20 Episode results for "National Congress"
South African Health Minister Involved In Covid Scandal Probe
"You're listening to the news at this hour on africa. Business radio south african health minister. The doctors william keesee has been placed on special leave by president sulzer pending a corruption probe the doctrine keys as be knox to address allegations that two of his close aides embezzled more than six million dollars from public coronavirus funds using a front company. That was awarded a contract to run the health ministry's copied communications. The minister denies any wrongdoing and is seeking to state his case to the governing african national congress the has been public outrage that thousands of kobe linked contracts have been awarded to politically connected companies. And that wasn't us. At this time on africa business radio you can continue to listen live online at. Www dot africa business radio. That's come off. Ir are mobile app. I am rachel. chih-jen do thank you for listening.
African National Congress published Mandela's message - June 10, 1980
"Thinking about adding popular music to your platform or APP to power, new music, features and filters concerned that it's too hard and expensive to license and integrate music. Meets Song Clip the first ever social music? Api Song Clip is an easy and cost effective solution for bringing fully compliant popular music to your platform through an easy to integrate fully customizable API visit song. CLIP DOT COM to learn more today. Hey Solos Cube worrisome. PODCASTERS, it's the one and only. From the bottom show, that's why to saw produced by. Lee All. In. Entertainment News Bother Male, common, creeping celebrity, guests, hosts, and more the big box on the baller Marsha podcast by Ferrari Sims. Follow and me OTC Saka Thou- on the bother large-scale podcast today. On iheartradio APP on Apple podcast or wherever you get your podcast this day. In history, class is a production of iheartradio. Hello everyone I'm eaves and welcome to this day in History Class A podcast packages history into tiny bite size pieces. Today Is June tenth twenty twenty. The Day was June tenth nineteen eighty. The African National Congress published a message that are tight leader Nelson Mandela wrote in response to so wait. Oh, uprising in nineteen, seventy six. At the time Mandela was imprisoned. In nineteen, forty, eight, the National Party came to power in South Africa and began implementing the policy of apartheid at the time, racial segregation existed in the country, and the white minority held political power. Though. Segregation had long been in practice. Apartheid extended policy. Dictated where people could live and work based on race. The Population Registration Act required people to be classified and registered as black, white, coloured or other. Pass laws reinforced the ideology of white supremacy by controlling the movement of black South Africans. Plenty of other apartheid laws were passed that enforce the country system of racial segregation and disadvantaged the majority black population. Nelson Mandela was a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement in the early Nineteen Forties Mandela joint the African National Congress or a C. A political party that became dedicated to ending apartheid once the National Party came to power. In the decades after apartheid became official government policy resistance to the system sprang up South Africa. The ANC was heavily involved in the fight against apartheid and Mandela emerged as a leader in the ANC. In June of Nineteen seventy-six black students in Soweto township led protests in response to the government, mandating the use of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction in schools. Afrikaans was a language of the white minority. As thousands of students marched in the demonstrations. The police responded by shooting at the children. Many children were killed and the Soweto uprising spread across the country. At the time of the so wait, oh, uprising Nelson Mandela was in prison, serving a life term after being convicted of sabotage in the Rivonia Trial in one, thousand, nine, sixty four. During his time in prison, Mandela continued to write and support the anti-apartheid movement and people help Tim Smuggle his writing out of Robben Island prison. One of the messages he wrote from Robben. Island was in response to the Soweto uprising. On June. Tenth Nineteen, eighty, the ANC published this message, stating that it took more than two years to reach them. It included an introduction by Oliver Tombo who was president of the African National Congress. The introduction acknowledged the importance of Mandela's quote. Call to unity and mass action, especially since nineteen eighty marked the twenty fifth anniversary of the Freedom Charter, a document ratified in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, five, that demanded equal rights for all South Africans. In the introduction, the ANC urged readers to quote make one thousand, nine hundred a year of united mass struggle. In the message Mandela laid out how quote white domination is held in check by force of arms, and how apartheid was opposed by many people, he also called for black unity instead that quote. Victory is certain. Near the end of the message, he wrote the following. Unite mobilize fight on between the and Ville of United, mass action and the hammer of the armed struggle. We shall crush apartheid in white minority racist rule. Mandela was released from prison a decade later in one, thousand, nine hundred. Negotiations to end apartheid soon began and Mandela became president of South Africa in one, thousand, nine, hundred four. I'm Eve Steph coat, and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. and. If you have any comments or suggestions, you can hit us up on social media. Where at T. V. I, H C podcast, you can also send us an email where at this day at iheartmedia dot com. Thanks again for listening to the show and we'll see you tomorrow. For more podcasts from IHEART radio is iheartradio APP apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows, though we're apart these with sharing more so at Geiko we'd like to say thanks. Thanks for sharing your savage dance moves. Thanks for sharing your diy haircut fails. Thanks for sharing your inner lip sync star. Now it's our turn to share with the guy. Give back the fifteen percent credit on car and motorcycle policies for current and new customers, because we're committed for the long haul, the fifteen percent credit last year, full policy term visit get com slash, give back for more INFO and eligibility.
"Hello. This is meet the Royces. I'm Georgina Godwin. My guest today is one of the most exciting contemporary female black voices in literature now based in Perth, Australia. She's program director for the center for stories the social enterprise organization from where she travels regularly to the US South Africa and further afield, she regularly contributes to publications like the God in the Huffington Post in the new times her tedtalk. If a story moves you act on it has been viewed over one million times. Sissons? Thank you for coming in. Welcome to meet the rice. Thank you so much. Now, I want you to take us right back to the beginning. Because you come from a very very politically involved family. Tell me about that. So I come from South Africa as you said, and I come from a family that has been involved in politics for many, many years Selby Msimang was one of the founding members of the African National Congress, Richard Simone. My great great grandfather was also very heavily involved in. What was then the African native congress, and then my own father joined the African National Congress when he was fifteen years old and then fled the country when he was nineteen years old to go into exile. When Nelson Mandela started controversies way, which was the revolutionary army of the African National Congress. So where did you grow up? I grew up in Zambia, which was the headquarters of the ANC throughout the nineteen seventy s and nineteen eighty s I grew up in Kenya. In Nairobi, actually. And then we spent four years in Canada from when I was ten to fourteen we went back to Kenya. And that's where I completed my high school. I went to America for my university education. And then, of course, Salonika was free. And I went home to live in nineteen Ninety-six nineteen ninety seven. So that would really was the first time that that you had lived in South Africa. It was my family moved home right before the election. So in nineteen Ninety-three and the first time, I visited South Africa. I was seventeen years old, and it was nineteen ninety and in February nineteen ninety nothing Mandela was released from jail. And I remember very clearly as teenagers my sisters. And I, you know, my parents were talking Cecil about one day when we go home, you know, when the ANC is unbanned, and you know by the time we were teenagers. We'd just be rolling. Our is about this whole idea. I was like this is like Santa Claus. This guy is never gonna be free, right? He had been in jail since before I was born, right? It just did not make any sense to me. And of course, he was and it was really this sort of fairytale dream come true sort of moment. And so I hopped on a plane as soon as I could, and I left Nairobi and actually went home before the rest of my family because I was so keen and excited about seeing this place that we had dreamed of for so long, and my father was still a lot of people, especially the ones who had fought with very concerned about whether or not it was a trap, and whether they would come back and then be arrested. So there was still some skepticism, but I was a kid, and I was like no I'm going so seventeen I went well clearly Boone into a revolutionary family political royalty really in southern Africa. This was always going to be a path that you would perceive. So how did you take it from the so I didn't take for granted? This would be a path that I would pursue. And because I didn't grow up in South Africa because I was born in exile. Because I was raised in exile. Didn't have a sense of what them Simone family name meant. It was a name without any context. My father never talked about the founding members of the ANC when I grew up. It wasn't a point of pride for him in some ways. I think it was a point of a bit of embarrassment for him because it's spoke so much to the classes nature of the African National Congress that there was the sense of royalty that some people will learn it that some of the black people who had founded the movement were educated and land owners, and that that meant that they was special. And so when my dad left South Africa, he chose a very unusual path which was to train for the military wing rather than to go and be educated people, usually two paths, and he chose the military one. I think because of the sense that he wanted to prove his chops. So I didn't ever really fully understand what the name meant. And I think in some ways a lot of my post departed. Life has been spent trying to get out of the shadow of what that name means. But you've worked very much within the political sphere, or at least in within social Justice. Absolutely. Yeah. So so you're right. And of course, so this is not to disagree with your statement. Right. I think we are who we are. No matter how much we may try to buck against some parts of that legacy. I think it's not a legacy of which I'm Barrett. But I take it as a responsibility. So obviously when South Africa became free. It was clear that our parents had fought for political rights and had won them. And now my generation really had to take up the issues of social Justice socio economic rights, how we were going to make everything that was in our brand new and beautiful constitution. How will we going to make that real and have a meaningful effect in people's lives? And so that became what I I worked on. Of course, it was exactly at the time when the HIV pedantic was really taking hold of our region. And so. Looking at what were the underlying issues that would driving aids epidemic became the struggle of my generation, I became very involved in that. And of course, working against the huge disservice. The president of South Africa did with his really irresponsible statements on HIV. Absolutely. I think part of what was happening in the New South Africa was that we had been liberated. And then we had the sense that those who had helped to liberate us with somehow perfect that there was something about them that was special that had allowed them to work so tirelessly to help liberate us. And of course, I think what happened was they were fighting an extraordinary, circumstances and credit is ju- it's ju-, but when life became normal. They also reverted to normal human beings. And so what happened with tub Mbeki was a real demonstration of the arrogance that. That many people in the ANSI hat to have in order to think that they could accomplish freedom then turned into something very ugly when we were free because that arrogance was precisely what prevented him from being able to understand that he was wrong, and that he was standing in the way of people accessing life-saving services, so that era this was it was a very painful lesson for us. But I think that recklessness was really about that lack of humility that sense that I am entitled to say what I believe and not only that you must listen to me regardless that was a very painful time in our history. Yep. What about South Africa? No, I have such mixed feelings about South Africa. Now, so Africa will always be my north star the kind of compass that guides my life. So I really love South Africa. And I really. We care about its future trajectory, so while I think a lot of people feel very disappointed with the corruption with the real recklessness. I talk about in my book as callousness that I will leaders have shown. I also think that it's a story that I refuse to say it's finished. It's an unfolding story. South Africans are so good at rallying South Africans. Are so good at challenging. I think the real story of the last ten years has been the story of the media has been the remarkable story of the constitutional court and more importantly has been the story of South Africans are just fed up of this nonsense and have persisted in making the voices heard. So it's an interesting story. It's dynamic. It's all of the things that make for the political dramas that define our times. Now, while you say story of Cousy just released you'll I read your you'll memoir you debut. If you like an it's cooled always another country. And this is. Really interweaving your personal story with us of of southern Africa. Absolutely. When I decided to write I had been writing in the South African newspapers for a while doing a regular column and looking at political events as they unfolded on a weekly basis. And when I decided that I should write a book. I think everyone expected me to do a political analysis of what was happening with Zuma and what's going on in the country today. And I wanted to do something slightly different one. I wanted to push myself as a writer because I think people assumed that I would write about the politically events of the day. And I really wanted to do something different to push myself as a writer in terms of craft. I think it's important how we express ourselves. But I also wanted to think more broadly about the South African story and the kinds of stories that already existed, and we have these very large stories about very big men in South Africa, Nelson Mandela as a big figure in our political history for food. Milan. All these big men, these stories Biko these stories about very a larger than life character, which were men and there with fewer stories about women, and there were even fewer stories about ordinary people who lived in the shadow of the great events who weren't event makers, but who were affected by all of these terrible things that had happened in our history. And so I thought well, that's kinda me. This little kid who didn't ask to be born into any of the stuff and who was raised in an incredibly loving loving family in some ways in a pretty eclectic cosmopolitan community of freedom fighters, everyone when we were growing up with from Mozambique and from Zimbabwe all the liberation movements. And they were really a self selected people of a group of pretty spectacular people who, you know, I referred to in my book as people who are first pioneers. The first black person ever to study in Sweden to get this degree, the first, you know, nuclear physicists, and all of them had the sense that they were being educated or trained to go back home. And that sense that going back home was always imminent, and the fact that they sustain that optimism courage for thirty years, and that's thirty years in which the my father was gone for thirty years. So he left in nineteen hundred hundred fifty three and yet they were just really loving wonderful people. I wanted to reflect both on. Their gentleness, and their perseverance, but also on the broader political backdrop against which they were showing themselves to be really incredible human beings. And that's not what your work with story ends because you've given a fantastic tedtalk to in which you you that stories don't necessarily make the world a better place. I think that it's really seductive and easy to think that stories make a difference and part of what so seductive is because stories are everywhere, and they make us feel connected to an issue. But just because you feel connected to an issue doesn't mean that you've actually taken the next step, which is to act on the way that you feel and increasingly given how many people live their lives online. I really do worry that rather than making us act stories lawless into a false sense, of empathy that we have the connection, but we don't feel the need to act on it because it makes us feel like good people. And if. Obviously, given the very difficult things that the world is facing today. It's not enough to feel like a good person. It's much more important to take collective action where you can look at people in the whites of their eyes and make decisions together where you can argue with people not behind the 'unanimity of screen, but actually in flesh and blood. Yeah, I do worry that so many of the stories that we consume. These days are consumed behind the screen rather than in real life face to face. So a lot of the stories that we tell at the center for stories are oral stories, and we insist on live events. So we invite people we have a lot of events where we share food, and we tell stories about where different people are from. And we try as much as possible to make sure that the stories are never stories that you've heard before. So we trouble the arc. We tell longer stories than you might hear in the mainstream media, we tell quirkier stories we tell ragged stories were. Clearly uninterested in inspiration stories, we tell a lot of funny stories. That's what human beings are all these different sort of messy complicated things as what we talk about. But in tons of stories just being a means of escape shouli. That's okay. It's all right to have fiction and entertainment. Absolutely. In fact, it's necessary and fiction and entertainment a really important for expanding. And extending what our imaginations are what we think is even possible. Like, what would the world be like at the moment without Neil Gaiman. Right. It's there's all these fantastic things stories do for us. So it's important that I saw it may be clarified that I'm talking about real life stories. I'm talking about social Justice in the link between people who say that they care about social Justice and our yet paralyzed by the inability to move forward. So I think it's great to consume stories and to be moved by movie, or even the real life story of someone who you may have heard, but it's also. So important not to then pretend as though that means you're doing something. And I think. So you've made mention of the the scent of stories you'll program direct to that. What exactly is it though? What's it full? So I am the head of oral storytelling at the center for stories and it exists to tell stories that challenge. Mainstream stories about who west astray liens are. And I now live in Australia. So it's that simple that simple. So last year, we did a fantastic project called the roaring nineteenth about people who are over ninety years old because I don't remember the last time I heard stories about people who are in the nineties anywhere in the press, and they were fabulous very interesting. And none of the people in the stories were dealing with dementia or Parkinson's. None of them were feeble. Because those are the stories that we tend to hear about people when we are talking about older people. We have told some fantastic stories. We did one called bright lights. No city about growing up queer and rural western. Australia, which I can tell you. We're both heartbreaking. But also some really funny stories where we poke fun at stereotypes. And where we where people talked about the incredible amounts of love that they're receiving from people in places that you would least expect it so all kinds of stories. So that's what we exist for. So we get funded by different cultural institutions, the museum commissions us to do stories that they then curate we get funded by local governments to help communities. Come together, their storytelling projects, a whole whole range of things. What do you live in stralia? I live in Australia because my partner is from Perth, and we had lived in South Africa had on kids in South Africa. My family is we're very close and Simon's parents getting older, and he wanted our kids to have an opportunity to know their side of the family. He also has two older kids. So for lots of personal reasons that made sense to make our way to Perth. So it was kind of his turn. So it's been a very heartbreaking hard move. I still cleave to South Africa. It's a bit of an open. It's a bit of an open ruined for me, not living at home. It's an interracial marriage. Has that ever been an issue? It was certainly an issue for me. I tell a story in the book about how falling in love with a white guy was completely not my plan and was not how as so myself. I saw myself as radical black woman had just come back from the United States where I was challenging all kinds of whiteness. And so to fall in love with a white man was not part of my plan was very much part of the language that my parents grew up with this idea that we were working for a multi-racial society, lots of interracial families that we grew up with and I set myself apart from my parents, you know, when you when you say to yourself, I'm not my parents, politics, guys. Oh this rainbow stuff. And then of course, karma. Calmer will get you. So it was definitely much more of an issue for me than it ever has been for him. And I think it's important to be honest about some of the difficult things about being in an interracial relationship. Even as of course, they're like wonderful things about being with him as a human being. But lots of the ways in which you are underestimated as a black woman who is with a white man because there's so many assumptions about why it is that you married a white man and most of those assumptions about some kind of economic need and given the family that I come from. He always says, I got really lucky. Of a greater racial picture. I mean you made reference to the rainbow nation. It seems to me looking into South Africa that it is almost as divided as it ever was. I don't know that I agree with that. What what do I wanna say? What do I wanna say about this big complicated question in the Mandela years? I think the country had a very big narrative about coming together forgiveness Reconsiliation as a way to move forward, and that equation, included, truth and honesty, but it also included in the interest of peace a lot of glossing over of history. And it also included not doing enough work to recognize the present hurts that people were carrying not just historical hurts, so for example, the truth and reconciliation commission looked at gross human rights violations. Tried to track down a partake murders. It tried to look at where people were buried. It was very painful and difficult and really important process. It didn't however have a series of hearings that looked at what it meant to be a black person who lost at dignity on the basis that on. A daily basis you are asked to show a pass to a what any white person who asked you so stuff that isn't dramatic in the sense of somebody died, but that does kill your soul. Very slowly that stuff was never dealt with. And so I think that many people and the leadership of the NC and people like a Bishop Tutu who have this extraordinarily spiritual capacity to move forward with dignity in spite of all that I think they underestimated how painful that had been for people and how much space needed to be given to those everyday small experiences. You see those theme here that I I like to talk about the small and the every day because I think there's great power pain an optimism those everyday moments if we can claim them, so I think that's part of what happened with Africa. And so I know a lot of people get very anxious about the robust way in which we talk about race about the anger about all of the stuff that's happening between black and white. And I think some of it is. Negative. But I think on balance it's really positive that we are speaking openly about issues, I think that I continue to believe in South Africa as a democracy because of the constitutional court because of the media because of Africans are so funny Hend insist on dealing with one another, and so I think that people should trust our democracy enough to know that now that there are no South Africans who are more special than other Africans that robustness is part of what it means to really be a country. So while we are divided. We are more country than we were twenty five years ago. I think that's really important for somebody who spends so much of her time working around oral storytelling to actually translate that onto the page. And I wonder with all of your other work, you'll political activism your journalism, you running of the center for stories how you managed to do that just practically. In this very this, very useful book. So I I've always been a writer. I I have to speak in order to convey, my ideas. But my first love is the paint because I love to read, and because I love ideas, because they're still no better way to express oneself, then in writing because writing and books in particular give you time, and these days everything happened so quickly that we conduct our political debate and discourse through tweets, and sometimes I good. But most of the time it's not we conduct our emotional relationships via text message people wanna pick the phone anymore. You know? So I I love the page because it gives you time, and it gives you space to really think through an idea and go back to it and change it and revise it. And that is wonderful. So what I feel like is that in most of my life. I am constantly fighting for some. Time to just sit. And write I don't do that enough. The book promotion has been wonderful. But also, very time consuming the demands and pressures of the center for stories are great because I get to help people to tell the stories, but I am often wanting to simply be on my computer. The book came out and saw that I how was it received. The I was overwhelmed by how well that the book was received. When a story is your own, you tend to think that it's so idiocy and critic that it can't possibly be of interest to anybody else because your life is just a series of random events that happened. Right. It's not like there was a planner designed behind them. So when you commit that to the page, you worry that this is not going to really make sense to anyone else because it's just a series of events. I obviously worked really hard to think about the theme of belonging. And to think about this notion of South Africa as a home that has always called to me as a home, obviously as geographic place. But also as I think what I said before so Africa is my my north star. The thing that I will always believe in. And so somehow people read the book and really like got it as well. And of course, the idea of so many people across. The world have to move through no desire of their own. So many people are searching for a place to call home. So many people know what it's like to be an outsider to be a child in a foreign country. All of a sudden and have people look at you because you are different skin color or different religion. And think that you are someone they should disdain so many of the things that I wrote about in the book are kind of universal. I just hadn't seen it until I saw the response to it. So it's been wonderful. Yeah. Yeah. And that's not just in South Africa everywhere where people have read the book they've really connected with it. And so that's been just really a wonderful surprise for me. And so what's next? So I've written a book which comes out another book. Yeah. It comes out in April next month the second of April. It was a a quick tough take on winning Mandela. And so it's called the resurrection of Winnie Mandela. And when you say tough what I tried to grapple with in the resurrection of when you Mandela was why our society. He loves her so much and wide hates her so much. So I look at both sides of this remarkably complex woman and part of it. I think has to do with how much our society loves Nelson Mandela, and the sense that she heard him more than anyone had ever heard him within the context of their own relationship. But part of it is I think the ways that our conversation in my country about Reconsiliation and building post-apartheid South Africa where we can live side-by-side centered forgiving white people and refused to center the sins that black people had committed against one another. And so when you Mandela finds herself as an orphan as many black people who committed sins against other black people during that era, find themselves not forgiven not yet forgiven and should she be? I think so I think we can't accept that. FW declerk have a joint Nobel prize with nothing Mandela. As he presided over massacres in very time that we were negotiating our freedom. And then say that Winnie Mandela with however, many little boys were caught in the horrible vortex of her violence that nobody can excuse. We cannot say that we can't forgive me. It doesn't make sense to me. So it's about who stories we've Allieu it's about how easy it is to forgive men and how difficult it is to forgive angry. Unapologetic women. Well, you'll story is certainly one that I've alley and other should to it's cold always another country. It's published by will the dishes. It's out. Now Sisson came similar. Thank you so much for coming in. Even listening to meet the writers the production team of judgment on Nick, Minnie's Christianity and Kenya. Scarlet you can download this show on previous episodes, my website at from soundcloud, mixed cloud, or I chain. I'm Judy Godwin.
South Africa Plans $20.5 Bln Of Public Works To Spur Economy
"You're listening to the news at this time on Africa Business Radio. A top official in the governing African National Congress on Wednesday said South Africa. Planning Projects Want Twenty Point. Five billion dollars in sectors such as transport energy and water as it looks to drive an economic conference from the Coronavirus Crisis Paul. Ti the ANC Treasury general sort of video conference denies by Think Tank chant them house Infrastructure projects will soon be approved by President Zuma full sir cabinets after talks with the private sector multilateral development banks he added that the projects would focus on areas such as railways ports energy information technology water and sanitation and housing and. That was the news at this time. One Africa Business Radio. You can't continue to listen life online at. Www Dot Africa business radio DOT COM or a mobile APP. Thank you for listening.
Leadership In South Africa After Nelson Mandela
"This is one A. I'm Joshua Johnson in Washington. South Africa's mission has not changed in twenty five years. Nelson Mandela made that clear when he became president in nineteen Ninety-four that Justice for all. Oh. Let that this. Not that. Breath what and south for? Let's just know that it's there. The mind the soul had been free to fulfill themselves. Never. Never. And never gate. Sally that this beautiful land. We like paying that Speros the oppression off one another and suffered indignity. And the indignity. Infants. On so curious human. Let. Plus africa. Thank you. That's awesome Mandela from his inaugural address BRAC in nineteen ninety four. Now that mission remains the same. But many South Africans would tell you it is far from accomplished. They went to the polls last Wednesday in defining election Mandela's party, the African National Congress won control again as it has for the last quarter century. However, it's majority fell below sixty percent for the first time what's happening in South Africa. Does the ANC still have what it takes to lead the nation toward the vision Mandela suffered for what might take its place, and what does South Africans want? Now joining us here in studio is Ron Nixon an international investigations editor for the Associated Press. He is also the author of selling apartheid South Africa's global propaganda war. Ron welcome back to one A. Thank you. Joining us from Takhar in Senegal is NPR international correspondent Fabien Quist arcton ofeibea. Welcome greetings. And in Santa Monica Calif. -fornia Justice Malala is a columnist for the financial mail and the times of South Africa Justice glad to have you with us. It's to be here. Thank you feB Quist arcton. Let me start with you the ANC one. It was more of a struggle. This time give us some of the basics of the election. Some of the major players who were considered a factor in the election. And maybe whatever the one or two top issues were going into the election before that Joshua. Can I just describe the atmosphere? I wasn't in South Africa in nineteen Ninety-four. But I felt as if I was I mean, there was such hope such exuberance. Everybody knows only South Africans, but everybody around the world all over Africa felt invested in the official end of birthdate and the coming of the African National Congress this Liberation Party. And of course, Nelson Mandela becoming the first democratically elected, president of South Africa and first black president this time prison. Sydell Ramaphosa said he felt that it was like nineteen Ninety-four all over again. Many South Africans say absolutely not a quarter of a century later. Not that in the hope has died entirely. But you know, this is twenty five years later, the Mandela era is truly over the rainbow nation that emeritus Archbishop Desmond Tutu spoke about South Africa being non-racial everybody being equal and the country becoming a beacon in Africa that has old died. So many people say that disappointed. Many other people say though that the ANC is their party. It brought them freedom, and they will continue to vote coming to the to Tope issues. I think corruption the fact that the party has been mired in graph scandals in what the South African school state capture which is. Effectively influence peddling and looting state coffers. Not only leading ANC members allegedly, but also people outside the party like the Gupta family who were said to even have appointed minister, although they denied so that was one of the very big issues. The other thing, of course, the economy delivery of sevices, including housing the vexed issue of Landry distribution and land reform, and I will say one of the other very big issues was the use the fact that up to six million young South Africans known as Bom freeze those born around the end of apartheid in the coming of Nelson Mandela chose not to register. And that is very telling as if they feel that the news of African leaders are not working for them. Do not look out for them. And don't. Have enough jobs for them. We asked our listeners for their stories about Nelson Mandela, and the ANC one called in wanting to know more about it here is what Jacob left in our inbox. Hi, this is Jacob from Evansville. Nelson and his rise to power and his imprisonment and all of that it's kind of a little bit before my time 'cause I was born in nineteen ninety. So I kind of missed the boat on a lot of it. But I did get to see the movie, and the movie was absolutely something that blew me away. When I got to see it the thing that struck me the most was how he tried to construct a government that was built upon you know, inclusiveness and healing Jacob. Thanks for calling in and sharing your question with us, Ronn. It would be good to get a little bit more of the backstory of the ANC itself. I think so many of us have heard so many versions, depending on what movie you've seen whether it was the Morgan Freeman Nelson Mandela or the pots. But about the party itself. How did that come about? Right. So the the the party sorry in the early nineteen hundreds to bring together the various factions of blacks in South Africa under a number Ella to deal with the issues that face them, primarily the even though a partake wasn't official policy until nineteen forty eight. It's still was basically apart and blackston have a right to me. It basically reflect it the way that blacks were in most parts of the world at that time. And so the party was created to address those issues and to be vehicle that blacks could speak to to deal with the things with the with the government there. It did later grew into a liberation movement. As what's happening across much of. Africa and Mandela was was strategically placed out front to be the because of his imprisonment to be the face of the ANC. But there are other people who are equally important while to sue and others are were just as important for the growth of the party. And of course, you know, don't partake years, they gather large support from around the world because of the struggles of blacks, South Africa, and we should note run. There are quite a few other parts of that. There were many many many parties in this election. Yes, we'll talk about some more of those in a minute. But Justice Malala, we had a listener call in and share her experience of her time listeners scare their experience of living in South Africa. Here's what they left in our inbox. Hi, my name's Ricardo. I'm currently down in Birmingham in Alabama. I'm an ex patriot of South Africa shooting that time I was a young man at of eighteen nineteen. Just how would would they vote Mandela was vidi vici appealing figure in demographic that we were trafficking, and we we were really desiring change. And he was a God sent with the message brought with just acumen way, presented his political view, and he's political vision. Ricardo thanks for sharing your story with us Justice. I love your sense of how the ANC has evolved through the years kind of from going to being liberate going from being liberation movement to a governing party. What's that Evelyn been like? It's it's been in pots, and it's been a touring and froing if you will for me that NC that is being described the nineteen ninety four on Nelson Mandela administration it that addministration had Avila clear vision, but what it set out to do. Nelson Mandela put together a team of villi couple people from Tom big who is deputy to type manual became the finance minister in time. But also nineteen ninety four we had a government of national unity. This was a. Three the negotiations clinging to get out the national party party of for tied to the party that had been in posits nineteen forty eight s a junior Putnam demand allowed government than that lasted for about two and half years until after the Junkin the national putts left that enjoyment, and this country was he was tied to heated by saying we are better together than alone. And and to some extent would the NC party was very. Was godlike at that time. I do want to pick up with that. And just meant I hate to cut you short. We're just up against a break. I wanna pick up with that in terms of the shoe describe it god-like status of the ANC want to hear more about that. When we continue with Justice Malala, Fibi, Quist arcton and Ron Nixon. I'm Joshua Johnson. And you're listening to one A from W AMU and NPR. Support for this NPR podcast and the following message. Come from Cleveland Clinic who knows that modern medicine is making it possible for our bodies to outlive, our brains to combat neurological diseases like epilepsy dementia, and Alzheimer's experts. At Cleveland Clinic are leading global research efforts to uncover new ways that individuals can live long lives in both mind and body see some of the latest neurological advancements today at Cleveland Clinic dot org slash care. Nineteen sixty five Darkin street corner in Somalia Bama, and a murder a new podcast exposes the laws that kept this murder from being solved and explores memory myth and accountability for a crime at the heart. The civil rights movement from NPR white lies. Listen and subscribe now, this is one A. I'm Joshua Johnson. We are discussing South Africa, and where it stands now after its latest national election Justice, I had to cut you off when we pause let me let you finish your thought. And then we'll keep going. I think one of the key things from. The agency of nineteen ninety four Nelson Mandela to to compared to two today. It's that if you look at unemployment, we we've we've absolutely failed to create jobs unemployment is at twenty seven percent. It's exactly where it was in nineteen ninety four. Now that many many issues we can say have been a an impediment to to improving the situation, but on all the indices unemployment poverty levels inequality. We pretty much stock. And I think the problem is that way you had vision way had traveled t where you had implementation ninety nine to four ending them. Big administration of ninety nine to two thousand eight all that was wiped out from two thousand nine when Jacob Zuma became president. So so I might views that the into of nineteen ninety four and the age of twenty nine. Two nineteen of vastly different. And I do want a failure. I want to come to you and just one second, but Ron Nixon. I should I should've asked you earlier. We should clarify the time line of presidents that that brewed on the NC. We had Nelson. We've mentioned it. A couple of names. We've had Nelson Mandela after Nelson Mandela there was in Becky tobbaco Mbeki. Right. And then after tob Mbeki Zuma Jacob Zuma who was the most previous president before the current Cyril Ramaphosa. Right. Okay. So those are the four that were referring to under this time serum opposes the president. Now under the election that just to place feB Quist arcton, you talked to voters in South Africa in terms of what they were expecting from this election. I'd love to get your thoughts on that. But first, let's hear some of what they told you. I'm agenda NIST feB Equis out from NPR, and I'm talking to people about voting. Yeah. Your name. Holly. The funny part is I'm standing there and thinking anyone else get emotional about it anymore. Still because it's still has a feeling when you in thinking privilege that it is for us to be able to vote because so many people are saying they won't be voting. So tell me about the emotion of voting. Well, we all know the history behind it. But I think for me right now is just the set nece that young people don't seem to understand what it took to. Afford this privilege this right? You know what I mean? And you look into media and even going, no, I'm not I'm not voting cuss corruption. And it's like a you suicide trying to compare corruption to partake February you mentioned earlier that not a lot of young people turned out to vote. I understand the disenchantment with the ANC. What about some of the opposition? Parties is anybody else capturing the attention of young South Africans at all. Or are. They just kind of this floating voting block without a party. Oh, yes. I would say the economic freedom fighters of Judas, my Laima who was kicked out of the ANC about five years ago and setup this radical left-leaning party that was the bane of the life of disgraced President Jacob Zuma has caught the attention of young South Africans and many others. It got almost double the vizier have got home as double the votes they did five years ago and in all about just under eleven percent. Okay. Compared with the NC's fifty something. And even the main opposition Democratic Alliance is twenty something that's not huge. But. Julius Melena is seen as something of a maverick. But he's somebody who talks true we say in west Africa. You know, he talks about the issues that. Tricky like land distribution and land reform that many South Africans are thinking about because of course, the minority white communities still owns most of the land in South Africa with talking twenty five years down the line. So the EFF which in parliament has been quite a dramatic party. I mean, it it has disrupted interrupted and really taken on everybody, especially former president Zuma and even the new president symbol Cyril Ramaphosa if they feel that he's going down the wrong track. And there were forty eight parties taking place in these. Parliamentary elections because it's it is parliamentary and also provincial elections. You don't choose the president the party that has missed fluids than puts its candidate Fullwood. And you know, many people are saying we should have given more of a chance to other Ponte's to have a say in the future of South Africa. But that hasn't happened the NC now controls eight of the nine provinces it again lost the Western Cape where Capetown is to the of Democratic Alliance the official opposition. But otherwise it still holds the reins OB it with a diminished majority run Nixon, the EFF is such a fascinating story to me because they're there. I guess from our perspective, we might consider them far left party. But some of the things are advocating or have advocated speak directly to the things that feB mentioned, especially land ownership in land rights. Yes. As Fabius mint. This party. It's relatively new did not exist. I mean, Julius Olympia was they had that the ANC youth division and started his party after he got kicked out, and it does speak to the issues that the majority of blacks Africans are experiencing everything from the the service protests and not being able to get water and sewer and housing and the economics and the disenfranchisement of the us, and particularly as you mentioned the issue of land distribution because the majority of land is still in the hands of white South Africans, and and that is creates this this or reinforces the inequities that exist in in the country, which is one of the highest if not the highest in the world, I think the the the just South Africa or ten times the wealth as as as poor South Africans. So the f- F speech. Seeks to that. And the issue the FAFSA is is Fabienne mentioned that they have been disruptive and those things and and the parliament, but now in three of the nine provinces they are the official opposition party now. So how do you then translate that into governance from just being you know, opposition and being disruptive to now particularly governing, but they held the key here. Because of you know, they have issue mentioned about eleven percent of the vote picked up more members in parliament say they hold the key to the ANC actually governing. We had a listener call in who told us his story of voting in the first South African election after apartheid here is what they left in our inbox. Hi, this is Claire from Louisville Kentucky. I wanted to share that. I was very fortunate to be in South Africa. In nineteen ninety five on the one year anniversary of the first democratic elections after the end of partied. I was twelve years old, and I was living in Zimbabwe because my father was a teaching Fulbright at the university of Imbaba in Harari and as a white middle class kid from southern Ohio. It was quite I opening not just to be in sub Saharan Africa, but to witness mass celebration mass demonstration on that anniversary clear very much for sure in your story with us fibia. We have to pause a moment. But I love to get your reaction to an Email from Paul who writes, please recall that while he was President Mandela did not write his own speeches or set government policy. These were produced by the ANC's leadership Taba Mbeki who controlled Mandela speeches was responsible for the ANC horrific aids denial policies that resulted in tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths. Recall that after he left government Mandela repeatedly expressed his regret that he did not reject Mbeki's aids. Denial ism. Would you respond to that? Oh Fabian in terms of how much control Mandela had over the ANC, and maybe some regrets. He may have had before we pause. That's very true Nelson Mandela always did say he wished he had done more. He lost one of his own sons to HIV aids. But you gotta remember also South Africa in the early days was also trying to stop almost a civil war between prince mongasutu Buthelezi's people in KwaZulu-Natal, and what was cooled then the black on black violence. So they had a lot of priorities. I mean Justice will toll to this. Yes. It was a huge mistake. Because too many people died of aids in South Africa at because of Tubman Bakkies denial ISM, and but most Mandela had a vision. Goodness gracious. We we can't yes. The ANC calls itself a movement and not a party still calls itself a movement and a lot of decisions collective, but the the toy. Nope. The leadership has gone to have a vision. Otherwise, how did South Africa move forward? And of course, it wasn't just Nelson Mandela. There was so many freedom fighters so many liberation struggles. Who made the difference who either paid with their lives or with many years in prison for South Africa to be free? But don't forget the context in those early ninety s so we've laid out the history of how we got to this point in South Africa. When we continue unlike to get a little bit more into where South Africa goes from here. And where it stands right now what the economy is like what South Africa looks like on the world stage, and whether or not any of these leaders who have risen in the last few months and years might actually have what it takes to bring South Africa closer to the vision that Nelson Mandela dedicated his life to we'll get to that. And your questions ahead. Stay clubs. Support for one day and the following message. Come from the platinum card from American Express conversations and civil debate in our society, push us forward and connect us with the rest of the world. With the platinum card earned five times membership rewards points on flights booked directly with airlines or with American Express travel. That's the powerful backing of American Express don't live life without it. Visit American Express dot com slash explore platinum terms apply. If you need to be reminded that we're all more connected than we realize get the story core podcast and restore your faith in humanity. Uninterrupted conversations between real people about the things that matter most and this season in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the stonewall uprising. We're highlighting voices of LGBTQ people across America stories from those who lived before stonewall today episodes are available every Tuesday. Back now to our conversation with Justice Malala feB Quist arcton, and Ron Nixon Richard wrote on our Facebook page, my wife, and I lived in a South African village from twenty eleven to twenty four team while serving as peace corps volunteers. I wish I knew some magic prescription to make life better young men and women have so few opportunities to become self supporting undoubtedly in the early days, the ANC brought improvements to villages like trysofi and water, but what it needs. Now, our jobs, Ron Nixon could you respond to that the economic state of South Africa right now. So let me just say one thing before I get into that. And that is that we talk about the ANC to remember that the ANC as a party is divided there still a loyalist to former president Zuma there. So it's not like the c one big happy family here. They're still divisions within the ANC, and that's going to. Pack things going forward to to get your point about the economy is as we mentioned before that has one of the largest inequities in the world in terms of the richest and the poorest unemployment is very high particularly amongst the youth. Justice mentioned it was like twenty seven percent overall. But must be youth believe the figure is is like probably double that you have problems with like, the the the national utility Eskom constantly power outages. And and you've got the national carrier to South Africa airlines constantly, but largely the facts of jobs in the fact that there aren't any for people who spend the time to go to university and learn, but there is nothing waiting for them. Once they graduate and nad has had that creates this this particular workforce with no work, and I think that. There is was the census because running posters is businessman in comes from this union background that he would be able to to address some of these these things, particularly for international investors. But the issue with that is some of the very things that the international investors would want him to do our things that potential partners in EFF particular are not gonna want to to go for with so economically that the country faces a number of issues, but that is going to be the biggest challenge for Ramaphosa going forward failure a number of our listeners sent comments to the effect of what Julie wrote. Julia emailed, very interesting topic. One of your guests just mentioned, the distressing large wealth gap between black and white South Africans. Whites have about ten times the wealth of blacks, and this is an impediment to change and Justice. However, please note that the black white wealth gap in the United States is similar with similar console. Quences slavery in one place apartheid in another. But the legacy of inequality is durable in both countries. Official. Why has the legacy of inequality? Ben, so durable in South Africa. Is are there any one or two factors? You could point to to say that these were the big logjams, or is it just kind of the way things are there date was so deep not any racial segregation. But educational segregation everything keeping people upon you know, rewarding one tiny minority and the rest, depending on whether you will black or colored mixed race as it's called in South Africa or Indian South African unit. This is deep seated divisions. It takes a long time to recover, and it's not only white black fiscal divisions. That exists still. There are a lot of very wealthy a small minority of very wealthy black South Africans as. As well. People will also say entitlement people feel that they have been entitled to this because they suffered under apartheid. So I'm not sure that it's one concrete unit. The US had apart data just wasn't cold that separate development is what it means in Afrikaans, but it's racial segregation. And also keeping people down young people who have degrees and to have musters and who have PHD's are unemployed. What are they going to do? So there's still a lot of discrepancy in South Africa and prison Cinerama pulsa. Not only must unite his divided ANC, which is blighted by infighting and mud and corruption and Grafton state capture as they call it this influence peddling he has really got to look at how equality financial fiscal and otherwise can become a reality in South Africa. You know, this time the ANC has not been voted out. But it has reduced majority. What is going to happen in five years time? And they cannot be settled I'm poster on his own many people have said he's got to jettison the deadwood he's got to get rid of those who are corrupt those who are inept those who are not doing the work for the people. He's got to get rid of those whatever it means for politics because of course, the it's payback time now after the elections because otherwise Africa cannot move forward. Whether he'll be able to succeed is another thing altogether. Looking at the state of the economy as well. As all the other factors we've discussed today. Justice Malala, do you get the sense that South Africans are hopeful about their future? Two South Africans believe that things can get better. I think many do I think Minisov athlete can still have a sense of bed vision of nineteen ninety four. That's the can be a bit updates but to many of of points. The key thing about the difference between South Africa in say, the United States is that's definitely has has native southerner Lincoln's in power, the agencies, the we can party they've been handed responsibility of changing things, and I think under Jacob Zuma in particular that the via of track and so civil America's biggest challenge as affiliate points out. This blending together the agency and so forth. But I think the message that he's been sent by this declined from sixty nine percent to sixty five to sixty two. And now in this election to fifty seven point five is that people are becoming impatient. People cannot give you a flea prosecuted again. And you don't deliver. And so the inks he needs to deal with that unemployment niche to deal with paternity inclusive. Ity go for the hard issues that it has avoided all has essentially phone aside because of corruption and so forth, otherwise twenty twenty full the may villi weather, loosen become like, so many other liberation movements which which with kicked out of the fifth years in power, a sushi mentioned Cyril Ramaphosa, let's play a brief clip of his victory speech in Johannesburg. Timbers? We are saying we have heard our people. We have heard the voice of all people. We have. Runs. Have given a clear message as we were going. The streets of our townships that is Cyril Ramaphosa giving his victory speech in Johannesburg before we wrap up. I'd love to get your sense of what is next fibia Quist arcton. What's the next chapter of the story? We should be keeping an eye out for as Justice has said people want jobs, they want housing they want a better knife. All that the ANC has promised them these posts twenty-five years, otherwise be question about his future Justice. What about you? What's your sense of what's next? I think I'm a pasta needs to be amended. We Muslim forget that. He's been in powerful year after the NC confronts of December twenty seventeen he he and his colleagues got laid of Jacob Zuma. His been sitting there waiting for a mandate from the people. He's guarded now. And, you know, saying all, you know, the iniquities of the process of that is analysis. He's got the power to begin to tempings around high profile politicians who stole money from the people from the fiscus need to go to Jane. If he does that quickly Nuff if at the beginning, we see where he would go by how he begins the nothing South Africa could villi whether be on on the of change. If it doesn't happen soon enough, then you know in ten mush nations within the agency battles. Those will continue. Any to be same old? Same more for my podcast. I just say civil I'm is one of those amazing incredible darlings of this other. We can put into landscape, and I do have some hope that he will have things about. But he's got to do it. Not just about it and Ron briefly before we go. What's next? Yeah. I think that they see has to give this thing of thinking that young people are just going to vote for them because your party of liberation. You know for a lot of young people. They know Nelson Mandela the same way we do that they've seen them on TV. And that's about it. But there's no real connection there. I think he has to Ramaphosa has to address the issue of jobs and corruption as to other guests have said, if not then I think the ANC potentially dropped below the fifty percent, very the next election. Ron Nixon international investigations editor for the Associated Press. His book is called selling apartheid. South Africa's globe. Propaganda war. Ron thanks for talking to us. Thank you NPR's Africa, correspondent Fabien Quist arcton ofeibea. Thanks, very, much pleasure. As one political antedates put Cyril Ramaphosa must grow a backbone. He needs a spine. He needs to kick out the deadwood and Justice Malala columnist for the financial mail and times of South Africa Justice. Thank you as been a thank you. Today's program was produced by jonquil in hill and edited by maranda full more to learn more about Jay q maranda and the rest of the team. Visit the one eight dot org slash staff. This program comes to you from W AMU part of American University. In Washington distributed by NPR until we meet again, I'm Joshua Johnson. Thanks for listening, and we'll see you tomorrow from Ann Arbor Michigan. This is one.
Myall Creek massacre / African National Congress published Mandela's message - June 10
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Check our reviews at diamonds dot com again. that's modus diamond dot com. Hey y'all eve's here. Today's episode contains not just one but two nuggets of history. Consider it a double feature. Enjoy the show. Hi everyone welcome to this day in history class. We uncovered the remnants of history every day. The day was june tenth eighteen. Thirty eight the will ray of roy people a tribal clan of the roy nation. We're getting ready to have their evening meal at mile creek station just before sunset a group of twelve europeans including convicts former convicts and one colonist showed up at the station armed and massacred at least twenty eight aboriginal people. The killings at mile creek was one of many instances of colonial violence against aboriginal people british colonists but the trials that followed the massacre marks the first time british for executed for massacring aboriginal people in new south wales at the time the mile creek massacre british law stated that killing aboriginal people was a crime but as aboriginal people in columnists clashed over europeans increasing presence and use of land and resources. Violence became common aboriginal. People fought against the incursion of colonists and the state sanctioned attacks against aboriginal people on january twenty six eighteen thirty eight for example major james. None the commander of the new south wales mounted police. Along with some soldiers in stockmen massacred more than fifty aboriginal people at waterloo creek the array of roy people suffered many losses as a result of the conflict between aboriginal people in europeans fleeing frontier violence. They decided to camp. On henry dangoor property at maiyo creek station which was near present day bingo. The array of roy assisted stockman and exchange were protected from violence but on june tenth eighteen. Thirty eight normal operations at the station. Were interrupted when the group of convicts ex convicts in the colonists led by john. Fleming showed up with weapons. Stockman george anderson and charles gillmeister as well as two aboriginal men were attending the station about thirty aboriginal. People fled to the stockman's huts while two boys escaped by jumping into a creek. The attackers tied up the array of white people and took them from their campsite though. The women and girls were separated from the group and taken elsewhere Gillmeister joined the attackers while anderson. Attempted to help an aboriginal girl at woman the warrior why people were taken to a stockyard and killed and their bodies were dismembered and burned people who committed massacres of aboriginal. People were rarely punished in fact. Many columnists thought that europeans should not be punished for killing aboriginal people but the proceedings that would follow the mile. Creek massacre set a judicial precedent station manager. William hobbs police superintendent thomas foster and colonists. Reggie foot reported the massacre and governor. George gibbs sent police magistrate at work. Dinnie day to investigate the crime after taking depositions from nineteen witnesses day arrested eleven of the twelve people who had committed the massacre the free colonist john fleming managed to get away the convicts ex convicts who perpetrated the murders were sent to sydney trial. The first trial began on november fifteenth. Eighteen thirty eight at the new south wales. Supreme court was presided over by chief. Justice sir. James dowling and there were twelve colonists on the jury. The aboriginal man named johnson who witnessed the killings could not testify in court because he was not christian so he could not swear to his evidence in the end the jury found the eleven defendants not guilty of committing murder at mile creek. But attorney general. John plunkett was not satisfied with that verdict so they went to a second trial plunkett split up the defendants hoping they would tell them. Each other seven of the defendants were by judge. William burton they were found guilty and they were hanged in december at the george street jail the remaining for defendants set to go to trial as well this time with the intention as an eyewitness as he had been introduced to christianity. But you're paying ten was never seen again and the rest of the murders walked free after the trial's colonists more anger at the executions of the europeans. Then the killings of aboriginal people and they continue to massacre aboriginal people though the people who committed the murders did not publicize them as proudly and took measures to cover them up. Even though there was a reward for fleming's capture he was able to integrate into society and never face trial. One of the people who committed the massacre and got a free died by suicide. And william. hobbs. Who reported the crime lost his job with dan gar. Today there's a memorial site in service at mile creek. I'm eve's jeffco. Hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. But if you still don't know enough you can listen to another show. Host called on. I'm popular is a podcast about people in history who challenge the status quo and sometimes persecuted for it. You can listen anywhere you get this day in history class. You can follow us on twitter. Instagram facebook at t d. I h c podcast. Thanks again for listening. And we'll see you tomorrow. Today's episode is brought to you by. At and t. So we've talked about a lot on his podcast. We've talked about communities that have come together in difficult times about people who innovated against all odds about surprising and inspiring forms of resistance across the world. These stories have done a lot for me. They've inspired me to really speak my truth and to believe in the things that can even seem impossible. These voices messages that need to be heard and shared. I've seen firsthand that listening lease to change. At and t. Understands this to for a long time. Their customers have been saying. It isn't fair for new customers to get better deals than existing customers recently. At and started listening and they made a big change now. At and t. Is giving all of their customers both new and existing the same great deals. It does it matter if they've been with a t and t for a few years or never have before everyone pays the same. That's the power of making your voice heard. We all know the typical service experience. This is a pretty big deal for. At and t. To start hearing out their customers to learn and change for the better so listen up and visit. Att dot com slash best deals restrictions apply. So it's that time of the year given the time of the year when we celebrate all of the fathers in our life. The one's who taught us so much when we were children who took us to so many different places in who introduced us to so many different things and they still continue to teach us colts. Brace dad's not just on june twentieth but sing day with gifts. That will mean a lot to them. Calls has a bunch of gift ideas from outdoor entertaining like grills in equipment to team apparel accessories like hats jerseys in umbrellas that are branded with his favorite pro and college teams to watches in baseball caps. You'll find his favorite things only at cole's and look if the fathers in your life are always on the move. Coles has all the top active where brands to like nike under armour and adidas. This is the only place to shop for father's day so shot now at kohls dot com. It's the perfect way to thank all of the fathers in your life. Hello everyone. I'm eaves and welcome to this day in history class podcast up packages history into tiny bite size pieces. The day was june. Tenth nineteen eighty. The african national congress published a message that anti-apartheid leader nelson mandela wrote in response to the so wait uprising in nineteen seventy six at the time mandala was imprisoned in nineteen forty eight. The national party came to power in south africa and began implementing the policy of apartheid time racial segregation already existed in the country and the white minority health political power though segregation had long been in practice apartheid extended. The policy dictated where people could live and work based on race. The population registration act required people to be classified and registered as black white colored or other pass laws that enforce the ideology of white supremacy by controlling the movement of black south africans. Plenty of other apartheid. Laws were passed that enforce the country system of racial segregation and disadvantaged the majority black population nelson. Mandela was a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement. In the early nineteen forty s. Mandela joined the african national congress or a. n. c. a political party that became dedicated to ending apartheid. Once the national party came to power in the decades after apartheid became official government policy resistance to the system sprang up across south africa. The anc was heavily involved in the fight against apartheid and mandela emerged as a leader in the anc. June one thousand nine hundred ninety six black students in oh township led protests in response to the government mandating the use of afrikaans as a medium of instruction in schools afrikaans. A language of the white minority as thousands of students marched in the demonstrations. The police responded by shooting at the children. Many children were killed in the uprising. Spread across the country at the time of the so. Wait oh sing. Nelson mandela was in prison serving a life term after being convicted of sabotage in the rivonia trial in nineteen sixty four during his time in prison. Mandela continued to write and support the anti-apartheid movement. And people helped him smuggle his writing out of robben island prison one of the messages he wrote from robben island in response to the soweto uprising on june tenth nineteen eighty. The anc published this message stating that. It took more than two years to reach them. It included an introduction by oliver tambo. Who was president of the african national congress. The introduction acknowledged the importance of mandela's quote call to unity and mass action. Especially since nineteen eighty marked the twenty fifth anniversary of the freedom charter a document ratified in one thousand. Nine hundred eighty five that equal rights for all south africans in the introduction. The anc urged readers to quote make nineteen eighty year of united mass struggle in the message mandela laid out how quote white domination is held in check by force of arms and how apartheid was opposed by many people. He also called for black unity and said that quote victory is certain near the end of the message he wrote the following unite mobilize fight on between the and ville of united mass action and the hammer of the armed struggle. We shall crush apartheid and white minority racist rule mandela was released from prison a decade later in one thousand nine hundred ninety negotiations to end apartheid soon began and mandela became president of south africa in one thousand nine hundred four. I'm eve jeffco and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. And if you have any comments or suggestions you can hit us up on social media. Where at t h c podcast. You can also send us an email. We're at this day. Iheartmedia dot com. Thanks again for listening to the show and we'll see you tomorrow for more podcasts. From iheartradio the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. It's been one year since george floyd murder business roundtable with millions of americans calling for policing reform. We urge policymakers to continue working together to pass. Bipartisan policing legislation. The time to act as now paid for by business. Roundtable it's father's day at kohl's kohl's believes that fathers deserve more than just one day out of the year. They deserve to be recognized every day. That's why they have a bunch of great gifts that a lot of fathers would love year round from outdoor entertaining to team apparel and accessories to watches in baseball. Hats and active wear from top brands like nike adidas under armour. You'll find a bunch of the gifts that fathers would love at kohl's so shop now at kohls dot com is the perfect way to thank all of the fathers in your life.
Biography of Nelson Mandela - Part 2
"Hello us welcome to this week's episode of israel's biography podcast mattie the host of the show before we dive into this week's episode. Look at the shot. Somebody of last week's episode and in century various linguistic and admit groups liberty in south africa. Luke consisted of twenty two. Ab families and live in harmony with nature. Sixteen fifty two. That's east company into the cape of good hope in south africa. Establish a recently station for ships travelling to issue its goal little book good for ships travelling from netherlands hauer the admit groups near the cape of who refused to do business with the dutch east india company because the condition said wait for business but unable to them so the company fought against these ethnic groups near the cape of utah. Eventually you'd wanna battle and the land occupied by these ethnic groups after you've made its employers. From in the newly occupied lands this former employees of the company would become the first european settlers in south africa. They call themselves bars in the nineteenth century britain. They've napoleon might come with of who if that happened. It will be a big problem for six traveling to asian so captured the of good hope from the dutch east india company and established in laundry shipping station. After it got its own people in the near the cape of the boss no started moving away from the go india regions of south africa that the ball set of their only ios called the south african republic and the orange free state in the late. Half of the nineteenth century bezos of golden diamond found in south africa. So britain was not interested in colonizing so definitely got started conquering the areas which are not occupied by the boss. Dan started establishing. Its own meaning to extract gold and diamond from africa. Even though the mining missiles was very profitable to the british as we did not do anything for the bowers because they didn't have the capital to set up mining factories almost all the mining factories in south africa. Even those which were built in areas controlled by the boas but operated by britain so both did not get any profit from the mining business. Therefore boss went to war with the british navy main in this world which lasted three years. Rhodesia's became the torius. How were they really stirred the help of borth. They cannot rule south africa british us and boss piece and decided to establish a white going on in south africa. This gunman which consisted of british boras would not even give voting rights to black people africa. Moreover it forbid black people from buying land from white people that fall the native black people of south africa who constitute almost ninety percent of its population were forced to lou understand points. Eight percent of the land ninety nine hundred twelve to fight against the injustice against black south africans. The african national congress fund utah. A white one league goldman was established. Africa many of the border still in poor conditions. They have to compete with the black south africans for jobs in mining industries therefore to address the concerns of africanus. Which is how the boris. Start calling themselves after the wall. The national party was formed dust. The african national congress and the national become the most important part of south africa. How did people. From incident we can backrooms unimaginable. Amount of knowledge will power anthony and gender history. Grabby don't start or did they will welcome the haji. Cliffe's what can we learn from the life stories. Get answers to all these ripping cushions by listening was loud enough podcasts. Let's go now to get access to future. Episodes one off nelson mandela's blade grandfather's was kuban. Kuka was the king of the people who lived in the southeastern part of south africa nelson. Mandela's grandfather was the son of the king and the woman from clan of lesser loyalty. According to the children are such lineage. We're not permitted to become has to the throne how they could become roy counselors so nelson mandela's grandfather became a royal council following in his footsteps nelson. Manila's father gardner hendrie for low monday. La also became on consular. Manila was born a slowly no londoner who cutler and he's always on july eighteenth nineteen eighty his name rolla literally translates to problem maker in the local language but all in all i was born at a time when racial inequality and poverty prevalent in south africa so going up he would not the injustice committed against his people in their own country rolling. Allow us born in the dining of vissel in south africa. His father was initially a local nine hundred. Sixteen the roy counselor to the king austin was sacked on charges of corruption so the kingdom father the position of royal councillor. A few years later last father also set for the same reason and positions where taken away so his family moved so missile even smaller village called coup. Who had laws but only for family lived in touch in this small village. They can only afford me. Smith of maize beans and pumpkins which only spent the first few years after coming new laying it. Adobe lidge and pending lost balance for both illiterates moral they were living in poverty but despite the shortcomings thus became the first person whose family to go to school. do the bias created by the british educational system. The christine's call in which role study had a custom of giving christian names to african pupils. keeping lately discussed. Only last teacher gave him the name. That's the only became nelson mandela several years nelson else. Father had held the current king of kim booth become the king. The king of them boost was awesome. They lost father. So mendelssohn deals farther. They'd been nelson mandela australia's will. His mother took him to the royal palace. The king immediately let nelson mandela stood the palace so nelson mandela ended up blowing the kings children in the school near the balance. Monday learn english history and geography. The eldest who came to the balance told him stories of his ancestors live peacefully until the arrival of the europeans explain how their ancestors lived in harmony the nature and child the water and land the teacher how the white people came and took everything for them since after listening to these stories nelson mandela low with african history however the spread listening to these stories mandela did not hit the white people at that age instead he considered them a who brought education and other facilities to south africa when mandela sixteen years old. He took part in circumcision ritual. Mr happens in several south african communities. I donald go this procedure bean-and-cheese resistant for this ritual. Then a group of teenagers taken hills where they can spend the next six weeks in seclusion. I the second session. Procedure is then for the next few weeks. They are probably a little water. Bring to so african communities. Blue that this practice makes stronger and mazda in terms of a boy into manhood. It's not just a ritual custom with a man cannot marry or the mortar uncircumcised men were bullied and ridiculed in these communities which is true even today so this ritual being benders and being performed by inexperienced doctors nelson who wanted to honor his ancestors customs and undertake the journey from biota manhood to pardon the ritual along twenty five other boyce need someone take up the position of royal council so he started his secondary schooling secondary and higher secondary schooling at prestigious institutes. Doing this time. He learned how to work hard and socialist it. People the also excelled at boxing and long distance running the finally year secondary. He also became the perfect during these years. Low for african three increase even more after finishing his cooling nelson mandela in the university of florida in nineteen thousand nine who study being the university of what had was a very prestigious new city and adopted the brightest students from all over the continent. Monday line then. That could become a clerk auto interpreter at that time. These are the best provision of black men in south africa could get so. He took subjects like english politics native administration. Which would help him land his job in the university. Monday la had friends who supported the african national congress. Each wanted to in the british rule in south africa however himself didn't support them yet on the contrary he supported the british and even the decision to go to war during the second world war second year of the university newsom manila was elected as a member of the students representative council. The gravity of the university was bad and the students representative council even have enough power so supporting the students goes listen. Manila boycotted the city. And we say. Some students percent consume over the universities as an act of leading an explanation. Melillo for the rest of the agree to continue studies. Only if you sold on the students are presented you conceal again but nelson. Manila did not take up the universities. Also instead. you didn't home when you don't home the king asked mandela and his own son who give up on the lieutenant to the university and continue. Their studies refused. The king arranged marriages for them so feeling trap and with no other option left. They ran away from home. News in manila. Ram the johannesburg. He worked the night watchman but his boss fired him when he came to know that he had run away. From after the you found work as an article clerk which was like an intern position in latham during this time he experienced poverty. Racism crime and pollution. That sold africa was racist so the african national congress and the communist party fighting against problem attention. That's all he started at ending communist party gatherings at how the africans utopian issues got along with these communist party gatherings this racial discrimination being valentine's some technical meanwhile nelson mandela started taking correspondence schools. Who finishes be after passing is beer. Exempts abandoned his dream of becoming an oil counselor and decided to become a lawyer instant. So in nineteen forty he enrolled at the university of the waterston in johannesburg to study law. Were studying at the university. No nelson was the only black student. Hymns fists severe racism. That'll he joined. The african national governor's you wanted to make south africa. The majority of the south africans were black african national congress party the best fighting for delays yet did not have the support of this black people so nelson mandela and the other members of the african national congress some african national communist youth league in nineteen forty four then motoring wants to convert the african national congress in tomas moment in south africa that could get the support of millions of poor black farmers and miners and become their voice the same year in nineteen forty four monday element will miss who was an african national congress. Member and cleaners soon started liking into the and married in october together nelson mandela and will miss had four children from ninety thirty four nine hundred forty eight. So w goes by the general body under so w participated in the second world war on the site after joining the law. Many whites joined arm and win the war but this led to shortages of white men pro union this fishing albana's in south africa. So blacks started moving from rural areas. Who take these jobs in. The water ended and the whites return homes that have severe food and housing shortages. Motorola south africa had loaned britain those of world as because they can have been shattered and lead to inflation. You're the dwindling economy and the increasing number of blacks in the african. We can work on some than the axe new steeler jobs. The general at some point defining the future to make the league the last two so companies for the policy of degrading blacks into the society on the other hand. The national party campaigned on segregating the blast from the society doing be able to improve the job opportunities and living conditions for the whites. The black south africa were not permitted to whites could work and the majority of them were on himself boss so since the national bodies policies appeal last week on this the national party in the nineteen hundred general elections and became the ruling party immediately after ascension to power the national party started implementing its policy of apartheid mean separateness. Enough americans are west. Germany language spoken in south africa. It was a policy that increased supremacy in south africa. The south african blacks were already festival discrimination in their own country. No i even stricter restrictions got into the the black should only work in areas designated for them. They should not open a business or hold profession in areas designated as white so africa under exceptional cases. If you services where absolutely necessary a black wasn't could get a pass to work in south africa. If a black was phone without a boxing white south africa he was listed. Laxer also not allowed to use. The hospitals photo since weights were the minority in south africa. The white hospitals have fewer patients more funds and bittered office black hospitals on the other hand workload. I'm just wondering. I'm just up and had lists wallace's doctors hospitals dame's ambulances box gave yards in public lands that also segregated over the blacks also not plummeted. Who married people do in human is a lotta politics international criticism. The united nations even implemented answer bread bands again south africa but displayed facing severe opposition. What inside and outside the country. The national party did not give opponents policy of take since black's not what they had. Nobody who could present them. So the african national congress adopted the policy of polite petitioning against misdeeds committed against the blacks but nelson mandela and the african national congress usually filled that a more aggressive approach would medicines so in nineteen forty nine. The african national congress adopted its youth leaks agassi methods of noncooperation and boycott against gone with somebody become more and more involved in politics so he had listened to consider the only studies as a result. You fairly finally three times and finally in nineteen forty nine. The university denied him the degree one year later in one thousand nine hundred eighty nelson mandela become the president of the youth of the african national congress but this is a position that changed his life completely and sent him to prison. What did news on monday do as the president of the thing the african national congress. Why was he sent to prison. And what happened in. Find out in the next episode of basil's biography podcasts.
Biography of Nelson Mandela - Part 3
"Hello welcome to this. Week's episode of israel's biography podcast. I am maddie the host of the show before we dive into this week's episode. Let's look at somebody of last two weeks. Episodes nelson mandela was born on july eighteenth. Nineteen eating and the name of his word. South africa was ruled. All white gunman consisted mostly of vicious. The black people in south africa did not even how warning rights so when the white people force them to work under inhuman conditions they couldn't do anything when nelson mandela lost. His father died after that he started living with the king of the mobile when he was at the royal palace. The eldest game digging dolan stories are paul. His ancestors fought against britishers. His ancestors live in harmony with nature and chad the water and land with everybody. The white people in south africa took everything for themselves. But even after listening to the stories nelson mandela did not hit the british. He thought of them as saviors who -education and other facilities to sorta one after listening to these stories. Listen manila did fall in love. with south. african culture nelson. Manila wanted to become an interpreter after he grew up at those times. These are the best jobs of black men. Could ima hopeful so nelson mandela joined the city of fort in nineteen thirty nine. The study be in the second year. The university he was elected as a member of the students representative council halwa. Everything's from this position fighting against a locally in the university as well as the lack of pua of the students representative council so the university sent him. Home will don't home. The king threatened to getting married if you did not it onto the university so feeling gone on monday laurent away from home. Your phone work as an in a lawful in johannesburg decided. He experienced all the racism some crime and pollution. That sort of regards rife with so the african national congress and the communist peppy. Fighting against these problems caught his attention that vote. He started at ending communist party gatherings meanwhile he finished his correspondence then joined a law college to study law since he was the one lee laxed. He says cbs's so he joined the african national congress. The party that was fighting for blacks rights the minding thirty four to hundred forty eight photoshop to go a little bit. The gentle party which mostly consisted of british holloway in the nineteen forty general elections. The national party which consisted mostly of borders. The other category of white people in south africa won the elections. You media and coming to bubble the national policy of apartheid but policy imposed thickness lesions on black south africans. Got into this policy. Black people could not even enter areas designated as white south africa moreover this is like hospitals ambulances frames except blah mistake it for the white and the blacks the facilities meant for the black where your workload and poorly maintained hollower the battery billions of the god did not even have any rates and fight against his operas measures in their own country so the african national congress the party to nelson mandela belong to fight agencies policy measures make politely petitioning and listing the gunman who change its policy but nelson mandela and other you saying the mets immigrate created the african national congress. You'd league in one thousand nine forty that african national congress adopted its wings policies of noncooperation and boycott against the gone. One little nelson. Manila was made the president of the youth wing of the african national congress. Hallway this is a positive changes slave completely. hold it. He minson manila and south africa. Find out in. This week's episode of vessels biography podcast. How did people from incident beckham's gained unimaginable. Amount of knowledge will power and gender of history. Rather be starting off their welcome. The hatchets face. What can we learn from the life. Stories get answers to all these gripping cushions by listening to this podcast subscribe now to get access to future episodes in nineteen fifty nelson mandela became the president of the youth wing of african national congress during monday lasting. People are four different places in south. Africa lacks whites issues and colored. Colored people are those whose ancestors belong to or more different races. Even i wanted to eradicate racism. He wanted the blacks to do it alone. He did not want the black people to join hands with people from other reasons like and collards or people with other radical beliefs like the communists so in the national conference of the african national congress held in nineteen fifty one. He argued that the black people should fight alone against the white minority. It'll soon outward. So after seeing that most people in his party wanted blacks to join hands with other people. He started embracing the concept of a racially united front. When soviet union started supporting countries fighting for independence his opinion of communism also changed so he started reading the books of famous communists figures like lenin stalin and model in the following year. The african national congress along with the indian communists started preparing for defense campaign against gone so nelson manila's spoke at a gathering of ten thousand people an inside that protests the white gone one in done retaliated with moscow arrests nelson mandela. Himself was arrested. He was even truly seed. He was banned from speaking publicly. Hama were these measures taken by the government only made nelson mandela a prominent figure in south africa. As a result the membership of the african national congress from twenty thousand two hundred thousand. Meanwhile monday la passed the qualification exams to become an attorney then he opened a law firm with this friend. Oliver tambo seems it was only black. Law firm in the country does full of black people who are mistreated by the way. It's our the gunman soon cancel. Its license that for monday mood is lawful to an undisclosed location but these protests and the law firm made nelson mandela extremely famous. So he started spending less and less time this wife they had different political views and mandela even allegedly had affairs with other women. That for the relationship started going. Don't he finally nine hundred fifty eight. They got divorced. The same year nelson got married to a social worker called vinnie. Madikwe inspired by the non leyland assistance. Organised by mahatma gandhi against the british through the african national congress initially followed the same technique against the white minority rule in south africa. Monday lie initially supported this non violent protests however these protests ended in failure so in one thousand nine hundred fifty monday la decided that violent was only way to in the white minority rule and apartheid system following always the african national congress from china. How shall not be named to give them any weapons year later. Nelson mandela and one fifty six others are pasta system that arrested there were charged with committing high treason against the country. Even thought they were granted bail. The detail went on for another six years. Does days africans had to shoulder passes. You don't want her to leave the allocated for the state and enter other areas. This path would reveal if the african had burnishing to enter the area. He wanted painter. Those blacks and people utterances. Who had the permission could enter areas designated for white people. That's the bus greatly of black women within their own country. So you're nineteen fifty-nine hassle. Showing non-compliant parties launched a mass movement asking people to burn their passes as part of this movement. Nelson mandela also publicly burned. His pass doing enough. This public demonstrations police fire that a non civilians killing sixty nine people. This attracted a lot of international criticism against white minority rule in south africa. This must have also deteriorated. The african national congress already relationships in the south african government so the south african government blamed the african national congress for being communist party and bandied. The union of south africa had become a sovereign nation under the british in one thousand. Nine hundred eighty four had become a hobbling nisshin still under the british rule and hence answerable to the british in nineteen sixty the majority of whites in south africa. What to make the country an independent nation so the union of south africa all tastes the british golden gained independence and begin their republic of south africa on may thirty first. Nineteen sixty one. That's the country had no become a republic. A country ruled by the person they do selected by the people. I don't really most people in the country had no say in. Who ruled the country all this price. Cripple south africa's economy because the workers refused to go to work in nineteen fifty three nelson mandela post stature for the african national congress a plan that would come into effect when leave. The party was banned. Got into this plan. The african national congress very big party would be diverted into many smaller cells members in cell would only know right into diaz dove who all in the same cell. They won't know the identity of people in other sales moreover there weren't even know the identity of their own so previous. So if i'm ever caught you only gio produced identities of people in the same sale thus protecting everyone else so you. If the african national congress banned people could still continue to work as its members because their identities won't be real united sixty one the verdict of the recent rail from six years before came nelson. Mandela was not found guilty so he wasn't too so this case jeff nelson mandela traveled throughout the country gathering support for the state home strikes simultaneously. He also implemented the structure of the african national congress during this time he also founded the controversies way the armed faction of the african national congress. He gained motivation for read by reading the books of leaders of guerrilla warfare. Like che guevara and mao zedong this armed. Factional african national congress land to bomb installations plants except with minimal loss to instead of raging full-scale goal in nine hundred sixty to the african national congress. Nelson mandela gordon. The pan african freedom movement held in appeal newsom left south africa secretly and took part in the delegation. He also visited many countries and gathered funds for the african national congress. Hoa opponents written the south african government arresting charged with leaving the country illegally in saving the people to protest. The court awarded him a five year. Sentence were one year later. The police is conducted a raid in which the phone evidence supporting mandela's involvement in the bombings. So nine hundred sixty four the court awarded nelson mandela and those licenses to solve some until the date. All were in prison. There's somebody was initially treated as the lowest he was not even allowed to read. Newspapers was a load of visibility. They want every six months. There was even a blood to let him escape so that they could shoot and kill him when he escapes dance to the british intelligence. The plan was avoid. Gradually the conditions improve the quality of the food implode gradually moreover monday was permitted to have frequent visits and let us so many in prison. Monday started leading law by correspondence and also started writing his autobiography by the time. You don't sixty nine hundred. seventy eight. Monday was internationally famous for his fight against our state system so several universities across the world offered him. Monetary degrees by nineteen eighty international support for mandala had risen to such an extent that the united nations called for his release the same walence in south africa increased do awadhi of reasons so the then leader of the national party and president of south africa pow boorda released mandela in redone. He asked mandela to renounce violence. Our monday confused and stayed in prison. Even in the support for him started increasing inside and outside the country. How what are still refused to release mandela as they couldn't reach a deal in nineteen eighty-nine. What does have a stroke. So he resigned. The man who replaced was fw declerk clerk consider apartheid system unsustainable anymore so he leaves monday ninety nine hundred. You don't any conditions. He also lists all the political parties which are banned the earlier and then freedom of the press having released from the prison mandela declared that that on the struggle we continue unblocks. Get to in nineteen ninety-one. The african national congress elected mandela as president through the nineteen seventies atrocities. Committed by the gohmert against the blacks became internationally known. Humanitarian in europe and america started racing. They're gone moms who impose economic sanctions against africa as a result in nineteen eighty-six impose economic sanctions against south africa and be monitored that it ended up tight system for the sanctions to be lifted. Following this move by the. Us many multinational companies moved their officers of being from south africa until them. South africa had portrayed the system as an anticommunist michaud. So anticommunist across the world supported the system but at the end of the cold war in nineteen ninety-one. This claim became obsolete and all that the communities through support for the appetite system moreover insurance inside the country will steady do internal protests and in addition to that nelson mandela to saudis countries requesting them imposed sanctions against south africa. That's all succumbing to molding tensions. The white minority government led by declerk ended up a tight system in nineteen ninety-one saw in nineteen ninety-three nelson mandela. And yes w declerk won the nobel peace prize for ending up but system in a peaceful manner. What would the next few years. The african national congress live by nelson mandela and the national body led by declerk held various thoughts. They wanted to come to an agreement on hold in the violence in the country and create a goldman so that neither the majority not. The minority feels abandoned. As a result of these talks become a democratic nation in nineteen ninety-four nelson mandela began. Its first during students. Monday of who create a black majority rule. He did not want the minorities especially the whites. Who feel so. You're pointed declerk as deputy but even after that the blacks and the whites nest deleted so being them together. He started promoting rugby and supporting the national beating. The other countries combined interest in sports this moving to share that every conciliation between different places. No some also worked hard host. The we will cup in nineteen ninety-four which brought international recognition south africa but more important three. You'd the different races together. Where your stumbling sport that everyone could be pulled over the next few years nelson mandela used goldman funds. We pull the country's healthcare education system hosting and create more employment opportunities between nineteen ninety. Four ninety. nine someone to feed goes on you ho said constricted. Flavoring unique have looted one point. Five million children started that education. Three million people got water. Access and three million people got accessibility to telephones. But despite bringing all these improvements missing Dome for residency in one thousand nine hundred ninety did not seek a second term in office by nineteen ninety nine percent of the people in south africa from aids so after dating missing manila's set up a charity called the nelson mandela foundation through. You raised money to build schools and clinics and comeback. It's even after his retirement extremely hall the improve quality of life in south africa in two thousand four today completely from public life and who is not relig- after that remain mostly away from public view on piece that you don't humid occasional public appearances in his last years. Fighting recurrent infection medicine manila was hospitalised multiple times finally on december fifth google subverting dinu by the same infection fact soup probably didn't know when nelson mandela was prison. He became a symbol for the people of south africa. It motivated them to fight against a cool white minority government. One biller is widely considered the father of modern south africa. He played a significant role in converting an a-plus country into a democracy. He wondering what boondock you feel. Wolves besides the mobile. The amid admissions juliet. Last birthday has to nissim de international day urges people to spend sixty seven minutes on this day doing something for the people in the sixties when we need the sixty seven years. Mandela won't bring change for people. I hope that this episode of his biography. Podcast you learn something new about africa and newsom salako podcast lee subscribed in your favorite podcasting and uso. Face starting next week. I need you. If you're one of the most famous soften today we call him. The renaissance man have the already guessed who these famous artists. Then find out in the next episode whistles biography. Podcast if you're correct or not.
Tarnished ANC seeks re-election in South Africa
"Hello and welcome to this edition of willed weekly from the financial times, I'm focused. Ryan. It's been twenty five years in South Africans voted in the first democratic election, then the African National Congress almost sixty percent of the votes next Wednesday on may eight South Africans will vote again. But this time the eighties image has been tarnished. And they will struggle to get anywhere near sixty percent of the vote. Joining me on the line from Johannesburg his of cultural, the F T, South Africa correspondent and within the as David pulling FT's Africa editor Joseph what are the toll sending us? The poster telling us that this will be the most competitive election in South Africa's post-apartheid democratic history. But that does not mean the agency's majority which has kept for twenty five years is in any real danger most posters. Most analysts believe the ANC will probably get a majority all fifty five to sixty percent. That said the most recent poll by the institute of Rhys relations. I think tank in South Africa has put the D one percent support assuming tunnel of about seventy two percent. That is a bit of a shocker it's never been that close before an action. So innocence, we all into new territory, David, you recently rotate rollicking lunch with the teacher and beween either South African Finance Minister Winnie or squad plaintively in that interview. What did people expect NC to achieve in twenty five years? A quarter of a century is not an insignificant amount of time is the simply refusing to take responsibility or is there merit in. What in bologna said? I think as usual with these questions the answer is is. Yes, or no, I think certainly the NC takes responsibility for the last nine years of Jacob Zuma when it became an increasingly corrupt party bereft of policies was not producing any growth. Even before that. I think it's been slow to produce the kind of social transformation. The South African particularly black South Africans expected. It's been a part of this created a pretty thin middle class an Israeli kept everyone else happy on kind of social welfare payments. And it was once said to me that the ANC actually become the party of the unemployed, and there is some truth to that. However, we should also acknowledge the poisonous legacy overpass site, which has been extraordinarily difficult to overcome. This wasn't like a normal African country that booted out white colonialists and could then get on with the job. And of course, many black African countries have not done, particularly well at that either. But this was a society that was hugely divided along racial lines. One only needs to look at the school system the school system that was actually literally divided on racial lines. When the apartheid education policy was to keep black students of Hugh is of wood and drawers of water a deliberate policy to keep them poor. Or an uneducated. And now that's really been replaced by an education system, where access to money is everything. Now, again, the ANC has not done nearly as well at improving the public education system as it should have done, and I would say that that's huge failing. So they're in in a sense in nutshell. You have the enormous poisonous legacy that the NC is grappling with and some of the very real failings that I think, you know, we can point a finger and say, yes, the ANC a party in which we had tremendous hope twenty five years ago has not lived up to experts stations Joseph David touched on one of the greatest problems with NC, and it was the reign of Jacob Zuma. And it's been argued that if Cyril Ramaphosa exceeds expectations and wins a big majority next week he'll have the power to turf out soon as cronies and tackle groups property, but is a slightly given his tolerance of some very questionable characters in both his cabinets and within the ANC hierarchy the first thing to bear in mind. Is that suffer is a parliamentary system, sir? Ramaphosa won't be directly elected. What will happen after the general election is parliament over for the president overseas? NC's hoping that will be where I'm opposed, but the dilemma for South African vote is if you don't like the ANC which has been taken over by cronies of Jacob Zuma who occupy quite senior policy positions, even though that patron is long gone from the presidency. You've got cross dot nine DNC to get what will hope for the I reformist agenda under Ramaphosa speaking of twos in the most days before the elections. But I think he has done a pretty good job in the years since he's taken over from Jacob Zuma, the has replaced people in state institutions, which declined under his predecessor. But they do have a lot of skepticism about the constraints that will be on him within the NC beyond the election. David's South Africa's the most unequal society earth, and that gap has. One and agency rule. Critics claim that black economic empowerment and ANC policy has benefited a few politically connected blacks, while the rest of the black majority just gets poorer official unemployment is twenty-seven percent. But in reality is probably closer to forty percents is unemployment and inequality ticking time bomb for South Africa and the NC. Yes, I think it is. I mean, we've seen all over Africa youth unemployed rising up we saw it. Most recently in a sense in sedan with Basheer was booted out. I mean in a sense of South African population has been very patient. But I don't think that can go on forever. 'cause the problem is that you have these two economies you have what Martin wolf once called bell. India? You have a very wealthy white economy. This inherited the end of apartheid surrounded by very poor black one and trying to bridge that gap is not particularly easy because you have a black population. That wants an expects the living standards of those that sees around them in the white minority. And yet, they lack the productivity and skills generally through absoulutely, no fault of their own, of course to achieve that. And that is the real crux of the dilemma that any economic social and political policy has to crack does that open the door for dude. Melinda and his economic freedom flashes. Yes. Indeed. It does to an extent and we've seen that they have been popular. I mean, they've partly been popular because they were seen as a party that really took on Jacob Zuma. When no one else really was. And they've also since then, of course, adopted the land issue, which is a very sort of fiery issue that really appeals to people's emotions. But what I think the F F really appeals to is the notion that at the end of apartheid, and the black majority in South Africa was promised a far better standard of living and a beginning of bridging the gap with a privileged minority. What you've got as you've said is you've had the creation of a black middle. Class, but a relatively thin a narrow one, and although black living standards. I don't think it's true they've gone backwards. They have improved in real terms. The gap is still very much there people's expectations, quite rightly a still very much. They're part of those expectations was a bit of a living. But Eskom the state literacy monopoly has been gutted by I will chain corruption and incompetence in blackouts depressingly frequent national airline has been mismanaged spectacularly. And even the South African Broadcasting corporation is struggling the NCAA has become a byword for corruption yet, it is still expected to win so many votes, the should be a gift for any opposition party. So watchos if is a democratic aligns deficient opposition struggling to poll any higher than twenty percent. Let's David says Jacob Zuma isn't in the presidency anymore. So that has removed an easy target for the opposition the Democrats get alliance, which is pro-police after closest equivalent to a western style. Liberal sash center, right political party. E have relentlessly criticized corruption, you know, all of that campaign posters, or that TV ads highlight what you've just mentioned the national airline the national power monopoly. The state TV broadcaster, but the feeling of disconnect and despondency among voters what is really going to change off to a decade and the DA can talk about corruption. But when it comes to that broader economic plans such as black empowerment s- getting an economy going again fail seen, right? The only as a white dominated party. So getting the message through to the back majority has been very tricky for the DA in particular it off on Ceram a quarter difficult person to understand he seems to make all the rock noises when he talks to international investors. These also proposed some worrying anti-business relations such as land expropriation without compensation. He refuses to condemn the Zanu PF. Zimbabwean and he's got them and still supports the Madurai regime in Venezuela. How do you think it's national invasive you Bo from opposes prison? See and South Africa will remit posers, very skilled politician. I think we have to remember that he won the presidency of the ANC with the very very slim majority. I think one hundred seventy nine votes out of something like four thousand seven hundred so when he came into power as president of the ANC and subsequently as president of the country. This was with a very very slim mandate, and he's had to play his hand, very cautiously. He supported by people like David Mabuza who is his deputy and has been associated very closely with the kind of policies that prevail during the Zuma years. So I think from poser does not have a free hand. So one point he has to play up to his ANC constituency than it has to go abroad on raise investment for the country. He's on this huge drive to bring in investment into South Africa. So the summit. Stent? Yes, he's playing a double game. And speaking sort of out of both sides of his mouth. I think what some people are hoping is if he or as Joseph says if he via the NC gets a bigger majority this time and feels more secure in his job with the mandate going forward, then he'll be able to put his own policies into place and his own personnel into place more forthrightly than he has been able to do in this year. And then maybe you'll see kind of greater consistency coming out. But I think one of his skills is that he's able to kind of reconcile the contradictory. And that is the game that he has had to play in this year. And in a sense. He's played it very skillfully. I think in nineteen ninety four jobs of South Africans of different races. Viewed each other with great mistrust. You lived in job now for almost three years socially, also Africans growing closer for junior, South African identity, or is there still base. I on race. I mean election day will be. A big window on now because they'll be polling stations among rubber well-off, would suburbs where the white and black middle class live. And then they'll be polling stations in shacks in townships, which have really terrible infrastructure. Now, what brought some reference together in the last three years. I've been here has been complete annoyance with corruptions. Everyone suffers the rolling blackouts that happen when Eskom the state power monopoly runs out of money and generation. So since that's been a shared experience of the downsides or twenty five years of ANC rule yet. I think the elections will also showed the extremes the radical parties will do well Julius minimums party will probably double with vote the freedom from plants, which is an Afrikaner party were probably take votes from the Democratic Alliance. White voters who believe the DA is too happy copy. About what's happening in South Africa, essentially, and then you also have evangelical bat parties as well. I mean, these are on the margins some of these policies burn get more than one percent. But beneath what's likely to be an agency majority? You are seeing the shift to more extreme interpretations of what needs to happen to suffer Africa's economy in the as ahead. I'm not something. I think we will have to watch it looks like a very exciting election, but that's all for this week. Many thanks to Joseph cultural in Johannesburg and David pulling in the studio till next week goodbye.
Sarojini Naidu born - February 13, 1879
"Announcing the year of Twenty Twenty Twenty Twenty Vision that is twenty twenty vision at the center to be exact. That's why we are giving you twenty percent off your twenty twenty with stick with design plus a free consultation and no interest financing. Call the center today at eight. Eight eight eight four four twenty twenty to get your twenty percent off island sick or visit. The EYE CENTER DOT COM to schedule your consoles online financing on approved credit see website for details some restrictions apply. Hi Everyone I'm Brooke Burke I'm making admins and I'm sex and intimacy coach Leila Deville and we have a podcast called intimate knowledge. That's what this show is about sex sex but it's so much more than not. It's about the ups and downs near patients ship. Your sex life is about overcoming heartbreak and infidelity. It's about understanding intimacy. And what makes you happy? And it's about everything he wanted to know. But you might be too embarrassed to ask. We're giving you intimate knowledge. Listen to knowledge on iheartradio APP on Apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Find US This Day in history. Class is a production of iheartradio. Hey y'all I'm Eve's welcome to this day in history class a show where we one day ship nuggets of history straight to your brain. Your ear hole today is February thirteenth. Twenty twenty the day was February. Thirteen eighteen seventy nine Indian poet and activist fair. Jamie I do with born. Naidoo was also the first Indian woman to be president of the Indian National Congress. Her poetry earned her the nickname. The Nightingale of India do was born in Hyderabad India. Her mother was a poet and her father was a scientist and philosopher. She was the oldest of eight children and some of her siblings were activists and poets. Naidoo spoke several languages and she began writing poetry at an early age. She began attending modulus university age. Twelve several years later she moved to to study at King's college and Girton College there. She became involved in the Campaign for women's suffrage when she returned to India in eighteen ninety eight she married a non brahmin doctor though he was from a different cast. The families approved of the marriage. The couple eventually had several children together. Her First Collection of poems the Golden Threshold was published in nineteen o five that same year the British partitioned Bengal which separated the majority Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. Having gained an interest in politics through her experiences and England. Naidoo turned her attention to the Indian National Congress and Ghandi's non cooperation movement. The Indian National Congress is a political party that formed in eighteen eighty five and was at the forefront of the Indian independence movement. The non cooperation movement was a nonviolent effort to get the British government to grant self governance to India. Naidoo joined the Indian National Congress in Nineteen Zero Five. She travelled around India. Speaking about women's education helping impoverished people nationalism. She met with social and political leaders and artists like Gopal Krishna. Go clea- robin threat. Takur in Sarala Debbie to drawn in one thousand nine. Seventeen Naidoo helped found the women's Indian Association along with Anne bessant Margaret cousins and others in the following years. She continued to argue for women's suffrage and speak out against issues like child marriage and Sati when Hindu widows would earn themselves to death on their deceased husbands funeral pyres Naidoo also joined. Gandhi sought your gras movement one of nonviolent resistance in nineteen twenty five. She became the first Indian woman to lead the Indian national. Congress Naidoo was jailed few times for her anti-british activities including for manufacturing salt and her involvement in the quit India. Movement which advocated for an end to British rule in India. India gained independence from Britain in nineteen forty seven that year. She became the first governor of Uttar Pradesh then called the United provinces throughout her life. Naidoo continued to write poetry and incorporated it into her speeches. Some of her other published poetry collections. Include the bird of time and the broken wing. Some of her poems were published posthumously. Her poetry is known for being lyrical with rich imagery conveying messages of love longing and separation. She died in nineteen forty nine tar. Prudish I'm jeffcoat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. If you have any insight on an accent or pronunciation spoken in the show today you can feel free to send us a kind note on social media at T. D. H. fee podcast. Or if you're so inclined you can send us a message at this day at Iheart Media Dot Com. Thanks again for listening. We'll see you tomorrow for more podcasts. From iheartradio visit the iheartradio APP apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows glide across the ice at ice in lights the winter village a cameron run in Alexandria enjoy outdoor skating and thousands of twinkling lights for great photo ops for hours and ticket information visit NOVA PARKS DOT COM NOVA parks discover. What's next I guys my name is Sammy j? I've been working as a correspondent and interviewer. Since I was thirteen and now at seventeen I am so honored to be the youngest person to have her own. Podcast on iheartradio. It's called. Let's be real with Sammy J. We'll have in depth and unfiltered conversations with celebrities. Activists Athletes and influencers will cover topics. We're curious about topics I guess are passionate about and topics. Many of us are just too afraid to talk about. I get passed a fluff to what real we go there. And it's fun pretty crazy and very revealing. Listen to. Let's be real with Sammy. J on the iheartradio APP apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcast.
From the head down: rot in South Africa
"Hello and welcome to the intelligence on economist. Radio host jason palmer every weekday. We provide a fresh perspective. On the events shaping your world with schools and daycare closed during the pandemic working. Parents were always going to have extra trouble as the data have rolled in the full effects on mental health career progression and widening. Gender divides are becoming clear. And think of all the minutes you've spent trying to eke out the very last of the ketchup or the peanut butter. Don't worry material. Science is here to help. We look at a super slippery surface. That will help you. Get the most out of your toothpaste tube. But i ask you to stand please. It took more than two decades to begin an after just one day. It was adjourned until july. Jacob zuma a former south african president was in court last week for the first major hearing of his corruption. Trial involving an arms deal from the nineteen ninety s. Mr zuma's was president from two thousand nine until two thousand eighteen until he was forced to resign after a vote of no confidence. He led the african national congress or an party which was itself involved in multiple corruption scandals. You followed the charges that have been put you now. From the indictment democratic mr zuma faces eighteen counts of racketeering corruption fraud tax evasion and money laundering. Prosecutors leveled the accusation that he had taken some seven hundred bribes feed them plead not guilty. The corruption in south africa goes far beyond one man and one administration. The case against jacob zuma is nearly as old as post-apartheid south africa john. Mcdermott is the economists chief. Africa correspondent and is based in south africa. The challenges relate to a two point. Five billion dollar deal to buy european the tree kit. To upgrade south africa's armed forces way back in one thousand nine hundred nine when zuma was deputy president. He's accused of accepting an annual bribe from the french arms company. Tyler's in exchange for protecting the firm from an investigation into that deal. Both zuma tallest deny any wrongdoing. So then how does mr zuma's respond to these charges then besides simply denying them. Mr zuma has spent more than two decades saying that the charges are false and all parts of a conspiracy. The brains behind this conspiracy have changed over time. Initially it was kind of internal enemies within the anc chiefly topo mbeki his former nemesis. But it's also being of foreign instigators as well for many many years. His efforts were successful but finally he has run out of road and he's currently facing his days in court but it must be said that as much as this is the big case against him he's been chased with of corruption in a bunch of ways down the years. That's right when he was president from two thousand and nine to two thousand eighteen. His reign became synonymous with called state. Capture the wholesale looting of government departments and state owned enterprises in parallel to this trial. There is a long running commission into state capture which is led by senior judge here in south africa and mr zuma as well as a lot of his alleged croonies are four front of this inquiry so while the court case that he's currently involved in dates back to the late nineteen ninety s. It's also quite possible that we could see subsequent prosecutions related to his time as president and the sort of corruption. That's being alleged here that isn't restricted just to the echelons. That includes mr zuma right. It's sort of throughout government. Corruption in south africa is systemic and it involves not just senior politicians and departments of state in state owned enterprises but it seeps right down into the very lowest levels of government the towns and cities that in theory should collect people's bins and ensure that they have clean water and good power supply and that really for most of africans is where they see the day-to-day consequences of corruption. And what are those consequences. What does that corruption look like. In the towns and cities you mentioned to be chief. Africa correspondent of the economist may sound like a glamorous job but a couple of months ago i went to a tangled harrismith in the municipality of multi upper phone. It's about three hours south of johannesburg. And i found myself standing knee deep in effluent just next to a sewage plant and this was because the waste disposal system in this town has completely broken down is about three hundred and fifty thousand people there. They have regular clean water. Their rubbish is not collected. The lights are rarely on and much of the town. The place just stinks because of the sewage problems and it's because of the fact that this local government is run by. Anc politicians who it is alleged a much more interested in their own personal gain than actually providing basic public services for the people who live there. And how are the people in these neglected places. Reacting to to the corruption south africans off fed up with the state of their local services and their main way of showing it is by protesting in two thousand and eighteen in two thousand. Nineteen there were record numbers of riots and people hitting the streets just because they're so angry at this at this data local delivery. Those numbers fell lest you because of the pandemic. but there's no sign at all that things are getting better. Some south africans are however taking slightly more constructive action. When i was in malaysia performing i met with an organization called water. Heroes which is led by three men from the town two black men some twilight and willie shabalala and a barely afrikaner farmer named pets food van eaton and together. They decided to do things for themselves to fix the water pipes to collect the rubbish to make sure kyra supplies or working and this citizens activism is becoming more common across the country but that kind of activism must surely just be a stopgap measure anything. Ken ken this kind of thing. Fill all the holes that the the government is leaving. No it can't be replacement for the dysfunctional south african state. Even this wonderful trio whom. I met water heroes. They cleaned up the place in the water running again in twenty twenty. But when i went they were really despondent because the municipality had essentially forced them to stop they went so far as to say. These guys were sabotaging the time. And that just shows that you have people who want to do the best for their community. They want to fix potholes and bridge racial divides they don't actually have the legal authority to do so and it's a reminder of the towns and cities are run by politicians and until south africans more democratic pressure on the ruling african national congress. The party of jacob zuma then there's his little incentive for those politicians to change will the hope had been that the era of corruption would go out with with zuma himself. The new president cyril ramaphosa campaigned on a platform of clearing out the corruption. I mean what's your take on that. How's he doing cyril ramaphosa. Who became president after zuma in two thousand eighteen has done some good things. he's got a new national prosecutor. He's cleaned up the police. He's even imposed some discipline on the african national congress most recently by ensuring the suspension of one of zuma's allies as surely as secretary general of the party however as why find maluti perform shows corruption cronyism patronage in south africa so deep so systemic and so related to the raison d'etre of the anc which is to actually take control over the state that you can't just fix all of the problems related to corruption by changing a few heads of a few institutions. You really do have to change the nature of the anc itself and that's difficult because cyril ramaphosa is not just president of south africa. He's president of the anc and he needs internal party support if he's going to stay in power so the tragedy. As much of modern democratic south africa is that far too often the needs of the african national congress ahead of the needs of the country. John thank you very much for joining us. Thank you jason. For more analysis this from our international network of correspondents take out a subscription to the economist. Get a great introductory deal at economist dot com slash intelligence offer. The link is in show notes for some families. The pandemic has had. Its upsides with more time at home together. You very good teaching and good. But it's also had its downsides like more time at home together. it's tremendously holiday the by ebay that is twenty full seven. Caf working fulltime. From how would just impossible. Thanks very difficult since the beginning. Especially since i have little ones and doesn't take a lot for me to cry at the moment and it's a huge change something. I'm not used to because i've never had to be a teacher To so many different ages many parents mostly mothers have decided to step back from work or to quit entirely and even as more and more schools open back up. Much of the impact may stick around. Facia has been particularly tough for parents. Juggling paid work with childcare. It's disproportionately affected that the health and wellbeing and also that career is social. Delta is the economists public policy editor and for some the consequences could last well beyond the pandemic and just affect them but also their families their employers indeed the economy and as we've talked about before that has to do with juggling fulltime work in childcare with schools closed yes scoop pleasures and childcare Israeli really at the heart of this at the start of the pandemic when they will suddenly closed and young children in particular was suddenly home full time and most kids in america and in europe. Now grow up in lincoln household with both parents. Work one in five goes up with a single parent so you can imagine doing too at the same time proved impossible for many here in britain by april. So just a month into lockdown couples. Were each doing on average three and a half extra hours of childcare and nearly two hours of dreaded homeschooling day all of this very measurable impact on their mental health. The american psychological station found that parents they saw was significantly more likely than non parents to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder during the pandemic. And we've seen across countries increased levels of things like loneliness stress etc and you found a particularly novel way to to track this frustration. yes. I've spent a significant amount of time on mum's net which is a british parenting forum and during the pandemic it was a place where loss of mothers went to air grievances and get advice about the joys of homeschooling monstrous allows swearing. They think it's it's healthy. For people to be able to add all of their frustrations and what they notice that with each announcement around school closures here embracing the swearing meter which counts the number of obscenities impost spiked measurably in january of this year at the swearing peak. If you will. Over seven and ten months nasa said that they felt that they were failing their employers and they've also fame the kids and nine and ten concluded that basically that working from home was looking off. The children was simply impossible. But that's on mum's net. I presume dads have had a hard time as well does absolutely had a hard time. In fact in america the stress in america survey found that founders of young kids were the group that stress drunk so drank alcohol to cope with stress more than any other groups and more than essential workers. They found this as well but the bulk of the extra work has nevertheless fallen on women or mothers and actually as the pandemic has progressed that shed workload has more move been pushed towards mothers. So i think it's safe to say that mothers have suffered disproportionate and given that disproportionate share. How has that impacted. Their career paths careerwise. Women particularly mothers of young children have been more likely to lose their jobs and they have dropped out of the labor force altogether in greater numbers for example in america by january of this year. One and a half million few mothers were in paid work then in the air before. That's that's a full of eight percent. That's moving more than other groups and if you look at for example academics which tend to have quite a quick way of looking at how productive they are by looking at for example research. Papers they were able to submit you see in general impact on academics with young kids being less productive general pedantic but particularly mothers of young children. How much of all these trends do you go into reverse. once the pandemic release starts to recede. Oh we know that women tend to take longer to come back into work on safe dropped out in lost. Their jobs left workforce then men. So i'm not at all optimistic that there will be a quick back but in a way the more interesting question i think to speculate on is how this past year will affect the way. Parents divvy up responsibility so-called gender norms. And heh some early research showing quite concerning evidence of potential so called conservatives shift and we've seen this in past when faced with a big existential threat like a terrorist attack or war. Economic claps is sort of revert to traditional roles and study from. France actually has shane that towards the end of the first lock down. You sold that men and women were more likely than before covid to say that a woman's job is basically to look after the family and while that is still up in the air then what what. What would you like to see happen. What changes should come out of of this tumultuous time but one thing that this year has begun deny every goodful is the acknowledgement. that working. parents have children. That sounds really silly. But we know from before the pandemic that women take. You often felt the need to hide the fact that they had kids and obviously this year of zoom and peering into each other. That's living rooms has has changed that and hopefully for the better and it's de stigmatized at least temporarily working from home flexible hours all these things all these new freedoms that really could benefit. All work is particularly working parents for the good and i should point out here. We mostly here talking about of course the white collar variety in the types of jobs that you can do remotely if need be so that at least is our silver lining here at least for those those jobs that that can be done from home that there are some risks that we should be aware of and one is them is that zoom kind of becomes an excuse for everything. Zoom becomes an excuse to not fix childcare because you can now work from home whilst minding you children and that actually mother's might feel pressure to work from home. Because they can and as a consequence the office could become much more male-dominated dominates against back to the seventy s. Now that might sound a little bit like scaremongering and maybe it is an awful lot will depend on. How employers facilitate the transition to the next way of working rights and also how governments of course build the infrastructure around childcare at cetera. So as i say it will really be up to the employers and governments to be thoughtful about having the right structures and support in place of that working. Parents can combine being a parent with being in the workforce in the long term social. Thanks very much for joining us. Pleasure jason mangled tube of toothpaste. There's always a way you can squeeze out just one last little bit but the struggle and in the bathroom the ketchup bottle for the peanut butter jar. Those trace amounts abandoned after you scraped and squeezed squirted all. You can pennies on the dollar of your pastes. Potties creams conditioners. Syrups and saucers wasted. But what if there were another way. Colgate palmolive huge american consumer goods john. They've up an invention by a pair of experts in super smith resurfaces to produce a toothpaste tube that delivers the last straw. Poll market is the economists innovation editor lixia and it comes in three varieties or packages in plastic tubes and they can be emptied entirely with these. Elixir is go on sale in europe but There's no decision yet whether it's going to be sold elsewhere. How then does it deliver the last drop so easily. Well the invention comes from collaboration. Between clipper veran massey. An mit professors. Than dave smith in two thousand twelve company liquid lied to commercialize this invention of this and first big breakthrough into the consumer market. And how it works. It is by imposing microscopically textured pattern on the surface of the bottler two and then applying a suitable liquid which fills in the gaps that creates a surface over which do substances will slide very easily liquid can be made from the same materials a bottle of the sube and that helps prevent contamination. But we caught people's imagination time if there was a demonstration of how they could use it to completely empty a catch up with grease without even shaking it vigorously. So is that to say we will at last be rid of our catch up emptying problems too. I'm afraid nope so far the catch up makers of yet warm to the idea. And that's perhaps because they're not too worried about people being able to empty their vocals put the health and beauty industry so different case product said to be pricier consumers a bit more picky and they've been quite keen we go. It hasn't given up home food so they're eyeing some products particularly mayonnaise humorous sour cream and cream cheese. They think they can be put into squeezy bottles to it. Sounds like a technology that has application beyond toothpaste and ketchup anyway. Eight dollars a number of areas in particular in the manufacturing industries that make some of these products because food and health products stake inside equipment. Rebel groups swiss producer of healthcare duty. Folks they were really using this idea to prevent potato getting stuck inside the pipes and vessels of the manufacturing equipment. But a lot of stuff gets wasted when it's time to clean production equipment that gets washed away or has to be disposed off especially and also nonstick packaging should help a lot with recycling tubes of toothpaste for the moment and rarely recycle. That's not only because they've had some stuff left inside them but also because they're optime with a laminate of plastic and aluminium foil and recycles. Really don't like to deal with mixed materials because it's tough to recycle. Thanks very much for joining us. Paul that's all for this episode of the intelligence if you like us leave his rating and review and we'll see you back here tomorrow.
Inslees climate agenda gets a boost from the legislature. The significance may be in the details
"And this is k. u. o. w. I'm kim ever since. Jay inslee became governor of washington. He's focused on fighting climate change but the state's carbon dioxide emissions have kept growing in spite of injuries reputation as a climate hawk. Well now the state legislature has given is lease climate. Push a big boost laws. They've just passed are expected to reduce our collective toll on the climate and could even change the kind of car you drive or bus. You take k. u. a. w. environment reporter. John ryan is here john. Hi hi jim. So democratic lawmakers are touting a couple of new laws that they say promised to have big benefits for the climate. So who are they going after. One of the two new laws goes after the biggest polluters and the other one goes after small polluters smallholders who are ubiquitous people who drive cars and trucks and the two laws together are kind of the big missing link of annesley's long-held long pursued climate agenda we finally have meaningful climate legislation that reflects the values and priorities washingtonians and it respects the science of climate change it caps and reduces climate pollution across our economy. They're referring to what's known as a cap and trade law it would go. After the biggest polluters like refineries oil refineries pulp mills cement plants and time it would force them to clean up their acts climate pollution wise. And if they do need to keep polluting they have to pay more to do so. And the other law goes after smaller polluters. Like me driving my car. Yeah they call it a low carbon fuel standard and basically it would again over time kind of transition. The juice that cars right on to something less to decline it. Whether it's replacing gasoline with a mix might have more biofuels in it that pollute less or switching cars over to electric motors altogether john. I know that you've reported in the past on how inslee has tried to get similar measures through the legislature. But he's failed so what was different this year. Well besides the all pandemic stuff a big difference was that the democrats had a bigger majority this year so they were able to accomplish things they weren't in past years and for me. This year was interesting to watch the the cap and trade bill. It really shattered the usual alliances that we see in olympia. We saw the state's biggest oil refiner. That's why we switched sides and supported this kind of measure we saw environmental advocates split over the bill and we saw racial justice advocates way on on both sides. Some said it would hurt. The most polluted communities tend to be communities of color while other advocates. Like fauns sharp. She's the head of the indian nation and also the head of the national congress of american indians. She said this cap and trade bill was needed to help those communities like hers endure. We're the disproportionate victims of climate. Change environmental injustice. My nations two oldest ancestral villages to whole increase are currently at such high risk of catastrophic flooding that we are being forced to abandoned villages after millennia. Now is the time to seize this moment in history to john much goodwill will this do overall for the climate it depends in part how things are pursued for example it's the cap and trade is called a a market based mechanism. So it's kind of left up to businesses to decide how they go about reducing their emissions and if we see a switch from say diesel trucks to biodiesel trucks that might not do as much for the climate as if it was a switch all altogether to electric trucks and of course washington state. We're just a drop in the ocean when you're looking at global climate issues but these days. The whole world has to pull its weight. You know if we're going to achieve the dramatic and really rapid transition away from fossil fuels that the world's climate scientists keep keep telling us it's urgently needed well. John climate advocates are are claiming this legislative movement as a victory this year. So how big a victory is it. Would you say in the larger picture. I would call it. A victory for climate advocates with a big asterisk on it and that asterisk is the highway. Spending the passage of these bills is is dependent on its kind of linked to whether the legislature can pass a big highway transportation budget in the next couple of years and of course highways are the biggest source of pollution from all motor fossil fuel vehicles running on it and house just past the twelve billion dollar budget for spending on transportation most of it's going to maintain and expand highways and less than half of one percent of it to climate-friendly transportation former seattle mayor. Mike mcginn he called it. Climate arsonist. So there's going both directions out out of the legislature this year k. u. a. w. environment reporter john ryan on the latest on washington's climate bills. Thank you so much for this you bet.
Wednesday, May 8, 2019
"What happens when the White House disregards demands from congress? We may soon. Find out the Trump administration told the White House counsel not to testify in a committee votes today on holding the attorney general in contempt. I'm no L king here with Steve Inskeep. And this is up. I from NPR news. Iran says it will stop following parts of its nuclear deal unless other countries offer better terms, the US withdrew from that deal. But still expects you're onto follow it this binary, you're either in compliance or your not who has gained and who's lost in the years since President Trump pulled out also elections begin today in South Africa corruption has plagued the ruling party, we don't trust the choices that on that. And we don't even know which has the system power voters deciding the fate of the African National Congress stay with us will guide through this days news. Support for this podcast and the following message come from almond board of California. It's hump day. And there's nothing like a handful of almonds to get you over it. Go on own your every day every day with almonds. Support also comes from HBO's Chernobyl and new mini series about the nineteen eighty six nuclear accident. C Mondays at nine pm and listened to the podcast hosted by the show's creator, Craig Mazin and NPR's Peter Saigal available on the NPR one app. What are the limits of executive power? It's a question at the heart of our democracy. That's right. The constitution suggests that congress has the ultimate power. They can fire the president. But the president has enormous power to act or in this case to refuse. President Trump has told his former White House counsel not to follow a subpoena from congress lawmakers wanna see documents relating to the work of Don Mcgann. He wants resisted the president's effort to have the special counsel fired lawmakers also wanna see the special counsels full report. But so far attorney general William bar is refusing Jerry Nadler is chairman of the House Judiciary committee. Yes, we will continue to negotiate for access to the full report for another couple of days. And yes, we will have no choice, but to move quickly to hold the attorney general in contempt if he stalls fails negotiate in good faith that was never a few days ago. And now, according to Nadler, the time for that vote to hold the attorney general in contempt. Has arrived as has NPR national political correspondent Mara Liasson is on the line market morning. Good morning, Steve is this conflict normal. There have been conflicts many times before between congress and the executive branch about testimony about documents. What's different and not normal about this is that this is an across the board refusal. The president said that he was gonna fight all the subpoenas. It's done mcgann's testimony. It's access to the full Muller report the underlying materials and the reductions, it's a Torney general bar testifying before the house. It's the president's tax returns. The president is also tweeted he doesn't want Bob Muller to testify and the system of separation of powers with three Coequal branches of government, really only works if the executive branch and the legislative branch except that the other one is Coequal. In other words, they have to respect the limits of their branch and respect the role of the other. Other branch, and that's what's being drawn into question here. And as I understand it that is essentially the argument the administration is making against congress. You have no legitimate purpose to do any of these things. And therefore, we're not going to follow them. This. The administration has certain whether congress has has the right or not right at one point the president said, I don't want people testifying to a party. It's not a party. It's the house of representatives. Okay. So what does it mean? If in fact, this vote goes ahead as scheduled today, and this house committee votes to hold the attorney general of the United States William bar in contempt of congress. Well, then I think it goes to court the big development yesterday was that the department of Justice told the House Judiciary committee to either cancel the contempt vote or it will recommend asserting executive privilege over the entire Muller report. Of course, most of it's already public and all the underlying documents. And what that means is that if the White House does asserted executive privilege that can go to court, and that would be. The next step instead of just delaying things and and continuing to negotiate a once executive privilege is asserted than the two sides. Go to court. I'm trying to understand what the ultimate power is that congress would would have here. I mean, if I was held in contempt of court by judge I could be jailed until I decide to follow the court's orders. I guess we're not talking about William bar being dragged away by by bailiffs or something like that. No. And that's important because they can the congress can issue fines, but they don't have a Constabulary. They can't put somebody in jail. They can go to court and most legal experts say that probably congress will win because the constitution as you mentioned earlier says that congress has oversight responsibility of the executive branch they could dock people salaries they could refuse to pass legislation or raise the debt limit. There are things congress can do. But I think we're in for a protracted legal fight Mara. Thanks. Thank you. That's NPR's. Mara liasson. Needless to say, President Trump has never been a fan of the two thousand fifteen Iran nuclear deal. My number one priority is to dismantle the disasters deal with Iran. The worst deals I've ever seen is the Iran deal never ever ever in my life. Have I seen any transaction? So incompetently negotiated as our deal with Iran a year ago. President Trump pulled the US out of the agreement. You may remember it's an agreement that had largely succeeded in halting Iran's path toward developing nuclear weapon now at the time Iran said would stay in the deal. But then today, president Hudson Ruhani announced Iran may stop complying with some of its commitment. What's going on here NPR's? Peter Kenyon has been following the stories covered Iran for years. Hi, peter. Hi, steve. What is Ron saying? They will do or more precisely stopped doing right. President Ronnie says if things haven't gotten better economically for Ron in sixty days, it's going to return to enriching uranium to a higher level at important because if you've got low enriched uranium it's good for trinity things like that. But highly enriched uranium could go into a nuclear warhead. And as you mentioned, President Trump has never been a fan of this deal. It doesn't last forever. It doesn't deal with all the other problems the US has with Iran missiles support for terror groups that cetera. There's a whole list and Trump pulling US out of the deal year ago bringing back sanctions prompted hardliners in Iran to argue well Toronto pull out to Ruhani today says Iran's not prepared to do that. He says you would inspectors have confirmed it's still in compliance. But if in a couple of months, it does take these steps the higher enrichment of fuel that would move closer to being able to resume nuclear weapons work if it wants to and that's non-proliferation were a couple of important distinctions that I'm hearing in what you're saying, Peter, I it sounds. Like Iran has not stopped complying now. They are threatening to do. So and second you're saying that Iran wants economic improvement that was the original deal. Right. Iran would limit its nuclear program in return for more normal economic relations with the rest of the world. Which is what the US is now trying to block right, exactly. And there are five other countries in this deal who have been saying all along they're trying to find ways to keep trade with Iran going and protect companies who want to do business with Iran, and the US so far that's been a less than impressive, not very effective, basically banks and big companies do business with both countries might do business with both countries. Don't wanna lose the American market for a much smaller around economy. What do we watch for over the next sixty days, then well, it's possible that this move will breathe new life into these efforts by Russia, China and European countries to keep the dealer live around foreign minister flew to Moscow this week to see what he could find out. Will we see now? New efforts to protect companies want to do business with Iran. And if so how might the Trump administration respond to that what we've seen so far is not especially encouraging Iran is going to start keeping more low enriched uranium also heavy-water that could put it out of compliance. And then there's this higher enrichment and sixty days. So the bottom line is this maximum pressure campaign from Washington, where's it gonna lead complicated story? Peter thanks for making it clear for us. Thanks. Let's NPR's. Peter kenyon. Today, South Africans are voting in parliamentary and provincial elections. That's right. The governing African National Congress has been in charge for the past twenty five years when Nelson Mandela became the first democratically elected president. But a lot of people feel his ANC party, which is mired in corruption has just come up short feeling to deliver on promised basic needs like services and jobs and bears. February Quist arcton is in South Africa in Johannesburg. Hi, there February where are you? Exactly. Greetings, greetings from RAs Bangka primary school where two little girls. One black one white racing up and down the full call with Georgie a golden retriever who come with his owners to vote this morning. So there's a public holiday here. So people are cool and people are lining up waiting to vote. Okay. So what are you seeing there? And what are you hearing depends who you speak to black white the different races here in South Africa. Some say. We stay with the status quo, which is the governing ANC, despite the fact that the ANC is seen to have been corrupt mud in influence peddling. And so on that's view, all in Cousy Kula. Neom busy. He says as long as people end up in court and on trial and in jail for cheating and looting. That's a good thing. But he says, you know, South Africa is a young Republican for twenty five years. And that's why we must give this country a chance, I listen is like a human being to democracy, you show a dollar sense. You want to show your identity and your personality so twenty five years after democracy. It's much orange as in adults young adults beginning to take decisions because the toppling thing is that the gap between the haves and have nots is widening of every I want to ask about the African National Congress. We mentioned their history we mentioned their background in the opening up of South Africa and the ending of apartheid. It's giving them so much credibility. Which raises a question, even if people are dissatisfied with their government is there a real credible opposition? Well, that's the problem. There's an official position, and it is controlling it is in charge in a couple of key provinces here in South Africa. Now, the NC's support has been sliding over the is for these very many reasons not only corruption which dates back ten years on the disgraced President Jacob Zuma. But also because many feel that the ANC has not fully delivered on its pledges for a better life for all South Africans. And of course, that means jobs use unemployment is so high it also means housing in trinity. And of course, this very sensitive issue of land reform and land distribution because of course, most of the Landon Africa is owned by white people and not the majority black. So those are the sorts of issues South Africans are dealing with some say the ANC is the party to continue with of the say, no give others a chance. They've had twenty five. Years. And they've let us down is the scene clearly as a referendum on the ANC. Then oh, definitely people are saying this is defining vote. A quarter of a century after Nelson Mandela was sworn in as the first democratically elected president here. The first black president people say, yes, this is the record card of the ANC, and they have been found wanting. But you know, we'll see when the results come out. I'm not in Congo. I'm not in Nigeria the elections of happened. Not spoon. And South Africa's results will be known pretty soon of every pleasure to hear from you. Thanks so much. Always a pleasure. Thank you. Joe? That's NPR's of February Quist arcton in South Africa. And that's I for this Wednesday may eighth. I'm Steve Inskeep. And I'm Noel king. We would love it. If you'd start your day here again with us tomorrow. You can subscribe to up I wherever you listen to podcasts. And it helps the show if you rate us and review on apple podcasts. Now, if you like your news on demand, which sounds demanded a bright you have a right to the news, and you can get it on demand by checking out the NPR one app. You got a mix of local and national international news wherever you go. Whenever you wanted. And you hear podcasts based on what you like download NPR one at the app store. What would you do if you found out story that it's shaped your identity was ally? NPR's new podcast white lies investigates. Murder in Selma Alabama from nineteen sixty five and exposes the conspiracy that kept it unsold. Until now white lies. Start listening Tuesday.
Full Episode: Tuesday, April 9, 2019
"Are you hiring with indeed you can post job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed dot com slash Nightline. That's indeed dot com slash Nightline. This is Nightline tonight. Blood and treasure. Battle over land a battle between black and white farmers taking up arms. Most of us have been some attack old wounds of racial Hayes. Bleeding again in south that. This is our land. We will stand in real die worth and farmers wife. Whose husband was killed says whites are under attack that sounds like silly walk. Don't you think we all almost uncivil wolf and apartheid town a small towns, sparking global controversial all white community where the population is booming living in this town doesn't make racist. This is a special edition of Nightline blood and treasure. Good evening. Thank you for joining us. We now live at an age where battles over class race. Ethnicity who belongs who should go make headlines almost daily. It's a growing wave across the globe Europe Middle East here at home but nowhere for half these angry waters deeper or hotter than in South Africa, a place where history and hope now collide a country, the NIST of a violent struggle over blood and treasure. This is hand to hand broke the throat combat training. These civilians are ready for roared covert, blood and treasure. And the treasure is South Africa hurts a pug Raphy like few places on earth for tensions part of a rising tide covered around the world. I thought the whole point of the New South Africa rejected racial discrimination. This is a style of genocide as far as I'm concerned. Queue. The battle lines are starkly black and white are going on one of the life with foale's just to go three four or five hours. Most of us have been in some attention. These are secret soldiers of sorts out on patrol white South Africans afraid claiming they are under attack by the black majority in those who run discovery. We got them into his not kicking us. Then we need to type it sauce. We have no other choice. And the way they see this defacto war has already taken lines. No one knows that better than fellow farmer. Bernadette hall. I saw five black men approaching the dairy area. Her husband David was murdered when bandits round they're far Tyndrum drowned togetherness him that they coming in. They've got guns, but cuckoo fought back David tackled to the ground Bernadette shoved in his shed where she found her cell phone. I couldn't make a connection. Nixed. Minnesota. Pulled the door open end. So David on his he's knees. I could see he was he couldn't fight anymore. Knicks minute. Just shutting. The executed. Yes. He was on his knees. He was on his knees in front of them. Just pointed the gun any Patricia? Broken. But unbound Bernadette has kept farming. She feels she has her own stake in his fight. The very land were husband's blood was shed, foaming was in our bones wasn't Al blood. This is a passion. This is our was. This was a life Bernadette is African descended from the Dutch the British you, call nice health Africa, you love this country. He's this is your home. This is my home. On the other side of the country is scary Coetzee before anyone else called it home. His people have been in South Africa for centuries the beautiful places on earth. Yes. In the garden of Eden. This I love my land. He's part of the cosign tribe. The indigenous tribes of South Africa that were here long before anyone else out. Then as connected to the land. This land is inserted. It's our land. If you take from us all died to South Africans two very different claims to the land there divide stems from a controversial government proposal. It's called land expropriation without compensation the government seizing land without paying the current owner Ford, and then giving them land to someone else if they wanna come and take this land, we not going to stand back. You will fight I will fight for this lane gays. That sounds like civil war for me. Don't you think we all? Almost uncivil wool you can with the you got to keep the white guy. America, I racial divisions lie under the spectrum of slave in Jim crow in South Africa spa cap mountains and unmatched. Sunsets is the ghost of another fresher horror of part time, which ended just over twenty years ago. It's a country. That's long solved its problems with violent. But with the inauguration of Nelson Mandela came new hope the man with the DASS ity to become president. Let us out our heads to those who have bitterness and to say to them we are all suffered. Knew that Mandela is gone. His beloved African National Congress tarnished by corruption. Wins the discontent. The whisk around the world have reached this rainbow nation. The five between black and white. Again land was taken from the African indigenous people, we should confront the enemy and. Applied country. Bernadette whole season. She was victimized once by killers and thieves now by her government. Well, they wouldn't be. I mean, I legally vote this fall I worked to be able to do that. Now, you come in you, take this form. And I've gotta disappear we've got to she will not go quietly. Her gun is with her at all times, her horrors still fresh. Unfortunately, that is something that you. You realize every time you talk about it, you smell the people ties the blood. No. She says she and other white South Africans are reaping the consequences. Her ancestors sewed, the is absolute height full white South Africans because we are seen as the people going to hit and eating the beyond many experts say fears of white genocide are unfounded and far murders are actually at a twenty year. Low black and white farmers are targeted because they live in remote areas have access to cash and weapons. But despite those facts cases, like there's have attracted a familiar group of people to the cause the so-called all right massive injustice happening to these people. No, it doesn't get press. Coverage. It is not talked about at all sing whites are being targeted for their race, the common talking point of white, nationalist and Neo nuts. But in August twenty second. These groups seem to get a big endorsement their language echoed by President Trump who tweeted about the issue highlighting the claim that the government is Nell season. Land from white farmers. The president's language flying in the face affects the narrative that is being peddled internationally, which is a law is that there's a genocide against white people into Africa, and that is probably the most egregious statement. Because there's no daughter to support that whatever. Nineteen thirteen law strip most black people of their right to own property. This practice continued throat a part time leaving most people of color trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty in violence. Lip in South Africa. We come last. When everything is the nilly lewanda. Vice president of the militant group blacks I land. I says that land expropriation is about much more than farming. It's a struggle for equality. So really lends creation without compensation is a call for Justice as far as the basic point is that. Twenty years after party burst farming land is still in the hands of what people here's the breakdown people of color make up over ninety percent of the population. But only own less than thirty percent of the private land in the country and actually are the ones who encounter more violence young black males fumble lactic victims of mode of than any other population group in some African Beck in two thousand sixteen to white farmers. Tried to seal twenty euro black man into a coffin and threatened to burn him alive. To confer kidney, I hereby fine-tooth kilter. The white farmers were convicted of kidnapping and attempted murder. And we'll spend more than a decade in prison. The story sparked headlines protests, and renewed anger. This is our land. We will stand in. We'll divert it come to that. We must divert this sweeping vista overlooks his land. But Coetzee says despite having the title deed, the local government won't let him farm or mine here. This is. This is my name in my ID number. According them, they say, you're not the owner is just so unfair. I feel like I'm in prisonment the town municipality disputes, the validity of this deed at a time. When the national conversation is focused on what could be taken from white farmers Coetzee says not enough attention is on what black farmers and workers. Still don't have well expedite place in without compensation. I'm supporting that we are black. We were oppressed and segregated Muscat on the basis that we are black not white. It's gonna be that twenty four years into democracy to be poor means to be bled. Can to rich wins to be white means the something? The agency. The ruling party says it's trying to right? Those wrongs critics claim is more of a desperate measure to stay in power. They've been debating this since the end of apartheid. And so there's a resolution put a that. We'll start her morning as she does every day rise early work long in hold onto her faith as if it were her husband's hand, he's got to fund the beautiful in the morning at its. How do you lift your heat up without something to straw? Beautiful is a word that surrounds you when you're in South Africa. But here blood and treasure isn't simply something it's everything a reason to live or die. They say we mustn't talk about eastern. But you see everything that you did you did you touch is about history tight. Thank our language, the took coats, and that this is the way they took a lot of things they must be day where it say today, it's like chessmen date. When we come back a town in South Africa for whites only is this modern day, segregation or a sacred land for a unique culture. When it comes to hiring. You don't have time to waste you need help getting to your shortlist of qualified candidates fast. That's why you need indeed dot com. Get started today at indeed dot com slash Nightline. That's indeed dot com slash Nightline. This special edition of Nightline blood and treasure continues. It's been twenty five years now since the white racist regime of apartheid ended, but now racial divisions are intensifying, again, some white South Africans believe they have a solution a place called Arana. In the Northern Cape of South Africa is a small town called Oronte. I Lance resemble small town America. But there is one striking difference everyone. And we mean, everyone is white. It's by design many people, they call this. An apartheid town what South Africa was not. What is it tempting to become to live in a run? A you must be an Afrikaner the ethnic group descended from the Europeans who first colonized South Africa, the even speak their own language. Sara roots and his wife and their four boys moved here Rania seven years ago. Here's my first question living in this town. Does it make racist? Practically speaking living. This down made me as racist. I think the problem is Africa's we don't understand each other. And only port we see which are the are the bad bots now. This is your point. He says they moved here to escape the crime and chaos of big city life you want to build our heritage and building your own is not the same as breaking somebody else down. Do you want to build your own country? Well, if it's necessary, and we can do that without bloodshed. Why not has anything in South Africa ever been done without Butcha has anything in the world have been done without bloodshed. So no, I don't think. So I don't know. What do you say the people that when they hear all white town? They are suspicious perhaps even fearful I understand that. But what this is about. We don't perceive ourselves as white people we perceive ourselves as corner people. And that is a cultural thing, it's not a rice thing. What's called true about this place? And it looks like, you know, any small town you might find in America except there. No black people. Yeah. Well, that's actually the beauty of it. It's not that different. It's not that difference. Just human beings living here. We get a tour from the town's spokesperson juice stride him. So I see all the symbols that guy rolling up. His sleeves of was symbol on national symbol represents getting ready to work taking responsibility for your on future. But tells population is almost doubled in the past seven years, Ronnie is growing their own house Gooding CEO stride him says post-apartheid measures meant to benefit blacks. Many white South Africans feel they're now being left behind making a run again, a safe haven. This whole circle represents this is history. He takes us here a monument to Africa heroes for South Africa's unwanted statues. Have come to rest. The similarities to America's confederate memorials, it's striking for some recalling a proud ancestry. Brothers a hunting past they look from the boss, and we say look towards the future among the busts here. Hindred review the architect of apartheid the most Roman that fog of by family is obviously Dr indirect food. This is Carl Bosch off the president of the Iranian movement. His father started the town. His grandfather started apartheid the racial divide is in his bloodline from thirty thousand feet. Someone looking down here about a place like Irani. It was off that must be a town of racist. Are you a racist? Do you think that Afrikaners are better than other? Ethnic groups. I know a stew well to think that. Protecting their coacher and their Christian values. Insist is their primary goal we all Cindy spread. And just in a very vulnerable position. This time for the four. Sprint population to start and concentrate. So you think that Afrikaners are under threat of genocide, it could possibly be believe that? Yes. This. Apartheid is a Afrikaner were. Yes that at has core means apart. Use is what you have here in Iran is a community that chooses to live apart that line of argument is why but statement effect. Yes, that it's interesting when when the studying affects become an argument, the unfitness of it has to do with the with the baggage of the how do you bridge that though right that that baggage one could also call history is like because the history of South Africa. It seems often times all white has often come at the expense of all others. Yo. Reaching it starts by not negating it and give us time to prove ourselves as participants in African future. So you're saying trust us. Yes. Yes. That's I didn't think about it that way. But yeah, I'm saying trust us trust the words of the grandson our trust the wounds left by the grandfather. Just like gold and diamonds mistrust lives deepen, the soil of South Africa that all the ghost of apartheid have faded. And none had been forgotten. And finally tonight. It was Nelson Mandela who said after climbing a great hill. One only finds out. There are many more hills to climb. Thank you for watching Nightline especial. Thanks for our producers can't dismiss in Aswan mill heart chick and our team in South Africa. You can always catch Nightline stories on Hulu. Thanks for the company America. Good night. Are you hiring with indeed you can post a job in minutes set up screener questions than zero in on your shortlist of qualified candidates using an online dashboard get started today at indeed dot com slash Nightline. That's indeed dot com slash Nightline.
Black Agenda Radio 12.21.20
"This is black agenda. Radio a weekly hour of african american political thought and action. Welcome to the radio magazine. That brings you news commentary and analysis from a black left perspective. I'm margaret kimberly. Along with my co-host glenn ford coming up. The post colonial regimes and bob tway was determined to literally keep black women in their place. We'll speak with an author who has studied that era and a new book details. How sex was leading item of political discussion among anti colonial activists in the dutch west indies. But first before famed black power advocates stokely. Carmichael changed his name to kwami to today. He made a big impression on freedom organizations in africa. Some of it good some not so favorable back in nineteen sixty seven. Carmichael took part in several conferences on the continent and offered a critique of how the black liberation movement was going towards the Shaky is doctoral fellow in the sociology. Department at vassar college article titled black power and armed decolonization in southern africa. Stokely carmichael the african national congress of south africa and the african liberation movements. Stokely carmichael understood the black power revolution to be global. And i want to emphasize that point. Is that while it's important to africa. Africa also is a global entity right. And so we're stokely with doing. Which is why i began the article with two quotes one from h rap brown and another from zanu of them. Bubbling african national union is that they conceived the black power inquiry in crew himself also wrote a piece called the specter of black power as a global movement that centered africa but also african descended people outside of the continent and so stokely is important because dopey in the first hand is at that point nine hundred sixty seven probably the most recognized black power spokesman and activists globally him coming to dar-es-salaam at that time which i described as the intellectual hub. If you will of the african abbreviation movements was electric. It was very important and he was very very popular among many of the leadership of new as well as many regular folks students young radicals across stars salaam. Also check of our had. Just been killed. We just learned of chick of are being killed by the imperialists and so people were ready for revolution and they wanted to hear messages from the front line. If you look at many attend the english newspapers they are consistently following the black rebellion in the united states. There following the crackdowns by the us government. They're following soaking carmichael and snick. They're following the black panthers were just now emerging. They're following dr king. They're following everything very very closely. So carmichael coming is very very important. Also carmichael being born in. Trinidad is important because this showed kind of global nature of black power and carmichael came to them actually giving them a direct message. That was not necessarily like by some of the leadership Julius net in particular that black faces in high places not and black power make right and so he comes with a deep criticism. Coming from the context of the caribbean trinidad jamaica. Places like this. That would eventually in in jamaica case one year later ban walter rodney. But that we're those steeped in a colonial thinking still geared toward the colony the mother country britain and some of their cases right so he's important in this period because a he brings a frontline misses and information of what's happening in the black power revolution in the united states to africans in the continent to he really internationalized. The race question because what ends up happening is people have always said particularly white. Marxist scholars and academics. They generally of always felt that black power. They don't really see a point for in most of continental africa with the exception of maybe some africa because they feel if the majority of people have black what is black power because they narrowly understand black power. Like you know black advancement. Or like a narrow cultural nationalist vision. But carmichael understood it to be an communicated as and i think accurately communicated as a complete revolutionary theory of liberation talking about cultural culture class anti-imperialism anti-colonialism straight through. He critiques a number of african leaders. Who sold out black radicals particularly a moist giambi mobutu and what was then now zaire for what they did to the nba and he continues to go down the list of other african leaders who had been selling to imperialism so he brings that to the table from a power perspective for you really. Were talking about the cultural trap. That even the university of dar-es-salaam at the time which was a premier institution at that time it still grappling with being modeled off of a european university model and so he's beginning to critique that also as well as talking but we begin to reimagine some of these things differently have a cultural revolution. The university and many students were very inspired by this. Many faculty were inspired by that. And then i would say fifty what was also important is that he was very blunt about some of the african abrasion movements and i think that was where he gets in trouble a little bit. Maybe could have been more tactful with what he was saying but and he also himself had a certain unrealistic imagination of what. The african abrasion movements look like the nine hundred sixty seven and sixty seven. They are not what they would be in the later seventies for example but he had to call that out because the issue was a lot of their propaganda to black americans was. They were doing all these things they were doing this all that and that was actually not the case for most of the most of them were struggling at the time and he just felt that people should just be honest about this and not to project things that are not true at the time so i think those contributions he makes. When he's there had reverberations which is why push it to nineteen seventy-three but not only reverberations as like an external coming inside. It spoke to what people themselves were already saying. If you also know earlier a james forman he speaks a little earlier. At this conference in zambia and he also is critical he also brings black power to the table and he says black power is critical for africa. 'cause it is imbued with a class consciousness and it is revolutionary anti imperialism. He was not. It was not liked him saying that by some of the zambian authorities although some than being authorities did like what he said in the us. So let me close with that then. So let's get a little deeper into the reaction of these african revolutionaries to want to raise nobly. Carmichael is telling them didn't some of the feel. What what is this young man from the united states trying to tell us we're engaged in armed struggle and there is not an armed struggle in one thousand nine sixty seven in the united states. The black panther party had just been born in late sixty six. Yes oh this is where things get interesting right. So here's my article tries to do. And i it's tricky. What i had to do is very very tricky but is tricky right. Nothing is clear cut. So let's say like this broadly from my research. He actually had a positive reaction from many of the liberation movements and broadly on both sides and people know the sinoe soviet split happening at this point so basically you have movies that are supported by the ussr and movements that are supported by chinese. Each of them are saying which one is more radical. Generally those that were more black nationalist. African nationalists were supported by the chinese. And generally those who are more willing to speak on embrace more of a marxist leninist class line were under the ussr. and that's a broad division and meeting go deeper into that people want for limo. actually eduardo. mondlane. Who is in the ussr camp. You would say he was open to. Carmichael was paying a number of tanu time african national union. That was the ruling party in tanzania. Many of them actually open to what he was saying. I'll do ruckman babu babu very important figure. Friend of malcolm x. and later friend of chrome michael was openly in support of what mike saying the pan africanist congress of leader of but the pan-african was in support of what he was saying. Not new was supported. What he was saying. I wasn't able to find anything about apple involvement african peoples union. I was able to find anything about them but swappable so i feel particularly out of the branch out of egypt was very supportive of what chrome was saying particularly after king's assassination. We'll get to in a little bit. But most of them were in support of what he was saying. The issue came mostly with the african national congress. Africa at this point the anc is struggling for legitimacy in ways and because when carmichael landed piero bss. He writes this book on cuba's involvement in the african liberation movements. Had a little line in his book. That i've been trying to track down that comical. When he was in guinea could not agree. Before he went to tanzania he sent a bunch of letters to the african degration movement asking to join their struggles to sign up to join with them right. He gets no response back except from the pac from david's pico. David see because very important pan-africanist congress comrade who was killed later on by the south african and so when he lands he's mostly hanging out with david bugle and a young. You're ready. melissa vinnie. People don't know there's actually he was hanging out with these cats initially and particularly sequel. So the anc i presume given their intense ravaged with the pac they felt that he was mimicking pac position. He stopped that was comments. Were coming after them directly. Because chrome after we're talking about you guys are out here asking for aid. You're living a better life in the cities your guerrillas. You're not in the country's fighting with your people we can't really respect. This goes chronicles coming from the frontlines. A snake and while yes they were not about. They have an armed struggle. If you look at what just book we will shoot back. There was a concert called arm self defense and so all of them were in the grassroots. And say what you wanna say about. King king was oftentimes in the grassroots. Now granted. the cameras were rolling but he was on the front lines right and so he could not understand why some of these leaders were not in the front line with their people so the anc took that. I think personally. And so they responded. Well we're working with hindsight of fifty years. I wanna mention that honey was assassinated in south africa. And you mentioned your worry. Mussa vini he went on to become the president of uganda. He was ronald reagan's favorite african and has been eight cats. Paul proxy for us policy in africa for the last several decades. Yes but it's always interesting with us right because most of any was very radical at the university walter rodney and him worked incredibly closely together at the university of dar-es-salaam. And when you read your of his own. Autobiography mentioned that. Him and walter rodney. We're similar and they agreed on everything except for religion was always a little bit more religious than rodney. But at that time when he's a university student most of any revolutionary he is directly inspired by early mortgage to go to some of the frontlines liberated territories from fremaux throughout the seventies. He was agitating in tanzania for more radical government in uganda and initially when he comes into power. Despite what ronald reagan was saying was good at balancing some of these things. He was considered one of the new revolutionaries until we finally saw what his true in ten colors were. But in that late nineteen sixties seventies period is most definitely a revolution which we know is not unusual eldridge cleaver who begins his certain way that he comes back and then he becomes a republican. We have a worst guy right who also has a certain kind of a revolutionary beginning eventually also goes a certain kind of way so this is not unusual from the black radical tradition right. But i think at that time him being with zanny is important because he was radical at that particular point in time no questions and ninety nine thousand four. When one man one vote comes to south africa at greatly compromised was in fact put into action. one -cations become more and more clear every year today with the african national congress basically taking the position that they will be no economic. Transformation and cocker was saying right. And so part of my research in my writing on the african abbreviation movements and black power is to argue that in most of your history on the african liberation movements. You'll have roughly three rough broad arguments or schools literature that you'll have you'll have the marxist leninist reading thing generally what they'll say is that you know because the african liberation movements didn't take class seriously enough things failed right That's what those say. They dismissed black power. They dismissed black. Nationalism outside of usefulness is here and there but most of that that's where they fall unfortunately of the three they're gonna give you probably the best histories on the african variation movement because many of them were in support of the african liberation movement. The second you'll get is mostly some of your directly opposite you're right wing writings. Those directly backed by the cia directly backed by right wing conservative forces. And they give you the skewed view of the african abridge move as these terrorist organizations trying to kill all the white people trying to destroy these countries who are all to lose blah blah blah blah blah. You have that being the second your third one that you will get more emerging is. I'm gonna kind of blend the first two. Although at times leans toward the second. But what's happening in the post independent moment. You're finding more critical history of the african liberation movements that came into power so you're seeing them from the gift of hindsight you know ten years later. Fifteen or twenty years later able to write a little bit more critical histories and some lean to the left but most of them kind of argue. Well you know. Mugabe was correct with was correct because he was corrupt which is completely useless. Argument is to say that right or to say just tribalism tribalism tribalism tribalism right. There's no analysis of global capital. There's no analysis of imperialism just no analysis of the caps road economy right but then just kind of what their general argument be. Some will give you indeed. This gift of hindsight they have more details. They'll give you much more critical things that are et cetera. But part of what. I went argue is to go back to this. Point with really is lost. Is this black power. Critique that is that for an export it is within the african abrasion movement and from that point it often gets completed with like a trotskyist physician wanting all the revolution right now but what they were saying was very important because carmichael is saying listen. I'm coming from the caribbean. We have eric williams who was considered a radical in the nineteen forties and fifties who writes capitalism labor. Right we have eric williams would come into power. These cats are not doing anything in anything. Different rodney would deliver a similar critique. Also why put rodney in the article as well 'cause rodney coming out of guyana and dealing with forbes burnham in these cats he's offering similar critique and carmichael also is giving the critique because remember where does black power emerge eighty merges because okay we've got civil rights legislation passed we've got the voting rights act passed now what we have desegregated schools. Legally not what you have to have implementation you have. Some black leaders were able to rise. You're andrew young etcetera etcetera. John lewis etc but. What have they actually done. What are they actually going to do. Right and black tar. You saw what was happening and began to critique things immediately then begin to emerge and that was one of the warnings were to some of the african liberation movements that was not necessarily hurt by the leadership. I think the grassroots understood this in key leaders did but they did not and to your point ninety ninety four so africa. Let's just call it. What is that was the street. Sellout position some of us who come from the black consciousness. Tradition of steve biko and them which is what my book is about we as a complete capitulation to imperialism white supremacy completely because the ansi was unwilling to deal with a civil war at that time which was gonna have to happen. How after these people kill. Chris hani murder him in his backyard. The top 'em commander they shoot him. You guys still trying to push for. That was dr toy. The cheeky speaking from vassar college rudo moody wa is a phd in culture and currently a research fellow at princeton university. Medina is a native of zimbabwe and this critical of how the government that replaced white rule treated black women. Dr moodie were wrote a recent article titled stop the woman. Save the state policing order and the black woman's body overall my work is really interested in looking. At how colonial spatial logics i reproduced in the post independence nation state and. I'm arguing. That black women are usually those actors of this kind of process. So we have you know especially in bob. Way was a white settler colonial state that had a particular special logic that was you know about having these white cities and towns that relied on black migrant labor blackmail migrant labor and oftentimes that meant keeping women out of those towns and cities because women were supposed to stay in the village and there was a certain kind of spatial logic but there's also a temporal logic to that and it was eight years that blackness to be confined to village which is the site of the past that black people are sort of these subjects who have not entered history yet so in order to keep the colonial machine turning you have to keep them in the villages because that is sort of natural site of blackness right this ancient civilizational past and so that meant that women had to stay in the villages to be produced right there reproducing more laborers. So there's a lot of that's been done about the sort of gendered nature of kourtney administration. How it relies upon the system that keeps them out of cities so that they can reproduce more waivers than funneled back into this this machine. That's turning and so one of the most book on this topic. And especially the idea of sex work. As being former mobility that disrupts this binary. Louise whites the comforts of home And then you also have glen elder. Who wrote this book. He uses the term heterosexuality where he's thinking about. How colonial migrant labor relied on this idea of heterosexual reproduction which meant keeping black women in the villages until for me as a student when i was a student and i kept wondering well what happens to the system when you then have independence right and the idea that independence means that black people can now move right. People can come into the cities and their migration is not restricted the terms of its colonial migrant labor system or extensively that is one of the promises of independence that black people have the right have the freedom of movement and in fact but constitution that is mentioned movement is now enshrined in how we think of the post independence nation state but of course the black woman is to a problem and you see this constantly in the news nations. That black women still pose a problem to this extensively new state because their bodies are not bodies belonging urban space their bodies disturb urban cities. And so my work really comes from thinking about how. When you have a new state there are still kunia. Logics that are operating announced and unannounced. That are shaping. What's happening to the construction to the maintenance of urban space social did the new regime in zimbabwe mask. The fact that was reproducing elements of the old colonial order the archives. They don't really mascot very much. I spent a lot of time looking at old parliamentary records. And i have a chapter of my book in progress where they are having debates in parliament. About what do they do with these revision laws. That were meant to repress nationalist mobilization right there all these different laws that you know allow them to detain. People allow them to suppress due process rights. Allow them to do mass arrests right. These all rhodesian premises laws and when the mugabe government comes in they'd obviously during the revolution they had said you know these laws are racist which correctly we're absolutely racist. And then when they come in they really have a quandary because they start to find some of these laws very useful and one of the ways that do they're useful is that they helped then a pf which is the ruling party. The robot mugabe's in the head of at independence. They help them to suppress any opposition. The main opposition party is up which is run by joshua nkomo effectively wiped out in the first three years of zimbabwe's independence through the use of these laws right. They detain a lot of the leadership. They are them on spurious grounds and eventually these laws are used against women and in my work. I really focused in hall. These policing laws are used to detain women for the crime of prostitution which really speaks to the fact that women are not seeing as would subject in urban space so you start to see these mass arrests of women. The biggest one happened in nine hundred. eighty three. And it's a policing campaign called operation cleanup and they are arrest over six thousand women for prostitution and during this period of crisis in the twenty first century. You're right that women were virtually banned from the streets after dark by these nickelodeon police is correct. And i i mean. That's a turn of phrase. I think an activist uses that is effectively a curfew and of course the realities on the ground are usually much more complex right. People are still going out. People would go out but then what a key function of the how. These laws are uses that the enforcement of the entirely arbitrary. So what often happens. Is that during holidays during. Let's see new year's eve right. You'll start to see police ramp up these kind of campaign so there may be a time when everyone is going out freely. What kind of thing. And then new year's eve will hit or christmas and then police will suddenly have a mess sleep in which people will be detained or it may be. Just you run across the police officer who wants to feel powerful. And he'll harass you and your young friend so i interviewed with mandate. Would you know. Tell these stories of how they'd be walking to the grocery store at dusk so it's not even particularly a dark and police officer would stop them and say your skirt a little too short and then that would be the pretext on which she would be detained or oftentimes. Actually it's the way for them to get bribes. One way that the new order actually carries out the old order but masks itself is in what you write about the invocation of african culture as being under internal threat and therefore justifying these kinds of police actions. Yes absolutely and i think. The question of african culture in the post independence state is still important because obviously for a lot of anti colonial figures. There was an attempt to recover something that had been long. And of course we recognize its impulse across the black diaster that we are all marked by a particular kind of loss and that for a lot of people with their politics emanates from this attempts to recover what has been lost. And of course we've had. There are significant critiques. Of that impulse and the one that i always just your to critique that when you try to recover something that has been lost and you try to do that under the terms of an african culture. I think he says that all you're doing you are grasping for fragments right. Because these things are lost and so the actual revolutionary thing to do is to build something new and to build something new with the people now for me. Oftentimes what happens. Is that the attempt to recover. The loss thing is done on the backs of black women's bodies right. And i think this also happens across the black diaspora so for me. I'm thinking about how in the early days of independence and You have this. Nationalist government certainly one of the ways that the government then tries to build a sense of national cohesion is by articulating say african culture that relies on women who are servile and who are not transgressing in particular ways and again i want to be nuanced here because there was also a very very strong feminist because and i just had a conversation with some of my colleagues about this in the nineteen eighties such an interesting place right because it is a what we call a late day colonizer so africa the last one but since one thousand nine hundred eighty so twenty years after the very big wave of decolonization and so a lot of africans gravitated bob way because it is a of promise and it is a way for them to recover the promise that their own governments have squandered by this point until because of that there are a lot of leftists socialists a lot of marxist feminists what were then called third world feminist who go to zimbabwe and so there's a lot of radical activity that's happening in the state in the early years and so what i try to capture is that these are seeking reasons of african culture are not going uncontested right government isn't just saying well this is what culture should be you have a lot of women who are writing who are progressive. You have for example patricia mcfadden who has an intellectual at the time who was living in zimbabwe and she was writing both academic but also in the popular press. You have guys on. Who was a lecturer at the university and by the way who was also an intellectual and her work was in newspapers. And things like that. So you have. I would say very visible radical presence in the state that is contesting all of these things at the same time. So it's not a sort of cartoonish figure of this nationalist government. Doing these things uncontested. But really i think. Quite vibrant debate over what decolonization should look like. And part of that has really been lost. And i would say in. Zimbabwe people actually know that the nineteen eighties were such an intellectually vibrant time and as a young zimbabwean myself. I didn't know the history. So part of my own work is about writing the history and also making it accessible. I think that it teaches us a lot about what we could do. In terms of our own president struggle and of course we cannot speak of zimbabwe and the actions of the and the ruling party without pointing out that zimbabwe has been targeted for massive sanctions by the western powers which have resulted in catastrophic risks of inflation. Right and you know. I think it's really. The issue of sanctions is one. That i think is often very misunderstood both in and outside of zimbabwe and right now part of the reason actually why interested in writing the history of the nineteen eighties and the the vibrancy of be left during that time and it was a very transnational. Left right you had socialists from kenya. Prominent socialists. shadra gutu was. His name was electrode university of smog. Way a lot of people who were really thinking critically about the new state where there and i only say that to say that sanctions now seem to be an issue that a lot of people consider themselves progressive in zimbabwe. Really rally behind. And i always have a pause when we as zimbabweans advocate for sanctioning our own country in part because we know that sanctions don't work. They do not discourage bad behavior right. They punish actually civilian populations. And there's been a lot of robust research on this. But i think also to me. Sanctions advocating prescriptions. In this particular moment shows every nation of the left. It shows that you are feeding your own power to actually transform your country and you are now calling on these other powers to intervene in ways that you shouldn't because these powers don't actually have the moral authority to do that so for me. I always think about it in terms of is to a useful tool for the kinds of goals that you have and disheartens me that for a lot of people who consider themselves progressive. They continue to advocate for this as a useful. And i think also that has to do with on people being embedded in ngos right and ngos having a kind of neoliberal function in africa and being part of this matrix they are connected to the state department here and you know the british government. So they're not necessarily neutral actors but i think part of free covering the vibrancy of the kinds of movements that we saw in the eighties is being critical about your use of these kinds of tools. And actually thinking about what you get out of them and what they impede for me. I think they actually impede organizing in your own country because now you are seeing ourselves as beneficiaries of western benevolence and. You're not actually organizing your own people and having conversations with people in your own state. So i approach it from that angle. What are you eating when you see sanctions as a solution to what are actually quite brutal conditions and. I think that it's important to say that people are advocating for sanctions. Because they think that they're gonna rate these conditions and again we know that they don't but to that you are seating very important ground. And that's what i wanted to highlight. Yes calling upon the former colonial master and his allies to discipline. Your own state is a kind of national betrayal. Yes yes i mean. I tend to have some sympathy for people who think that in part because i think it comes out of not knowing. It's doesn't come out of a sort of nefarious plotting. And i also want to be critical of my own location right. I am in baldwin. Who is now in the. Us academy a live primarily in america. So i think that when you make a critique to people who live there they might say well. You don't know how bad it is here. You don't live here full time. You come here on holidays and you come here for research trips but we live under these conditions of extreme impoverishment of brutal police harassment. now it's essentially military government so you don't understand why we want to tell the uk government intervene or the us government intervened. And i think that conversation is that it's always worth having with people to say. The conditions are bad discovered is an incredibly repressive government but sanctions not only worse than that. But then you're seeding important ground when you appeal to western governments to save you from this catastrophe has its own particularities. But you say that this anti woman kind of governance is not limited to zimbabwe. And that she see manifestations of the same pathologies in other countries in africa. Yes and again. I think this is a legacy of colonial administration so in my work i try to be very careful about tracking how quote administration is reproduced in the dependence countries. And so when you see this obsession with policing access to the city. That is a hallmark of corneal administration. Where of course the sort of icon of this. Form of policing is the passbook. Where black people in. The number of that lurk calling states had to carry a book that says who they were but also indicated who they were employed by which meant that they could be in the city because they were selling their labor to a white person so once you have space that relies on determining who has the right subject and who can have access to the space. That doesn't go away because you have signed the constitution that now says that we have black majority rule. That has to be intentionally disrupted and deconstructed. You have to break that apart and problem. Is that nobody intentionally broke that apart. So you have the system still operating under book government and times but targets remained. the same. sex workers are ruining targets but it's the urban poor who live on the margins of the city who are often targets an under colonial laws. They were often called vagrant. This kind of ambiguous legal category that critic because mark any black person who was wandering around loitering is blocked before the rested. Four data. that black people who are not laboring inherently criminal. So you still have these laws and these ideologies about space operating under black majority governments because people do not intentionally take apart break apart the systems and so for me. I think ultimately want to argue that we have not finished the project of decolonisation. And i always argued that work because that project really rests on remaking space so that black people can lay claim to it right and die not only requires expropriating land in a lot of at least southern. African countries still is in the possession of white minorities or multinational companies but also in urban space that requires not only changing how species government and that means first and foremost attacking policing which is one way that space continues to be managed through essentially corneal policing tactics. So that is my focus right. How do we actually sold the promise of decolonisation and bring it to fruition. Because i don't right from a piece of cynicism right as a young zimbabwe. When i go into the archives and i read all of the documents that were produced in the twentieth century when you read manifestos and speeches. I'm really moved by that. Because the promise of that was so great. And the way that people suffer that people paid mightily for those thomases and i wanna see them filled. I think we can do that but we have not done that yet. That was dr rudo moody wa speaking from princeton university in the years after world war two sex was the big topic of discussion among pro independence activist in the dutch caribbean colonies. Aruba and kura sal city university of new york history professor chelsea healed has studied this era and written a book titled offshore attachments oil and intimacy. After empire. we at black agenda report had never heard of a colonial struggle in which sexual issues including prostitution played such an important role same here and it was actually my surprise at that discovery Looking through really three prominent leftist organizations in the dutch antilles. Sex emerged repeatedly in their arguments for decolonization for economic liberation and socialism and also for racial justice and so figuring out. Why and how sex became this really important touch point for achieving those goals is the goal of this article and locating it as well in this broader caribbean a climate where discussions on revolutionary gender roles and sexuality are circulating and seem to have concluded that the influence of the so called mother country the colonial country the netherlands had a lot to do with the conversations that young leftist in places like korea. Sal that's right. It influences places. Like chris maybe somewhat indirectly. I think that we often have the tendency to assume that debates about gender and sexuality emerged in the global north. Which another one's was certainly still is part. And that the global north is this kind of bastion of gender and sexual progressivism and certainly many of the antillean leftist that feature in this article studied in the netherlands. They're exposed to the rebellious atmosphere in european universities in the nineteen sixties. But when i'm also trying to show in that article is that these discussions also arose in the global south and then often with their own inflections and political commitments so it's not just a european discourse that is influencing these people impact. I would say that. In many ways their visions of sexual liberation are actually quite distinct from the discourse that played out in europe in the nineteen sixties If we look at new left groups for example and in france or in in west germany. Yes those those students to work repeating walls. That said you know the more i make love the more i make revolution and that old adage make love not war really communicated this idea that sex and violence were incompatible right. So if you're having sex you're not gonna make work if you are making war by extension. That means you're not having a lot of sex in the caribbean among discussions of leftist groups. That position really wasn't tenable at all. Because people felt in their daily lives and their family heritage that sex and violence were in fact deeply compatible so as one commentator in the nineteen sixties said. You know that there was a lot of forceful Violation of enslaved people and people of african descent and so this ubiquitous compatibility between pleasure and violence with actually what made sex so acutely politicized for these actors and why it was so urgent to reclaim sexuality as a vital aspect of self determination. Of course there were many more influences on the people in the dutch and then just the dutch cuba not far away. That's exactly right. Cuba became a really important reference. Point four antillean leftist as it did for many leftists throughout the world but when we think about cuban influence often thinking about the kind of bearded guerrilla warrior and cuban contributions to armed insurgency throughout the decolonizing world and that is an important part of the story. But it's also a masculine honest representation of the revolution and what many were researchers are seeing. Now is that gender and politics were actually extremely central to cuba's internationalism and so the idea of the new socialist man or the new socialist woman spread along with the promised of the cuban revolution in the global south. So you know. Even the panthers to the north in the nineteen seventies or writing about the new black man and the new black woman and so these conversations about redefining revolutionary generals with key was key to cuba was influenced globally and on crusoe cuba emerges in really unique ways These revolutionary. traditions. Are touching down on chris. Oh and adapting to really local circumstances so one of the key issues for antillean left us on chris. How was the question of sex work and this emerges because the oil industry is really taking on curacao curse is a. It's a small island thirty five miles north of venice walea. It had a population of about one hundred. Forty thousand people in the nineteen sixties and for a long time chris. How was completely reliant on the oil refining industry owned by shell so there's a total dominance of of foreign capital and insular economy there and but by the nineteen sixties that oil industry is. I mean being gutted. Automation is replacing the work of laborers. And what antillean authorities hope to do like so many other caribbean islands was to move chris. How to an economic model. That was reliant on tourism and so antillean left us are looking to cuba to say. Here's a successful model of a socialist revolution. That not only kicked out. Us imperialism and the us tourist industry but they also claim that they've managed to eradicate next work as a result of that revolution. And so antillean left us. Were inspired by this idea. Not least because the last time there was a really large presence of. Us island was in world war. Two when us soldiers came by the thousands to safeguard the oil refining industry and to cater to the bachelor population that found itself on curse out at that time. The league colonial government actually established this large open-air brothel called allegra. It's still there. It's still the world's largest open-air brothel and so this was thought to be a really peculiar institution that related to us imperialism and until in left us worried. That if chris. How did to an economic model reliant on tourism that sex work commercial sex work would increase but they were also quite divided about whether or not sex work was a kind of inherently repressive aspect of sexual life or if it could actually be liberating feature and if they had a successful socialist revolution if that revolution could actually redeem sex work and raise it to a level of of dignified work like any other fast forward as sexual tourism triumphed in south. Yes it has chris. Oh is is definitely one of the more popular sex tourist destinations in the caribbean and company. Allegra is still at the center of that. And what's fascinating and what really drew a lot of attention from the commentators. That i look at it in this article is that couple of the brothel that was created in nineteen forty nine. It recruited with the support of the league. Colonial police and the government recruited exclusively light-skinned sex workers from the dominican republic and colombia because island authorities. Argued that black women would be undesirable. Two us soldiers and to refinery workers and the thousands of other sailors. Who we're coming onto chris allen shores and so they said that they needed to protect the chastity of local white womanhood who were presumed to have honor by making available the sexuality of light skinned women from elsewhere in the caribbean region and so that contributed to a system. That still exists on chris out today now. Local women predominantly african sound. Women are allowed to work in that brothel but for many decades they were excluded and antillean commentators in the nineteen sixties wrote a lot of different articles about how racism played out in that space of commercial sex work. That's fascinating were these conversations about race and sex and gradations of race carrying out in full public view and as part of the discourse of the country will be interesting question on aruba which is a neighboring island to chris also under dutch sovereignty. There were similar debates about whether or not a brothel should be opened to serve. Us soldiers and refinery workers because standard oil refinery on rubel and aruba claimed as its heritage like largely mystique heritage and they viewed themselves in a position of economic political subordinates to christo which was perceived as the racialized threat. I mean the definition of an aruban identity was really articulated in an anti blackness and so as this model of creating brothel purely for foreign workers sailors and soldiers as that moved from chris out to aruba a bunch of local women caught. Wind is these plan and protested vehemently in what was really the first mass mobilization of the post colonial age so that antillean islands don't fully decolonize in the normative model. They were not independent. Even to this day they remain in a commonwealth with the netherlands. So when i say that this is the first protests of the post colonial protest wherein people are exercising newfound right to mobilize the public sphere and to hold their officials to account because those officials are now elected and so interestingly sex was also at the center of these mobilizations and racialized depictions of sexuality. Because what these self-described a housewives feared was that africa rzeszow and women would move to aruba. Since they were kicked out of the brothel on sale and that they would then take residence on aruba. And that was something that aruba who was trying to portray itself as a whitened and sexually restrain island was not willing to tolerate so these these debates absolutely blood into the public sphere since the dutch antilles still have not achieved real independence. Could one conclude that this pick station with sexual politics slowed the process or is that an incorrect assessment. Well i think that sexual politics for a variety of political agendas in the dutch kingdom. As it's known we can see that sexual politics have served really repressive aims that have tried to extend an exercise forms of foreign dominance weather from the netherlands or from us european capital so certainly these brothels and the kind of peculiar formation of transnational sex worker recruitment in all its racialized. I mentioned this was absolutely thought to aid in the acceleration of the age of oil and the new modern energy sector that was fueling global capitalism. And for many people. That i mean now. We look to the antilles that industry is dead and it has left a lot of ruins in its wake. We've also seen though that sex could be central to liberationist argument. And that is certainly the history that i try to illuminate in this article. That sex became a really creative way for trying to think through how to end this stranglehold of euro american imperialism in the region as well as anti-black racism but more recently. We've again see these debates play out. In the issue of same sex marriage where dutch officials have to this day continued to cast the islands as sexually regressive and therefore in need of increased intervention and oversight from europe which is extensively moore sexually liberal and progressive. Right and so that argument. I think what it really serves to do is to render incompatible the goals of sexual progressivism and anti imperialism. And what. i'm hoping to show in this article. Is that there. Is this caribbean rooted. Tradition that saw sexual progressivism not as some european import. Although some people certainly tried to smear it that way especially people who are hostile to the agenda but actually something that was foundational to anti imperialism and that emerged through these conversations about the cuban revolution and drawing as well on the language and imagery of black power base much of your article on study of three leftist publications in the dutch antilles. Is that compensation still going on. And where are those people now in terms of the political life of their country. So what's fascinating is that the you struggle for independent definitely doesn't die with this movement there. Is this massive uprising in nineteen sixty nine as i write about but one that was much more focused on actually ending i would say the dominance of foreign capital. It was less explicitly concerned with achieving independence from the netherlands. And although that is part of the conversation and i think that a tunes us to the the multiplicity visions of decolonization in the caribbean as also in french west africa for example there were people like martinique. Who tried to say that there could be this way of decolonizing without independent that kind of inclusion in a commonwealth formation if done correctly and if the redistributive mechanisms of those commonwealth were robust could actually achieve a kind of transformed meaning of determination. Now says there an an others who argued for that model were disillusioned with what played out and in the dutch kingdom of that certainly the case that the current arrangement spark very little feelings of joy or inspiration but at the same time there have been movements for independence but never kind of majority movement for independence and so i think we can shift our gaze a little bit to think about how people come in and out of these ideas of embracing independence. Mother baena has called this. This idea of strategic entanglement that at times in the non-sovereign caribbean arguments become very popular for independence. But then people can retreat and they can forge other zone of autonomy so you know there are certainly pro independence groups. There was a notable politician on chris. How who wanted. The end of dutch oversight and who also notably wanted to kick the us southern command out of chris allen aerospace his name was coming ills and he was actually assassinated and twenty thirteen and there are still lingering questions about what led to that but there are other people you know especially active in movements for sexual rights who have tried to form different kinds of coalitions with people of the antillean diaspora in the netherlands to argue for a more robust vision of racial and sexual equality with ina kingdom framework within a commonwealth framework so these opinions are extremely varied. And what's interesting. Is that sex actually matters to those visions of freedom. even today. we've talked a lot about the dutch influence on its colonial citizens in the caribbean but black power is seen as largely an american invention. Tell us about the influence that at add on places like kelso so black power was hugely influential in the caribbean there are organized black power movements and multiple islands including notably trinidad in nineteen seventy right after this uprising on chris. How in nineteen sixty nine and antillean left us. Were not organized in a black power. Movement is just not an organized by power movement but there was a lot of inspiration drawn from the language and imagery of black power and so black powers often represented as kind of bastion of patriarchy especially within the black panther party. And that's part of the demonization of the black power movement at the same time that it was also a site of contestation within the movement and so the key point is that there was a tremendous diversity of opinions and experimentation within the bpp on issues of women's liberation and erotic freedom. Now on chris out and among the antillean diaspora and another one's black power really provided a language for leftist women to scrutinize the movement itself and to grapple with internalized racism among their comrades. So maybe the most remarkable thing that followed from this was that there was a lot of writing done to try to form and reeducate a new kind of revolutionary masculinity. That wasn't predicated on what. Some scholars have called vigorous rebe indication of black manhood but that it was a masculinity that stressed mutuality and intimacy emotional sharing and they ll ability with one's partner and so the fact that leftist did not just align themselves with this idea but that they took it even further and made their struggle also about the acceptance of non normative desires including same sex desire for men. That's what makes this discourse really really different from what's happening in cuba and elsewhere in the caribbean. And so that's one of the facets of the story that really interests me you've been listening to the black agenda report on progressive radio network inflammation for liberation
02-23-21 The State of Indian Nations
"Welcome to native america calling from studio eight. Six nine minutes slowed up web low. I'm tara gatewood. National congress of american indians president fond sharp says the time has passed do for the federal government to fully fund its treaty entrust responsibilities. She demands congress enact. A twenty billion dollar covid nineteen relief package four needed nations. Those are some of the highlights of the twenty twenty one st of indian nations address today or here the full speech and the congressional response. That's coming up right. After national leader moves. This is national native news. I'm antonio gonzales deb. Haaland fouled to work hard for everyone lead the interior department ethically and work with members of congress if confirmed as secretary of the interior the new mexico congresswoman who's laguna and pueblo introduced herself in her native language gave a land acknowledgement and talked about her pueblo routes as she testified tuesday morning before the senate committee on energy and natural resources which is considering her nomination to be secretary holland made history becoming one of the first native american woman elected to congress and if confirmed would be the first native american cabinet secretary this historic nature of my confirmation is not lost on me but i will say it's not about me rather i hope this nomination would be an inspiration for americans moving forward together as one nation and creating opportunities for all of us hall and talked about her struggles as a single mother relating to the interior department's plan to recover from the pandemic manage and protect resources and acknowledge both climate challenges and the oil and gas industry holland has broad support from tribes national native organizations and environmental groups while she faces opposition from republicans concerned about resource development national congress of american indians. President font sharp says tribal nations are strong. Sharp delivered the ncaa. I state of indian nations address. Virtually monday she talks about covid. Nineteen hitting indian country hard taking lives impacting education the economy and now the need to recover. Our resolve is being tested by dire crises across multiple fronts but we are rising to the occasion undaunted drying on a strength fortitude wisdom and lived experience of our ancestors who overcame equally grave challenges in their time to prepare us to me the challenges of our time. The truth is we have been here many times before and we have always her severe sharp touched on climate change. Racial justice in the native vote playing a role in the twenty twenty general election. She called on the federal government to keep its treaty and trust responsibilities and to strengthen relationships with tribes sharp says indian country is encouraged by the biden administration for nominating a native american deb holland for interior secretary and president biden's recent memorandum directing federal agencies to consult with tribes. The state of indian nations is delivered annually by. Ncaa is president as tribal leaders from across the country. Meet to lay out priorities for the year and foreign plans to work with the federal government. The white house and congress as south dakota house committee is passing a bill that seeks to close the gap when a missing indigenous person has taken off the reservation. Tribes in the fbi are aware of the missing person but the state can be left out of the loop democratic representative. Perry poor air. Is oglala lakota. She wants to close the gap. The bill establishes the office of liaison for missing and murdered indigenous person. In the attorney. General's office that office would coordinate with the mini governmental jurisdictions. That exist in south dakota when a child or a woman or any missing person crosses off of the reservation. We have a seamless operation. Which happens in sometimes other crimes like fugitives But when it comes to missing and murdered indigenous women and children it's unseen and it's unheard says. There are currently seventy seven missing indigenous people from reservations in the state. I'm antonio gonzalez. National native news is produced by kohana broadcast corporation with funding by the corporation for public broadcasting support by the sonata chambers law firm championing tribal sovereignty and defending native american rights since nineteen seventy six with offices in washington. Dc new mexico. California and alaska. If you're a native american expanding or starting a business. The indian loan guarantee and insurance program supports your lender so your lender can make the business loan you need info by emailing dc. I b i. A. dot gov the office of indian energy and economic development supports this program native voice one the native american radio network. This is native america calling. I'm tara gatewood. Joining you live from my homeland of sheer would do via skype national. Congress of american indians president fund sharp says the federal government is falling down on the job. And it's long past time for the united states to do right by tribes sharp delivered the annual state of indian nations address. Monday her seconds. It's becoming president of the organization. We'll hear the entire speech in this hour. And the congressional response from alaska. Senator lisa murkowski sharpe began by detailing the toll that covid nineteen pandemic has had on native nations and she asked for a moment of silence to honor the memory of those lost to the disease and pray for full recovery of those stuck to steal ill and we now join the address from that point. Following the emergency regulations that might tribal nation. The koran autonation has put in place to stop this devastating virus from spreading. I share indian countries. Message with you today from my people sacred in central homeland along the pristine shores of the pacific ocean. We welcome you ve virtually to the cornell indian nation so why do we share this message and who is it for. We gather in this way each year to assess in advance the government to government relationship between tribal nations and the united states to share our perspective on the health of that relationship and to discuss how it can and must be strengthened by working together as full equal and abiding partners. To that end. This address speaks to our federal counterparts. Those who hold elected office but also those political and judicial appointees and agency staff whose decisions and work directly impact tribal sovereignty. For better or worse it also speaks to indian country conveying to tribal leaders citizens in employees that we hear and we are fighting for your collective needs and aspirations for strong tribal communities and brighter tribal futures. Finally it addresses our fellow. Americans who are looking to tribal nations for guidance and solutions in the face of what president biden recently described as the cascading crises of our times from the covid nineteen pandemic to climate change to racial justice. So why is it. The national congress of american indians delivers this address. Seventy seven years ago. Visionary tribal leaders from across indian country gathered in denver colorado to form. Ncaa recognizing that a unified voice common purpose and collective action wiz the only pathway to protecting enhancing sovereignty and self governance for all tribal nations for generations to come as ben dwight chief of the choctaw nation of oklahoma an ncaa. I co founder explained. We must come together to quote express ourselves and take such actions as the hearts and minds of the indian citizenship of the united states. Demand and quote in the eight since tribal leaders have taken great care to grow. Ncaa i into the national the premier national organization serving in advancing indian country's greatest priorities from stopping termination and relocation in its tracks to launching a federal policy era of indian self determination to spearheading tribal nations historic inclusion in cares act funding. Ncaa is a lasting testament to the fact. Tribal nations have long known how to govern and govern together it's prevailing strength flows from the council and toil of generations of brilliant leaders. Who knew and know how to stand act as one in our government to government relationship with united states simply put. Ncaa speaks are shared. Native truth to american power in the american people in that spirit. I stand before you to proclaim. The state of indian nations is standing strong. Our resolve is being tested by dire crises across multiple fronts but we are rising to the occasion undaunted drying on a strength fortitude wisdom and lived experience of our ancestors who overcame equally grave challenges in their time to prepare us to meet the challenges of our time. The truth is we have been here many times before and we have always persevered exercising. Our inherent sovereign ranks as governments. Tribal nations are curtailing. The spread and impact so the virus combating climate change growing the movement for equity injustice confronting continued threats to tribal jurisdiction self governance and sparing no effort in holding the federal government accountable to its trust entreaty obligations to all of us. We have navigated through darkness in turmoil. Helping not only indian country but the entire nation reach a new dawn. In the recent elections. A record number of americans chose a new direction. One which champions equity diversity and inclusion in which seeks to honor the unique political status of tribal nation's tribal citizens and the extraordinary contributions. we make to this country unprecedented turnout. By native voters made the pivotal difference across several swing states. Affirming that indian country is an undeniable and rising political force in our american democracy. We now greet a new administration an altered congress who face a monumental task. America is at an inflection. Point with much to heal repair in recover from if america is to vanquish this pandemic. If america is to neutralize those forces bent on destroying its democratic institutions if it is truly to commit to forming a more perfect union. It is to build back better and if it is to do. Its part to save our planet for future generations. Then it must come to terms with a right of tribal nations to chart their own course and their rightful place in helping this country meet these challenges and chart a vibrant future for all and it must live on those terms to do so it. Must i acknowledge a fundamental truth. Our shared native truth namely that this nation was built and sustained through the promises it made to tribal nations in exchange for millions of square miles of tribal land. These promises have no expiration date requiring the united states to support tribal self-governance education health. Care in other key services forever. The united states must been reconcile with. It's utter failure to meet. Its end of this grand bargain with tribal nations such as the chronic underfunding of its trust entreaty obligations continued interference with tribal jurisdiction making decisions that tribe lands in communities without first securing tribal and the list. Sadly goes on and on the famed poet. Maya angelou whence wrote history despite its wrenching. Pain cannot be unlit but if faced with courage need not be live again if the united states is truly committed to embracing our shared future with courage it must formally acknowledge and reckon with the reckoning pain. it's failures continued to cause our tribal nations in communities. It must use the lessons learned from this process to create an altogether different story with indian country. One that affirms through its own laws policies regulations in governance the inherent rights of tribal nations to control their own lands affairs in destinies and one that supports in enhances in every conceivable way the full and free expression of travel sovereignty by tribal governments. One which we have proven time and time again benefits not just indian country but our neighbors in the nation as a whole so. How do we get there from here. How does the united states help us forge this courageous future by reckoning with its past in heating the express priorities of tribal nations. Today indian country is encouraged by several actions already taken by the new administration for example the president's historic nomination of congresswoman deb holland. It's the first ever native person to lead the department of interior which more profoundly impacts the daily lives of native people that any other federal agency a citizen of the pueblo of laguna and thirty fifth generation mexican. She possesses a centuries old connection to and reverence for the beautiful in sacred landscape of this country. Which the creator. Gifted to our ancestors. When time began her distinguished record of public service demonstrates that she is immensely qualified to stewart our nation's lands and resources in ways that sustain all communities economies in cultures deb howard also understands to her core with supporting tribal sovereignty means in practice and how that requires a complete transformation of the department. So that it defers in not dictates to tribal nations. She understands us in our needs because she is one of us. She understands our shared native truth because she is limited. We call upon congress to confirm deb haaland without delay and we are listening to ncaa. President fund sharps state of indian nations address. And you just heard her say. America is at an inflexion point with much to hill repair and recover from sharp points to the nomination of representative deborah to head the department of the interior as a positive signal for things. Going forward will hear the rest of president. Sharps address coming up after the break. But we appreciate you tuning in today. If you've had any thoughts you can always email us. Comments at native america calling dot com and you can even tweet those thoughts to us as well. Our twitter handle is at one eight hundred nine nine native again. We will pick up where we left off coming up after the break but really appreciate you tuning in today to hear the state of indian nations address and we also look forward to your reflections as well again. You can always send us an email. Hang tight there's more ahead. Even as we breathe is a fictional story by cherokee author. Annette senate clap. Saddle invites readers back to nineteen forty two and grow park in in north carolina or so called foreign diplomats and the military mix with locals including members of the cherokee nation. We'll dive into this dynamic story on the next native america calling if you're hurting in your relationship or have been affected by sexual violence. Strong hearts native. Helpline is a no charge. Twenty four seven confidential and anonymous domestic dating and sexual violence helpline for native americans. Help is available by calling one eight. Four four seven six to eighty four eighty three or by clicking on the chat now icon on strong hearts helpline dot org. This program is supported by the national indigenous women's resource center. You're tuned into native america calling them target would from sled pueblo for listening to the state of indian nations address today national congress of american indians president fund sharp nation delivered the speech monday in the first part of her speech he referred she referenced. Covid nineteen Ask saying it's taken the lives of far too many native people and she says the resolve of native nations and individuals is being tested by what she calls a dire crisis across multiple fronts but the state of those nations is standing strong we pick up as sharp was talking about some early actions by the biden administration that she called encouraging also encouraging is the president's recent memorandum on tribal consultation which reaffirms the federal government's trust and treaty obligations to tribal nations and mandates that federal agencies work with us to develop and implement tribal consultation action plans that fulfill those obligations equally critical. Our president biden's executive orders and actions rejoining the paris climate agreement revoking the keystone excel pipeline permit suspending drilling in the arctic. National wildlife refuge reinvesting. The last presidents unlawful downsizing of a national monuments at bears ear and grand staircase and waving the nonfederal saas share of fema covid nineteen disaster resources. Ncaa is membership past consensus based resolutions demanding these steps and we applaud the president for answering indian countries. Call these steps whilst significant must be the first steps in an ongoing in deliberate bilateral process. There is much hard work. The federal government must do and much that needs to undo if it is to help tribal nations create the courageous future. We seek there is no time to waste first and foremost that hard work requires committee to a true government to government relationship between tribal nations. The united states we demand and deserve a standard which we come together as equal governmental partners working hand in hand to develop the laws and policies that advance the federal government's trust in treaty. Obligations are otherwise impact primal nations in their citizens to do this. The federal government must give the presidential memorandum consultation. Some real permanent teeth by codifying in its guidance to federal agencies the principle of free prior informed consent in other words when the united states government is considering an action that will impact tribal communities land's resources in sacred places. It must first secure our permission based on our decision making process our timeline in all the relevant facts before it is allowed to proceed from flat to the dakota access pipeline. We have the right as sovereign nations to say yes or no and that right must be respected. The administration also needs to stop federal agencies from using the federal advisory committee act or the rulemaking process as a blanket. Excuse to avoid tribal consultation. Lastly the administration and congress needs to make this new tribal consultation standard legally enforceable. I has been advocating for this standard. Since our founders i convened in nineteen forty four and we knew this demand here today. The federal government should follow the lead of a state of washington which has adopted a policy of free prior and informed consent with tribal nations. It is long past time that federal consultation with tribal nations puts tribal interests first and not corporate or bureaucratic ones forging. The courageous future we seek also requires federal government to fully fund. Its trust entreaty obligations to tribal nations. Not just during this administration and congress but always as the two thousand eighteen broken promises. Report illustrated chronic underfunding in poor structuring. A federal programs designed to support the well being of native people coupled with the unequal treatment of tribal governments has predictably lead to appalling disparities for communities across the entire socio economics spectrum from health to education to housing to public safety to joblessness in poverty. This is a national disgrace for a country that prides itself on staying true to its word and it needs to be rectified. Now not through significant and sustained funding increases but making those dollars non discretionary and distributing them to tribal nations in advance. Indian country should no longer have to suffer the consequences because congress can't get the country's financial house in order forging. The courageous future we seek also requires a swift and comprehensive approach to covid nineteen relief and recovery. Every single exhausting day. Tribal nations are demonstrating. We know best how to care for our own people from vaccinating our native language speakers and elders i to providing nourish men to food insecure native families who have lost jobs and income to erecting checkpoints at reservation boundaries and providing non-congress non congregate sheltering to stem the viruses spread. We are fighting an unrelenting battle against this horrible virus but we need the federal government to do its part so we can protect. Our people provide ongoing relief to affected tribal citizens and implement self-determined strategies that help our tribal governments economies and communities recover notable among our many cova nineteen based requests. Ncaa i in. Our partners are seeking twenty billion dollars in additional direct federal relief for tribal governments as well as maximum flexibility in spending rules and timeframes for how and when we can use new and existing funds. We also need much greater say in. Transparency in the formula for funding distribution tribal nations should also be able to obtain covid nineteen vaccine supply from both the indian health service in the states. Not when or the other. We need a single federal office in point of contact to provide vaccine technical assistance. In addition we need the necessary healthcare infrastructure such as adequate staff supplies necessary storage capabilities and culturally appropriate resources for patient education too. Broadly administer the vaccine in a timely fashion tribal nations also capacity building funds. A voice at the table and timely access to emergency management resources from fema when our people need them the most the federal government simply must do better the lives of our people and the future of nations are at stake forging the courageous future we seek also demands the federal government build on indian countries landmark victory in the mcgurk ace to protect in restore tribal homelands. This includes finally passing a clean car. Cherry fixed in congress which will affirm the right of all federally recognized tribal nations to take land into trust reviving the successful cabal lumbered buyback program to allow more tribal nations to participate reinstating. The im- opinions from the obama administration to enable federally recognized tribal nations in alaska to take land into trust to protect the lands of the national one but no tribe in other tribal nations impacted by car cherry and confirm the man. Dan had an rick run nation that it's the rightful owner of the missouri river bed. It also includes fully implementing the indian trust asset reform act including the appointment of an under secretary of indian affairs at interior and approval of comprehensive indian trust asset management plans that tribal nations develop and joining with tribal nations to defend their lands and resources in the courts from attack by state and local governments in private interests. We need to know that the federal government has our back forging. The courageous future we seek also requires a healthy planet but the rapidly accelerating impacts of climate. Change are doing incredible harm to mother. Earth caused a great imbalance that threatens the continued existence of human beings all other living things. These impacts cut especially deep across indian country. Displacing our communities. Transforming our sacred sites in disrupting are subsistence. Life ways as place based people's tribal nations have long understood. Mother earth's delicate life sustaining balance and the sacred responsibility. We have to nourish her as she nourishes. S across this country. We are taking bold strategic action implementing climate adaptation mitigation. Resilient solutions that other governments around the world can use as pets for effective action. Unfortunately the past four years the united states has been derelict in its own duty to act rejoining. The paris agreement marks a welcome reversal. Of course a course that needs to center the role input expertise of tribal nations in america's domestic and international climate action effort this must include the participation of tribal nations and leaders in international and interstate climate related negotiations and advisory councils tribal nations inclusion in congressional and executive branch climate planning and inter agency working ropes equity in funding for climate action by including tribal governments when federal assistance is provided to state and local governments increased year in standalone funding for tribal climate action programs and initiatives and a significant investment by the united states to support displays tribal communities eh repair tribal places damaged by climate change in environmental degradation finally forging the courageous future tribal nations seek requires a genuine commitment to justice and equity. America's great greatest strength is its diversity yet still confront structural racism and discrimination in all aspects of their daily lives from the classroom to the ball field to the ballot box. Creating a truly just an equitable society starts with education. All americans need to be taught from a young age who tribal nations and peoples. Are today how we have persevered in the faces of policies designed to extinguish or assimilate us. And why have a civic responsibility. As americans to respect and up hold the inherent sovereign right of tribal nations to live as our creator. Intended to that end we saw on the federal government state and local government school boards and other key stakeholders to create fund and implement a comprehensive curriculum about tribal nation's tribal sovereignty and the rich histories and contemporary lives of native people. This curriculum should be designed by local tribal educational experts and provided to k. Through twelve schools across this country we also call on them to help us finally retire. Those indian school mascots that dehumanize us at foster a hostile environment for our youth and when we join our racial justice and civil rights partners in calling for systemic policy changes at the federal state and local levels that foster and provide justice from expanding voting rights to policing reforms to instituting measures to keep our students in school in out of prison. There are many other crucial steps on our collective horizon. such as tax reform investing in indian country's infrastructure fully enforcing the indian child welfare act and ending the epidemic of missing and murdered indigenous women that the united states must take today and over the long run to do right by tribal nations and to support in creating the courageous future. We seek tribal governments caring for our lands and resources as we see fit robust tribal economies that provide opportunity for all tribal citizens strong native families who are healthy and whole safe vibrant tribal communities native people speaking are native languages and practicing our cultural lifeways highly educated culturally enrich native youth able to realize their full potential and prepared to lead our tribal nations to even greater heights. This is courageous. Future tribal nation seek and the one we have always worked for. We will forge ahead as we always have. We need the federal government to join us on that journey. Not stand in our way. No more in closing. I say to my fellow tribal leaders in all of indian country. We face grave challenges which we must join forces to overcome but we also have before us tremendous opportunities and together we must seize them the sacrifices of our ancestors our youth and future generations are counting on it remember as those leaders who came before us understood all too well divided. We can be ignored united. We will not be denied united. We will create that courageous. Few we seek. This is our shared native truth an ncaa. I continued to speak it to all who must-listen may the crater continue to watch over all of you are trying to leaders and all native people. Thank you will in. That was the full state of indian nations address. Delivered by ncaa. President fawn sharp as you heard he had a lot of things That point to issues that we are facing in our individual tribal nations even the point of consultation in the importance of tribes voice being woven into all of this She also praised present. Biden's actions among other things to rejoin the paris climate agreement revoked the keystone excel pipeline permit and his memorandum affirming the importance of consultation with tribes. And so if any of these points really struck you you can always reach out to us. You can send us a tweet at one. Eight hundred nine nine native and you can also email us comments at native america calling dot com or comet directly on her website and hearing her words about the federal government and the need for them to fully fund. Its treaty entrust responsibility. Where do you stand on that. All of these things could be great conversations that we could jump into a program often we do but there are definitely more things That we can point to and we're going to go ahead in a moment after the break here. The congressional response from alaska republican representative lisa murkowski so stay tuned for that as we continue our coverage on this year's stay indian nations address hang tight. There's morehead today here on native america calling. Thanks again for tuning in and we look forward to more. Did you know covid financial relief. In the form of forgivable p p p loans is available to small business owners and independent contractors including artists dream. Spring has worked with new mexicans looking to open or expand their business for over twenty five years and now they're helping provide p p p loans information including how to qualify at dream spring dot org that's dream spring dot org dream. Spring supports this program. Thanks for tuning into need of america calling today. i'm tara gatewood. And we're listening to the state of indian nations address from the national congress of american indians. And we just heard the full address from nci president fund sharp. Now we're going to hear the congressional response from alaska. Senator lisa murkowski on show hot suck. My adopted at name is unsure. What watchi- i was humbled win. Selena and the day she ton from angolan alaska invited me to be adopted into the day. She time clan and honored me with the name on shiwaki. It is a precious gift when that i treasure which means lady of the land. I want to start by acknowledging the incestual lands of the anacostia and and the nearby Tie and the pamunkey people's where i am speaking to you from in washington dc. It is an honor to be with you all today. If virtually and to provide the congressional response to the annual state of indians indian nations address. This speech is an important event for sharing the story of indian country. And this happens to be my third response to the state of indian nations. In fact i was grateful to be able to provide the very first such congressional response back in two thousand and eight with president. Joe garcia of okay owen. Gay then ten years ago in two thousand and eleven. I was able to respond to president. Jefferson kill. I find it valuable and telling that working on tribal policy. Matters tends to be a bipartisan or nonpartisan effort. Even comparing this speech to the state of the union address you can see the difference where one half of congress rises in applause and the other half stays sitting depending on their party affiliation with tribal issues. It's a relief when we are not republicans or democrats from one part of the country or another but united to work together. We know that we don't always get there on every issue. We don't always agree but it is always worth the effort well. We have many daunting challenges facing us. All from the pandemic infrastructure needs water sanitation and protecting native women and children. It's also important that we note our progress. Just last year to bipartisan bills. Savannah's act and not invisible signed into law and these measures were developed in direct response to listening to your stories and your lived experiences former. Senator heitkamp initially led this effort. And i was honored to pick up where she left off along with. Senator cortez masto stories. That i've heard in alaska are similar to the ones. I've heard affecting so many native families across indian country as we were working on this legislation. Fifty two year old veronica albatross. Who was originally from. The village of saint michael's in alaska was reported missing. She was found dead months later. The same man accused of killing. Veronica is also charged in the torture and murder a thirty year old. Kathleen joe hannie henry. She was originally from the village of each. And what is just as shocking. Is that the abbott family had already experienced the loss of one of their sisters martha. Tom's who was killed in two thousand five and whose case is still unsolved. Unfortunately too many missing or murdered indigenous women have never received justice or resolution. I agree with what tribal leaders have said that the m i w crisis spans multiple policy domains jurisdictions and regions and so the response must be multi prompt. We also know that these issues affect native men as well while savannah's act and not invisible are necessary starts to address the issue there are also larger and systemic changes to pursue empower tribes to address risk factors to prevent victimization in the first place such as multi generational trauma social and economic marginalization and disconnection from community and culture. Tribal sovereignty and control are major pieces of the solution. I know indian self determination and self governance works. It's a key piece to addressing multiple crises public safety. To 'em i w to healthcare alaska. Tribal health system is an extraordinary example of this success and one recent illustration is how alaska has led the nation in per capita vaccination rates. And the reason why is a combination of the ihs allocations and the flexibility of our tribal health organizations to determine eligibility for their communities but most importantly it's learning the lessons of the previous endemic and working extremely hard to vaccinate all those in the communities in the northwest arctic area of alaska for example medical teams from menelik have been traveling through subzero temperatures with very little daylight to deliver the vaccine throughout the surrounding twelve villages and remember. There are no roads that connect in this region and no so no roads to the villages either although once the cuts abuse sound kobuk river. Freeze road is plowed on the ice to connect some of the villages now. Manila is the regional nonprofit for these twelve federally recognized tribes. These medical teams are flying out on small bush planes. They're getting picked up by by snow machines and then they're pulled by sled to the homes of the elders where the shots are put in the arms across indian country tribes are achieving similar when the federal trust responsibility is matt and the federal government supports tribal sovereignty. Meanwhile i know that many indian country i know in indian country. There's many obstacles that we face in collectively our nation. Our many people and indian nations in particular have experienced tumultuous times over this past year about two weeks ago i was in touch with tribal chief and tribal administrator of of a small village in southwest alaska by the name of toilet sack. I had learned that their wash attiyah and their water treatment facility had burned down burned to the ground and this was the community's only source of clean running water one third of that small community has contacted co vid so far so this is a situation like many others where federal agencies tribes state agencies have to work together to address a crisis like this but it shines a major spotlight on the difficulty. Telling your children to wash your hands which we all know is the best defense against transmission of any disease. When you can't do it. how do you prevent it. I know that there are dire. Infrastructure needs water and sewer in particular across indian country. We have to work together to addresses. I'm looking forward to serving as vice chairman of the senate indian affairs committee this congress working alongside my friend senator shots as chairman. No good. i'm committed to working in a bipartisan manner. In the indian affairs committee to address the needs that tribal leaders share with us so that we have about twenty native languages in alaska. So i can't say thank you in all of them but i will end with just a few janas. Gosh sheesh alibi say he will in. That was senator. Lisa murkowski giving congressional response during this your state of indian nations address. We know have time to hear brief part of the question and answer session. you'll i hear the moderator asks the question then hear the answers from nca. I president sharp and vice president. Aaron payment question is in. What ways do you see any country fitting into this administration's efforts towards achieving racial equity in our work here at nca. I we are advancing befo fo spectrum of equity. We're advancing political equity or tribal nations. And that means we want to search sure at a minimum in consultation relationship free prior and informed consent no longer should be okay for an under sovereignty. Take unilateral action affecting Resources while we are advancing politically quality or tribal nations. We are also advanced racial equity for more than five million citizens especially our young people that are facing systemic racism in the school in a classroom on ballfields into we know that we have a lot of work but we want to achieve the full spectrum of the quality for for all of our citizens. Our next question comes from our viewers as well in this one is you mentioned a chronic underfunding travel programs. You expect a travel. Funding will increase with the new administration. yes absolutely. We expect naughtily an increase in appropriations at a congressional level. We also expect a plan to implement the recommendations of the broken promises report that are vice president mentioned. We have a commitment from senator elizabeth warren harsh on the navajo ed. This last congress work on a plan to strategically implement the recommendations to me out of the broken promises report so we fully expect that. Not only do we have that opportunity at nca. you're also advancing to have someone at a whim. We have long advocated for official nba. Because we make recommendations at an agency level but once those decisions yet not only. We don't have an effective way of advancing our priorities and policies and so yes absolutely. We expect a frivolous reasons. Many more that. I will continue to see increased funding and president if i could add fo- finding events appropriations and mandatory funding so we're not subject to sequestration or government shutdowns and we're hearing really good and promising comments out of the administration in support court of all three of those aged vice. The next question from our audience is what can we do today to help make sure deb holland is confirmed as secretary of interior. Yes and that that is another good question. We have information i on her website. And it's important that everyone who is listening make the phone calls. He key members of congress in the senate. We have a limited time right now. There's a mounting opposition. But what you can do is contact your senator in make sure that they know understand. Just how significant disappointment is not indian humphry for the entire country because she s has so much knowledge wisdom and commitment. She has a reverence for the federal landscape of which the secretary of interior is entrusted to stewart so. Call your senator in vice president. I know you ideas as well. Please care absolutely so we have worked as a strong team. last fall. Nci passed a resolution or of our first indigenous cabinet member We're lucky we have. We do have a nominee and so this is the only nominee at that level. So this We're about ready to make history. And so what's the counter argument to some movie. Really paternalistic and i would say even racist Sorta critiques. that are coming is that she's not qualified. Mean anybody who has administered in the travel nations level knows the breath in volume of what we have to do at the tribal. We are experts in a lot of areas and She's done that and she's usher and just her one term in congress the ability to reach across the aisle to get consensus and to push legislation cares act twenty billion originally twenty billion but they pared down to eight billion a robot arson and so she is extremely well qualify in there. You have it some of what went down. This year's a state of indian nations address and those questions came from people who were viewing and so there was a lot discuss in as you hear. There was also a lot of focus on the confirmation of deb haaland to head of the department of the interior. That hearing started this morning. And it'll pick back up again tomorrow morning and so just thinking about this view into the state of our native nations. I think is a really good point To think of what we have coming up this year also thinking about a new administration and as we heard from president sharp also taking a look at huge issues that affect our need of nation including missing and murdered indigenous women children and people taking a priority and wondering what will be done with this too. We also heard that from representative murkowski Another big point capacity building so that tribes have the resources they need and What were your thoughts when you when you heard Talk about land into trust and even thinking about how co bell went down There's a lot to think of. There's a lot to consider a following all of this. There was a press conference where president sharp also answered a question. I talked to her about the state of our native youth and also the threat of suicide in heard a little bit from both her and vice president payment talking about the task force and things that nci is doing to keep this front and center and also thinking about education and the opportunities that our youth are having and maybe things that they're challenged with because of the pandemic and so there is a lot to think about also lot to learn about our tribal nations as they specifically face a lot of these issues. And if there are certain issues that you are facing in your nation that you just wanna tell us about that you know we talk about many things on this program and are always looking for your input to. You can always reach out to us. You can find us. At native. America calling dot com. You can even email me. T- gatewood at native america calling dot com. And that's going to wrap it up for our program today. If you missed anything in the our you can find this inner archives and you can even go back and listen to pass state of the nation address. just look it up on our website tomorrow. We hope you'll join us as we jump into our february book of the monk month a we are going to hear from author knits. duke clap. Saddle about her book. Even as we breathe she'll take us to the cherokee nation for a story and follow one of her fictitious characters. And maybe it might even remind you of your own home. Thanks again for tuning in today. Here on native america calling and again. That invitation is to you. If you'd like to reach out and you can always find us on our website. Native america calling dot com. You can also find us on. Twitter to our twitter. Handle is at one eight hundred nine nine native thanks again. We hope you'll tune in tomorrow the rest of the week and always thanks again. We'll meet you here tomorrow. Native america calling is supported by oregon state campus. The strength that comes from your tribal community can make all the difference in reaching your goals. Oregon state e campus is committed to providing another source of strength with the supportive educational community. That respects your culture. Earn your degree online but not on your own visit. E campus dot oregon state dot edu slash native america calling just such a locked tasty to deti t s at day. It dot take states doe it says nah epa dot gay detail wahid dusty tucano. No hat danica. We knew data data and access de ski. Now ski you get stella at healthcare dot gov elect one eight hundred three one eight two five nine six he gets to nossa. Medicare jala medicaid. Natasha native america calling is produced in the annenberg. Nashville native boy studios in albuquerque new mexico by wanted broadcast corporation native nonprofit media organization funding is provided by the corporation for public broadcasting with support from the public radio. 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12-30-19 Remembering those who walked on in 2019
"Welcome Welcome to native America. Calling from studio forty nine in Albuquerque. I'm Tara Gate would today. We're remembering a few native people who walked on into nineteen when need auto was a strong Kiowa woman who was a longtime volunteer at the National Congress of American Indians and in language mentor. Franklin Mir was a Winnebago activists who pushed for the removal of alcohol from a town in Nebraska among other accomplishments an emcee Waksal was beloved hip hop artists from New Mexico. Worry more about their lives. After National Native News in this is National Native News Antonio Gonzalez Montana's Democratic senator. John Tester introduced a bill which would award the four belknap the Indian community nearly six hundred and thirty million dollars for water infrastructure projects and recognized tribal water rights claims Olivia wrangled reports Fort. BELKNAP has been waiting on congressional approval of its water right settlement for almost twenty years. That's how long ago the Montana state legislature approved. The tribes is water compact. The thing is it's not valid until it's approved by the US Congress Senator Tester has tried to push for congressional approval twice the the bill would rectify outstanding legal claims against the federal government over its failure to protect tribal water rights and provide water infrastructure with more than half a billion dollar settlement. Some of that money is earmarked for making the Milk River Project and irradiation system that serves thousands of farmers and tribal members more efficient among others. Four BELKNAP season is one of only two in Montana. That hasn't been adjudicated yet. According to a lawyer for the tribes the same source says everyone else's water rates have already been established in the state watercourse besides the Fort Belknap flathead tribes Senator Steve Daines recently introduced a bill to ratify the flathead tribes his water compact. If Congress approves approves the settlement the next step would be vote for tribal membership for National Native News. I'm Olympia Reingold in billings Montana. A federal judge has denied denied requests from President Trump and federal agencies to dismiss lawsuits against them for permitting the keystone xl pipeline. The actions were filed by tribes and environmental until groups. Judge Brian Morris issued his ruling. Just before Christmas Victoria wicks has more when President Barack Obama denied a permit for the keystone xl pipeline to cross across the. US Canada border. He acknowledged the political nature of the debate. For years. The keystone pipeline is occupied. What I frankly consider an over inflated latest role in our political discourse President Obama made that statement in November two thousand fifteen in March two thousand seventeen the newly elected Donald trump changed course by issuing a permit just three months after taking office? We'll finally be allowed to complete this long overdue with efficiency and speed soon. After that tribes and environmentalists sued in Montana Federal Court and efficiency and speed came to a halt federal judge. Brian Morris issued an an injunction in late two thousand eighteen parties appealed to the ninth circuit. But before that court could act. President trump issued a new permit that action made the injunction action and appeal mood. New lawsuits ensued in Montana. And now that new ruling has come out judge Morris notes that the latest executive order erroneously gives the President Solar Authority to make decisions including whether to solicit advice from state tribal and local governments judge. Morris says the constitution gives some powers over foreign affairs to Congress and he says because Congress has acted twice on the keystone pipeline it has indicated its intention to exercise its power therefore he has has ruled that the lawsuits may continue for National Native News. I'm Victoria wicks in rapid city. South Dakota the National Congress of American Indians responded to president didn't trump's tweets on Friday which referenced Indian Country Trump and a series of tweets outline three bills he signed for tribes which imparts said. Thank you Indian country. Sorry for being such an important part of the American story. The term Indian countries spark debate online and statement. NCAA I said it applauds the President Damp for signing the bills and added it finds no issue with the term saying Indian country is often used broadly as a general description of natives spaces and places and a positive sentiment. And it's a legal term. I man Tonio Gonzalez. The national native news is produced by Kohana Broadcast Corporation with funding by the corporation for public broadcasting support by AARP AARP creates. Dan Connect people to unique tools and programmes helps conserve personal resources and tackles issues that matter most to individuals families and communities more at AARP AARP dot org support by NSF railway. Moving our economy for over one hundred sixty five years. Our vision is to operate injury. Rian accident free with safety programs. Training and technology more at Bien SF DOT com slash tribal relations native voice one the native American radio network. This is native America calling. I'm Taraji would today. We're we're taking a moment to remember some of those who walked on in two thousand nineteen from native America. We'll learn about Kiowa leader. Juanita atone also talk talk with family and friends of winnebago Activists Franklin ear and Navajo MC defying. We'll be joining us to remember the legendary wake self health. Our purpose today is to provide a space to celebrate in honor the memories and lives of those who are now resting in here from those who would like to remember member somebody. We work hard to be respectful when speaking about sensitive topics including the passing on of people from tribal nations. We know in respect the the fact that some communities do not wish to speak of those who have walked on and we think those that have offered guidance on this for those of you who are comfortable speaking about it. We are opening up a space for you to remember those who passed was there. Someone walked on this past year. That you'd like to pay tribute to while you can. You're welcome to share their memory. Honor Native Airwaves. The number to join us is one eight hundred nine nine six to eat for eat. It's also one eight hundred nine nine native. We're going to start off today in Carnegie Oklahoma saying hello to earn inside a tone. He is the son of Juanita atone and he is Guy Wa our pleasure to have him here. Si- welcome thank you very much. I'm glad to be here and I want to express my thanks from the family to you for remembering our mother Vernon there is a lot to remember number and the more that I learned about Juanita. The bigger my smile gets of just kind of seeing the kind of energy that she brought to many people Especially the National Congress of American Indians in so many people paid tribute to her and her contributions and we were there at NCA. I this year and I I heard a little talk about her. And so My honor to be speaking of her in Vernon what would you like to share about her. Well I like you. I had the energy that she brought to the national. Congress of American Indians was something that she was very very Glad about you. You know her. Her father was a charter member in nineteen forty six or whether James Doug Amman was a charter member when it was established in nineteen forty six and that kind kind of a spurt her on I think to the energy that she put into her position as The different positions as being the NCAA. I in what did you learn about. NCAA because of her and she. I is one of our r-maine speaking voices for All of the tribes that are represented through their organization and and put Severi strong emphasis on some of the needs and some of the wants that The different tribes might have in the their efforts to continue to be a driving force in the political circle of the United States which we are a very very big part in. What was it about this organization that energized. Her does she ever share stories about seeing tribal leaders Take on hard issues or just even learning about are native resiliency. What were some of the things she talked about being? You know there and meeting so many people. Yeah she was it's very adamant about About the The new between some of the national leaders as well as trade tribal leaders leaders that they might be able to go ahead and put a their ideas and and and and platform Situation so that they could present it to the to the powers that be in the on the national scene and she was very lead that. She's he's able to be there and excited every year. I mean there were two things in this world as she cared about an SR cog were clan celebration every year and and the National Congress of American Indians and just right right up to the time of her death she was Planning to be at that Meeting last October and She the was not able to be there. She passed away on the sixteenth. You know all it was in session and But in spirit we know that she was there licking over there now letting her her kids know what she felt about. That's the way she referred to a lot of the leadership the national leadership as her kids. They they received. They seem to re- Reciprocate that feeling To my mother she gave a lot of guidance. In like I said I heard it a lot of people seeing lots of good words about her and remembering what she brought to it and it seems like this sense of knowing that you are are there to help your nations. She saw her father do this. Your grandfather is well and Vernon one. Would you like to say about her duty to native people to make sure she was there to help. First of all I want to Expression that she was one proud high woman and the the the the difference that She had On on that scale as you know the the I guess you'd call the the Pc Term Native American wealthy people would ask her. Are you a native American. She would kind of look at them and and and a sidelong say well Kiowa. Hi Awhile and I guess you could call me native American and so the the energies as she put in to let everyone know that we are. We are separate separate and independent governmental Entities was one of the main things that I think she took away from her involvement with the the National Congress of American Indians and something that she was also known for her time at Haskell she was a graduate she graduated in nineteen forty seven and she was even Miss Haskell. What does she share with you about her? Time there at the school and Nineteen forty seven. There was A rude you that was going on. And they had Michigan County and Miss the different counties haskell being a big part of the community you know. They figured they wanted to have some representation from there so she was selected to represent Haskell. Ask Ask Michelle nineteen forty seven and again she wanted to Show them the uniqueness of her people so she got her great grandmother No I don't know her grandmother Ida hummingbird to come and help her to dress and help her to to express yourself than the Kiowa language to in her introduction and then representing not only the high was that has co but all of the tribes that were represented nationwide by their attendance at Haskell and so her connection connection to youth was also strong in and I can see why being somebody who had twenty grandchildren. Forty four great grandchildren and five. I have great great grandchildren Thinking about the future. It seems like really filled her heart and she was also instrumental in keeping the language alive Vernon and the introduction Brought by before the view started there was a mention of her involvement all but in a language preservation and The language preservation program was started here in the tribe because we knew that Our languages who makes us who we are and so. She was very adamant that the language was taught in a in a perspective that was going to be able to be a big dip easily. By the way we're trying to learn and And pronunciation over the words and the and and kind of getting away from the use of slang that most of our young people do use with our languages and so she was very instrumental and And developing new program and in supporting the program also so as one of their advisors and mentors to the program and to all of us that All of our children grandchildren. Great grandchildren the children and great. Great grandchildren got Got The in depth Teaching from her about how important West to learn our language which truly a remarkable woman right. Now we are talking with Cya tone He is the son of Nita. Aton whom you're hearing about. She passed away this year at age. Ninety one was a longtime employee and volunteer for the National Congress of American Indians. She was Kiowa. And maybe you knew her. Learn to finger to or you have heard of think for your passion to pick up your own Kiowa language you can join us at one. Eight hundred nine nine six two eight four. Eat anything more you'd like to share about your mother. I guess what to say. How lucky man I am I I'm seventy one one years old and I was able to say Mama until just about about two and a half months ago and that was very Special to me and Though the thing that she told us on her deathbed whereas you keep going nobody cries for me. Because I had a beautiful life she met she met four presidents and many any many outstanding celebrities from From all over the nation all over the world and and then to be able to say that we need to tone hold was. My mother is one of the greatest honors that I have and I from the family. I appreciate you very much for taking the time to recognize her on your program. Well thank you so much vernon in any thoughts words of encouragement. 'em Cy to those who are also morning or thinking of her today. She would want everybody to remember that she was a part of of your live should but do the National Congress American Indian. She was an advocate for all of the tribes and all of the traps to be just as strong as they could be into. I do Learn all they can about our interactions with the government so that we can have a stronger stance in this nation. Thank you so much I appreciate appreciate you honoring your mother and teaching us a thing or two in a no. There are many memories to be shared because he started flowing out at NC. I hi this year and if that is somebody who you're remembering today you can share your thoughts. These phone lines are also open for you to. If there's somebody walked on that that you'd like to pay tribute to you. Can one eight hundred nine nine. Six to eight for eight is the number and just hearing more about when you to atone makes me think of strong matriarchs that we have in our family and you know what it means to carry on all those teachings and keep passing them on especially especially if it means learning the language and maybe that's the story or something that really struck something with you today to remember somebody really important important in your life you can share your thoughts. One eight hundred nine nine six. Two four eight is the number and of course just words of encouragement if you have some of those just for family members numbers you can call in one hundred nine nine six two eight. Four eight is the number to join us I'm gerege would host a native America calling on our program. We'll start counting down the days of twenty twenty with their December December book of the month. The twenty twenty Salina Bookshelf calendar is a tribute to the Navajo Language and culture. We'll also hear about the NEBULA seasons. We hope you'll join us as we send off the old year and make way for the new one support by freedom lodge providing healing for seven generations offering a one of a kind two hundred our historical trauma masterclass beginning in May twenty twenty on the Oneida nation in Wisconsin for professional counselors therapists social workers and educators. There's no charge for tribal members. Now you can imagine an end to generations nations of suffering and the future of native wellness registration deadline is March. Second Information and registration at Freedom Lodge Dot Org. uh-huh uh-huh You're tuned into native America calling interrogate would from his LETO Pueblo. And remembering those who walked on in two thousand nineteen and if you have something you'd you'd like to say Somebody you'd like to pay tribute to you can call us at one. Eight hundred nine nine six two eight four eight and right now joining us here in Studio forty-nine is MC defy who is hip hop artists and He comes to us from the Navajo nation. He is a close friend of the Apache MC week self walked on earlier this year defined my pleasure to have you here back in this seat in our studio. Ah for another conversation and this time I know this one is heavy one in. I'm really honored that you would be here to speak of such a lovely person Weeks Self Health and for the folks were tuned in. Maybe they never had a chance to say hello to him. Shake his hand but they heard his music. And would you like to say about week South and and what he meant to you and maybe even how you understand the world. Yes good morning gene or good days everybody in this is. MCC defy from the denomination Just WanNa I came here to honor my best friend wake self who's has been a prominent MC and artists in New Mexico hip hop community for well over a decade for those who haven't ever met him before you're a man he was. He meant so much to me. Because we began our arap careers together as Young young artists probably teenage years. Still so together. We grew from here in the South West and branched out internationally nationally. And I'm always very proud of all his success and accomplishments he's gained as an artist and also as a human being you too. He's helped me in many different ways like to grow as person and artist. Who So it's an honor to be here with them to honor him just before the show listening to to an interview that he did on generation justice and some of the things he had to say was really You know strong and powerful just even his message to the youth talking about believe in yourself. Love Yourself Try your hardest and accept the fact. You're unique in era blessing. A lot of positivity in he really concentrated on bat defy For you having somebody who knew how important it was to keep our nation's keep anybody who is in listening range on a positive level for you. How important was that or did you learn you? You know from him how to keep things positive. I definitely learned how to keep things positive from wake especially on our travels and tours we've had countless tours throughout the country over the years and even through the hard times like he was always very positive and kept that outlook throughout the time. And that helped me me grow to like I was saying a little bit earlier to kind of not complain. Inches always just believe in ourselves really so so I mean we started together at a time where I felt like there was I mean our family. We had family support of course but when we had traveled on our own indefinitely had to believe in ourselves or to continue and yeah he was very instrumental neat like continuing to in hearing him. Am say things like ideas are bulletproof. Man that there's a lot of weight in that And then thinking of music it being like water it it being like medicine. I've even heard you use those terms to and lot of times when people think of hip hop the think of darker side of it or sinister side right in what He brought forward was even a moment about reminding people to respect women One of his songs that went really big league in really touched a lot of people and even put You know hip hop on call about Treating women right in thinking about how you know masculinity healthy masculinity anything you want to share about his work to really push forward some really important issues yes. He has a new upcoming album coming out soon. It's titled Ready to live. It's combination of his musical journey. Close collaboration with with super producer engineer. Smoke into d-6 Matt smoke which he was also very instrumental in providing the instrumentalist. Wake selfs up messages and messengers lyrical. Craftsmanship it just sounds really great together. I've heard a few songs on the album. Actually I've heard the album. It's amazing but It's GONNA be released. I believe on January third early twenty twenty and for those interested in hearing his music. It'll be available there on that day. There's a release party as well on that day at sister. Bar Here in Albuquerque New Mexico the the party will begin at APM to one one am. Seven dollar pre-sales. I mean excuse me I can't mention any of that I'm sorry but nowhere. It's nowhere You know the first hundred people through the door do get a CD copy. And that's something really important. I think you know thinking about how the work that he put into this I understand that he was actually making beats and and really win inside to figure out. What Kinda Music Zik? He wanted to put out even learn how to play the piano. So on this album. We're going to hear for the first time His music mastery in the sense of of doing that. And as an emcee You know what that's like to to say. Okay I'M GONNA I'M GONNA hold this wheel to And just knowing that that is about to be released defy any words about how he really. Did you know. Give a lot in this little bit more about the album mom. Tom Was a message of loving growths. Clearly present throughout it eleven songs can be considered to be kind of like a magnum opus of his work. Because he's he's done A. I think maybe four more albums before or something like that. I mean we've done so many albums that some that are unreleased together we had a group called Definition rare but the music Really speaks for itself. It's an amazing album. Like I said I believe his music and message will live on for many many generations. Certainly you know what we're going to go hit in here a little bit From one of his albums this is his song. Title New Mexico Definitely it could be an anthem especially you know his tribute to What is important or just what is New Mexico? Let's Gordon here that are tribute to the life in memory of weeks self Apache. AMC right here. On native America calling Oh Nice Briscoe was born in Eastern Eastern New Mexico Medical Center the same hospital liberal Aswa when my parents attend to this beautiful. Saint Paul's forget the existing. But it don't matter about soul feels at home this it's really love Sandy. Hill the shrink from the surrounding land might catch me a half with Duke City let our brain know what I mean all the best places in the world if you ask me. We have Christmas all year. Half red half greenheart. Don't like it here rent. You say bad thing allow pay for the gas money just to help us legal half of pro sports teams so everyone's a local or hey begin. aggie that's dependent on it force. Not The land of entrapment is is the place where my mind is free. Finding peace away from the rest of the world so mocking breathe cow heart is never forget what started. Take your back up man by Robert but back home where the heart is never. Forgive the Florida they say you sound like you're despite your fat but on that or fraud why not be covered. Most of family stay. I got Brexit galloper. Alex Thomas Kerala Carlsbad Lipa Gordo. We know Farmington. Las cruces Carrizo for motor the center. Rosa Diverg Colegio Crown Point Tieger Cubatao spot with a SIP Brockhouse Harrison silver city. PATs clove Asuka presumably this strictly for my people out there with the home state. Feel when I see Ziggy flag. Rape got the best chilly. That's the truth really power Albuquerque forecast to exceed more than a show about cooking matthew built from television. We got small community culture by tradition. And this is my life the southwest taste tops of a young man with the new state of the heart is never forgive us. Lord they say is not your despite your rat rat but up at for profit but that is where the hardiest never forgive us Lord. They say it's not like you're I put up for fraud but I'll be coming back and again. It is an honor to play that song in memory of wake south who walked on this year maybe he was somebody who provided a lot of encouragement urge meant to you through the music. If you like to share some thoughts you can call in one. Eight hundred nine nine six two eight four eight is number and again if there is somebody that you are remembering remember in one a paid tribute to who walked on this year. You can call in one eight hundred nine six two eight four eight. We're going to hear now from a caller. We Got Glen in he. He missed brings to Mexico tuned on key. UNM blending giving us a ring. You're on here. Good Morning Happy New Year but I. They had a grandmother who came from Germany in nineteen hundred who is my spiritual mentor Bible reader loving person liked to embrace folks raised four boys on a farm in Kansas Anyway. her her teaching her mentoring spirituality. helped me throughout my life In nineteen eighty six When our governor Tony and I had a sanctuary proclamation for the whole state and encouraged us? WHO WORKED WITH CHURCHES TO HELP refugees coming from Guatemala and solve it or I did that and was later given nine show any counts for doing it and spent three weeks in a federal court? One hundred thousand one dollars legal bill for three good attorneys and got a credit because the journey the jury felt that the governor's proclamation covering and so that that I credit my grandma for having a deep rooted spirituality and willing- willingness to risk and help others. There's and then I had a son who just gave up six and a half years as the director of a New Mexico. Faith Coalition for immigrant justice helping refugees from Mexico and Central America. And so on and so what grandma Frieda Hiney what's her name taught me showed me went through me into my life and my actions onto my son son. WHO's thirty two years old now and so God bless the grammas and the Ancestors who give us those kinds of big samples of how to live life in a better way than what trump is teaching days. We'll Glenn when we think of the people who we have in our corner in that sense that have taught us us really strong themes or even just pass that onto another generation We are really keeping those memories in in a good way. And that's the reason we are opening up these phone lines and you know making that space for people to share because with these people come into our lives and they teach us a lot got any for smart we listen and we pick up these good things and you know what we also love him where we have them and for you defy anything anything you want to share just thinking of Glenn in how You know some of these things do pass on through us and in who knows the teachings that wake self gave you how you're going to continue neat. Pass those on shout out to Glen Shots all grandmothers out there and he's right yeah like grandmothers definitely instill with the ways to live better later. I feel like I've got to give shout out to my grandmother too. I'm very fortunate to still have my grandmother's on both Mon- attornal than paternal sides and Yes I just want to share my condolences to everybody out there. Too especially with clan defy when the news came of wake walking on there are a lot of people who were really you know the the kind of their frozen for a moment in in really an outpouring of what it meant to lose such a good soul You know here Hearing his voice and being able to see him on stage age in that kind of Outpour Really I think woke up a lot of people in even caught the attention of the mayor. Tim Keller even him coming now and in paying tribute Two weeks off and his contributions to New Mexico and defy. When you think of all the things that He did give through the music and even just somebody who was also encouraging people to be creative And and as he said in that interview view with generation justice you have to reach in yourself to create your authentic self and creativity. Sometimes it's it's a battle within yourself of saying okay. That's good enough. I'M GONNA put it out but when you think of his words of encouragement of even just being an emcee anything that you want to share that he told you about you know just write it get on stage. Don't be afraid anything like that. I mean she when I first met wake self he was just amazing. Free styling engines is. I mean very kind of shy at the beginnings and and I felt like we were both there to help each other kind of grow out of that as much as we could but as many times we were on stage. I just can't stop thinking about the Times where he it was amazing outlet. Yo I got step my game up to and like as a group rare. We were just there to definitely help each other. Uplift one another Soviet so yeah man but every time I hear that New Mexico anthem I get really hyped. I get excited. So thank you for playing that. And for you defy anything else. It's two people you know that. Wake self touched any words to those folks. I know we all cope in our own ways. Each day is like sometimes. It's just taking deep breaths really helps and just being gentle with ourselves and like with with one another as a main thing too especially in these times because we got a role in together I just I just hope we all take care of one another take care of each other and take care of ourselves and just I I. It's hard to just give advice. You know because I'm dealing with like a lot right now. Like I just pray every day. They just stayed busy working on music myself. And I know like I. It's hard to talk about. It is it is and I commend your strength because being here to honor somebody like this Is is not easy and being naval to talk about this too Takes a strong heart and I commend you. For that defy a lot of people look up to you and your music and I know that there are many stories stories that there are to be shared about everything that your best friend brought to this world and I know you continue to do it through the music and always pounded on the pavement and taking your music to even just argh our smallest citizens of our tribal nations to make sure that we remind folks how important written this medium is how important this mess medicine is music and I appreciate you sharing with us today. And we're going to continue here folks but you can can join us to one eight hundred nine six two eight. Four eight is number defy wish you a lot of strength support support for this program. Provided by the American Indian Higher Education consortium the collective spirit and unifying voice of thirty seven tribal colleges and universities -versities for over thirty years a heck has worked to ensure that tribal sovereignty is recognised and respected and that tribal colleges and universities are included in this nations higher education system. Information on a tribal college or university near you at A.. H. E. C.. Dot Org uh-huh Yeah thanks for joining us today. Here on native America calling remembering those who walked on in two thousand nineteen phone lines are open. If you'd like to share you can join us at one. One eight hundred nine nine six two eight four eight right now. We're going to say hi to Pandora. Who is in Seattle Washington tuned in online Pandora? Thank you for reaching out go ahead. You're on we're good morning. Yacht a Yes I am Pandora Mike and I guess is mom I just I wanted to say Good Morning Josh. And thank you for your words of encourage Nick I'm talking about Our Andy as I called him. Wake self off You know wake south inspired so many across many nations with his music has movement his inspiration and I was very Moved by his his. Love his care for his mom Barbara Martinez She is also a grandmother and I wanted to Also share that. I I know he loves me so much to as I loved him and still do and the memories that we have had In honor of women was most important and watching The lyrical twin warriors as I called old and best buy and wake south growing up through the years making music together sharing their inspiration for all cultures. All nations was You know just Truly inspiring and I am I I instill inspired every time. I hear his music that the song in Mexico brings tears to my eyes this morning and I just have to call in. Thank you for sharing sharing that and you know one of my other favorite Songs have of Wake south with deaths I is Hunger hunger pains. I love that Song as well as it brings back memories of The good times and the good the the good movements that they had made together and I I want to say those are good. Good things to keep in mind and I also want to Give condolences and well wishes to I'll presenters there and their families and extended families and friends into the hip hop nation for honoring Wake South as we move forward. We've looked forward to a mini more. Good Times comes with those of you who are presenting now and carrying on the legacy for those that have walked on. Thank you for having me in. Have a wonderful the whole wonderful day in Pandora. Thank you for raising such a wonderful son. It's our pleasure to have him here. with us in in defy. Why I know you got to get going here and we have some more folks to introduce Here but Just any wrap up words go head to fight yes. Thanks for having everyone on the show just want to remind everybody about wake selfs Alvin release in wakes tribute for his album. Coming coming soon ready to live as title and the album released tribute party will be Friday January third. Twenty twenty downtown at sister Bar Hearing Albuquerque New Mexico his music will also be available on digital platforms. Some more information to be announced announced. Just keep in tune much love. Everybody loved wake self forever in love everyone thank you all right. Mc Defy thank you so much for being here with us and right now. We're going to take you back to Oklahoma to say hello to another one of our guests. Jennifer Lemere is with us. Yes she is. The daughter of the late activist Franklin ear. She's also a member of the Winnebago tribe of Nebraska Jennifer. Thank you for being with us. Thank you so how much it's an honor to join you and you know I really appreciate those kind words from Pandora it's It's been a tough year and it sounds like it's been a tough year for are for a number of folks but but I appreciate you. You haven't me on will thank you for being here Also on the line is Kevin embarrassed. He joins US today. At a Lincoln Nebraska Bresca the managing editor of Indian DOT COM and Kevin is Rosebud Sioux. It's our pleasure to have him here. Kevin thank you for being with us as well doc. WHOL wash the issues up? Hilo thank you for having me. It's a great to be here and I'm happy to join Jennifer to talk about A great man that we both in Franklin Mir did a lot and I think every time that I've read an article or have heard his voice. I was reminded of the dedication and That our community members have to make our places better on this planet In he put a lot of love in two different Things that he stood behind stood up for in for you Jennifer Anything you want to share this is your father. Were talking about How you you remember him his legacy and the things he did anything? You WANNA share Jennifer. Wow you know putting together some notes just in preparation for this for this is call There's there's so many things there's so many different areas that he was involved in You know white clay. I was was a huge accomplishment of getting the four liquor stores closed down and you know during during that it was always a fear here for me that he would never live to see those closed so in two thousand seventeen it was. It was just such a huge celebration. And but there's one thing that he always said is you know our work just now begins even though the stores are closed. There's so much historical trauma there that continues and it's GonNa take you know years and years to recover from that so so we have a group. That's still very active and and trying to develop a trauma center in Whiteclay Another another major issue that he Had A lot of impact is his his political work with the Democratic Party and I think one of his biggest legacy spent. I'd like to share with with Indian. Folks is being involved loved. It was so important for him for tribes to have a seat at the table and have a voice and I think that's you know I think we have to continue on to be involved in especially in such an important election. Year is make sure tribes are involved in the election process. We have to have received the table indeed and that is a very important thing in Kevin Speaking of having that seat at the table why the vote matters The I need of American presidential debate. That was held Baird Frank's name and in his words were used People were talking about him in any thoughts of how presidential hopefuls know the name. Franklin Mir in the work that he did any there yeah Franklin. Mary was a long time activist within the Democratic Party. had served. Well he founded the the a native American caucus at least here in Nebraska and know for sure and he was the longest serving native member of the Democratic National Committee and and found it both in Nebraska needed caucus and the national native caucus of the Democratic Party when he passed You know some some very well known native people including debris from New Mexico Issued condolences to the family A lot of people here in Nebraska knew him everybody here in Nebraska. I'm really Pollen tweeted the passing of frankly and my good friend hero for any country for justice and a voice at every table will leave a void that none of us can easily fill his activism. And Kinda generous heart will be missed. So yeah he was definitely well known from the from the tops of our federal government down to you know everyday people who who he treated everybody the same same you know. He never never treated anybody any different. No matter what their title was kind of education they had it didn't matter to him and Kevin you also followed his story very very closely for Indians Dot Com and talk to me about your conversations with him or getting that chance to interview him a once L. Whiteclay Nebraska decided to close down those liquor stores. Anything you want to share you know. It was kind of one of the crowning achievement chievements of his life. I guess I wouldn't put up. You know. Certainly having children and things like that you know his family was so important to him. And I know that spirituality and his love for his creator was was paramount. Came out and everything he did. He said a prayer before everything he did. But that said You know he spent twenty years fighting to shut down the beer stores in Whiteclay and and for a long time. He didn't have much support you know he would have rallies he would go to. The governor's office to protest And there would be very few people oftentimes with One of those famous sayings is You know when very few people showed up he would tell those show up. Everybody that needs to be here is here. That's all that matters. And it's one of the great Gifts that he's given us given to us are his words Beautiful words that he had he was such an order But Yeah it was definitely a crowning cheesman in his life and And you know I think certainly one of the things that he'll be most remembered for us as the man who shutdown Klay and given any words that he shared with you or things that you just begin to understand about him of why he continued why he pushed forward in worked on the issues that he you did well. This might be better for Jennifer to maybe address. But you know he did. He did lose a daughter. Some years ago is Beloved love a daughter Lexi and One of the things that he often said was that He he wanted to be received well when he when he saw Lexi in the afterlife life and and just wanted to know wanted her to know that he'd done everything he could in this life To help those. That didn't have a voice to to make a better life. Hey for those that We're really struggling and I think that was one of his prime motivations. Wow so again. I'm speechless. Just thinking of all all the things that he worked for and people who are also remembering him Jennifer anything you want to share you know. I just want to echo. What what Kevin said there are you know he? He grew up very poor. You know and and from a very large family of very good family a gold star family and I think that's where You know he developed some of his passion for for helping everybody. He kind of started as a native activist but he he eventually morphed into more. We're of a civil rights. Activists Social Justice activists. He really grew One thing I wanted to let folks know. Is You know his his three attributes. I mean there's there's a number of things that he's done and a- are is known for but but three of the main attributes I think think of him as he was kind he was so humble he was so humble and sober sober forty years sober and just the the impact that he had on so many people. It's just been so overwhelming I mean I I get messages all the time about one. One Lady Lady sent me a message. She talked to him for five minutes on an airplane nine years ago and she seek me out to send me a message because of the impact that he had on her nine years ago. And it's just it's it's been pretty overwhelming it's The love that people had is just so inspiring to me. The love they had for him is so inspiring to me. And I think you know His works not over. It's it's just planet in a lot more of us you know and it continues on in Jennifer anything that you will close to your heart. Something he told you something he taught you you now. Now there's there's a number of things Here's here's something that he always said you know is just treat people good I mean I don't I don't know that it gets any any more simpler. Just be good to people that's it you know and and that's what I try to do and it's I. I'm really trying to to follow along in his footsteps. Everything I do now is how would he handle that. How would he do this? How how would he say that? I'm really I will never fill those shoes. But I'M GONNA do my best to to carry on his legacy and carry on his projects and carry on his good work work and continue to try to be a voice for the voiceless. Thank you so much. Jennifer go caller on the line. We're GONNA see hi to Melvin incenting Nebraska tuned in on cheesy. Y Que Melvin. Thanks for calling. You're on here. Yeah so I pay tribute only to Mike Herminio Research. This Guy January Pine Ridge but I grew up with Franklin South Sioux City Nebraska. And you know one thing people forget about frank was that he was it. Great Ball player a coach. It'll and one thing that I always seen about. Frank was he did the issues or the issue. You never red look for recognition or any of that stuff you stuck with the issue. It was a good man. Like my cur- many horses. The same way like was a council he served on the council binary was -secutive director. It treaty work for forty fifty years. A big loss over there was it was another one it was for the people will seek recognition. Just deal with issue. It was like Franklin or we lost two great men and one year. I knew both very well and It was a big Las Issuer. Melvin thank you for remembering during both of them with US and You know what there are many people that did work on this year and we just wanted to Pay Tribute in and and I think also. I'm giving those words of encouragement to to all those who are listening who have lost somebody this year. Either some related to somebody who was close to them or somebody just You know was cog in their community and kept it going in and I send a lot of words of encouragement Kirkman to you to strength and thank you for your encouragement to teach us and talk about these people and to carry on their teachings in a know takes a lot and we thank you for turning to This radio program to think alongside US and to also for those who are learning about these great individuals individuals and learning. What page in native history that they wrote so that we could all learn so that we can all thrive and be stronger? I appreciate create you tuning into and again our thoughts go out to all of the family members and friends and fans of the people that we talked about today. Okay and thank you to all of these family members who also shared their words. Um We wish you a lot of strength and look forward to seeing Your gifts is that you continue to give us through these airways thanks so much and also before we in we do want to take a moment to remember a member of the family that just recently walked walked on Mel Seder was Elliott. He passed on on December four. Th Alaska public media called him in Alaska Broadcasting Pioneer and he worked in television and radio and he was instrumental in building. Anchorage a Anchorage Radio Station K.. And as well as Ky.. On the Hopi reservation nation in many of their projects in the US and abroad he was the father of quantocks operation. Officer Charles Safer He will be missed. Our thoughts go out to him as well. I'm your host hair gatewood. We'll meet you here tomorrow. Support by dream spring. A nonprofit community lender for over twenty five years dream. Spring has been increasing access to business credit for entrepreneurs across New Mexico Arizona and beyond dream spring offers loans for self employed entrepreneurs startups and large established enterprises information about flexible credit requirements affordable rates and customized demised lending available by calling eight hundred five zero eight seventy six twenty four or online at Dream Spring Dot Com art not sees a young corner on here. Luke healthcare health care coverage to demaurice quaking. Now he's DOT COM one eight hundred three eight I. Five Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services does not been an Easter look Native America calling to produce the birds national native voice studios in Albuquerque New Mexico by Quantum Broadcast Corporation and native nonprofit media organization funding is provided by the corporation for public broadcasting lasting support from the public radio satellite. Service Music is by Brent Michael Davids native voice. One the native American radio network.
May 20, 2020: Church Street Bombing
"The today is Wednesday may twentieth. Twenty twenty on this day in nineteen eighty three. A bomb went off in the South African city of Pretoria killing nineteen people and wounding over a hundred more as the dust settled. It was clear that the attack was politically motivated and carried out by the paramilitary wing of the African National Congress. Welcome today in true crime apart. Cast original. I'm Vanessa Richardson. And today I'm joined by our guest host Alistair murden hello today in true crime listeners. Park asked fans might recognize Alastair's voice from several podcast originals including our show kingpins where he and his co host. Kate tell exciting stories of organized. Crime thanks Vanessa. Kingpins has been running a daily special for the month of May and let me tell you I have so much admiration for what you do on today and true crime after working on it. I'll thank you. I've been enjoying your daily episodes and I'm thrilled. You can join me for another today as you know. You'll discuss some of the historical aspects today story while I'll cover. The narrative sounds perfect. Shall we dive in? Yes due to the graphic nature of today's crimes listener discretion is advised extreme. Caution is advised for listeners under thirteen. Now let's go back to May twentieth. Nineteen eighty-three around four o'clock in the afternoon. The streets were already packed with people. As Freddie Sean Guay and Ezekial Maseko drove down Church Street. It was rush hour and Pretoria but the two men weren't paying attention to the busy passersby day. We're focused on the Nedbank square building the headquarters for the South African Air Force at the time. They parked as close as they dared watching men in blue uniforms. Come in and out. It was just around four fifteen pm soon. Air Force personnel would flood the streets awaiting buses to take them home in the meantime no one's spared a thought for the anonymous. Blue Alfa Romeo parked by the Air Force headquarters. It was impossible to tell at a glance that it was packed with forty kilograms of explosives Shangai and Maseko plan to trigger the bomb at four thirty to ensure the maximum number of air force casualties. But that's not what happened. Something no one is sure exactly what went wrong. And Ten minutes early around four twenty PM and explosion engulfed the crowds on Church Street. A woman in an adjacent office building. Lydia Vandermeer UVA later recalled. I heard a loud sound from the office and went out to see what was going on. Glass and blood was all over. The street and people were shouting. Church street had been thrown into chaos. Burned and dismembered bodies littered the street uniformed and civilian alike. Sean Guay and Maseko car was a twisted wreck and black smoke rose alongside the Nedbank square building the air filled with the wine of emergency vehicles as over. Twenty ambulances arrived to rush casualties to nearby hospitals. All told there were nineteen people killed and two hundred seventeen injured. The ratio of civilians to military personnel among the casualties has been difficult to ascertain in the years following the attack but according to a police report at least eighty four of injured were associated with the armed forces of South Africa among the dead were the two insurgents Freddie Way and ezekial Maseko blamed for. The attack was placed on the anti-apartheid political organization. Known as the African National Congress or a N C their paramilitary wing. Kontos sees way or M. K. Was linked to several other high profile attacks throughout the nineteen eighties years later. Several former agents of MK claimed responsibility for the Church Street bombing and clarified its purpose. The operation had been approved by. Anc President Oliver Tambo and headed by a man named Abu Bacher is mile according to smile. The objective was to carry out a highly visible attack which was impossible to cover up against military personnel in uniform. He justified the attack by pointing to the appalling treatment of black South Africans by the state sponsored military. Saying they could not think they could go on doing anything they wanted because they had the guns. Church street was deemed an important military target even if the risk of civilian casualties was high up next. We'll discuss the fallout of the Church Street bombing podcast listeners. I have some big news. Regarding the critically acclaimed series famous fates although season one has ended the franchise still lives on starting may thirteenth. The famous fates feeble feature season two titled Falls From Grace Available. Only on spotify join Carter and I as we return to examine some of the most accomplished and controversial people to ever live. You'll discover what drove these history makers to be so successful in their respective fields and what led to their ultimate disgrace available for free and only on spotify falls from grace will release two episodes a week over twelve weeks each focusing on the fame and shame of a notable figure from OJ Simpson and Marie Antoinette. To Howard Hughes and Elizabeth homes. You'll dive into a rich variety of impactful stories from every aspect of history there shocking drama disturbing details and all the indepth research that you've come to expect from us and most importantly these episodes are all free and only available on spotify. Famous fates falls from grace is a podcast original starting may thirteenth. Two new episodes released every Wednesday. Listen free and only on spotify now back to the story on May Twentieth. Nineteen Eighty six. The anti-apartheid group known as the ANC detonated an explosive device outside the air force headquarters in Pretoria South Africa. Nineteen people were killed and two hundred seventeen injured. The casualties were both civilian and military. My guest host Alistair will take us through. This turbulent period of South African history and the immediate aftermath of the May twentieth attack thanks. Vanessa apartheid was in place in South Africa from nineteen forty eight through the early nineteen nineties. It was a system of Russian lies racial segregation that ensured a minority of white citizens would remain in power often. It was enforced through state visit against black South Africans. The country's ruling party the National Party faced increasing internal resistance to apartheid throughout the nineteen seventies. And the one thousand nine hundred eighty S. Much of this resistance was headed by the African National Congress or ANC at the time the ANC was a completely underground movement. The South African government forbade them from meeting and did not even allow newspapers to mention them by name. That didn't stop it from advocating for the end of apartheid occasionally through attacks like the Church Street bombing Abubaka is mile the head of the units. That planned the attack later applied for amnesty along with several other former. Mk Agents. He took responsibility for the civilians injured and killed in the attack saying we did not target civilians however the policy of the ANC at the time was that we could not for the sake of saving. A few lives be prevented from striking at the power of State. The apartheid state in response to criticism that the attack was senseless is mild defended his unit on the grounds that there would have been no violence if not for apartheid. The attacks political intent he claimed was to shake the citizens who benefited from apartheid out of their apathy. He said we once he wants to come out of their comfort zones and feel the pain and suffering of the black people we wanted to bring them to their senses violence between the ANC and the government's continued throughout the nineteen eighties. Prime Minister Pita Villain BERTA declared a state of emergency in one thousand nine hundred eighty five but his support was increasingly threatened by the growing instability. Ruiter resigned in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine and soon after the ANC was legalized political prisoners. Such as Nelson Mandela where released and talks to end apartheid began apartheid legislation was repealed in. Nineteen ninety-one in two thousand one the seven surviving form. Mk operatives including Buba is mile. Were granted amnesty for their role in bombings throughout South Africa including the Church streets attack. The judge's decision contains a list of all the victims of the various bombings caused by these men. It should come as no surprise that the Church Street bombing has the longest list of names. Memorials still held at the sites where nineteen men and women lost their lives. A number of those who attend these rallies insist on laying blame at the feet of Nelson Mandela. Who was in prison at the time of the attacks? One of these memorials held in two thousand fifteen featured because insisting that white South Africans need to arm themselves and stop getting murdered. Of course the number of black South Africans murdered over the course of apartheid is far higher than the number of whites state-sanctioned violence and legally privileged white citizens spilt blood every day for almost half a century apartheid has less caused that even today thirty years later. A far from healed events like the Church Street bombing remain fruit and complicated but grappling with the past and facing. Those complications remains a point of hope. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission Amass Restorative Justice effort to share the story of apartheid both black and white tapped into that hope established in one thousand nine hundred ninety six. The commission has been loaded internationally. As a crucial component of South Africa's transition to free democracy today following in the footsteps of the Commission. The Institute for Justice and reconciliation is still working to continue the difficult task of healing. I'm Vanessa Richardson. Thanks to Alistair for joining me today. Thanks for having me. You can find my podcast. Kingpins defy all wherever you listen to podcasts. Today in true crime is a podcast original. You can find more episodes of today in true crime and all other podcast originals for free on spotify not only does spotify already. Have all of your favorite music but now spotify is making it easy for you to enjoy. All of your favorite podcast originals. Like today true crime for free from your phone. Desktop or smart speaker to stream today in true crime on spotify. Just open the APP and type today in true crime in the search bar at podcast. We're grateful for you our listeners. You allow us to do what we love. Let us know how we're doing reach out on facebook and Instagram at par cast and twitter at podcast network? We'll be back with a brand new episode tomorrow in True Crime. Today and true crime was created Max Cutler and is a podcast studios original. It is executive produced by Max Cutler. Sound design by one Boorda with production assistance by Ron Shapiro Carly Madden and Freddie Beckley. This episode of today and true crime was written by Robert Team Straw with writing assistance by Nora Towel. I'm Vanessa Richardson.
Abul Kalam Azad born - November 11, 1888
"How do our food stories change during wartime Johnny Bistrica? Private First Class our veterans share. Where they who they thought they ate and let they miss? The military had eggs and I hated those powdered eggs. iheartradio is number one for podcasts. And it's easy to see why join US inservice service stories of hunger and more on Apple. podcasts the iheartradio APP or wherever you get your podcast as the first thing we did this day in history class is a production iheartradio. Hi Everyone I'm Eve. Welcome to this day in history class. A podcast for folks who can never never have enough history knowledge. Today is November Eleventh Twenty nineteen the day was November eleventh. Eighteen eighty eight scholar poet and leader of the Indian Independence Movement Ebel Column Assad was born. His father was been golly Muslim scholar and his mother was an Arab and the daughter of scholar in one thousand nine hundred Assad right and his family moved to Calcutta India. Assad was educated at home by his father and other Islamic scholars who taught him religious sciences classical Arabic Persian version in order to he was also taught philosophy and math. His family background meant that he had to pursue traditional Islamic education. But he also did a lot of self study beyond his traditional education and he learned English world history and politics as he studied more he became disillusioned by some dumb religious dogma. Humira Zoo lake begun when he was thirteen years old. By the time he was a teenager. He was already invested in journalism. I see traveled through Afghanistan. Iraq Egypt Syria and Turkey. He met revolutionary activists and developed radical views. He became an Indian nationalist list. He opposed the partition of Bengal in nineteen zero five and began to advocate for people uniting in the Freedom Movement against the British he was critical of the British Raj rush and of Muslims who focused on communal issues that he believed were not as important as national freedom in nineteen twelve Assad began publishing a weekly or language language journal called all. The Journal was Aunty Britain and criticised India Muslims who were loyal to the British Assad encouraged Muslims to fight for independence dents and encouraged Hindu Muslim unity. The government banned all hall but Assad just started another publication so British officials invoked the defence Vince of India. Act Against Him. A law used to shut down the activities of nationalist and revolutionaries by Nineteen Sixteen Assad was put on house arrest in Ranchi and detained there until January of nineteen twenty during this time he wrote an autobiographical text call. Toss Kierra once he was released east. He was active in the kilo. Fat Movement in the movement Indian. Muslims and nationalist pressured the British government to preserve the position of the Sultan of Ottoman Turkey. As the the Calif of Islam as odd worked with Gandhi and the Non Cooperation Movement which organized mass acts of nonviolent civil disobedience to encourage for integrate regret India's self-government he urged people to boycott British schools. Government offices and products in Gandhi became close and Assad participated in many campaigns including the salt march. He committed to nonviolence and became a key link between Gandhi and the Muslim community in nineteen twenty three. He became the youngest person to be elected. President of the Indian National Congress a political party that dominated the Indian independence movement. He also served on the Congress Working Committee and as General Secretary on more than one occasion over the next couple of decades Assad was arrested and imprisoned several times in nineteen forty two he. Congress leadership were arrested for their support and application of the quit India movement which called for for rebellion against British rule in India and demanded independence after world. War Two ended in India gained its independence. The partition of India along religious Legis lines became an issue that Assad opposed he supported confederation optimus provinces with their own constitutions and advocated for Hindu Muslim mm unity but British India split into India and Pakistan in nineteen forty seven from nineteen forty seven until his death in nineteen fifty eight Assad was India's First Minister of Education. He promoted secondary education literacy and education of women and impoverished people. Assad it was awarded India's highest civilian award the Retina in one thousand nine hundred. I'm east coat and hopefully you know a little more about history today than you did yesterday. If you've seen any good history means lately you can send them to us on Social Media at T. D. H. fee feet podcast. Or if you're so inclined you can send us a message at this day at Iheart Media Dot Com. Thanks for listening to today's episode. We'll see you again tomorrow For more podcasts my heart radio versus the iheartradio APP apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows iheartradio brings you some of the biggest podcasts of all time like stuff you should know and stuff you missed in history class plus the hottest podcast of the last year like the Ron Burgundy podcast disgrace link and monster the Zodiac killer. Not only does iheartradio produce the most popular podcast in the world but now the free iheartradio APP is the fastest growing up for listening to your favorite podcasts. Over two one hundred eighty thousand podcasts. All easy to find and free to listen to on the APP or anytime at iheartradio dot com.
COVID-19 fears force markets even lower
"Financial Markets Tumble again as corona virus worries. Spread live from London. This is the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service. I'm Victoria Craig. Good Morning. European shares have recovered some of their steep early losses. The Pan European Stock. Six hundred index is down one point four percent after falling nearly three percent in the first hour of trade. Today that follows declines of seven tenths of a percent across most of the major averages in Asia countries including the. Us are making contingency plans for a corona virus pandemic as the illness spreads from its epicenter in central China. In Hong Kong. The government announced it will give cash handouts around thirteen hundred dollars to residents over eighteen the BBC's Sharon Leal has more well as you can imagine. There's a rising cost from the corona virus outbreak for businesses around the world and of course. Hong Kong is no exception to the rule. You've also had the massive protests that really dogged. The city's economy for much of last year. So these are really measures aimed at trying to address some of those issues because it has taken a huge toll on Hong Kong's economy. It's been buffeted by recession with torrorism and retail firms. Really struggling to survive. Do People think this will work and helping bring the economy back from the brink? So you know. What's incredible is that Hong Kong are going to get a cash handout of some ten thousand Hong Kong dollars. Now that's nearly thirteen hundred. Us dollars there's the equivalent of about fifteen billion dollars in relief measures here. Everything from salary tax breaks and low interest loans for businesses aid for education the elderly and lower income residents. So they really trying to throw money at the problem which we know is not just the Karinna virus but the protests that have dogged the city the much last year the BBC sharing Lael. Thank you thank you well. It's not just Hong Kong out with a closely-watched budget today in just over an hour. South Africa will present. What's arguably the country's most important budget since the end of apartheid the BBC's Matthew Davis reports to-to any has an unenviable task. South Africa's finance minister has to the country's fiscal house in order to the extent of the ratings agency Moody's refrains from cutting South Africa's sovereign debt to below investment grade too so call junk status but to do this. He needs to cut spending and raise taxes. But that's not easy. The political pressure from within his own ruling African National Congress Party and from the powerful unions has so far prevented several finance ministers from cutting the wages of public servants. All reducing the size of the civil service raising taxes through measures like increasing is equally problematic in a country where economic growth is essentially stagnant and unemployment is pushing thirty percent and much focus will be on what Mr Lanny intends to do to sort the mess of the state owned enterprises like the power utility Eskom and the national airline who become such a drain on the public purse that continuing to bail them out was a major reason. Snp and Fitch have already downgraded South African debt to junk and if Moody's follow suit international investors will start to sell that debt and that can only make a bad economic situation worse. I'm the BBC's Matthew Davis for Marketplace Barclays is reportedly preparing to start the search for a new chief executive. That news follows the announced departures of bosses. At Three of Europe's biggest banks. Yama nonren- has been digging into the why of this story over at Bloomberg Finance. It's part of the turmoil that really is being going on in European banks for a long time since two thousand eight crisis globally Europe had multiple crises. It also had its own sovereign debt crisis and banking issues so the banks are still struggling to recover from all those and that really impacts their leadership and they cannot find the right model to relieve make turnaround so they keep changing their leadership. And so why now does this have to do with negative interest rates and slowing global growth to yes? The European Central Bank has kept negative rates. Which really hurts banks? Because when you're a bank you cannot drop what you pay your depositors. The savings accounts less than zero. You cannot pay them but you still cannot start charging little guys bring you their money. So that means that margin that banks which is the basic of banking worldwide keeps shrinking and in Europe that has shrunk so little that they cannot make money. There have been reports. Europe's main banking regulator could loosen restrictions around consolidation in the industry could mergers or takeovers. Then be the solution. The banking industry is looking for to better compete globally. The banks say that's probably one of the most important solutions alive. Ceo's have said in in conferences and other speeches that there needs to be big mergers cross-border mergers especially the main regulator. European Central. Bank is in favour of such mergers. But it doesn't work because national regulators and national governments especially have too much say on what happens to their banks and they're still too much national resistance to cross-border mergers so is one thing maybe looking at different kinds of acquisitions in the US. At least we've seen more focus on consumer finance companies as targets for takeovers Morgan Stanley. Last week said it's buying E. Trade there at reports into it could snap Credit Karma. Would those kinds of deals make European players? More competitive still still doesn't work. Because the consumer markets in several European countries are to saturated like Germany is extremely bank. There are thousands of little banks that really compete down the prices of everything a bank can offer and Audubon cannot compete there so even with the consumer banking there needs to be cross border mergers because the problem is the north of the U. Has a lot of extra savings like Germany or Holland or the Nordic countries in the south like Italy France other countries. They need the money flowing south but it doesn't flow. Yaman honor on senior writer Bloomberg Finance. Thank you thank you. Finally Ruthless Organization and unparalleled communication are skills. Harry Potter fans need to work at wizard world on the digital team. That is Warner media is looking for social media editor proficiency in charms and spell casting not required in London. I'm Victoria Craig with the marketplace morning report from the BBC World Service.