four hours. There have been some pretty dramatic developments and you can kind of feel a shift. In tone as the nation grapples with this president. Trump has this travel ban for visitors from Europe that he unveiled in an Oval Office address the NBA has suspended its season here in the US in Germany. You've got soccer leagues just playing to empty stadiums. Even Tom Hanks and his wife announced that they had corona virus. And so you can see as testing increases cases across the. Us are going up. There's this real sense that things are accelerating here and people are paying attention in a new way. Yeah and we should say that neither of US actually here in the studio with us right now. Yeah so I'm feeling sick with the kind of sickness that like normally you might sort of like you know take some cold drugs and go to work but like these days they say to stay home so I'm staying home will. I'm feeling fine but because I was around people who might have been exposed to the virus during the time I was reporting in Seattle I have been encouraged to stay home for a couple of weeks just to make sure I'm not contagious. So now I want to ask you. Oh I hear a dog. Yeah that would be. This is Bella. Bella Bella has been wanting to be on shortwave for most of my life. This was an opportunity and she sees did so John Yourself Quarantine Nell. You're keeping yourself home to make sure you don't get anyone sick. You're both so responsible. Thank you So John. We mentioned earlier that Seattle. It's the center of something called a community outbreak. There's a few of those right now in the US. Tell us what that means. All it really means is that the virus is spreading in the general population. Right so in Seattle you know the first case was brought in from China and then there were a bunch of cases related to a single nursing home but those are both sort of isolated. Now it's all over the place so while I was in Seattle. I saw the public health system stop focusing on tracing individual cases. Start looking at clusters of cases and they are also emphasizing community wide efforts to slow down the spread so that Seattle's response and hosts a little more of what it all looked like when you were there. He used to live in the Seattle area. And I never saw the traffic so light as I did the past ten days at rush hour on I five you know. It was a breeze and a couple of days ago I was. I was walking through Seattle's Chinatown the Pike Place Market. These are both big tourist areas and it was strangely quiet. A lot of the restaurants were closed. There were signs explaining that Kobe. Nineteen is the reason and I should also say people's behavior Seattle has changed You know they keep their distance. They wash their hands. I passed a couple of bars that were still open. And you could see people sitting there but it was every other barstool. Yeah our people trying to get tested for corona virus in Seattle. Yeah definitely I mean everybody wants to be tested in a whether the symptoms or not and the problem is it is really taken a while to set up the system to provide all that testing. And why is that? Well you know my my colleague. Richard Harris has been reporting on that and one reason he's found is that testing for the kroner virus. It's not that simple. You have to extract viruses from samples taken from patients. Then you have to use this device that creates lots of copies of the virus. Then you need another instrument that looks to see if the virus is a genetic match with the corona virus so this is something that is sophisticated lab can do but a doctor's office really can't and John. Why is testing so important with a couple of reasons is really important? It's how you pinpoint an outbreak. You need it for contact tracing because you have to know somebody has it to go and look for other people who might have got it from them and later on as as things spread it tells you which communities are getting infected that sort of the point where Seattle for instance is right now within Seattle. What areas is the virus showing up and finally it tells you what percentage of people who have symptoms actually have corona virus if percentage were to go up over time. It would tell you that you're not winning but the testing is what gives you clues that allows you to follow the spread phillies have a trail. You now what do you think about that? I think it's interesting. It's a different way of thinking about diagnostic testing than most people. Normally think about it. Like normally you feel sick you go to the doctor. And the reason you're getting a test is so the doctor can determine your treatment like maybe you have strep throat in that. Means you need antibiotics. But in this case we have no proven antiviral treatment against this new virus. We don't have vaccine. All the treatment is basically the same kind of supportive treatment you would give someone with another respiratory virus. So it's kind of weird situation. Where the testing that sort of everyone's clamoring for is really of most use for protecting the community and giving public health workers information about what they need to do on a community-wide basis rather than individual patient basis. Yeah and initially the CDC. It wasn't even permitting private labs and universities to do testing that dramatically reduced available capacity for testing. But that's changed recently right. It has and now certain labs so called high complexity labs are they are allowed to run their own tests. But that's not really actually the biggest problem. The biggest problem is setting up the system to collect samples for testing because they have to be sent in for a lab. You don't want people to sort of descend on some doctor's office or a clinic where they might spread the disease yet. You have to test a lot of people really quickly so one solution I saw. Seattle is What they call drive through testing. It's something that they used in Asia and the idea is that you can get tested for corona virus without leaving your car and I actually spent a morning watching this happen. I it was in one of these multilevel level. Parking lots you know next to a hospital in northwest Seattle. So the morning I was there a nurse named Jeff. Cates would walk up to each car. He was in full protective gear. You know with the disposable gown the Globes a clear plastic face mask and he would greet each person as they arrived by name. Jeff and then play health. Now we're going to be doing your swabs today. So he takes these these two swabs one from each nostril. Lean your head back with a little so you know he. He collects these samples and seals them up in plastic tubes and they will be processed by a lab. That's only a few miles away so we're going to be testing for flu. Ab IN SV when we're also testing for covert wriggles. Back to you as soon as we can. Thank you feel better soon now. Only healthcare workers are being tested his way right now but it's important because they're the people that are on the frontlines of fighting the virus and so you gotTa make sure they're not sick still they don't take the infection to other staff or patients in healthcare system. Also there has been talk of expanding this kind of drive through testing to for instance first responders who might have been in contact with somebody who had the virus and eventually even to
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on Short Wave
"Hey there before we get started a heads up that in this episode we talk about suicide and gun. Violence just wanted you know that. Go in. You're listening to shortwave From NPR many Safai here with science correspondent Nell Greenfieldboyce. Hello so now today. We're talking about what it means that at the Centers for disease control arguably the nation's top public health agency doesn't like to talk about guns. This is something you started looking at last year after a big new. CDC DC report came out. That's right it's a report on suicide. In the United States specifically it was a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and it showed that suicide aside rates have been rising in nearly every state the CDC put out an alarming report today on suicide so this was a big deal. Half of the country has seen a more than thirty percent increase that got a lot of press coverage it as an epidemic and it does not hold back and when I was three covering it I noticed something that seemed a little odd to me which is just that guns were barely mentioned in the report. Okay for reasons. We'll get into talking about gun. Violence is a tricky thing at the CDC but it seemed weird to Nell that a big official government report on suicide barely even mentioned the most common way suicides occur all right. Are you there yes. I'm here so you call somebody up at the CDC basically like why are you guys so hesitant to use the word guns and yes so it was the author of the report. Her name's Deborah Stone. She's a researcher at the CDC. And so I talked to her about her study and its findings and then I asked her this. Were you told or did you. Deliberately not put in things like gun control legislation or specific references to reducing access to firearms James Because of the political concerns about that sort of thing in the CDC. We are concerned with all aspects of suicide prevention including access to lethal means. And so we do that in a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention. We even when you asked her directly about guns she was like yeah lethal. means the term lethal means gets used a lot and I wondered. How can I find out what goes on at the CDC when they try to talk about guns? So I filed the freedom of Information Act request so today on the show what Nell found from that request for government documents and how the CDC talks or doesn't talk about guns and what that means for suicide prevention..
EPA Chief Pledges To Severely Cut Back On Animal Testing Of Chemicals
"Chemicals that might be dangerous to human health or might alter the environment are routinely tested on mice rats and other animals now though the chief of the Environmental Protection Agency wants to change that as NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce reports he has ordered the EPA to dramatically reduce its use of animal testing when reporters showed up at a wood paneled room at the EPA's headquarters in Washington DC. They were given a copy of an op Ed. It was from a college newspaper and it argued against needless research on animals. The student who wrote it Andrew Wheeler is now the head of the EPA wrote this article back in nineteen eighty seven. I I didn't think we're that far away from banning animal testing then and I'm part of why I'm doing this today's because it's been thirty years and we haven't made enough off progress on eliminating animal testing as agency officials looked on he took up a pen and signed a memo his directive requires the EPA he eh to reduce its requests for studies on chemicals like pesticides using live mammals by thirty percent in the next six years by 2035. The EPA will be required to eliminate all routine safety studies using live mammals. I really do think that with the lead time that we have have in this sixteen years before we completely eliminate animal testing that we have enough time to come up with alternatives like tests on lab grown cells or or computer models that could predict chemical's effect. He says the EPA will hold an annual conference on new methods and funding researchers to help develop them sitting next to him where representatives of animal welfare groups like the Humane Society of the United States. Kathleen Conley is vice president of animal research tissues. I think this announcement is extremely important and I'll huge leap forward where a government agency is committing to an aggressive time line to end testing on mammals. The move comes as the entire toxicology community has been moving towards alternatives penelope. Fenner Chris is a former top. EPA official she says the EPA's as pesticide program has recently made real progress in using new types of safety studies saving the lives of hundreds of thousands of lab animals still she says I'm I'm always a little trouble with deadlines on efforts like this. She says so far. No one has developed new tests for complex subtle health effects like ones that might hit animal's reproductive systems and she says you can't necessarily dictate how fast that will happen no Greenfieldboyce N._p._R.
NASA, FEMA to play out new asteroid impact scenario
"NPR's science correspondent Nell greenfieldboyce is here with us now to tell us about this asteroid exercise. Hey now. Hello. So. What exactly happens at a conference on planetary defense? Okay. So this is just a gathering of people from China Russia. The United States France all over there. Scientists their engineers people who know how to calculate trajectories to see what's coming our way people who know how to design missions or know, how to use telescopes to find these things and also people from the Federal Emergency Management agency decision maker. It's all the kind of people that we would depend on. If there was an actual threat from an asteroid, they come together, they hold one of these events every couple years, and they have these drills. So so far they've had like three drills at the conferences. And then NASA and FEMA have independently had their own exercises. I know idea this was going on. What is an asteroid impact exercise? Look like, I mean, how does one simulate the collision of an asteroid and the earth. So basically, it's a tabletop exercise. You're actually simulating the collision. Someone devises this scenario, and they spend part of their conference part of the week kind of working through it. It's like a choose your own adventure kind of thing like a dungeons and dragons game, but this is completely serious role playing what they're working through. This time is a pretend asteroid that they're saying was discovered recently it's three hundred two thousand feet across so pretty big. It's been detected about thirty five million miles away and has a one percent chance of striking the earth eight years from now. Okay. So remember, this is all fake it's all made up, but a rock the size could totally take out a city. And so over the course of this week as pretend asteroid gets closer every day. They're going to be making decisions and getting new information and kind of playing out the whole thing. So I talked to the guy who devised this name is Paul showed. And he's director of the center for near earth objects. Studies at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and he says he deliberately designed this sort of. Stress. The whole system is not in a convenient orbit at all. It's not like one of these asteroids that we go to with our science missions. Where you get to pick a nice asteroid that's easy to get to planetary defense. The asteroid picks you he says he planned this. So that there's eight years advance notice, and that sounds like a lot of time. But really it's not because they would wanna plan multiple missions to go. See this space rock and get more information, and you know, ultimately, try to shift its trajectory. So how likely is it that something like this would actually happen? So for asteroids in the size that's being played out in this scenario. So like three hundred two thousand feet, it is tens of thousands of years between impacts. So, you know, it's not very likely to happen anytime soon. I only reassuring the thing is it could happen. I mean, the vast majority of asteroids in this size range have yet to be spotted by NASA. Just remind everyone this is still a hypothetical scenario seriously, though, if an asteroid were to be barreling towards. The earth. What are the options? I mean, how do you actually avoid a collision? Well, you would try to knock it off course. I mean, basically, you would send spacecraft to either like push it like literally sort of knock it away or in some cases, they do talk about nuclear weapons. I mean, that's a real possibility. So this conference wraps Friday. You are absolutely going to have to come back and tell us what happens I will. But remember, this is all just a fake drill. It's nothing real. They are not working a real
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Let him know that we have a forgotten the former Palm Beach gardens police officer convicted of killing Corey Jones was sentenced Thursday to twenty five years in prison. In Raja was convicted of manslaughter and attempted murder last month thirty say he was in playing close and driving it unmarked band when he confronted Jones thirty one year old drummer who says he v stalled on the road home allowing nightclub performance and for Washington. This is NPR news. Police now say there were multiple tallies. A fiery crash west of Denver on interstate seventy crimes happened during the Thursday evening commute. Authorities say an out of control tractor trailer crashed into several vehicles fire and Gulf three trucks and a dozen cars. Police did not say how many were killed but on Twitter a couple hours ago. They said that stretch of I seventy would remain closed overnight. Scientists say they've collected the most precise measurements yet of how fast the universe is expanding. Thanks to the Hubble space telescope NPR's. Nell greenfieldboyce reports rate of expansion is prising the universe. It's puffing up like bread rising with stars all getting farther away from each other. And this expansion isn't happening at a steady pace, but rather speeding up. Adam Riess Johns Hopkins University was part of a team that recently used Hubble to analyze light from seventy stars in a neighboring galaxy. This helped them refine measurements of distance within the universe. Re says the universe is currently. Expanding about nine percent faster than researchers thought it should be based on other observations, they made of radiation leftover from the big bang that might mean that there's another wrinkle in the universe. Something that scientists don't understand about how the universe changed as it went from new to old. Nell greenfieldboyce, NPR news and Celtics legend John Havlicek has died. He was seventy nine the cause of death not clear, although the Boston Globe says he had Parkinson's disease. The Celtics issued a statement calling have one of the most accomplished players in franchise history have played sixteen seasons in the NBA all of them with the Celtics on trial Snyder NPR news. Support for NPR comes from Americans for the arts committed to transforming America's communities through the arts and arts education, supporting the nonprofit arts industry, which employs four point six million people nationwide. Learn more at Americans for the arts dot.
Important Threshold Crossed in Mystery of the Universe's Expansion Rate
"Scientists say they've collected the most precise measurements yet of how fast the universe is expanding. Thanks to the Hubble space telescope NPR's. Nell greenfieldboyce reports rate of expansion is prising the universe. It's puffing up like bread rising with stars all getting farther away from each other. And this expansion isn't happening at a steady pace, but rather speeding up. Adam Riess Johns Hopkins University was part of a team that recently used Hubble to analyze light from seventy stars in a neighboring galaxy. This helped them refine measurements of distance within the universe. Re says the universe is currently. Expanding about nine percent faster than researchers thought it should be based on other observations, they made of radiation leftover from the big bang that might mean that there's another wrinkle in the universe. Something that scientists don't understand about how the universe changed as it went from new
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Kito? It carries diseases that kill and sick. And millions of people every year. Scientists want to understand what draws mosquitoes to humans to figure out new ways to defeat them. And as NPR's Nell greenfieldboyce reports they've just discovered how mosquitoes smell human sweat before mosquitoes can bite us. They've gotta find us. It takes multiple cues to get a mosquito really interested in a human. Matthew de Janeiro is a scientist at Florida international university. He says I from a distance a mosquito senses carbon dioxide in a person's breath that draws closer after the carbon dioxide, then it begins to sense human odor. The mosquito follows that odor. And when it gets really close it registers body, heat and lands on your skin. They actually can taste your skin with their legs. And then they look for a place to buy. He was inch. Interested in the odor part of the story. What is it about human smell that attracts mosquitos he and some colleagues genetically altered mosquitoes they disabled a certain smell receptor in the insects antenna and found that female mosquitoes, we're no longer attracted to a key chemical in human sweat lactic acid. What's more? They did lab tests that involved people sticking their hands into a special device mosquitos could fly through a tube to get closer, though, not close enough to bite mosquitoes with a disabled olfactory receptor were much less likely to home in on human flesh. We found that they had an approximately fifty percent reduction in attraction the results are reported in the journal current biology Lindy McBride as a mosquito researcher at Princeton University. She says the results are exciting. Finally, we have evidence that there's some sort of pathway in the sense of smell that. It's required for mosquitoes to like us. She's as it may seem like a no brainer that messing with the mosquitoes sense of smell would make it hard for them to sniff out humans, but mosquitoes actually smell and a couple of different ways previously when we took away a different smell pathway. It had no effect. And it was a big surprise. She says now that it's clear how they smell us. Researchers could create new kinds of repellents or create irresistibly smelly traps that would lure mosquitoes to their doom. Nell greenfieldboyce, NPR news..
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU
"What was billed as the first all female space. Walk will not happen as planned on Friday. Nasa says it doesn't have enough space suits in the right size ready for both women to maneuver safely and comfortably outside the international space station. NPR's? Nell greenfieldboyce is here to explain how this highly anticipated what compute foiled, but a space suit, welcome. Hello. All right. So this NASA has been touting this historic all women spacewalk for a while. Now, how can it not have the right size suit? So on earth, astronaut and McLean trained in both a large and medium hard poor so spacesuit, but in space, she decided she liked medium best. That's what she wore. For her. First space walk last week. The trouble is her female colleague up there, Christina cook. Also wears a medium and the station does not have to mediums that are ready to go only one of them has been prepped and maintained. And so NAFTA decided that a male colleague who can wear the large that we'll go. Oh spacewalking on Friday instead of McLean. Why can't they just prep another medium-sized suit? Well, the thing about spacesuit says the word suit makes you think that it's like clothing on a hanger grab that one out of the closet. Exactly. It's not like that at all. It's like a human shaped spaceship. And if you think about it that way, you can understand that there's all kinds of life support systems. I mean, this thing is all that stands between you and certain death in the vacuum of space. You gotta get it. Right. And so it cannot be just sort of thrown on. It's got to be carefully prepared. And it's not going to happen for her before Friday, but she will get another chance in April. Although that will not be all female spacewalk either. I mean, this is really too bad because not that many women have gone spacewalking ever rate. Yeah. So NASA said that last week when an McLean went. She was the thirteenth woman to go spacewalking, and that compares to like two hundred men and part of it is just because American women didn't fly in space until the early nineteen eighties. But also, you know NASA has just had fewer women in the astronaut corps. Then again, the suits have been an issue. What do you mean? How? So the available sizes are medium, large and extra large and way back when NASA was working on a small size. And eventually they killed it for budgetary reasons and this disproportionately affected women because women tended to be the ones on the smaller side. In fact, when NASA did an analysis of this in two thousand and three they found that none of the men were limited by space, suits. But a third of the women had no chance of ever spacewalking simply because they did not fit into a suit. Wow. And you can imagine that some women were kind of annoyed about this because spacewalking is one of the most prestigious things you can do as an astronaut now I asked NASA about this today. I said are there any astronauts that would be unable to spacewalk because they don't have a suit, and they said all of the active astronauts do fit into the existing sizes that said if they're not prepped and ready to go, you know, they're not going to be able to spacewalk so. At least this astronaut will get.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"This is all things considered from NPR news. I'm Ari Shapiro. Melted Chang bird eggs can be amazingly colorful, everything from Robin's egg blue tip green, even read scientists used to think colored egg shells evolved with modern birds, but NPR's Nell greenfieldboyce reports these colors go back way further the closest living relative of modern birds is the crocodile, and it has white uncovered eggs. So biologists long thought that colored egg shells were a bird invention? Yes, Meena vehement is a paleontologist at Yale University. She wondered if colored eggshells were older, maybe as old as birds dinosaur ancestors take over after it's a relative of the velociraptor made famous in the movie Jurassic Park. This dynasty is particularly interesting because over up to his worries the first dinosaurs that build open. Nests instead of burying its eggs underground. And once you start to build an openness, your ex are exposed to the environment. Veniamin says out their color could provide camouflage or help dinosaurs recognize their own eggs. So she and some colleagues studied sixty six million year-old egg, fossils searching for the two pigments a red one and a blue one that are known to mix and match and bird eggs, creating all of the beautiful colors. And we found very very small concentrations preserved of both pigments that was intriguing still it was just one dinosaur so vehement and her colleagues, analyzed eggshells from more. We tried to cover the major branches of time says to get a good idea for like all non avian dinosaurs in the journal nature. They report that they've found. No pigments in birds distant dinosaur relatives, such as the groups that include triceratops and the long necked diplomat. Occas the red and blue pigments. Were present. However in eggshells from the group of dinosaurs. That includes birds and their close relatives, we have very likely a single evolutionary origin of color. What's more her team showed that dinosaur eggs even had spots and speckles, and that's surprised Mark Halbur? He's an ornithologist and expert on eggs at the university of Illinois at her banished. Champagne read, not only known that that dinosaur eggs were caller for. But they were speckled which is a whole other aspect of diversity. He says it looks like dinosaurs may have needed these fancy eggs for all the same reasons as birds and maybe some egg related dinosaur business. We haven't even thought of Nell greenfieldboyce NPR news. The pop singer Kim Petras had a hit earlier this year with a sunny danceable number called.
Birds Got Their Colorful, Speckled Eggs From Dinosaurs
"Yes, Meena vehement is a paleontologist at Yale University. She wondered if colored eggshells were older, maybe as old as birds dinosaur ancestors take over after it's a relative of the velociraptor made famous in the movie Jurassic Park. This dynasty is particularly interesting because over up to his worries the first dinosaurs that build open. Nests instead of burying its eggs underground. And once you start to build an openness, your ex are exposed to the environment. Veniamin says out their color could provide camouflage or help dinosaurs recognize their own eggs. So she and some colleagues studied sixty six million year-old egg, fossils searching for the two pigments a red one and a blue one that are known to mix and match and bird eggs, creating all of the beautiful colors. And we found very very small concentrations preserved of both pigments that was intriguing still it was just one dinosaur so vehement and her colleagues, analyzed eggshells from more. We tried to cover the major branches of time says to get a good idea for like all non avian dinosaurs in the journal nature. They report that they've found. No pigments in birds distant dinosaur relatives, such as the groups that include triceratops and the long necked diplomat. Occas the red and blue pigments. Were present. However in eggshells from the group of dinosaurs. That includes birds and their close relatives, we have very likely a single evolutionary origin of color. What's more her team showed that dinosaur eggs even had spots and speckles, and that's surprised Mark Halbur? He's an ornithologist and expert on eggs at the university of Illinois at her banished. Champagne read, not only known that that dinosaur eggs were caller for. But they were speckled which is a whole other aspect of diversity. He says it looks like dinosaurs may have needed these fancy eggs for all the same reasons as birds and maybe some egg related dinosaur business. We haven't even thought of Nell greenfieldboyce NPR news. The pop singer Kim Petras had a hit earlier this year with a sunny danceable number called
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KCRW
"And if you're gonna be trick or treating surprise it won't be raining and southern California. Overnight lows tonight upper fifties. Low sixties with a few clouds near the coast clear. Elsewhere, it's four fifty a KCRW. This is all things considered from NPR news. I'm Ari Shapiro. Meltsa Chang bird eggs can be amazingly colorful, everything from Robin's egg blue to green even read scientists Yousef think colored eggshells evolved with modern birds that NPR's Nell greenfieldboyce reports these colors go back way further the closest living relative of modern birds is the crocodile and it has white uncultured eggs. So biologists long thought that colored egg shells were a bird invention? Yes, Meena vamon is a paleontologist at Yale University. She wondered if colored egg shells were older, maybe as old as birds dinosaur ancestors take the over after it's a relative of the velociraptor made famous in the movie Jurassic Park. This dinosaur is particularly. Interesting because over to his way the first dinosaurs that build openness instead of burying its eggs underground. And once you start to build an openness, your ex are exposed to the environment. Veniamin says out their color could provide camouflage or help dinosaurs recognize their own eggs. So she and some colleagues studied sixty six million year-old egg, fossils searching for the two pigments, a red one and a blue one that are known to mix and match and bird eggs, creating all of the beautiful colors, and refine very very small concentrations, preserved of both pigments that was intriguing still it was just one dinosaur so vehement and her colleagues, analyzed eggshells from more. We tried to cover the major branches at times us to get a good idea for like all non avian dinosaurs in the journal nature. They report that they found. No pigments in birds distant dinosaur relatives such as the group. That include triceratops and the long necked diplomat. Focus the red and blue pigments were present, however in eggshells from the group of dinosaurs. That includes birds and their close relatives, we have very likely a single evolutionary origin of color. What's more her team showed that dinosaur eggs even had spots and speckles, and that's apprised? Mark halbur. He's an ornithologist and expert on eggs at the university of Illinois at her banish and pain read not only know now that dinosaur eggs or caller for Dave speckled, which is a whole other aspect of diversity. He says it looks like dinosaurs may have needed these fancy eggs for all the same reasons as birds and maybe some egg related dinosaur business. We haven't even thought of Nell greenfieldboyce NPR news. The pop singer Kim Petras had.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Is all things considered from NPR news. I'm Ari Shapiro. Melted Chang bird eggs can be amazingly colorful, everything from Robin's egg blue green, even read scientists Yousef think colored eggshells evolved with modern birds that NPR's Nell greenfieldboyce reports these colors go back way further the closest living relative of modern birds is the crocodile, and it has white uncovered eggs. So biologists long thought that colored egg shells were a bird invention? Yes. Meena vitamin is a paleontologist at Yale University. She wondered if colored eggshells were older, maybe as old as birds dinosaur ancestors take over after it's a relative of the velociraptor made famous in the movie Jurassic Park. This dinosaur is particularly interesting because over his worry the first dinosaurs that build openness. Sts instead of burying its eggs underground. And once you start to build an openness, your ex are exposed to the environment. Vehement says out their color could provide camouflage or help dinosaurs recognize their own eggs. So she and some colleagues studied sixty six million-year-old egg fossils searching for the two pigments a red one blue one that are known to mix and match and bird eggs, creating all of the beautiful colors. And we found very very small concentrations preserved of both pigments that was intriguing still it was just one dinosaur so vehement and her colleagues, analyzed eggshells from more. We tried to cover the major branches of time says to get a good idea for like all non avian dinosaurs in the journal nature. They report that they found. No pigments in birds distant dinosaur relatives, such as the groups that include triceratops and the long necked diplomat. Focus the red and blue pigments were. The present however in eggshells from the group of dinosaurs. That includes birds and their close relatives, we have very likely a single canary origin of color. What's more her team showed that dinosaur eggs even had spots and speckles, and that's the prized Mark Halbur? He's an ornithologist and expert on eggs at the university of Illinois at her banished. Champagne read, not only known that that dinosaur eggs or caller for Dave speckled, which is a whole other aspect of diversity. He says it looks like dinosaurs may have needed these fancy eggs for all the same reasons as birds and maybe some egg related dinosaur business. We haven't even thought of Nell greenfieldboyce NPR news. The pop singer Kim Petras had a hit earlier this year with a sunny danceable number called.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Live from NPR news in Washington, I'm Windsor Johnston. President Trump is taking to social media to push back against escaping report published in the New York Times NPR's Scott Horsely says the article reports that Trump and his family used dubious games to evade taxes on hundreds of millions of dollars in inherited wealth. The New York Times fourteen thousand word story was the product of more than a year of investigation. It shows that despite his claims to be a self made billionaire President Trump was the beneficiary of a vast inherited fortune much of which was shielded from taxes through a variety of questionable. Schemes New York taxing authorities say they're reviewing the articles findings in his tweet. The president does not dispute any of the facts in the article, but describes it as quote, a very old boring and often told hit piece Trump complains, the vast majority of the newspaper's coverage of his administration has been negative echoing charge leveled by the White House press secretary, Scott Horsely, NPR news. Washington. It's still unclear whether the Senate will vote this week to confirm supreme court nominee bright cabin. All the vote has been delayed pending the results of an ongoing FBI investigation into allegations of sexual misconduct against cabin. All who denies the claims. The agency is expected to release its findings by the end of the week. This year's Nobel prize in chemistry has been awarded to two Americans and a researcher in the United Kingdom. NPR's? Nell greenfieldboyce reports they won for using evolution to design new enzymes and medicines Francis. Arnold works at Caltech but early this morning, she was in a hotel room in Dallas, Texas, sound asleep. The phone rang. And I I of course, I thought it was one of my sons were the problem. Nope. It was the Royal Swedish Academy of sciences, she'd been awarded half of the Nobel prize in chemistry for pioneering the idea of using random changes to produce all kinds of new chemicals or enzymes. So researchers can pick the best one for use in say an industrial process or a pharmaceutical. She shares the award with George Smith of the university of Missouri in Columbia and Gregory winter at the MARCY laboratory of molecular biology in the United Kingdom. Nell greenfieldboyce, NPR news Islamic state is claiming responsibility for a suicide bombing that targeted an election rally in Afghanistan. NPR's Diaa Hadeed reports the attack killed at least thirteen people and wounded more than two dozen. It was the first attack on an election rally since campaigning kicked off last week, the parliamentary elections, there are widespread fears that this sort of violence could derail the process they seen as a dry run for the more important presidential elections next year and a test of the government's ability to provide security NPR's Diaa Hadid reporting from Islam abroad. On Wall Street, the Dow was one hundred forty eight points, the NASDAQ up thirty eight this is NPR news. This is WNYC. I see in New York. I'm Lance lucky eleven firefighters and three civilians were injured in an early morning fire in Manhattan's east village. None of the injuries are life threatening. The blaze broke out on the first floor of a five storey building at first avenue and east twelfth street. First avenue is closed traffic from east night through twelfth streets, more than a dozen Manhattan. Block associations and neighborhood groups have filed a lawsuit against the city and MTA asking it to hit the brakes on the train shutdown. They're objecting to the extra traffic and congestion noise. The project would bring to the east village and the fourteenth street corridor the group settled a claim in federal court earlier this year, but their lawyer Arthur Schwartz told WNYC are now seeking action from a state judge. They say federal investigators ignored hundreds of negative comments about the fifteen month closure, which is scheduled to begin in April. Neither the city nor the MTA have responded to a request for comment. Transit advocates are joining social Justice organizations to campaign for congestion pricing as a means of raising money for the MTA members of the fixed the subway coalition or. Asking governor Andrew Cuomo and the New York state legislature to include congestion pricing in the upcoming state budget. Rebecca Belan is with the riders alliance mixing the subway is a social.
George Smith, Francis Arnold and Researcher discussed on Morning Edition
"The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences announced the winners in Stockholm, Vietnam, scopes, academy in this Lou. Not often. Well, PC shimmy NPR's. Nell greenfieldboyce is here to tell us about the winners. Presumably you're not gonna into verbatim translate. Not who won so half of the award went to Francis Arnold. She's a researcher at Caltech in Pasadena, California and the other half of the award is shared by George Smith at the university of Missouri in Columbia and Gregory winter at the MARCY laboratory of molecular biology, Cambridge in the United Kingdom, and what did they do that has given them this honour? So the Nobel prize committee said that they introduced a revolution in chemistry based on Evelyn. And so basically the idea is they took the principles of Darwin of evolution and apply them to the test tube. Basically developing new types of chemicals in enzymes by inserting, an element of randomness into the whole process. So it used to be that people would try to. New chemicals or enzymes by using logic and trying to design the enzyme to do exactly what they wanted it to do. But Francis Arnold called that a quotes somewhat arrogant approach. And so she realized the thing to do was to use randomness and in the early nineteen nineties. She started trying to improve the performance of enzymes by taking a gene for an enzyme putting a whole bunch of random mutations into it. And then putting these into bacteria that would then spew out a whole bunch of different versions of the enzyme, and you could screen those to pick the best one for whatever purpose, you you had. And then the others who won the prize did something similar, George. Smith developed a technique called display. It uses a virus to infect bacteria, and it can be used to evolve new proteins, including antibodies. That's what Gregory winter. Did he took fades display and apply to antibodies, and you know, by doing that, you
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The mood altering drug known as ecstasy can make people feel more loving toward others. And researchers now say it has a similar effect on octopuses NPR's. Nell greenfieldboyce has been diving into this important story octopuses are bizarre almost like aliens, they're related to slugs, but have a huge complex brain that looks nothing like ours. And except when mating they are notably unfriendly to other octopuses of the three hundred or so estimated species of octopus. There's maybe one or two that are social and all the rest are a social goal Dolan is a neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University who studied the drug ecstasy or MD MA it targets a brain protein that seems to be almost identical in humans, and and octopuses so she and a colleague named Eric Ed Zinger gave the. Drug to octopuses to see if it would make the animals more, social, and what we did is we put that MDA in a beaker that had a known volume of seawater in it. And then we put the octopus inside of that beaker and just let it sit there for ten minutes, then they put the octopus into a tank also in that tank was another octopus. There was confined to a cage. Well, really an upside down flowerpot with holes in it octopus would ordinarily stay far away from the imprisoned stranger. But not so on ecstasy. First of all, they spent significantly more time in the side of the tank, the chamber that had the other octopus in it without the drug octopuses acted reserved and aloof and might only reach out one of their eight arms to touch the cooped up animal, whereas after MD may they were essentially hugging the flowerpot. That had the other activists in it. And they just seemed relaxed the findings in the journal current biology stunned other researchers Judit pungo studies octopuses at the university of Oregon. She says octopuses have a very different doughnut shaped brain that has absolutely no business acting like ours does. But here they show that it does. At least it seems to Zachary maintenance is a neuroscientist at the Champalimaud center for the unknown in Portugal. Is it really affection? Would we know? So it's really it's totally fascinating. And it shows that some of our biological systems for social behavior must go way way back because humans and octopuses are separated by more than five hundred million years of evolution. Nell greenfieldboyce. NPR news. This is NPR news. And you're listening to morning edition here on Friday morning on public radio. Five nineteen is the time. I'm Dave Freeman. Good morning. Thank you for joining us. Let's find out about our morning traffic. Here is Joe McConnell. Hello either. Good morning..
Kelsey Snell, Brett Kavanagh and Senator Corey Booker discussed on All Things Considered
"Some birds and insects have an innate drive to migrate. Not. So for big hoofed mammals, like sheep or moose NPR's. Nell greenfieldboyce reports on a surprising new study that shows these animals have to learn to migrate. And they are not exactly quick studies. Brett Jasmer isn't a colleges at the university of Wyoming. He says there have long been hints that large mammals aren't born knowing how to migrate but learn from their parents so biologists might be in the field, observing moose, and they see that the moose calf followed its mother on its spring and fall migration moving from place to place to follow new green grass to see if knowledge about migration really was passed down from generation to generation he and his colleagues studied, moose and Bighorn sheep in the western US some populations had lived on the same land for a long time. We know they were there at the time of the Louis from Kark, expedition and probably for. Hundreds or even thousands of years prior others had moved in over the last sixty years as conservationists brought animals to areas where the original populations had disappeared due to hunting or disease. What the researchers found using GPS tracking and satellite imagery is that animals put into vacant unfamiliar land. Didn't migrate Matt Kaufmann is a wildlife researcher at the US Geological Survey that was sort of a little bit of an aha moment for me of like, wow, they really have to learn where things green up and where they need to move next in the journal science. The researchers say it took Bighorn sheep nearly forty years to develop a robust migration. It took moose nearly ninety years. The study impressed. Jackie freyre. She's a wildlife ecologist at the state university of New York in Syracuse dimension that they're bringing to migration ecology is memory and cultural transmission of information. She says this shows we need to protect animals existing migration routes now because there's no easy fix. If a migration culture is
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on NPR News Now
"For noncompliance for npr news i'm teri schultz more funerals for the santa fe high school shooting victims are being held in texas today and peers on zillow wong reports mourners are gathering one week after an alleged gunman killed ten people family and friends are paying their last respects to some of the santa fe high school students and one of the teachers killed more burials are expected after memorial day weekend it's been a busy week for local funeral directors including m can linton he says the impact of the shooting has been felt across the community you realize that there are people that you know that you see in the grocery store to go to church with that have had a debt makes difficult as you go into your daily routine hospitals are still treating some thirteen people injured during the school shooting this weekend local community groups are holding fundraisers to help their families pay for them medical bills on long npr news santa fe texas less than a half an hour to go to the opening bell wall street futures trading lower the dow futures contract down about two tenths of a percent this is npr an investigation continues into an explosion at a restaurant outside toronto last night police say two suspects had their faces covered as the enter the restaurant in a mall drops some sort of explosive device in fled at least fifteen people were injured some critically authorities say at this point there is no indication the explosion is an act of terror a new study shows the asteroid impact wiped out the dinosaurs also warmed up the planet as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that hot spill lasted for a long time the dinosaurs except birds died out around sixty five million years ago after the planet got hit by a huge asteroid the impact caused massive wildfires and vaporized rock and that released a lot of carbon dioxide carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas so scientists recently looked to see how much the atmosphere warmed they did it by analyzing chemical changes in tiny fossils little bits of ancient fish.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"To resign over the cover up of sexual abuse by a priest convicted in two thousand eleven victimizing boys during the nineteen seventies and eighties and santiago the bishops met with pope francis this week after being summoned to the vatican a spokesman says the church leaders plan to stay in their roles pending the pope's response earlier this month francis met with several alleged clergy abuse victims who said that they wanted the bishops removed and they wanted punishment extended to others implicated in the scandal a new report says chimpanzees owned by the national institutes of health should be moved from labs to overtired sanctuary but only if they are likely to survive the relocation as npr's nell greenfieldboyce explains many former research chimps have chronic health issues the nih has been slowly moving all of its chimps to a wooden sanctuary in louisiana called chimp even but the deaths of some chimps after transfer prompted some to argue that it's too stressful for chimps to leave a longterm lab home and familiar caretakers the nih convened a working group to study the issue it found that one hundred and seventy seven chimps have health problems that could put them at increased risk from a move but it concluded all chimps should be moved in less relocation was quote extremely likely to shorten their lives instead an independent vet should be consulted if lab and a sanctuary disagree on whether a chimp is healthy enough to move nell greenfieldboyce npr news on wall street stocks closed mixed with the dow jones industrials edging up one point i'm shay stevens npr news in washington support for npr comes from npr stations other contributors include the robert wood johnson foundation working alongside others to build a culture of health for all more information at our w j f dot org and the national endowment for the arts art works.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on NPR News Now
"Most previously served as an undersecretary at the defense department trump's prior nominee for the va post white house physician ronnie jackson withdrew after allegations of professional misconduct surfaced aisha roscoe npr news the white house to affords from president trump as us and chinese negotiators met for a second day to resolve differences that could precipitate a tariff war the two trade giants are at odds over whether or not china did propose a package of concessions aimed at reducing the us trade deficit with china by as much as two hundred billion dollars china says it did not president trump speaking today at the white house declared that the us is determined to change what he called horrible trade deals where quote they take our jobs they take our money on wall street at the close the dow jones industrial average was virtually unchanged up one point at twenty four thousand seven hundred seventeen the nasdaq down twice thousand eight this is npr a new report says that chimpanzees owned by the national institutes of health should be moved from labs to a retirement sanctuary unless they are so frail that the stress of relocation is likely to kill them npr's nell greenfieldboyce explains that many former research chimps have chronic health conditions the nih has been slowly moving all of its chimps to a wooded sanctuary in louisiana called chimp even but the deaths of some chimps after transfer prompted some to argue that it's too stressful for chimps to leave a longterm lab home and familiar caretakers the convened a working group to study the issue it found that one hundred seventy seven chimps have health problems that could put them at increased risk from a move but it concluded all chimps should be moved in less relocation was quote extremely likely to shorten their lives and said an independent vet should be consulted if it lab and a sanctuary disagree on whether a chimp is healthy enough to move now greenfieldboyce.
Amgen, Congo and Nell Greenfieldboyce discussed on NPR News Now
"The drugs already on the market can help treat symptoms but this newly approved drug can prevent some migraines in studies some people reported that the drug reduced by half the number of migraine attacks it's given by injection once a month it's a custommade antibody and that's typically a more expensive type of drug in this case drugmaker amgen says it is said a list price of nearly seven thousand dollars a year for the medication health insurance companies may limit who gets this pricey drug and consumer prices will vary richard harris npr news the trump administration is going to rule out a rule governing federal family planning funds the rule would block federal funding to groups that either provide abortions or refer patients to other abortion providers the program covers low income americans seeking contraception and other reproductive health services on wall street the dow jones industrial average is up sixteen points at twenty four thousand seven hundred twenty eight the nasdaq is down eighteen and seventy three sixty three this is npr officials at the world health organization say the ebola outbreak in democratic republic of congo is a serious concern but they say it has not reached the level to be declared a global health emergency the who was concerned because an ebola case has been confirmed in a large congolese city where the onus could spread widely a new report says that chimpanzees owned by the national institutes of health should be moved from labs to a retirement sanctuary unless they are so frail that the stress of relocation is very likely to kill them npr's nell greenfieldboyce explains many former research chimps have chronic health conditions the nih has been slowly moving all of its chimps to a wooded sanctuary in louisiana called chimp even but the deaths of some chimps after transfer prompted some to argue that it's too stressful for chimps to leave a longterm lab home and familiar caretakers the nih convened a working group to study the issue it found that one hundred seventy.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Gave him counterfeit vicodin or even knew that the entertainer had the drug this is npr news an appeals court panel says the trump administration cannot deny public safety grants to cities that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration policies the three judge panel says the justice department overstepped its authority by establishing new conditions for the grants the ruling upholds a temporary injunction imposed by a lower court last year at the request of several cities lynn by chicago the us senate has narrowly confirmed republican oklahoma congressman jim breitenstein to run the national association that durant nasa npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that the vote included a surprise guest appearance have made history jim ryan stein's nomination was controversial and had been stalled in congress critics said that the position had previously been held by astronauts and engineers while breitenstein stein is a politician who seems skeptical of mainstream climate science but last month nasr acting administrator announced that he would retire at the end of april that gave bryden stein's nomination a push forward during the vote senator tammy duckworth of illinois appeared holding her newborn baby the senate unanimously changed its rules to allow members to bring their young babies on the floor for votes duckworth was annot but breitenstein still had enough yeses to get confirmed nell greenfieldboyce npr news disgraced cyclist lance armstrong has reached a five million dollar settlement with the federal government in fraud case he was stripped of his record seven tour.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on NPR News Now
"Employees who contacted thirties and central south carolina seven people dead another seventeen injured in what authorities are calling a mass casualty incident at a maximum security prison south carolina public radio events called lugo reports this is the latest of several large incidents at lea correctional institution the south carolina department of corrections described the scene as many inmate on inmate altercations across three housing units a spokesman said the incident started sunday evening in ended after thirties from several local agencies secured the prison early this morning all correctional staff were located and confirmed safe but seventeen inmates required outside medical attention the facility houses about one thousand six hundred of the state's most finally in longest serving inmates it's the state's largest maximum security prison and in the last ten years has dealt with multiple insurrections uncontrolled fights and hostage situations for npr news i'm vince cope lugo in columbia and you're listening to npr news nasa is preparing to launch its next planet hunting mission satellite called tests is scheduled to blast off early the seasoning from cape canaveral air force station in florida nell greenfieldboyce reports that the goal is to find planets have began be studied in detail astronomers have already discovered thousands of planets beyond our solar system by watching stars to detect telltale signs that an orbiting planet is there usually the existence of a planet is about all scientists can learn but now nasr's test mission is going after planets that orbit bright nearby stars that will make it easier for scientists to analyze those planets atmospheres to search for water or other possible signs that a world could support life tests will spend about two years looking at nearly the entire sky it's expected to find around twenty thousand planets including hundreds of planets about the size of earth nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on KQED Radio
"And if you're the winner will give you a call and you'll get to play on the air with the puzzle editor of the new york times and week at additions puzzle master will shortz next virtual thank you tomorrow a rocket is scheduled to blast off with a nasa satellite it's a planet hunter that will spend two years looking for alien worlds npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports on how it will help scientists in their quest to find another earth mercury venus earth mars jupiter saturn neptune uranus for a long time those were the only planet scientists knew about in recent years beyond our solar system they've discovered over three thousand more thanks in large part to a nasa mission called kepler the most exciting things we've learned from kepler it's been planets are extremely common they're far more planets in the milky way than there are stars that's george ricker an astronomer at mit he says kepler was really good at finding planets but not ones that scientists could study in detail there's really not much more we can say other than that they list and that is very unsatisfying because after all what scientists really want to do is find another planet like our own one that some form of life could call home i asked sarah seager also at mit how close we are to finding earth's twin far we're very far from knowing that something is like earth out there that's why she and ricker are part.
"nell greenfieldboyce" Discussed on WLRH 89.3 HD3
"Something is out there that's why she and ricker are part of a team that's working on nasr's next mission called tests for transiting exoplanet survey satellite tests will scan almost the entire sky looking for telltale signs of planets around closer brighter stars this will make it easier for scientists to do follow up measurements and so with the planets that tests fines we're gonna be able to use a different set of telescopes and then try to find out if any of them are indeed somewhat like she says the goal is to find small probably rocky planets orbiting in his sweet spot around the star that's not too hot and not too cold those planets could be studied using a big new space telescope that nasa is supposed to launch a couple years it could analyze the planet's atmospheres and most important thing i think would be to find signs of water vapor in a small planet atmosphere because all life as we know it needs liquid water astronomers are excited by the idea that tests will give them a massive new catalog of relatively easy to study planets beyond our solar system the follow up work is sure to go on for years ruth angus is an astronomer at columbia university if we detect life signatures on any extra set of cana in the next ten years then not planet will almost certainly have been discovered by tests but she says that's a big if because there's reason to think the planets found by tests might not be super cozy little places the mission will mainly be targeting planets orbiting small common stars called red dwarfs and red dwarfs are known to send out scorch blasts of ultraviolet and x ray radiation that could fry any life still anga says she's skeptically hopeful there are certain conditions that we need so the nice that with amelia with but who knows if those conditions apply across the galaxy she says they've got to start looking somewhere and tests will tell them where nell greenfieldboyce npr news the band or alcohol gone takes its name from the rubel word cubans us that means from the heart and this music from their self titled debut album definitely comes from deep in the soul and the history of the country the sixteen piece group recorded in havana's famous at eight studios were cuban stars have recorded since the.