4 Episode results for "Natalie Starkey"
Cosmic Queries Asteroids and Comets
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From the American Museum of natural history in New York City and beaming all space and Vic is startling. We're science and pop culture alive. This is star talk on your host, Neil degrasse, Tyson your personal astrophysicist and today is a cosmic queries edition of star talk. And I've got with me co host Mark Norman, Mark nice the first timer. Hey big fan here. Your local New Yorker local got lost in the museum like an idiot. If you have to get lost anywhere. Let it be the American Museum of natural history. That's true the day. Yeah. Terrified you don't want to get lost at night. Now. I sadly, I was using my night at the museum knowledge. Oh, I've seen the movie using your your your coordinate system from that movie Boyd. Nobody we got here in one piece, which is excellent. Today's topic is comets and asteroids, and I know a little something about it. But I don't know as much as I should know about it to carry this episode alone. So we went in for backup nice backup and is a good friend of ours. Who's been a guest before Natalie Starkey, Natalie? Welcome back to star talk. Hi, Neal scrapie here. Thanks for having me. We've got you online. You are in Chicago. Actually. No. So we've got her. You're in the UK right now. Is that correct? Yes. Yes. I am. I was over in California for about three days living that and now I'm back in the case. So I'm getting used to the rain again on the cold. I'm very miserable spoil that you were so acceptable to us over those three years forgetting that you're basically UK person. So so you're you're fishing a science communicator. That's like a title that you carry for the open university just outside of London, right? Yes. That's correct. Yes. I am. I been a scientific research for about a ten or eleven years and only go into bright saying, and I love communicating the science that I d see how I'm getting into it more seriously now, so I've got a serious science background. I know quite a bit about comets asteroids, so fully can be if he stay on hyping fingers cost. So we've got an I happen to have. I think what is your latest book called Ken? Ching stardust yet, it's asteroids and the birth of the solar system. I have in my lap. For the cameras. Product placement. Exactly. But you gotta come back one day and sign it definitely. So we called questions from our fan base on this topic of comets and asteroids. And so let's let's see what you got neither sheen arrive seen these questions. All right. Let's check them out. I'm a bit worried. I hate having my knowledge tested. If you don't have no idea go onto the next question. Okay. All right. These are pretty good. I I read a few and I'm gonna go hand pick this first ones from Kyle Ryan Toth. He's a patriot member matron. We gotta serve them. I. Yeah. Exactly what it really be possible to hollow out an asteroid and use it as a starship. Ooh, natalie. How about that one? Okay. So I'm gonna say no straight off just to be really boring, but actually one of the reasons we couldn't really do this. Well, with most stories anyways that they're either just to hauled older just don't make the rice stuff say we've got some stories made completely of metal said, I mean, trying to hold it out would be will Mason possible we've talked about in mining as in the past and we talked about in the shake quite a bit and is incredibly difficult to do that. So I think Moines a pure metal asteroid would be hauled and the others made of the can be slightly. So after we describe some of rubble pile. So that Honda just rock that's not very well, consolidated, not very well pushed together say that would basically break up is seen as she tried to stall excavating it anyway, say you'd have a better John's maybe living on the surface. But I think even then doesn't a gravity essentially say that kind of hot based to work with. I don't think we're gonna live. Side one. So the very low grab they have some gravity. Right. They do they do have a little bit. And he basically you would need to be tethered onto the surface of one. If maybe we went to the law just asteroid the story about which is Sarah's it's about thousand kilometers across and said is going to have a little bit of gravity. But if you jumped too high a knee, you would probably just end up floating off into space. So it's not gonna be a great environment to try and live on or in rather. I think the lesson there is just make your own damn spaceship. Yeah. But could you get a rudder on there? I mean could you steer? You know what I mean? I feel like you wouldn't get any any direction -ality if it's just a hollowed out. Yeah. Yeah. You need some kind of retro rockets fixed to the side of it. So that you can maneuver exactly rather than just like a homeless shelter in inside a shell. Yeah. Right. Yeah. I don't know if they were thinking of with that question. It's a fun thought. All right. Let me throw a this guy. He's Kyle you blew it. Nice job. He's smoking weed. This kid lost one pitcher on. Okay. All right. This Michael halter men can comets have different colors diversity. Maybe when the ingredients and organic molecules are different. Can they spread molecules for the beginning of life? Yeah. Okay. So the questions that so the fast, but it was about the colors of them. And. Yeah, Faucheux when we see comments in the noise sky, they glare different collision. She green is really common color in. What will we look at these objects and various reasons, and when we look a comment or an Astros may be in the noise sky with telescope that they can glare green because of the origin this in them. But actually, sometimes if you see a me coming through. So basically if you get a little bit, but asteroid break off in the space, and then head to the and you see that as a fiber will in the night sky. Sometimes they can go green. And that's for different reasons that because we have basically nickel which is burning up. So I mentioned that we had these mess last Royds and nNcholas is one of the metals that they have in them and actually when that bans the atmosphere that blaze green. So sometimes you see this kind of green streak with a meat. You're lucky if you say I've never actually seen it site by people talk about it. And so that's the nickel. Bedding up say, yes, they definitely have different colors. What was the second part of that question? I forgot no ready. This is no good. No, you're killing whether the the ingredients within the tail of a comet are are the right ones to possibly spawn life. Yeah. Definitely. So this is been quite a recent research finding Ashley we discovered with some of the recent missions to Coleman say invitation that European Space Agency send the resents mission to guy and land on the F is a comment back in twenty fourteen now, and and they discovered that was Sheikh ally scene, which is an amino acid within the comment. So we know this these complex carbon molecules within them and say does every chance that you know, they have the ingredients for life. And this is why we sort of say well in the post, we think earth was bombarded by comets asteroids from space, and so it's applause -able way that we could have full life and water because we night at these objects contain a lot of these ingredients, and we need to asteroids. Contain hundreds of amino acids, say these objects in space, very old, very cool primitive at some of the most the only things that formed in the system, but they contain all the ingredients that you need to basically build a planet and build life on that planet. So that this is why I find them such fascinating objects because they just they have everything we need that life based on what you just said. Life could be vastly more common in the universe than people might have previously suspected. Yes. So the problem is a bit of a leap from going from just having the amino acids on the basic, you know, Cobb compounds and the the molecules to getting life cases massively because the problem is we might have these ingredients in space everywhere. In fact, they might be in every sailor system. We've cats look at. But the problem is it doesn't mean that we've got life because we need some very special conditions to let those ingredients become life isn't just a simple step. So we think they're special conditions may be their common. Well, this is very true. We have any safer upset life once and that is on earth. But it doesn't mean that in the hundreds of billions of galaxies out there on the stars that there isn't life someone else. We just haven't seen it yet. No of a c we actually there's no other life in our system. We just haven't seen it. But we we're pretty sure it doesn't exist on the terrestrial planets. The ones that need to these are the rookie one's needs to the son like much Venus, malls, maybe they had life in the past. We haven't discovered that yet. But there is a chance that there is life on some of these wit moons. Like, you're putting and sell it things. So we're not sure yet. But there's a chance that could be because they've got a lot of the right ingredients full life. They've liquid water. They've got an end that basically the energetic bodies. They've got they've got heat that they're losing. So they have the energy that they could create life and help it get along and move along. So we just haven't found yet we need to go. And look when these missions to go in and look at these places. Detail, but challenging environments to send space cough tea. So that's one of our problems at the moment as Frankenstein's, do, Dr Frankenstein. You can't just have the wrong greediest you need energy. Right. And he had like lightning bolt going to Trojan on the on the neck. Yes. That's all. That's it. Wow. Well that was well done. Thank you. All right. He got killed it. All right. Let's see. Well, done also nickel. I didn't know about that. Nicole? No, please who knows about nickel brothers for the fireworks all these metals that get burned and fireworks give you all the beautiful colors. I didn't know. Wow. Nickel nickel. Copper. What else they have in their magnesium? I think Natalie. Yeah. Yeah. Yes, they basically it's a bit like doing that flame test. You might on that in chemistry labs at school. Basically. It's the same principles each element burns of the different color. But basically this is the principles. Yeah. Fireworks and everything. And what we see banning up for for Meech is we could tell a lot about what that asteroid was made of if we can see glowing. So yes fascinating. All right. All news to be. Here's another one from Ashley VG. Thi this is off Instagram. I've read that water did not originate on earth. But instead was introduced by asteroids, but wouldn't the water evaporate away upon entering the atmosphere? Burn up burn up coming in. So we. Say the whole thing is is definitely a big a pin debate still scientists currently really have a good consensus on where our will to came from. So this the purpose. If started with water from the beginning, so our planet is about four point five billion years old. It was blown out of this cloud of gas indust really close to the sun. And and we think that that early cloud contained water because we go into interstellar space where all our solar systems made from and they sure enough there is water out that as as is, of course, because it's very cold. And now that gets kind of swept up into the forming star, and then the planet suborn out of the cloud of gas and dust is around that star. So so this water I said could then be contained within the planets that we form, but the problem is the very first few millions lash billion years of of a planet infancy, it's it credibly halt. So it's basically a volcanic world. It really wouldn't be able to support a lot of water unless the water was the Quested away very deep within the planet. Maybe and and it didn't create the surface. So we know what? Sure, whether we could have from the beginning had a water or whether sure enough it will boiled off during that process. And then we need to bring it in late Ron, and we know we were bombarded by commits an asteroid's about four billion years. We just have to look at Zeph at the moon for that actually because you see that that beautiful crated. Seth is the main and actually we hit as many things as the mood was hit by. But we have this thing called plates tonics where surface gets continually change in dated and recess. So we've lost to evidence of all those craters. Whereas the means preserve them for us. So we know that we were hit in the post and sure enough as comments Nastro contained water some of them did anyway, all of them. And and they could if they didn't they were launched enough and they didn't evaporate as an explode completely on reentry through the atmosphere. And remember our atmosphere was quite different back in the day. In fact, we. We might have had much much thinner atmosphere that didn't slow them down as much then potentially. They could have bought votes with them. But for us trying to figure out where the water came from is very very tricky because we need to find out what the water looks like and it so mixed up. Now, we've got a mixture of these different types of water say if we want to measure it now, it's very complicated traffic out exactly I came from an an the comments a different or the asteroids different say, it we need to go out there immeasurable these objects then try and piece the story together. But it's it's important. We want to understand why would is here. Why are we the planet and all sailor system with liquid water? The surface is the question that we really want to answer to understand where life came from as well. So that was a yes. Favorites. That was clear. Yeah. This Donnie Hus one one three over Instagram how much material to asteroids contain and how much are they worth like a comedian? Let's sharpen that and say of the metallic asteroids that have like metals we care about can you estimate the value of them. And what is the value mean if they're out there versus if we brought them back to earth? And now they're just on earth. Like value is just values of is a flexible thing in this, right? Is that it's sort of like, the diamond is she like, there's plenty of diamond we find plenty of them and actually have been mind. But then the diamond mock is controlled because if we released days diamonds onto the market and one guy we'd fled the Mark. And the price would drop say in the big diamond company, stay will not to happen. So they control that Marcus. They it's sort of the same thing with these asteroids and one strata cater this mission a NASA mishmash. She going to an asteroid who'd sixteen psyche. And it's make purely metal. We don't understand a lot about Sesto. But it's quite large. And actually the team the planning to go into this asteroid estimated that is worth ten thousand quadrille. Billion dollars a naturalist within that. So basically, if they were to mind that whole asteroid which would be impossible because it's too large. We we have no way of doing this at the moment. But if we fail to figure that out, and we will all that mess will back to earth. And sure enough we're gonna flip the market, and it wouldn't just kill the metal market would kill din tire Kona me because we didn't know what to do this. So so they're worth a lot. But one of these is we don't really know how to currently mind, we didn't know how we would extract that Messele, and we didn't necessarily want to bring it back to the planet to be honest. We would like to bring some back, but actually one of the reasons we want to mine in space is to be able to further explore space itself. So we could use these materials to watch the make things we might have a basil in the meanwhile, we actually manufactured materials to an spacecraft to whatever we needed in tools to actually go and explore further into space. There's a lot of economic questions around mining Stroyev's is not just the science of how we do. It is looking at how it works and what we're going to deal with. Materials that we get. Rebuttal. It's funny to just assign a value to something, which if you obtained it would not have that value. Yeah. Really? A weird economic facts. Right. Right this. So I never get money out of an asteroid. Yeah. Well, plus iron is not uncommon on earth. Right. So I'm thinking that Lee that if you are going to bring a medal from an asteroid to earth, you bring a rare metal that we can use in ways that we can't do. Now, we can't if you bring all that iron is some else you're gonna do an iron that we're not already doing with iron nice about the thing. And the thing about these asteroids is Katie contain little I am, but they contain maybe less than a percent of precious metals that things like platinum and gold, and these these metals that we use in technologies in the modern day, and nothing is they contain very low percentage of days, but that is still a lot more of these precious metals than we mine in any one year on planet because the thing is about the precious metals on earth is that distributed throughout the crust of the earth and not very well concentrated. So to mine them it takes a lot of effort. We have to dig up a lot of land in order to get these metals rather than just went to an asteroid that low easy to obtain, and they sort of concentrated and these objects so these metals that are really important because at the moment, we have a continued infinite supply say the kinds of industrial technologies, we're looking. Advanced technologies wants develop a sort held back by the fact, we don't have this infinite supply of some of these precious metals, that's the key point. Because it's not that you're just going to sell the metal and someone's going to then make jewelry out of it or something there's industry that uses metal. Yes. So it enables no matter the price it enable certain industries that would otherwise being able. Yeah. What branch we shouldn't think of it just as the metal as a pure thing. But the metal as an as an enabler of other ideas that engineers would pull out of the box. We gotta take a break. Mark. You still hear Dr Natalie Starkey still there? Yeah. Out there outside a London. Thanks for in. We're talking about asteroids and comets on this cosmic queries edition of star talk. Sienna moment. Let's say you're traveling fifty five hundred cities across the US, Canada, the UK and Germany, and you need a car, but you want to get the rental counter. Congratulations. 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Get twenty five dollars off your first trip when you sign up for Toronto and use promo code star talk at checkout. Terms apply. Unlocking the secrets of your world everything orbiting around it. This is story. Star talk re back house Macquarie's edition, Mark Norman. Oh, yes. I love it here watching you. Dr Natalie Starkey, you still with us. Yes. I'm still at. Actually. Yes. Yes. Expert on comets and asteroids, and that's our topic for the day. Yeah. I know a little bit. And she knows a lot L. Yeah. That's why we brought her on for this for this episode. So Mark my pet subjects. You've got questions on this. I got a million. Well, we took with the nickel and the iron. If you got a question to you can do it. Okay. I just wonder if feel it if unit if asteroids contain diamonds, and we mind them, we got the diamonds and diamond prices went way down on earth would women still want them. Yeah. I mean, the thing is they do contain diamonds. I'm actually more special than the diamonds. We have on earth say they're actually saw like interstellar diamonds old them even better say the system. So they, but Tony this is the purpose of the, you know, the kind of hard to find. So you probably wouldn't eat need might Crisci. She say on your ring finger some, but you know, you could tell everyone how special that it was. May. All right here. We are Kimberly dot I o on Instagram underscore can believe that I owe. How often is an asteroid come across our solar system. We actually well reading his asteroid or a comment, but there was an OJ recently cooled, a Moore Lua, and which is a Hawaiian word for ACT kind of like foreign traveler or something and and this object that appeared, and it was troubling very far throw sailor system and some astronomers in in Hawaii sore it and found it fast. And that's why go to Hawaii name and it was trumping safer. So they figured out. You couldn't have come can never originated within the system. Say aunt. She decided that it must have come from another star system. What they have no idea where exactly this to trying to figure that out. And but basically it didn't it was going to say foster didn't get captured in two sons just kind of scooted by 'em. So. Didn't end into orbit into our solar system. And this object has probably been traveling for potentially billions of years across interstellar space. We if with early solar system, it's traveled through, but it's going on this massive long journey now of coolest this object could've actually collided with the planet, and we wouldn't have seen it coming because it was going quickly, and it was relatively small. It was very dog, and it's really hard to spot. But the thing we realize now is we've spotted it because technologies go so much better at trying to spoil things in the night sky is actually probably happened before probably we've had these visitors from other parts of the United galaxy many times before but we've just seen them. And sure enough our incumbents Nastro could be out that visiting of the stall systems. It's just something that happens during the prices of fooling star and the planets around that is a little bit chaotic in say comments necessaries resent, the bits and pieces left over that didn't become a planet and sometimes because this small they can get checked it out with the sailor system. Will they get? Thrown into the sun, and they ended in a fiery death. But some of them get thrown out. And and they just end up leaving the sun's gravity, and they go into space. There's nothing stopping them that gonna keep going. So so, yeah, it's really cool that these objects if we can start to identify more of them in the future, and she looked for them than we might also missions ago. Maybe sample one one day, which would be amazing. We'll find out about the chemistry of another star system. Which is something I would be interested in and, but yeah, the moment we've seen one on. It's kind of Ghana it's exiting the solar system. And it's going on its merry way into the abyss. Wow. It's Mary way into the abyss. That was. I looked up more more. I think it means scout like a first journey person onto new land into a new place a scout. Yeah. The nice thing. Yeah. It is. It is. It is quick question may not be answerable from Paul Pimento on Facebook. Can we track where asteroids came from HS Pacific -ly where they originated? Yeah. Yeah. Definitely. So actually, I mean, this is invested in that sometimes we get a matrix ends up on the on the planet. So this is just a raw from space that will usually come from asteroid can come for another planet. If we've seen that coming three to night sky coming bending three Dama sphere. And then there's lots of basically camera networks out there now and one of them's in the deep Australian outback, and they just basically have cameras on the night sky to register these objects that coming in and what they're trying to do is figure out an exact Jack tree full them that they can basically backtrack that with mazing. Math and and actually figure out where object to originated and trying to track. It back to the asteroid belt itself. We can check calculations in the Senate way by analyzing the chemistry of those rocks. We can pick up that rock is basically anywhere landed. 'cause they've got that trajectory coming in on the cameras they can pick that rock analyze in the lab and compare it to what we know about the objects in the asteroid bell ready. Yes. It's actually possible. It's very complicated work, but it would make much progress with it in probably the lost decade or say, but yet we can definitely saw figure on we use tonight. If it came from another planet that's much easier to Akao actually came from the planet than than any old particular asteroid because those kind of billions of the mouth that it is tricky. Fewer planets. Yes, they're on their own many planets, but as probably like maybe two billion s Royds if I recall Matre in the asteroid belt say there's an awful lot of them in this millions smaller ones, and there are objects Alba, but a lot of there in these groups they're in families, then it all different they all their groups that chace minorities and where they were made they contain. It's like a twenty three and me for it is. He goes up Jewish. All right. How large does from Rene? Douglas, patriots, listen up. How large does a captured asteroid need to be in order to be called a moon and can accommodate also be captured. And yes, the fast PA I mean, in fact, it depends what you closes ameliorate Ray. Because some of the tourism selves have means around them, and we've actually started just found about two hundred means around S Strodes now cities, just smooth objects overseeing an basically attached to the asteroid in some white at the associated with it. Now, the thing about the asteroids in cells is that even the largest asteroids, we know of which is Sarah's is cool to signs of Alamein say even the biggest one, and even if you pack them all together. So you take all the asteroids asteroid bell the mood gathering. One bold 'em. They would only be. Fool percent of the mass of the means of them out there, but not very big. So if you wanted to capture and astroid will you wouldn't be capturing one of the largest ones because this sort of light thousand while hundreds of comments is in diameter say they just dodged to catch you when Nasser vet she done some studies looking at potentially capturing astroid with of a bag or something. It sounds kind of crazy, but that's literally will that sort of planning group. And and and looking at something around forty meters say it's not going to be particularly massive. And it's not gonna pay a problems if it guys very role that would still be an issue if that clotted with the planet C N, Tim's of capturing them, you wouldn't catch something really massive. 'cause you I mean if it went wrong, babe. Read in trouble 'em if that client with us. How are we not more than? I don't know anything and I'm on Molly right now. But why get hit by more, asteroids and realize it and feel it. Well, we do get hit we okay plows through Nellie creek me from wrong several hundred tons of meteor dust day. Wow. Earth just by plowing through interplanetary space. And does it make dent? No, most of it. Just just settles as dusk. Because it lost all its energy coming through the atmosphere. But it's big enough to plow. Relationship an invest relationship. So the big the asteroid this heading for the planet. All it's gonna come through down say, the the less frequently it hits the really small pieces of deaths that literally raining down all the time amend that could Mike meets rights, basically stardust, and then he gets the lodge objects like the ones that killed off the dinosaurs, for example, than they hit very frequently in every ten thousand maybe one million years will probably more in fact for ones that size. We hadn't event in Russia back in twenty thirteen. It was cold Chelyabinsk, and it was a twenty meter asteroid. M fanny large kind of like a double decker bus and that didn't kill anybody. But it did cools quite low of damage in the region. It had this big sonic bay. Is it came through the atmosphere, and actually it blew windows and everything in the town. And we didn't that was coming because it was actually quite small. We didn't we didn't see it. We hadn't smoked to date before arrive say, yes, they happen in oversleep that hit central London. I'm pretty placed central lens. And that's about sixty miles across maybe if you take great London into account, and actually that would be quite an issue if that had landed in the center of London, so it just sort of lucky that makes the planet is so empty and a little of these asteroids tend to Landon the actions, they may see them in the coals any harm. But yet they do hit all the time and just large ones nose often, we're gonna hit somewhere Russia's the place. A political statement or ju- geographic state. I don't know anything about collusion country with the largest landmass saying too. So it's going to get more asteroid than any more more comet collision. But that's what they get for conquering. You conquer you. Gotta realize you're gonna hit more asteroids go, it's all right. What else are you? Hey, we go Nedeli from Frank Cain, patriot member out of Orlando, Florida. Is there a really clear distinction between comets and asteroids? I mean comments generally of some rock in them asteroids have a lot of frozen gas in them, right? Where do we draw the line very good round? So the asteroids kind of rookie hall metallic ones classically, and then the comments is sort of the icy dusty dusty stables, or whatever you wanna call them. And but yet this sort of works is is pretty old distinction that we always fool back on. And, but it's a very classical Vive with these objects, and actually what we finding as we look at more and more of them that we've got a little asteroids that can contain quite a lot of Walter, ice and other ICES. Like, methane and things, and we have some comments the completely droid because for solve if they've been around the son-in-law of times. And and they've been basically having the volatile ICES awful time, then and they're going to be drawing. They saw there for like an asteroid say this this old misled continuing we think potentially is a continuum compositions. We've got some things definitely looked like this classical asteroid. Something's definitely like comment. Right. I see and then a low of material in between. And the moment was still trying to piece together that story of basically where these objects fold Neville will there that made today, and they will have been affected by what they've gone through in that four point six billion history since they formed say it. Yeah. Basically, we have that distinction. But it doesn't always work. But we have yet to see a metallic comet tree. But they do. Yeah. Yeah. That's very true. We haven't I mean, if you had a purely metal objects how that it's definitely an asteroid in fact in this. Ecksteen psychiatric. Did they won't get an academy? Think could be the center of a planet that was kind of blown to pieces some point in the past when law maybe collided with another asteroid say it had basically in India. We've got this metallic cool. And that's what happens to these large objects in the system they differentiate so there'd be of magma and heavy material. And that magma the metal fools to the middle of the planet. And the lighter stuff is on outsides say experiencing impacts, all if this what we call the crust mantle, which is the lightest stuff on the planet. It gets kind of blown off the surface, and you get left with this solid cool, which is very hard to break up. So that we think that's one theory of what this asteroid to be. So we can study it actually look at the core of planet, which is incredibly held to because we can't drill to the core of a planet say these objects are ready valuable scientifically for that reason. How could we film them and watch them hit each other like, there'd be great pay per view? Very cool pay per view, you could bet on them like with the mob. I got Haley. We did have a collision where there was a comment that was predicted to and of course, successfully collided with because it was predicted to do so the planet Jupiter. Wow. On Hubbell telescope and everything. Hey, oh, it was it was amazing semi the link. It was amazing. All right now, it's a comment that got ripped apart into multiple pieces. So it's like a train of cars. One after another, and they didn't all hit the same spot at Jupiter. You know, why Juba big Jupiter rotates? So it would rotate a fresh bit of surface into that next piece would hit their so by the time everybody hit there was this line of impact scars in the atmosphere Jupiter whose beautiful beautiful beautiful beautiful. I love it. But how do I just don't get? Why would not burn up in the atmosphere? What we're seeing we're seeing the residue of that collision the energy. Would vaporize the volatile, and it would also vaporize the rocks to wouldn't it Natalie? And there's a lot of energy. I definitely it sort of depends. It really depends. That thing is made. So as I said, if we just had a purely fluffy comment that was very icy. So if you match just taken a snowball and adding to it, and then compacting it's gather a little bit. If that came through our atmosphere atmosphere any planet. It will miss certainly would break up very high up and Reno cozy damage it wouldn't get to the surface. But as I said, this continuum of composition. Some of these comments are bit more rookie. So actually the move rookie in the memento companion. Instead OJ contains the more likely is to survive impact met missile. He's still too high temperature before it's gonna Malik splayed say say, this is what's hard to predict what's going to happen. So actually being able to see that one eating Jeep was worrying formative because we can actually try and figure out what it was made of and by the way, reacted to two jeeps atmosphere. So it's the same when they see, you know, heading to us if we think one's coming forest than we really want to understand what is made over. And if it's actually going to risk to us because. Surely enough, you know, if it was just made him ice probably is not going to be very harmful. Even if it's an enormous is probably not gonna just see this is why we won't understand them in more detail and understanding composition and structure as well. So we take a break back for our third of three segments of cosmic queries asteroids and competition with Dr Natalie start return. The future of space and the secrets of our planet revealed. This is star talk. Star talk. We're back cosmic queries. Asteroids. Comets addition with our friend and colleague, Natalie Starkey, Natalie phoned in from London outside a London, we miss you. Stay here for three years, and then you just left us. No, I miss California as well. But it's really far from Himes. I it's nice to be back in the rain joy. Said no one ever. She she Briggs it Brexit. Yes. Yes. So so sorry sorry. So Mark my co-host for today. What do you have for us? Here we go go. Void Walker ninety two Instagram. Are there any asteroids with their own natural satellites currently known if so how common or uncommon is this and how does the dynamic affect traff tracking and understanding trajectory of the asteroid. Nice. That makes sense earlier lean that quite a lot of stories have moons natural satellites around them, and it's probably other bits of material of that same asteroid. But when show 'cause we haven't studied them in detail, one of the problems is that we can't actually see them raise late because they asteroid themselves small NFL that means around the even smoother say we found about I think it's two hundred moons around asteroids. Now say we definitely knew that that we want to study the more detail because it will tell us more about that object is self and how the object formed do think those asteroid do you think those moons dislodged from the asteroid itself to become one option? All it could be that they captured them like say, some of the means that we see around planet Sirri the captured moon, so that foam someone else in the system to that planet, and then they succeed at planet was laude and say this gravity attracted other objects to it. Alright main for example, didn't in play formed from the itself during a massive collision about four and a half billion years ago, and it basically threw off. Orion planet, and then it coalesced would mood, and it was then Trump with the so this different ways to form them. But we need to study more of them to figure out exactly how they old. That's question. Well, said well said Richard Stenhouse from Facebook. Hi, guys, loved the show kisses. I'm enlisting on Spotify. Since September twenty eighteen whilst I'm at work. And I'm as far back as season two can't get enough. A regular Natalie to it. Anyway, my question is is there a point between stars where comets or asteroids are under no influence of gravity at all. And if they somehow lost momentum would they hang in that space till the end of time from north Wales. UK I love it. Love the question. Great question because I actually Amy founds out recently myself, some of the comments like the cloud, which is the the cloud of material outside of our kind of surrounds us this system. So everything else that is this MS on a plane on the disc will the planet little comments asteroids. And then we've got this old cloud around us, which is always icy objects of which we actually have never really seen any of them because this so far away and some of them the edge of that cloud a far away that that will not gravitationally bound to our rain sun. And they're always close to the next all systems I secure enough. I don't know what happens to that. I mean, I guess maybe some very clever astrophysicists may figure out what is happening to these objects out there. But, but yeah, they could easily be turbine. We would say they might be pushed around by the gravity of another star system. And then and then even thrown out of our sight is completely will pushed in so they actually come in and visit visit the song on the innocents system. But but that's a great question susceptible. We the sun the planets and everything that the family role orbiting the center of the galaxy among other stars. So even if you have a precariously positioned comet at the edge of this or cloud, and it doesn't have a gravitational allegiance eventually will move. We're moving past other stars. Somebody's gonna snatch it. Yes. Or perturb it and have descend back down into our star. So so, yeah, the things are always in motion. If if you're without allegiance that wouldn't be for long. I'm so. Jealous. It just to be clear or is named for a guy named John. Or who's a Dutch strana Mer of mid-century century who first proposed the existence of this reservoir of comets was he here. And then still don't really proven as such. But because we don't really seen it say, it's just say far away. We'll never get there. And, you know, even if the spaceship the now like boy aja they are not going to get that full. Tens of thousands of years say, yeah, it's tricky we go pro on one think plus this was mid twentieth century persecuted for suggesting. This this relatively modern times. Fifties right. He's not persecuting for that. At least they were very religious. Then right. Right. All right here, we go. Brit Larue also patriots. If we were to mine, a significant amount of a comet would this change its orbit? And if so how could we be sure this would not set into motion future collisions that would result at a major earth impact? Generalize. That question as we start poking around with Astra landing on them mining them. What risk does that pose to taking what was previously a safe orbit and turn it into an earth crossing orbit that could then kill us. Yeah. It's it's a huge risk is a huge risk of this is why the people that are looking at doing a probably looking at facing on the smaller asteroids all comments, if they won't comments base, generally asteroids, we talk about and because then if they were to dislodge onto an audit that was then hazardous one full planet than he would ban up in the atmosphere causes any issue. But in terms of mining them, we probably wouldn't just goes the mind than we'd want to drag them, some wet what we would consider a safe all bit and say, this might be near the moon where basically just kind of dump the stuff, and it just sort of sits that it's this gravitational sweet spot where the thing basically if it's small enough object is not going to go anywhere. And then what you could do is have a base on the mood. And go back and forth to that objects and mine it gradually, so you basically just wanna get it somewhat safe. I because sure enough if you start mining it, you all going to you probably going to change its bit in some way. And then it's hard to predict how it's going to spin. And where it's going to end up in the feature. Question. Wow. Coming fascinating stuff here. I wish I cared. When the asteroids headed your way, you'll care. That's true. We become the most important people in the world today that happens Bruce Willis movie. Yep. Yep. Generally Joe's because you guys cares that you it makes you learn. I'm gonna die alone and an idiot because. Airbud anything? I'm dead inside. All right. Doug Bartlett on Facebook. I know we have found organic material in tardy grades on asteroids. My question is are these tardy grades thriving, quote unquote on these asteroids or in a state of hibernation if alive could it be possible that to collide or contact and crossbreed organisms organisms? Okay. So I'm not entirely convinced. We have found Taty great. So asteroids nail show. That's true. Because that's. And we haven't found anything living. So these Tony greats like these crazy organisms can basically survive anything. They're insane. Big Knicks survive extreme pressures and temperatures, and they can just go into hibernation full. I think like millions of years, and they can just basically survive anything that come to life. Again. I literally this is the very edgy of my knowledge about these things this is very much Astroboy the day. But they haven't been found on asteroids. They think theory that talking about as pens Permian, where we basically looking at transposed involved materially around the stem from one objective another, and and that's one of the theories of how life to in fact, it's no that will accept it in his fantasy that, but I mean, I I believe it personally, I think that's how life with and, but there is a Trump's that basic building blocks for life. The the mole basic call been molecules came from comments nostrils in woods live. Us in that way. But the actual organisms themselves want as far as I'm concerned. Anyway, you just said that the tar grade conserve anything. So it could survive a trip through space as a stowaway in the nooks and crannies on a rock that gut catapulted from one planet to another. So you said that earlier in this program. Wow. I did. I did just say no you're saying that you're not buying it. Oh, calling you out. So I think the issues we need realize scientific pref- say we need to do these experiments. We need to take those bugs into space. And I'm I'm sure she only outside of the international space station, they've taken organisms, and that basically saying how they react to that radiation environment. Because there's no anytime precious say we didn't like radiation, all biological cells can't deal with that. We get comes from we dive right quickly. In fact, the Astros again to space. They're a much higher risk of radiation poisoning than you would be on the pundits. This. One of the problems that bothers Camacho hasn't space. So we need to do this experiments. We need to take those bugs out into space and see if they even if we can grow things out there as well. So we do that. I'm I'm no show that things come supplied in deep space. No sunlight full kind of billions of years that we that we require, but I'm may be tightly role. And every statement totally. Prefer the term special needs grades and tardy great. But yeah, I see what you do there. Well, done both you these this is quite a speed date. So so Natalie we're running out of time. Do you have any sort of reflections? Simple reflections you'd like the viewer listener to take with him as a as a lesson for this program. Yeah. I think I think, you know, someone like may you probably wondering why I'm interested in these objects? I think it's just because I'm inherently interested in where we came from, you know, on this very long of one hundred years, if we're lucky and and in that time, I think well, let's give a pump is toil life. I'd love to figure out why we hit how we go ahead. And and what we leading to offi to descendants. And if basically we may have hit because of comments Nestroy, and she in the future, we may die off because of comments now stories they could collide with us and in a devastate all of humanity only one this. These objects for many reasons because of how we go hit will say to protect us in the future. And we need to understand what these things and made off. And will that all bits are and understanding so much detail? So that we can actually protect the planet. I think it's important. I think everyone should be concerned about it. But not worried I think we need to be worried. It's more we're gonna dine an asteroid impacts, although it could happen. But I think is something we need to be concerned with for the for the features leaving have ruined planet to maybe it will be ruined in other ways. But we're not gonna leave it ruined with an asteroid impact in the future. And we can do something about it and asteroid before hits. I'd like to think I just picking up on your point Natalie. It is intriguing and intriguing and underappreciated fact that asteroids and comets may have been the bringers of life the ingredients of life, but perhaps even life itself, and yet they can also serve as harbingers of doom for the very life that it brought well. And that is causing perspective you've been listening to possibly even watching this episode of star talk. Cosmic queries, asteroids comets addition. I wanna thank Natalie Starkey friend and colleague who went back across the pond. Good luck. In your your new science, teaching exploits at the opening university in the UK and always heavy and how how people find more of you out there. I am stocky start us on Twitter Instagram. Starkey stardust great band from the sixties. And you also one of our star took all stars. I am. Yes. So I have other Shays that you can go and listen to you. I've had about four now. Go some water in the solar system and stroke lot of asteroid staff. I to the malls insight mission, which is actually malls. At the Maidment said as if he thinks he can go check out very good and linked today. Shays in the description. Excellent. Mark your you get around. I get around. I'm on the road every weekend doing road. Again, my comedy stylings and a comedy club near you. And go to Mark Norman comedy dot com. Oh, inciteful and clever and funny. I love what more. Can we ask your for what the world needs today ear big inspiration year? Traffic light tweet. That's a joke. That's a bit. Yeah. I'm obsessed with jokes. And that's a great. Joe tried joking. But it's you know, they don't always land. But I'm coming from. I love it. I love. All right. That's been star talk. I've been your host Neil degrasse Tyson your personal extra physicists. And as always I bid he to keeping. 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Harvard professor Avi Loeb on whether aliens sent a mysterious comet to Earth, and why we should keep an open mind
"Hey parents if you're looking for some screen free family fun while you're staying home. Check out the story store podcasts. From cbc kids and cbc podcast new story store. Shorties are released every week. These short original and hilarious stories fit anywhere in your day from breakfast to bedtime. The story store available on smart speakers. or wherever. you get your favorite podcasts. This is a cbc podcast. Hello i'm matt galloway. You're listening to the current. Let's talk about something smaller in a way but in sort of mentally another thing that will keep you up at night and kind of make your brain explode is this thing came from deep space not in our system not from your cloud or your time ever an object from inter stellar space has been observed to visit our solar system. That stephen colbert and astrophysicist. Neil degrasse tyson in two thousand eighteen and they're debating the origin of that thing. Now this things gotta be like a ship right. Gars don't come journeying into solar system so why it has to be cohiba cigar so so yeah asteroids. We know many of them if not most of them are loosely held together rubble piles and if they come near gravitational sources tidal forces can stretch them single we get from it as elongated but it's probably a rubble pile stretched into that shape Because you don't get that by by nature you don't get that. Yeah that's why it's manmade alien alien alien made you want that to be the fess up. You want that to me. Of course. I want that to be okay. What that thing actually was continues to be a source of great debate. Regardless i got a name. The name is omaha. More the hawaiian word for a messenger arriving from afar avi loeb has an idea of what it was an idea that has a lot of other scientists thinking that that was really out there. Avi loeb is an astrophysicist. Who has done. Pioneering research into black holes. And cosmology worked alongside the likes of stephen hawking and is the frank b baird junior professor of science at harvard university. His new book is called extra terrestrial the first sign of intelligent life beyond earth avi loeb. Good morning good morning. Thanks for having me. Thank you for being here. Where would you come down in this debate that we just heard between the scientists on the talk show host. Well actually. i wouldn't call. Neil degrasse tyson a scientist for the past twelve years or so. He hasn't ridden singer scientific paper. It's a little bit of scientific people at publicize science and where i come from. He's actually the evidence that we have. And that's what guided my inference and we can discuss why i concluded that this object could potentially be of artificial origin based on it's weird properties. It didn't look anything like a comet or an asteroid that we saw before from the solar system. So why don't you just briefly. Describe what Memorial was what was it a more. I object that we spotted near the earth that came from outside the solar system. And we know that because it moved too fast to be bound to the sun. It was discovered by the stars telescope in hawaii and as a result the name that it was given is a means scout in the hawaiian language or more more and i thought just like near the grass. Tyson was trying to argue that. It's probably a comment. And the the only problem with that idea is that there was no cometary tail. Comments are rocks covered with ice and when they get close to the sun the ice warms up and evaporates and you see a cloud of gas behind the object and Unfortunately we haven't seen anything like gaz behind it and the spitzer space that looked very deeply and couldn't trace any carbon based molecules dust around the subject to a very high significant so in fact there is no way that this object could have been a comment so definitely not a comment of the type that we are familiar with then astronomer said okay. So maybe it's just the rock. The problem we thought is that it showed them an excess push away from the sun which is usually associated with commentary. Evaporation the rock effect pushes iraq away from the sun but but there was no cometary tail so the question arose as to what gives it this extra push and third thing is was tumbling the brightness from this subject from reflected sunlight changed by factor of ten and that means the object is tumbling the length of the object projected on the sky was at least ten times longer than it was wide projected on the sky. And just keep in mind that you have a piece of paper tumbling in the win. Even though the papers razor thin what these projected as you look at it is usually not raise the thing because it's unlikely for it to be exactly a john and so i fucked of ten to one between the long axis in the short axis in the image. That you see is quite extreme now in the famous cartoon it was the picture that if it cigar-shape and that's what neil degrasse tyson was talking about that's wrong. A detailed analysis of the light reflected from the object shows that the ninety one percent confidence level. It's most likely flat. So this shape in terms that even i a humble radio host could understand. What do you think if it wasn't those. What do you think it was. Yeah so the only thing. I could think of that. Explains the extra push is that it's pushed by reflecting sunlight and for that it has to be very thin like a sale. And we're familiar with the salem. A bolt that is being pushed by the wind. The reflecting air and the same thing happens when light bounces off surface. It gives it the next report and where this is called the light sale and we are currently developing this technology for space exploration. It offers the advantage of not needing to carry the fuel. And so it's quite possible that what we saw technological artifact the light sale or or even just the surface layer of some technological spacecraft when you say technological artifacts and it's not like it would be like some sort of probe that's coming to look at. It's something that l. Something else created. That is passing by us right. It was created efficiently now. Nature doesn't produce such a thin structures. And you know other other. Astronomers took seriously those weird properties of this object tried to expand but all the scenarios that works suggested invoked the something that we have never seen before like football field sized chunk of frozen hydrogen hydrogen iceberg. We've never seen anything like it. Before and also it would have not survived. The journey and other sedition was. Maybe it's a cloud of dust. Sort of that is one hundred times less dense than air again. It would not likely survive the journey but anyone that tried to explain what we observed head to expand it in terms of something that we have never seen before and keep in mind this is the very first object that we we see visiting our solar system from outside and so i said you know if it's nothing that we have seen before why not contemplate the possibility that it's of artificial origin. Now the only people that claim business as usual of those that do not pay attention to the details of the evidence that we have. There are a lot of people who when you said that why not say that. It might be something of artificial origin. There are a lot of people who said that you know. The math doesn't add up a science. Isn't there the evidence isn't there. Natalie starkey analyzes comets and asteroids at the u. case open university and on the podcast star. Talk radio she said this. I love your call. Dagan saying extraordinary extraordinary evidence and he died the evidence to really strongly support the idea. This is an alien spatial aliens issue junk or something like that. What we have to see. I rule out all the more natural observations that we watch ideas about what we could be reloaded without that extraordinary evidence as carl sagan. Love to talk about. Why do you believe what you do. Okay well i discuss it in my book and then what people call extraordinary ease in the eyes of the beholder. Some people regard black horse as ex rolling others would say blackhawks. Just a consequence of gravity. What we need to pay attention to is evidence and when the evidence shows something anomalous and this in tiffin evidence just to remind you and this in this scientists that you just. We just listened to. I haven't seen a paper that you wrote about this subject. I wrote maybe a dozen papers on this subject and on the significant events that we have so the people that dismiss the evidence just because it's not extraordinary enough those people that do not attend to the evidence at all. They haven't written a single paper on this subject. They just dismiss it because of prejudice because it takes him out of the comfort zone and i can mention an anecdote. We had a seminar at harvard about this object or more and at the end of the seminar. I left the room together with a scientist. A colleague of mine that works for decades on rocks within the solar system. And he said to me. This object is so weird i wish it never existed now. I was appalled by this because in science you should accept whatever nature shows you because sometimes nature imagination is greater than ours. We should be open minded instead. What you see. Are people like that scientists that you we just listen to that would not even pay attention to the evidence would never write a paper on this evidence. I mean is the grass dash. Did not right even a paper in astrophysics in general. I'm not talking just about this object. Okay and they would make the statements asifa. They defend science. But in fact if you look at the data's they didn't even do the science related to this subject. Your book i wrote papers that were accepted for publication. The main prestigious journals in fact my first paper on this object was accepted within three days for publication. And i'm discussing these subjects black just like i discuss any other scientific topics that i worked on lock horse the early universe and we should engage in dealing with the facts. The evidence rather than with a prejudice. Now i think we need extraordinary evidence to say that something is unusual. If the reason anomaly that shows up in data we should discuss possible explanations. Let me just ask you. Because i apologize for interrupting. But you talked about the idea of prejudice in somebody had described. Your book is in some ways a plea to keep an open mind. Do you need to have that open. Mind that sense of wonder in the work that you're doing that that desire that in almost to believe after proven otherwise there of belief to me Doing science is maintaining childhood. Curiosity europe basically supposed to learn from nature through through the evidence that nature gives you something new so many times scientists prefer to be in their conference on so they prefer to stay within what they know already and not accept that they may be wrong. Okay but if you look for example. The career of albert einstein in the last decade of his career when he was the most experienced scientists ever and the most brilliant scientists of the twentieth century. He made three fundamental mistakes. He argued that blackhawks don't exist. He argued with regional waves. Don't exist and he argued. The quantum mechanics doesn't have a spooky action at the distance. These were proven wrong by experiments. Later on. now when you're working the frontiers you are something's wrong. That's the lesson one has to learn and one has to keep an open mind rather than ridicule any suggestion. That takes you away from what you believe in. Because that's what the philosophers did too hill when he argued. I if you look through my telescope you will realize that the earth moves around the sun and they said no. We know that the sun moves around the earth and they put him in house arrest and the only thing that that accomplished was to maintain their ignorance. You know reality doesn't really care whether we ignore it or not. We just maintain our ignorance by refusing to accept anomalies. Just about at a time. We just have a few seconds left. You think that more and more was a one off or would you expect more of these things to pass by us. Oh many more because we looked only for a few years. When i find an aunt in the kitchen i get the firm because the must be many more out there and so if there are more out there what should we be doing to ensure that we have the technology not just to see it the next time. Perhaps it comes by but to do something else. Oh it's very simple. We just need to find an object on its way towards us rather than away from us and when it comes in our direction we just need to send the spacecraft equipped with a camera that we take a photograph of this object. Close up photo. There is the saying a picture is worth a thousand words. I'm sure that my colleagues that are very critical right now when they see a photograph of something that doesn't look like iraq. They would be convinced that happened in your lifetime. Yes it would happen within a few years if we just use our telescopes rather than put blinders on our eyes and claim that we know the answer in advance like many of these people. Say it's a pleasure talk to you. Thank you very much mike. Oslo is the frank b baird junior professor of science at harvard university. His new book is called terrestrial of the first sign of intelligent life beyond earth for more. Cbc podcasts go to cbc dot ca slash podcasts.
Cosmic Queries Oumuamua
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Tyson has a master class of his own on scientific thinking and communication. And we all know how important is in these times. I'm not the only one who's benefiting from my masterclass. My brother is an avid tennis player. And i sent him the gift of a subscription so he could get school by serena. Did i tell him that. It was a part of my subscription. Well let's just say the answer rhymes with ho ho ho from learning how to write anything from book to a screenplay to communicating with your boss to how to make dinner worthy of a michelin star. Or just the best scrambled eggs this side of jumpy chicken. There's a masterclass for you. I'm in the middle of course on sex and communication. Because i'm good at one of those things masterclasses accessible on your phone web or smart tv. You can get an annual membership to master masterclass and give one to someone else for free. Get unlimited access to every masterclass for you and a friend right now just go to masterclass dot com slash talkradio. That's masterclass dot com slash star. Talk radio welcome to star. Talk your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide star talk begins right now. This is star talk cosmic queries edition and i got my co host. Chuck nice jerk neil. It's always good to have you chuck. It's nice to have to be here so today we're gonna talk about. Oh moore a more. Is that a new disney film. Lash i only know about it from just what i've read. I don't think much beyond that about us. We bring in one of our experts at large. Of course we've got natali starkey natalie. Welcome back to start talk. Hijack is greedy. Gets back. nice to see that you're an expert on like stuff. That's not planets in a solar system. Is that a fair characterization family about finance but yeah i i like comets and asteroids the latest small bits and bobs if the same system the stuff that could render us extinct one day naive these things. So if there's there's a comment natalie headed ford's towards earth. That's that's not good for you. If that happens that would be great but actually it would be if we find very away from athens songkhla and bring it back. Full the scientists to study these things and that would be great while sorts. So you're you're going. To be on. Bruce willis you don't you don't just want to save the earth you want to get some science done. What you're doing another science that i think we let an awful lot Excellent you save humanity and civilization. Can you bring back a sample from my. It's a bit of a different movie. A different movie completely. Different so natalie. You you have the title of cosmo chemist. I didn't even know you could have that title. And how many other people know that. That's even title or something to aspire to. Who are in school and you do. It was anything you could do. Always young i had no idea went through my degrees which were geology and then ended up doing a phd in going to chemistry. Essentially looking volcanoes old volcanoes in the arctic and then it was doing off to that came kind of consider a purpose scientists where. I'm working for money and i'm getting painted science. That can cause me chemists. Because i just ten geochemistry and studying rocks from space so i was gonna say the board with earth. Just say you got bored with earth what she can do this now. I actually advocated absolute ashen and. Yes i when. I saw this advertise. It was working on samples from the stardust mission which was a nasa comment. I was fascinated. Say it was a steep learning curve for me. Because i never studied as for as roma's or anything like that. Before and but essentially the rocks room same earth to space rocks contain the same sort of rules and the way that we analyze them. The lab is exactly the same which is kinda funny out different things about them so if they're all the same then what's the point. Why why you know. We're in space just like every other. Celestial body is in space and made the same stuff. Why are you studying check. That reminds me of john stewart on his show back when he did the daily show. He says nasa has no. Yeah i think it was jon. Stewart said we've we went to mars and we just discovered water on mars for a billion dollars. We discovered what comes out of my faucet is what are the main reasons we always is that we can't find out a lot about the solar system that will within by studying our implants. We can say your income. It's fine about how kind of how it forms and what happened over the last few billion years but we chicago back in time. Not well because we've got plate. Tectonics ourselves is constantly changing. Which means that we still have lost. That really old history about rain planet. Was he with just to be clear when you say constantly. Changing you mean on a geologic tiger scale plate tectonics tectonics dragging cities down into volcanic magma. Right this is slow process. I mean listen. There's always hope sorry. I interrupted keep going as actually not that should be because i often times cows millions if not billions of years and that becomes normal to geologists and space science. They but yeah he's actually. It's a nice sniper s. Maybe the place that was sitting on these maybe one. Maybe ten centimeters pay years going very quickly. So it's a very small small amount of moving and it's even very long timescales. But that time things change they constance move and they got you know take down into the earth and melted essentially and we need is producing new lands. Which would have been there before. And it's a problem because it means if we want to go back four and a half years. When our planet i was born and became. The planet is very hard to do that with the rocks that we have on earth because they don't really solve all of that history astros example. They pretty much haven't changed since they fall contrary little bit processing. But what will say is that. They're essentially the same as when they formed for half a million years ago so studying them we can understand a lot more about all the planets including earth and we find out things about you know even how life goal to. That's one of the ways that we find out. These answers say staying spacewalks is really valuable and getting samples. Earth is also invaluable dwts truck. That was a big you to you. Just want to make that car cut. Nah nah i chart. It's gotta be some. Some reason makes sense. What speaking of back though When you look at this since we are constantly having a makeover here on earth and you're getting these snapshots from these kind of frozen in time pieces. That are out there when it comes to those pieces of this for both of you is most of that floating out there asteroids fragments. Are they a cadillac. Space out to to use a word like natalie is that space rubbish is that is that drivers ratio view is that is that is that is that is that like the waste of what's leftover in formation or is that The remnants of something cataclysmic natalie. He just accuse you of studying rubbish. Just want to ease the building blocks planets many of the asteroids are the same as the planet's miss the same objects is when they formed but the planets then grown so large they undergo maroon processing. So you take the nausea rookie planets. Who what we say differentiated into layers because they go sign pig that they've melted their insides. And she that you need to iron minerals south to the middle of them and the silicate leisa minerals acid making a crust. Say that they're very complicated. They've actually been praised. Slow where the asteroid is much smaller. Some on the whole. They didn't do that so their leftover building blocks we think of rock says being heavy and you're describing them as being light floating to the top. Please explain max just for those of you listening. Don't try to go floating with rocks again. That's how that's how to make sure the body doesn't flow back up yeah exaggerate. We're on the surface in facts because you the center our planet where she can't d. physically but we we know what's down there by studying rostrums from space by and j. physics and earthquakes to figure out what's down we. Essential part is very dense. It's made of iron nickel very dense and heavy. And and as you move out with you get life as you go and then eventually get to wear an atmosphere which is almost he made a very light elements like oxygen and nitrogen and things like that. Now that happens auto s every planets that you find so relative predation in terms of the density of the that you find but when you go to the asteroid. They tend to be eight or a few differentiated in made these layers but the whole the smaller objects that didn't leave at the same all the way throughout if we saw him for that we can learn about basically what is the average composition of our planet if you miss all back together again and take away. There's layers which is really valuable because otherwise we don't know what kind of are starting composition is. It's always like taking the cake take cake apart. Essentially we're make all these different ingredients. We can start to see what was indicate and we understand kind of what we started with what we're up constituent ingredients which is really important. Okay so i got a question for you so we discovered we you know. The astronomical community discovered an object named that apparently came from outside of our solar system and was passing through so everything you just said would give us no insight into that object presumably because it's not from the solar system. Yes i one of the great things about spaces that we think well basically we have laws of physics and we think we understand some of those pretty well and we expect that if we going to another star system outside of us in the system. We expect things to be pretty similar now. Notice stars can defer and therefore temperatures and as sizes different. The things that are around them the planets and the objects that all around them could be very different to what we have here. We've spent on the whole things to be pretty similar wherever we go swimming. The very edge of acid system. What we find there is the comments which we haven't really spoken value. We speaking about the asteroids the rookie parts about leftover building blocks the planets but when he goes to the communists they're very light. These usually made a rain. Light elements contained brock. Us for the contain a lot of ice in which could be water is my carbon dioxide is all sorts of different types of isis to accommodate. Ice we're familiar with that as dry ice. We'll call it. Yeah now so we will lots of cold materials because these objects are really far from the science that some of them a safe office. We've never seen there in these. It ought cloud. Which is the hypothetical thing is. We've seen it but we think it must be a low of objects out there from quite small. We don't think there's anything the size of a planets out because we haven't seen again. We probably should have if foul something very large out. All the whole these objects quite small quite cold and they formed basically at the start of the citizen. They formed a see some formed. And they're basically part of this cloud the sun formed from a little samplers of an interstellar cloud. Essentially now these things very loosely gravitationally bound to our son because they say far away so what can happen with these objects. Sometimes they actually get injected from those systems and this is one option for a memorial might be it might be a rogue comment from another planet. She actually planetary system. That's been basically not out of utah. Bit sitting far away from his son and it just kind of got thrown into the hinterlands of interstellar space and loss and not bound twenty staw gravitationally travelling through space ever and ever and sell. It made me passes through another system without even realizing that. Same system sat. Wow so it's basically a vagabond that's cool. Yeah and so. And this is made possible because at the outer reaches of the solar system the sun's gravitational grip is only very slight on these objects. So it wouldn't take much to dislodge one. From the grip of system it can be just launched by passing thank year net sheen composites as they all around the sunday. Posses of jackson literally just push them out patiently or actually within the galaxy a passing star coming passing by our solar system. And can actually gravitationally pull these objects away some so far from the sun that they really aren't held on very well they're really loosely within our system to take a break in a couple of minutes before we get to the cosmic queries part of this. But tell me how how. Little mover got named. It was spotted actually always by chance and by a telescope in hawaii who stars and it's really complicated might cover it. Sounds is kids. One just to be clear. Pan starrs is the acronym not no. He's actually and because it was found by a hawaiian telescope thinking a hawaiian name. And i think is is the first part of it which means as scalped messenger in in hawaii and then move at means kind of like a visit from from the distant past. It's kind of so. Is there joyous here doing reconnaissance exactly what it's supposed to be right. This is nothing more than an alien reconnaissance missing. Check us out okay. Since built into the name hobo moi so very cool and is that does that have to be officially accepted by the the nomenclature committees of the world. Noise official name is a much friendlier name but we tend to give any object in system or at anywhere. We tend to give it a kind of a codename which would tend to be used in papers and scientific paves published. So that's quite interesting story because it's had its kind of proper name changed a few times because originally it was thought to be a comment so it had a scene taito and then it became an asteroid became an eighty two and then signs decided it came from interstellar space and so became an is title with and then the the year off drip so basically you name it was discovered so he's gone through his name changes but it's now currently ongoing in his name. We'll just to be clear. It would be the i i. It's only one in fact. The name st onesie twosies. We've been found warm. This is number one but number eighteen. Wow there is no we will. We will think about that. After the break we're gonna take a break from start to cosmic queries. We got natalie starkey our solar system combat expert with us who's answering all our questions about the solar system vagabonds and especially a move. We'll be right back. Exploring the secrets of the cosmos is a fascinating pursuit. 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You can find high risk photos including floor plans and memories local neighborhoods images and more plus apartments dot com has detailed property descriptions so people can find out more about apartment communities the range of amenities and reviews from other renters in neighborhood information. They've helped over forty million people find homes and have put more renters into new homes than any other site visit apartments dot com to find a new base without leaving your place. Hey i'm roy hill percival and i support star talk on patron bringing the universe down to earth. This is star. Talk with neil degrasse tyson starbucks macquarie's the mood edition. And i've got natalie starkey here friend star talks a. She actually is the author of our current space show at the hayden planetarium. The theater is closed. Obviously during the covid shutdown but when we re open you're all invited to come check it out and natalie you've also written a book catching start us beautiful title. I love it came out a year and a half ago or so two years ago and was that that book sort of capture your whole sort of research life studying the league combat mission emissions say my inspiration to start as machine like always been fascinated by it was the first mission to class a comment soil samples in space and bring them back to earth and i was effects an awful on the recession issue. Which was a european mission which didn't click samples. But what they did instead was tweet onto the side of combat and stab so that was kind of the next essay would have liked to have samples. Been really expensive to do that. Technically challenging was starting to do it now with asteroid quite a few times when rex hi abuse emissions but this was a few years ago announced so the best we could do is literally per landing bartram besides decent experiments on which is just fascinating to me. Actually landing on these places. Landing mind saw this comic where some rover that went to mars and do these alien standing on mars but the kind of look like native americans right and they say there goes the neighborhood coming back. But anyhow natalie you title get this correct the officer for outreach and public engagement at the university in the uk so that means any time we call you. You have to show up and your title outreach publican gays so i'm just going to hold you to that. Yeah kind of. That's i would. I would get them to change that. Because that means that it's almost like being like my name is chuck nice and so like it difficult to be like you know an ass because the moment because the moment i have a bad day people like i knew he was a nice. I know it all your you know so now you have to engage people you have to you have to have. I love doing lonzo. That's why i if he is going to give a fulltime science research. Because i found out she. I just love talking to people about this and is always fascinated me and i've written our second burke or space science and issues lofting. Come out here niobe out on september twenty twenty. One soldier be raised about space volcanoes. Say love that. And there's no book on that night is yet. It's an ice volcanoes in there as well as firing isis is only the hubble gays cova. The volcano is actually on a planet. It's just not a bulk ainhoa floating through the bag of potato because you know i thought it might have been like movement is you. Don't just this slow through cosmos out snuffy so weird that would be a science fiction stories. embarrassing fact because they volcanoes just do not actually connected to anything below a profound ignorance of geophysics if this just of all quedo spewing like a look like a cosmic locomotive insist out stuff from from chuck we. We solicited questions about a more. So what from our fan base. These all patriot aunt. If not definitely start with him yes we will always start with patriotic. And i think most of these question. Let's do pizza patrons and so let's get right into it and Let's see here at. This is curtis lee zadok. Maybe that's his main. He said he says given the extreme rarity of objects zipping through our solar system when those objects are homegrown asteroids or comets what is the likelihood of another object like a moo moo passing through in the lifetime of anyone old enough to remember this recent event so what kind of frequency what we see. Could we see ask anybody looking for him. So that one if they yeah do we. What guarantee do we have that we would spot everyone that comes through as an interloper and we. Maybe we've already missed like ten of them right right. I mean fisher. We've missed probably quite a few. It's very unlikely that this is the first object to have gone through our solar system from another straw and say we show because obviously we haven't been looking for that long so the stars escape is sports. This one as i said in the last segment he wasn't actually looking for. It is looking for near earth. Asteroids serres part of our defense system of looking about what's out there around our planet and what are the objects that are close to us enhance astra's for his comments that might pose a risk to us in the future. Now it doesn't look at all of the sky all time. It can't deny it's not designed to that so it looks at portions of the sky at different times. Say there's really hi sean. So they could just miss one of these objects completely. But i also time the object that within our saying the systemic spor ordered because it kind of goes around and goes around again looks different portions of sky flowing through randomly that. We're not expecting an on orbit around. Our son is much easier to miss. Plus natalie plus Most of these describing are in the plane of the solar system. So if you're going to design a search to get the most of you're going to stick to the plane so some some coming from above or below you don't have as good sky covers their do you as i actually. We do some rain system. Don't come along that. We click plane of the solar system. The one that basically all the planets are on and only asteroid should dave and but some of the many of the comments that we could long period comets which these ones in the oil cloud which sit in basically a cloud around the systems. Have the plane of the planets. And then you've got this show of comic icy objects to comments basically and when there is coming to the system and going via the sun. I'm coming from very different. Random angles can be going quite fast and soon we do spot things as well. And but the objects that are coming from interstellar space can come from literally anywhere and the traveling very very quickly in relation to the objects that are within our system. So that's kind of fast being the first piece of evidence that we got to hold on a minute are we doing. This is for us going forward. He quickly it can't have been spent a interacting with large planet jeep. And so it's just good fauzi quickly for that. In fact i was going say quickly that it didn't even it didn't even care son was there are is massive has a huge gravity but mobutu's pass straight by it and it didn't even get pulled into it and so it it didn't have it was going to say quickly and it was just charleston today so it's also did band a little bit just not so much at all right and it was like like it took a look and then kept going. Basically a hyperbolic orbit there is an had access hyperbolic fallacies wasn't going to get captured by our son as needed commerce nestorians off and split the other ones. We just know because the problem is we do understand how many objects lost from the system like ours or from a star systems outside in the galaxy we had how much material is thrown out into interstellar space. We've make models kind kind of guess these numbers or the volume of material the size of material for example mike. Connors pulled often santa into space. You might get a planet being disrupted and broken apart by interaction with another planet something and they can get through an out but we just don't know how much is out there. Comey i objects. Do you know so we had changed. So we've got a new one and then there was one who would to borisov which was spotted. I think into nineteen eighteen. And that's the second one that is thought to be a comment at began. It's an interstellar objects. We've got to now. That i know of two in a couple of years to a couple of years. Wow we're up. We are on a roll roll. You said the second one was a comet. Now how do you differentiate between the comment from our or cloud or just you know out there. Past hanging around our solar system and interstellar from the way it comes in or what are the determining determining kenitra. She spent ten minutes explaining that funding either. Bollock orbit okay. I was it has a speed that is unlike anything that in orbit around the sun would give you. That's it that's it and now here's a question help you out or we hope you out on this. Pretend chuck asked this question if the object is at such distance from us. How do you know whether it's a commodore asteroid. What is the way. So when everything's scientists look for when they first. This'll jags was seriously found out. It seen palestine we need to get some of the telescopes looking at it to try to find out a little bit more about it was already this point moving away from the so. It was getting further and further away from us so we had to be really quick. So every few weeks zimmer. Faster very already twice as much as we think. It's a maximum of media thousand meters long and maybe hundred meters wide so i was quite a weird shape but we can come back to that and but it is quite small trying to see these things is tricky and it's not very bright to say anything dark in space is always tricky needs to reflect the sun or produces annoy. I see it now the way it can become. Bryce is east starts. Police activity of surface. Now we would expect that from comments. Because i tell you. We have the congress in the outer very icy. I made up of lots of different types of ice now when he brings clay. Something is either going to malhotra. If you bring something really hard is connect sublimate so it's gonna tend straight to say the the ice in a common when it gets close to the sun started stream the surface producing a geishas on blade around me the nucleus the rookie of the command and who sip brings us part. Who's willett so you can see this stuff really quite easily telescopes. And when they mix adds object basically gets bigger ability to reflect. Light improves. yes. It has all this as the cloud around it grows. Okay yes. I appears larger meet. We see it because it's kind of blowing for us and we'll see activity now didn't produce any khatri style activity that we could see anyway. It's the problem is we wouldn't necessarily see it because it was getting very far away. I think or assault. The other one did for jeez contract which he went went places. Sons we can. How hello it was probably had some ices somewhere within it. Strip chad from group comment from another source stem and yet for a movable we didn't say accuracy which doesn't mean isn't that it just means we can see it below the detection limits as as typically reported in scientific paper. It's never this isn't or this is is. The evidence supports that it isn't or the evidence supports that it is. Okay chuck another question. Go this is phillip. The wind is there. Is there any philip philip into enter. He said Or do want one or the other says a is there any evidence that there's more objects coming our way or i mean you kind of just said that you know that you know we really don't know but is there any evidence right now what we'll ask it another way. Did both of these come from the state or oh yes oh vastly questions. I actually did the since that one. I'd say no way. The second one actually came from ireland. Worry about how. We came from a certain region of the galaxy. Buds is hard. I know exactly where it came from. Because backtrack and time. We didn't know how long it's been traveling and the galaxy news. You could have been fifty million years traveling through space or even longer same we come from. We call pinpoint it to take him because the galaxy rotates the farther back in time. You want to trace it the more you have to sort of unscramble what the galaxy had been doing to have any sense of where it was fifty million years ago or hundred million years ago when it was a jack. City came from another sources tweet was addicted. Trains came from is hostile. It takes about two hundred million years for the galaxy to make one full rotation so anything that is you think he's been in space that long than it could not possibly come from where you think it did. Galaxy did did a whole rotation on that. He's very more of these style of objects are gonna pastor. They probably have been for eons ever since united solar system formed equally. some of the objects from aso's system will be out there doing the same thing when he thinks even about the two spacecraft. Now they're just going to go into space now and continue on and if there's any other another in other star systems and future they made and see the spacecraft to go. What is an asteroid. Oh oh it's an alien spacecraft. Oh chuck here's the good story that we're missing here is maybe there was a destroyed solar system and all their debris came towards us and we can just get the pieces and reassembled their monuments and temples. Oh look at that cosmic lego. That would be great. I'm the mice lead sting exercise lincoln. I say mardi chuck one more question before we take the next break all right here. This camera bishop says i was wondering could objects like a memorial be great opportunities to study the idea of panspermia. Good one Helmet panspermia unfold without destroying the genetic material on impact. Not of a. Because they're not that's not an that's not gonna impact but if we were to have have an object that would would impact this Meals study like that just to put this in context the two levels of panspermia you can imagine one of them is life moving from planet to planet within a solar system. And then asking whether there's enough sort of forces operating to get life from one star system to another in the galaxy so i think this question is going to sort the dilemma case on that. So now what do you have to say about that i. It's going to be tricky festival. We didn't get to study this particular objects enough long enough to even have any idea. What his main dove. We really didn't have metal. Rock really was made of say in terms of whether it contains cobbler in or any other kind of organic molecules. On now we have no idea in the future. If we have enough notice that what was coming we could study it more detail. We would definitely need emission up there to solve. Who some of it. Because we're not going to get the answer just by looking at it would tell us grapes. I it's pine story. I really question with me answering anytime saying we're trying to do that kind of science with asked resin comments within rmc system and that's kind of the level that we're trying to get out there and see what they contain do contain the boombox for life etc etc is a long way off but it is a great question because we have no idea of. We haven't if we're alone in samoan galaxy in the universe. Yeah it's it's one way that we start to think about that feature where there's another half of that question which is An a juice up the question just for to get your answer. If in fact we do learn that one of these objects has not only organic molecules but like the building blocks amino acids in and maybe even some life or upon it. Panspermia requires that that has an encounter with a planet and then that planet seeded. We'll any of those molecules and in early life forms possibly survive such an impact. I mean it's unlikely for an object going through interstellar space first of all. It's going to be subjected high levels of radiation. And the temperature's just in case we're still survive for that low on small objects which i think is very unlikely. And if it was clyde's with another object that would probably be quite devastating collision both parties votes so i after michni after billions of miles in interstellar space at absolute zero close to it and then all the radiation you're talking about. Let me tell you something. I'm not giving up from no fender bender when crashed into a planet my responses. That's how you got this whole. I'm home right. So so i clearly. The atoms survive the collision. So if there were organic molecules ed carbon and nitrogen and silicon and all the rest of whatever we need then those molecules can be broken apart but nonetheless you can still think of these objects as as feeding the chemical elements necessary for life. Prometheus movie i mean need we need these basic elements to to make the building blocks for carbon modules and organic matter. Big step and we. We have a lot of that mess everywhere. But it's made in that stat. Oh my god now. I want to ask now. I got to ask. But i know we gotta end so i'll wait but i gotta take a quick break but already put it on the table and here it is so based on what you just said. You talked about comments. If they're away like comet could come in and just as it instead of burning up in the atmosphere it just to deposits across like are atmosphere. Almost like seating but not necessarily so when we come back from our commercial take a quick break star. 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I love this thing. you'll love it to you can bring home your own. Glow ford's with the absolute best price glow forge offers. Get five hundred dollars off. Your glow forged pro when you go to glow forged dot com slash star talk. That's glow forged dot com slash star. Talk and you can thank me with the three d laser print What till it be standing of a patriotic shout out to the following patriot patrons. Christopher sukanya dmitri pugachev and ingenio barrera. Thank you so much for your support without you. We couldn't do this show and for those of you listening. Would like your very own patriotic shoutout. Please go to patriot. Dot com slash star. Talk radio and support us. Start off as macquarie's addition the interloper from outer space interstellar space. I got cosmo chemists. Natalie starkey always good to have you natalie and natalie do you. Do you have a twitter. Handle you. Can share with people is dot us. Started all the good. Oh okay why. Not only are you a cosmo cadmus which sounds like the space version of breaking bad but then you get stocky. Start us on top of that. Oh man and chuck handle is chuck nice comic book so we left off. We last left off wondering you you ask the question. John that if a comic can come in and it has the ingredients for life right instead of colliding with earth and burning up candidate just sort of break up in the atmosphere and then sprinkled down gently and the problem here. Chuck is the matter of the kinetic. Energy has that energy has to go somewhere. Somebody's gotta eat that kinetic energy and if it hits the atmosphere or the ground or the connector edgy. Goes back into the object and destroys every frigging molecule. How ever natalie's stardust mission manage to collect comet particles with a fast moving object. So natalie what magic did you guys perform on this mission. So that you didn't you didn't destroy the very thing you tried to collect icon. Credit for analyze classic amazing about what the scientists went on and some michio could aaron gel which is basically a very light and very dense material. Which made macy made of silica who made a silica and it slows down past calls as the catches so it was made like knocks on this kind of tennis tennis racket stark alexa and say we flew through the town of the pass from the hit this collector and they were rapidly decelerated and important part when he do that is not was up. Say this monsieur. Actually he's way from these hospitals to say impacted and preserve them really really even the really volatile stuff like the the organic matter which should have kind of gotten kind of evaporates way essentially. There's no matter what you're suggesting is if we replace earth's atmosphere with aero gel collect anything that fell him. Okay just checking on that chocolates lightning round to these questions. We can get him all right. Okay this is tony ham. Who says could gotten a shape due to the possible gravitational pull up planets and stars so you know. We didn't talk about the shape but it's she gave the dimensions. It's very cigar-shape shaped all right. Yeah it's it's hard for me to shame because we come see it directly and say one of the we think is probably quite lawyers possibly five to ten times longer as wide which is really unusual shade. We've got we've seen nothing like that. Nasim system and and if it was over five times longer than it's funny it's a really weird shape so it's really hard to describe how would have come from a comet or an asteroid or another planet is extremely strange. It might not be scholars. Eight is some people think it might be kind of flat disc shape so is basically quite long relation to how white is. But why can't greg title forces have stretched it out like for example in a comet shoemaker. Levy back twenty five years ago. That was one kind of broken into many pieces. If you couldn't resolve the different pieces and you step back you might think is just one long elongated comment when you there will basically retaining the same time so that they will be bound in some way because we use like earth day so using astronomy all the time to look objects outside of earth and stars in paterson things and the way we do this. Is we look at how it reflects the light. How an jet reflects the sunlight or whatever it might be star near it. And and what discovery of mike. Hove shape and so basically looks like objects essentially tumbling through space new an astro comment which is very always very neatly arrayed. Predictably and this is basically tumbling. It's really odd saying. I think it's going to be one object because it was local. Jesse probably wouldn't expect to see that and in the date or happening coherently. Okay can remember so. There are a lot of people who think that this might be some type of alien technology or some kind of mast alien. Craft philip in. I says is this from another civilization. Yeah rig citing the suggested is a really exciting prospects. We've got to remember. I love the old call. Sagan's saying extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence and retired. Have the evidence to really strongly support. The idea that this is an alien spatial was some areas. They should junk or something like that. We have to see. I rule out all the more natural observations that we may your more actual ideas about what is thinking. We're just to be clear your statement. We have to rule them out is a away a scientific bias against it. Being aliens right. You say we have to rule out these other explanations before we accept the aliens. That's let's call it a bias. It's the history of this exercise. Shows that that's the right thing to do is that a fair opens raise. We have to go with a simple relation fast because it's usually the correct one but once we ruled out the more simplex nations. There's a comment or an asteroid or a piece of broken piece of a planet from another exit. Then we can start to look at the mall of fuel things like is it a piece of an alien spaceship or something but what was the most compelling evidence to even think this at all and i think the fabs it shave is probably one of the hardest things to describe but having said that we don't really understand is shape very well as said we don't varies. Mentions and doing what is made from. I remember reading that. It's its trajectory through the solar system. Was behaving in ways that sort of newton's law of gravity would not have predicted. Is that still holding up signs saying so. Yeah he basically was speeding up and as it went by some it was not because of gravity from the sun objects normally speed up as they go towards the sun and because of gravity but this it wasn't happening because of gravity so we have to explain why it was speeding up and how it got this kind of more basically lost. His advisors sunday wasn't gps gratitude. Dr aliens a looking at that. They turned on the impulse. In having cited can be jets basically comet comic jets coming off. Their ju ju said is not a common common we call out. So i think that's what we've got to stick with simple estimations fast and we've got a lot more work because we're not going to do this. His object. sorry. Because it's now i would never going to say it again. Okay okay so so. If i could recap with you just said it's you wanna rule out every possible natural explanation and even when you ruled them all out. Are you compelled to say that it's alien or might you say i'm not clever enough to figure out what missing natural explanation i've yet to i think i think the latter because it's even my eating. We found we thought we found life in the atmosphere of venus. Scientists have to work hard all the natural things that could have been an actual other than the other natural things and then they said it could be live but they still won't show and so put that out there and civic be. But i think we can never say visual suppressed with making these claims that you could be really careful because then misconstrued by the media often. Listen natalie. the rule out eleven thousand seven hundred ninety nine degrees so that we can get you. Just say we're all scientists here famous number now. Eleven thousand seven hundred ninety nine. Whatever seventy eight. Another question not only go by the way to future people twenty years from now who are listening to this podcast. Just go back and read the news from january twenty twenty one a number of boot chuck nice with future. People won't know from the imitation open. The time capsule the ever tasted so bad. You won't if you look up the yield together anyway Capone way up janas right. I'm sure that's a truck. I'm sure whatever. I'm making an idiot. Now dammit that's your name now e janas just got to be the last questions ranked. We've been to luxurious here. We have so. Here's the deal at. I like this. What is the shape of an asked roy. 'cause we're talking about it's talk about unusual shape he says or she says what is it usual for an asteroid to have a celinda shape. What is the shape depends on size and now we got out of the system is looking at more of these objects. We found can be lows different shapes and sizes and so you tend to be sought round. They tend to approximate around shape but then away. The smaller ones conduct with so many shaky like but they're going to annoy not seen anything like this before so it is really really unusual. And it's hard to explain with natural processes. Bob's we need to figure out some stuff. Say so what you're saying is asteroids. Have the greatest sort of variation in shape at among the high variations shapes that you have seen and measured. This falls outside of that high. The the upper end. Oh i know what it is it was. It was a vertical plug in the throat of a volcano. And then she shot out okay and it was actually a weapon coming through space and so the volcanoes and space movie will now has a new way. It can have tax ships. I like that one. Well natalie look forward to your next book coming out in the fall of twenty twenty one and a catching start us It's a it's it's quite the story that i think everyone should know about. And who publishes that bloomsbury. I remember that that's right. I remember that correctly okay. Excellent nellie always good to have you thanks for dialing in from the uk having me at home schooling your four year old so my best number three guy. Excellent excellent all right guys. Thank you again. Natalie and chuck This has been star talk cosmic queries. I'm your host. Neil degrasse tyson. Your personal astrophysicist always beating you to keep looking up with masterclass you can learn from the world's best minds anytime anywhere at your own pace. Learn how to. Ace your opponent from serena improve your writing skills with meal. geiman learn how to negotiate with chris. Voss alright those were the courses. I chose but you'll have over ninety classes to make your own choice and there are taught by world class instructors. Of course the master instructor. Dr neil degrasse. Tyson has a masterclass of his own on scientific thinking and communication and we all know how important that is in these times. I'm not the only one who's benefiting from masterclass. My brother is an avid tennis player. And i sent him the gift of a subscription so he could get school by serena. Did i tell him that. It was a part of my subscription. 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Cosmic Queries Comet NEOWISE
"This message is brought to you by windows and HP everyone has a different way to work whether it's typing on a computer, sketching out notes with a pen or accessing all your stuff on your phone with windows hp you'll have all the tools you need to work the way you want. So whatever you do, make you with windows and HP see how at windows dot com slash HP. Turning a great idea into a reality with squarespace squarespace makes it easier than ever to launch her passion project whether you're showcasing your work selling products of any kind. It doesn't make a difference. If you're trying to do something online, you should with squarespace how do I know I? Did it myself with beautiful templates in the ability to customize anything with a few clicks you can easily make a beautiful website yourself, and if you get stuck squarespace twenty, four, seven award winning customer support is there to help head to squarespace dot com slash star talk for free trial and when you're ready to launch use offer Code Star Talk to save ten percent off your first purchase of a website or domain. Laurie. Welcome, Star Talk. Your place in the universe where science and pop. Culture. Collide. Dr Talk Begins. Right now. This is star talk on grass. Tyson your personal astrophysicists and your host. This is a Kuzma queries edition and we have been long overdue to get a cosmic queries on the comet that has been in the sky and so I had to bring in some expertise for that. But before we get to that, let's introduce my coast for this episode. Nageen facade Saad nageen welcome back I'll hi neal. How are you after your first visit to us? You didn't run away and not come back. You came back I felt my head getting larger with facts and knowledge and I thought let's do this again and. Your head will not sit on the screen. And we'll never right thing. Measurement. I saw is a stand up comedian, and if I remember correctly, you wrote a book called how to make white people laugh indeed that's a crazy title. Crazy. I would like a comet to be named after my book. And also you host podcast fake, the nation that's. Yeah. These are very very. These are terms he's got. You got to pick up that book. Listen to that because you want to know what the hell. Where are you coming from? y'All enjoy them they'll they're they're fun but they have like you know just a lot less science, but you'll still love them. And you you write this not as a white person. You write this as a Middle Eastern heritage person that's right. I'M GONNA running. American. Muslim. You can probably tell from my voice I was GONNA pick it out. So easy to tell on podcast. So. Delighted. To have your back and we have a friend of start talking Natalie starkey Natalie welcome back. Yeah. You're you're our comet expert and you're you're dialing in or or zooming in from Cambridge, share the. In England? Very cool. Well, welcome and many people don't know that You wrote our most recent space show at the Hayden Planetarium with features. Planet says objects and Planets as astronomical targets of interest. So just thanks thanks for coming in to do that I just want. To visit as well because how could I resist if? Things on a sales. In this. Exactly exactly. So when the planetarium back up, maybe you come back and visit. Way. Give listeners a little bit of insight about the two of you. The Green Room Chitchat before we started recording was about helium later. Stuff. That is what I mean. So if you think they're talking about like you know Kinda West or something before we start recording. No, they're talking about helium before we start recording your. So everyone's clear. These people are talking about it all day long. US for this hour naturally starting a colleague and who's the professor at the is at the Open University. Actually. Public engagement officer. Now. Officer. Yeah I. I see somebody doing a lot of physics public engagement 'cause I discovered doing the Lauren free says actually just love talking about science. Okay well, excellent. Excellent and you've got book and you've got videos and so you're out there you're trying to do what we're trying to do so we. Know that's fine. I'll go to the Bahamas you take my place. How about that? All right. So your expertise, I'm intrigued because your expertise in the solar system grew up out of your expertise thinking about as a planet and as as a geological object. So gives you a different kind of angle into what comments are than an astronomer would have. So by any. I saw Jill logistical always been fascinated by volcanoes. That was what got me into science, and then what I discovered from that is doing chemistry rocks and then it just grew from there and my kitschy was looking at understanding the Earth Planet how he formed four and a half years ago how it evolved since then and Stepped when I saw their heist, which is the research additionally had my PhD. It was looking at Komen asteroids wasn't doing the same kind of chemistry on them, but it was just the can't space rooks instead only goodness. That's cool. I didn't know anything about space roads, but I'm going to jump in and give it a go and just not let backside. Absolutely. Love it. I don't mean to be biased, but space is cooler than geology. Each. Space. You you gotta be careful because I hear geologists can be very violent so you might get some attacks after this. Like, actual rocks that they can touch, you can't touch your rocks Neil. Lords embrace these rocks and I've actually hit my Shin with my armie hammer before by actually missed the it was so painful. Gene, if she can do that to herself. Imagine what she can do. I noticed a hint of violence and you. So, Natalie. You still have your eyebrows. So whatever level volcanoes you had, you didn't get too far into him. I. I've never seen like an actual eruption been on an active volcano many times just an volcano and Caribbean works and you can actually hear the thing roaring. You'll standing next to it only gases escaping from his APPs to amaze neither do that for as she went to one and actually come to understand its temperature in liquid and detailed measure gases but they just fascinates for canines and so we've got volcanoes in the solar system that replaces other than earth. So it's cool to have you. Helping us about those. Coming up next year is all about space volcanoes. So so I've written. Yeah. My second, just finished cyrus going to be a while to comes out and it's about all of Aquinas in the solar system made an ice all made of rock ice volcanoes. That's right. SPEWING CHUNKS OF ICE. We think of all canines as hot objects, but it's really just as objects with there's a lot of pressure. Affair where The only makes the coolest self down but if that thing is already cold and it just has to be a little bit warmer inside on a bit colder outside that he wanted to. Hate. By the way can I say that space volcano is how I described an ex boyfriend who was both a pothead and had a temper so I actually realized it was a real thing. So I'm learning a lot. Tempers. Remark. Assault. That was weird about him. So Nagin, did you collect questions for us for this cosmic query? Did there's so many great questions. Head right in. Let's head right in with. Philip. Lions from Patriot he asks. I because. I because they really support I understand that combat neo is was recently discovered in March given how long its orbital period is around the sun how can we be sure that it originated in our solar system? Natalie is. kind of nervous Jim Coles Macquarie's because it sounds like an exotic. What are they going to? Say Hey say something about comments is mentally Peaking at your palm. All Right Natalie you have about thirty seconds to answer this question. Right. sakonnet. Get out fast case really hard to see the system. So when the Was the system and that's the only time. We can really see them in any detail. We're quantify how small a small. About five kilometers across. Three miles. If you're an old as say not huge if we can't that from the earth and it's really far away, we're not going to see very easily and now most of the time come really far they live in the far out beach science system pasta orbits the planet and they live in. So Michael The quaker bell and then even further out this kind of theoretical region cooled the all cloud. And so there's Billions of them, and sometimes they get versus the NFL system to bring them closer to the sun, which is what happened with Nia. Wise. Now, it comes in and she was on a different orbital period to start with, but it's attraction with a son changed his very. So it got longer I. Think it's going from around four thousand news to around six thousand years to get. Around the sun and all the way back again. So it's a very long period. Comment is what we say and this tells us that it came from very far away because if it had come from the to us, it wouldn't take silence to go around the sun and so he wets how does little over to cure it and we know it's not coming back for quite sometime. Now was the end of the question. Is How do we know it's from this solar system and not from some? Say The reason we this system is miceli ready to speed. Now, if somebody was coming from another system, another star system way out, then it will be trumpeting extremely fast have exited sales same and to be. To be traveling through the galaxy now we've had that happen before there was a an objective. With. which was the Jet That. We saw very last minute and we didn't know if it was a comment or an asteroid who still not one hundred percent. Sure. We think is probably dead comment and then he came from some of the system and it traveled Thursday the system. So quickly that it didn't even get catched into all around US sonic couldn't care less than we were here it just. Went straight through zooming straight cost. So the fact that we can kind of measure the speed the velocity of this common space in new ways we can figure out his come from within acid was disturb, and we can roughly out from where it came and the where it's going back to. Right. So in other words if you calculated an orbit and it turned out to be infinity. And it's never coming back and it was an interloper, right but you calculate the actual number that comes out of that equation with six or seven thousand years, right? Away it is just hanging out in this spot. New Is. Always honest always. To stay out out of the system but then occasionally comments kind of bumps into the innocent of the system says they might have interacted with the big planets and the kind of already pass through them off the your back, and then three them towards the sinus actually because the sun is really big and so he's got tons and tons I've heard it pulled. Gossip on the streets is. Real big. Ninety nine point nine percents the mass of the system right I was just GonNa say that. Thank. Pulls everything towards that so that's what happens with this car is not always a little bit and kind of comes hurtling towards the Sun. They don't always very place to the sun is still some distance away. But if they get to close, they can get heated up so much that they just disintegrate completely, which has happened quite a lot times this longer safe. Place and managed to skirt around the sun and it's going back out. Now it's on its way back out to the outer sales system. All, right. We'll coercion numero DOS comes from. Also from Patriot on Ari. Malady says, why is it comic? Don't orbit in a circular orbit, the planet do but instead have a very elongated orbit even though they all are but the Sun shouldn't a comet orbit like the planets the way out in the cloud. You mentioned the cloud just now by the way who names these clouds and stuff because why isn't name like Brat or Larry or something like why do they all have? These. Like you science nerd lame. was named after Yan or is that right? Yes, it is. Yes. I think to usually the. Discovers if he discover something awesome. Any name quite often which is regarded. Cool. Young Gorgeous I can add. Out of respect for you, if you make the discovery than other people talking about your research paper will then coined the term. So Yawn or did not say I've discovered the class he didn't say that it has paper. He just did a calculation and showed all these comments that come in from very long orbits and they don't spend much time here but. If you look at the gravity of the situation when you're far away from the center moving slowly. So then he did some math on this and figured, it must be a place out there. That has billions of comments and those all in all directions around the sun and then that paper published and Edward Said Hey. Here's this cloud of comets yawn or. hypothesize and it became the cloud at that point. Not Circular Orbits Natalie, what's up with that same I gave somebody supe- Cloud costs are just sat out there and they're basically forming this Xiao around the students. If you all of the planets asteroids, they sit in a plane. And that's that's where we kind of circle around son they're all in the same plane pretty much anyway, and then the coin about comment. So all will say in that plane, but then the the cloud commits so far away that. To the sewn system by the gravity in the same way, the planet saw. So they just formed a shell and that's pretty much how we know that we've never been there. We've never directly observe them. In the Oval Cloud. But sometimes when they come into the system, they tell you they ended up on this very kind of. That brings them into the around the sun much closer and that's how he ended up on these and that's how we know there because they come and visit us, and then they disappear again out to. And the shower around the same system are you suggesting that if all comments in fact did have circular orbits we would never know they were there. Because they would never come closer to the sun rendered visible by a by the heat of the. Sun. Yeah definitely definitely the all cloud ones of course with a quite about we've now. Because we've highs, we had the voyager missions have gone through two. Now, and then we had the new horizons. NASA. Mission that went to visit Pluto, which is actually Object, it's not a comment. It's this big move planets sitting out in the corporate. Those are fighting words. Casually. I did you hear that in the game been put on notice. Slipped out of her mouth, I just want you to know. New Horizons is it went to another object in. So, we got to see icy objects that sitting out there. So we are actually now getting out there and visiting these things and seeing the high we have to wait for them to come to. Phase missions of really tricky because you. Out there you're going to be traveling really fast away from from the sun and it's A very long time to look at these objects. We just literally zoomed possibly take a million images with that and I still being praised us we jank. Engines or bear on one of these things that say far lay out we know now though. Would you say then that most of the objects in the car pro are on roughly circular orbits and so we'll never see them unless figured jostled and set loose and plunged down back towards the Sun Yeah I? Think that's fair to say because the seventy millions of the and there are we get what we who near whereas comments, which are the ones that diverted towards the sun and come and visit us but not that frequently, we have quite a few of them, but it doesn't happen that often that we need to worry about it too much. So again, the near Earth that's code for comment that could one day render extinct. Clarify that it's funny because it seems like such an innocent term. And yet, it's so deadly and horrifying. Was the near Earth object that took out the dinosaurs came. Near the earth. But I was half expecting you to say that the reason comets go into sometimes these oval shapes or whatever is because of Russian trolls you know like. Russian trolls could be attributed with a lot right now and. This might be one of them. I'm just throwing that out there I want you to look into it. People top people working on that right now. We're talking one more before we take our first break. Okay the and let's go to woo I. Love this question from Julia. Casey. Also from Patriot. she writes what unanswered questions about comet do you most want to see answered in your lifetime? Okay that's a great question. What if the really hot topics at the moment is trying to figure out whether the Well, what the role the comments. So what was the role of comments played in life owner because we know where we came from we don't understand her life got here. We don't understand how it starts Jonah. We also don't understand the water came from and these things are really linked and we think we need water to make life and we think we need water to sustain life on a planet or anywhere. But we don't understand these things came from and it could be at comets and less Roy to live. The the building blocks alive and also wants to our planet in the past nearly collided with us four and a half billion years ago. There were a lot of collisions of comets asteroids into our planet they all. Good he's with them and some of these goodies, World Ganic material and water so might be that eight livid building blocks alive and that we need to understand how then we got life because it's not good enough to say, Oh, there's no matter we have life because it's not that simple. We do understand that next sat and science of how we could use organisms like us. So Natalie unique expertise coming from volcano a volcano background where we know they put water into the atmosphere. Now you're thinking about comments so you could have the package of how to make all the water we've ever had. Well, he's that cf baby. Yeah released a lot of water. They release a lot of love gases into the atmosphere. Some good. Some bad but they don't actually have A. Negative. Effect on on the climate search but the permits we to where that came from within the asu volcanoes abrupt out material from inside the planets and and say the material inside the planet has to have been there either from the stall on the s four or it was livid later on in cool. Praised since the inside of the planet. So that can then be erupted out, and now we may have started Luna when our son informed and we formed all the planets the comments next stories around the sudden it might be that we handle our from the beginning that we're actually got into. Stella awards so might actually not be basically from our son it might come from interstellar space, which would be really awesome to think we're drinking water older than our sun, but we just because that was really inhospitable when it first formed was boiling. It was just Multan bowl of magma. So it's hard to understand how we might have maintained water within that really hot blood with McGregor's it probably would have boiled off. This is why scientists say, okay we bought that water in later on maybe came from these astros have a bit of ice on their media came from these comments which are very icy. Just so that's one of the major questions we're trying to answer the Maimon where came from and can Brita filter water that's older than the sun is another question But I I would love for you to figure out like the explanation of on Earth, which is like just a small answer to that question because it because it, it explains everything like sloth swire, they such a weird animal and cargo pants. Why like literally expand explains everything. Key. Everything. The key explainer we gotta take a quick break and we'll come back. We will return to my host nageen facade and my special guest madly starkey comet expert when we return. Can't. Listen you know you won't stop working until you reach your goals and neither will wgc you. It's why we've created an online university for people whose ambition never rest wg use innovative competency based learning model was designed specifically to fit into the lives of busy adults. wvu Is nonprofit. Online bachelor's and master's degrees in business it education and nursing. You can move through the material you already know and spend time learning what you don't, which means the faster you demonstrate, which you know the faster you finish. It's also about half the cost of most other online university. So you can graduate with far less debt ordinance off get your sixty five dollar application fee waived at wg you dot edu slash star talk that's wg you dot Edu Slash Star Talk This message is brought to you by windows and HP. Technology can do some pretty incredible things from sending massive files at the speed of light to driving a car on its own. But there's also a lot of things. Technology can't do. It can't tell your story, start a business pursuer passion or express an idea only you can do that and with windows and HP. You'll have the tools you need to do it your way whether it's typing on A. Computer sketching out notes with a pen or accessing all your stuff on your phone HP laptops with windows ten are ready to adapt to all the ways you work there clearing the obstacles that stand between you and your passion. So you can take them on full speed ahead windows in HP give you the support you need to do even more amazing things in a way that only you can. So whatever you do, make it you with windows and they. See how. AT WINDOWS DOT com. Slash HP. Your back star because we swear. By co-hosts mckean for side and. You have a twitter handle. McCain. Gene Facade. Any G. I. N.? F. A. R. Sad. Okay, it's just your name. It's my name. I. When I ever? Yes I do. Here it is. It's mckeever. Expected so I was ready for some other thing. I don't know why. Am I really set you up for like? Forty three you know. The? Real Madrid. The others? have stolen it. Natalie Natalie are you also on twitter I? Am Yes yeah. Stocky Stardust site. Yeah. My Name. starkey. FEMA game that's how you do that McCain. Okay. Making notes. Starting, starts. Okay. So we're in cosmic queries mode we're talking about comments of course inspired by the recent appearance of comment Neil wise in the sky. So what what's up next to you have their Up Next, we have a question from twitter at Salt eighty-three asks would you expect to find amino acids on the Oh wise and could the neo ISAS of the universe be the life distributors which you kind of mentioned a little bit about that before Yeah Yeah we touched on this the last question but actually yeah, we're getting a bit detail now. So yes, we know that we've got. Amino acids on call it. So I would very much expects comedy wise contain acids. So we've now discovered them onto your comments, which is pretty much the early comments we've studied in detail as the first one was comet built to which was visited by NASA starbucks and they collected samples to bring back to Earth and they found the amino acid going seen in glycemic simple simplist amino acid. But it says so that's very exciting. Now, we corroborated that finding with the resenting which the European Space Agency mission and it Wentz Comet Sixty, seven P. was on the surface of the actually land down to the surface and add allies all sorts of things that suggesting gasol coming off the comment, and they found amino acids on the common again lysine. So we we have the we know Koenigs collide the planet, and so they would have all that inventory of amino acids, possibly other amino acids as well. We haven't found them yet, but it might be there they boredom to our planet in the past San every charms that they did deliver life here what we because life. Obviously today from Amino acids too complex organisms is a read ecstatic that we don't occurring understand. So so what you're saying is we were two for two in the comments that we could have known whether they had amino acids. So we're saying we're good with that. We can assume. that we found amino acids in asteroids loss in meteorite samples, the rocks that come from asteroids and land on our planet can come from other planets as well. asteroidal meech meteorites. have tons, meal acids. In fact, in particular asteroid sample, we found more more amino acids than we have on planet said more variation in space, and we don't we need to account for the life. We have here say you mean more kinds of amino acid yet. Yeah so life elsewhere could have. Could be more interesting than we are. It might rely on different. On those assets to make life, we have no idea. We have no idea that there. That's the great thing we have it. We call the evidence that. The system but now we just gotTa understand that next step of of how we get life. Again. That's the name of your next book. How to make. Aliens. Left. Wait. So Amino, as I have a multivitamin that contains amino acids is it that same amino acids that you're talking about? Getting all the same never relented multivitamin and one is in it but yeah. I mean because it gives me good. You know nails and hair. So. So. Yeah. So comments have great up is. What's going on? So naturally, what's going to happen? McCain's going to visit the the meteorite. Hall of the Museum. Licking the meteorites. Trying to give her vitamins and minerals supplements anymore. The media that's excellent. Point jail game step away from the meteorite. Okay Oh and just before the next question Natalie could you tell me how neil it's got its name? Oh. Yeah. Actually every interesting topic I mean I can talk about salad. I'll try and do the show version. Say Carbon Thirty second version. Coming generally named after the people find the more in the case of new wise. The telescope the found in. It's cool near wise in space it's a space telescope. Party, agreed with people working on it so we can't just one name, but previously, it would have just been one person looking through a telescope and they found comment and they go to name it after themselves appear tend to have a common this. Edmund Tally. But. They also have a boring designation. So it's also called sees slash twenty, twenty three, which tells you a little bit more about the type Communists to the C. means it's non periodic so it doesn't come round the sun very often more than two hundred years. It takes to go around the Sun in two thousand and twenty the year it was found discovered, and then the three tells you a little bit more about the exact month that it was discovered. So he tells you, it's the end of March. Third comment at the end of March to be discovered. So he tells you tons of information, but we tend to distill it near Y so much friendlier I, think you're underselling it a little bit because see slash twenty twenty, slash f three I think is going to be a very popular baby name coming up. That's right. Born or conceived on the COM-. So Natalie actually. Edmond, Halley didn't discover Halley's comet really no, he did not. I land. Deal because. Snow, what what he did was he took Newton's equal new equations of gravity and applied it to a comment that was in the sky and noticed that it was the same comment that had come around in previous records. Because, now we can understand orbits can now think of comments not as singular objects but as and so so but as recurring. Visitors to the inner solar system. So using that he made a prediction of when it would come again. Just, waited with bated breath and there it was. It came right when he said right where he said it would come and from then on it was named after he was long dead by then though that's what what had happened. So it's a little cool fact. In, like twenty sixty I guess. Them still around to see Ya twenty year. I think that is because it was nineteen, eighty, six, every seventy, five years or so right? Right. Right. Cool. So the game you got another question, we have another question it comes from instagram. Is it possible to measure the rate at which a comment loses its mass as it travels across the solar system? Let me add to that Natalie. If you do that calculation can you tell us when it will disappear completely I, hasten the answer the questions is no well, there's no simple way to do this. We've we've done it sort of once really we've done with the mission, the European Space Agency mission, and the way we could do with that mission because the always Landau will with the comment the whole time. So they kind of approached it when it was around of Mars Mars Jupiter kind of place they then stayed with. That comment the hallway past the sun and then came out the other side what they were able to. Gee was look at the process is happening as this point was heated up and it's Isis sublimating into space and it was experiencing that environment near the Sun and is it came out of the of the side and they can measure how much material was coming off and while they estimated is that an Mesa of service of the comments was lost during that orbit around The Sun? About Three by five kilometers so it's similar. and. Size. Wise, but the same factors that will control how much it loses it. All depends on how much thomas here has within it. The stuff that streams off into space L. depend where exactly is its composition? How much is it has compared to shots it'll depend on how close to the sun the same factors the fact that we couldn't simply apply at one meter ruled every home that goes near the Sun because it'll. Be Different but it gives us a few idea for that particular comment that they do lose lost material and that's you know huge amounts. So every time they revived sun that happens and so eventually they die we can't say that they die they didn't have any volatile material left though Isis gone. So they've got Nyborg material to lose go via the sun and then they have a tail anymore no longer comet. Really. Hard to say how long that's going to take and how many orbits that takes the happen my take away from this is that comets are always dieting and that. Body shaming is happening in the solar system. That I had no idea, you're not on board with it. Losing a meter that's that's A. The the comet little is being flayed by the sun, and that's that's that's sad I, and then we went to see them otherwise because less operations happened is coincided reached. It will always around jeep and sir, and that's when they started to get heated up, and that's when they'll start produce what we call his coma, which is the kind of the atmosphere that surrounds rocky nucleus and makes up the Cohen. So they starts get heated up and the ice within there. There's lots of different types of ice comic wars, rise carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane mounier lots of different types of ice. Cubes they use and bar. Yes that. Very common. Yeah. Dry Ice because that would be the carbon dioxide stuff say basically they all get sublimated, which means they take from solid to gas at different stages as going towards the Sun. The first ones come off is generally carbon monoxide and that kind of glazed blues. So if you often see images comic near wise is kind of blue. Halo around the comment new kiss and that starts to then stream off into the tail that material, and so that's she just comment losing its mass and that all that material is streaming out. Along with US Paschal coming off at the same time. So it's kind of environment environment on the surface of the comment as different portions of the heated up differently, and then jets of gases can shoot off and it can quite crazy. Nearly everything I know about that I learned from the movie Armageddon. Landed on the surface, the comment, and it rotates into the sunlight at the. Geysers. Start popping. Out. and. That was the accurate part. You have. To do. So? Nicky what else you have four okay and we also have from twitter. Hello from Cape Verde, which is such an exotic location to be sending a message. Nice I. Take my dream to go visit my dear friends theoretically can we harvest water from asteroids and comets to solve water crises and famines here on earth and if so wouldn't that seem more important slash practical than starting a colony on. Mars. Before you get to that. Let me just say we had an entire live star talk live program on water, not only on earth but in the solar system and I had Nazli appreciated how much rarer? Potable fresh water is becoming on Earth You know water water all around not drop to drink. So what is the nature of the water on comments? Why can't we just last Su one and bring it and make a lake of it and been DIPPENAAR STRAWS The thing is first of all of the, we're going to be much for looking after our water supplies, making fresh clean water for ourselves and not polluting the rest of our planet and having salt washers approx. OC We don't want to drink salt water now begin to space and there are other moons and stuff that have. Tends to be salty water. That's good for life in that life can survive in that but it's not stuff that we wanNA drink say sure enough if we were to travel out in space are we went to go and live on Mas nauseous that's going to be a good idea but anyway if. There's no Ramaz that we don't think there's much anyway. Then might be in the subsurface we don't. So we could kind of travel home on the way and and guess woods. We can just mount some of that comment separate out the woods ice from these other types of Isis that it contained and sure enough we use in space and we think that that is one of the ways we might be able to explore further into the solar system and. Causes Problems, we just going to be very easy to do just kind of fly by comment and grab some water. It's not that simple and but it's definitely not something we'll be joined to bring back to not going to be practical to transport ought to back to our planet and even at lot of ace, we better off looking after are able to. So. There's an interesting corollary to that because it still costs. NASA about ten thousand dollars a pound to put payload into space. So if I launched you and you want a drink. Sixteen ounces of order if I set up a mining colony that mines frozen water from s from asteroids and comets melts it then I sell it to NASA but for on space activities. And I'll sell to NASA for seven thousand. I i. can do that and then if if advocates cheap also for five thousand and whatever. But I can imagine a future however distance where the water that we do harvest from comments goes to other activities and space rather than agree it'd be impractical just to bring it back to Earth. The might even. That guy is often grabs an object in space like an asteroid coma. Can I think? Pretty much. American citizens anyway can own wherever they find space I. I have a feeling the rest of the world catching up with those laws and see yeah, you could. You could go in mind a restaurant you can for short then sell it whatever materials you get from anti whoever wants them? That's been in American rule ever since the beginning we find it and then hours. How how the country was built? Expert. WHO's even sees as propulsion rocket fuel. So you can if you can split the hydrogen and oxygen out of the water water being h Shula molecule and the highest in the oxygen, and you can use that as propulsion not just for humans living, but it's will say to get further into space because as you said, launching anything of our planet is incredibly expensive because we have a little gravity. So if we can get off limb space having to take it with us. That's a real bonus as well. Excellent Right. and. We. Wish we've got a question from instagram. From Gabriel Joakim how do different chemical compositions change the color of the comet Nice question because I've seen pictures of the comment and there's all these beautiful colors in it. I want to know where that comes from except we have to take a break. We come back. We will all learn from Natalie starkey. How comets colors. Fundamentally someone overvalue. And undervalue nutrition and think if I look healthy I am healthy but there's more to help them meets the eye. So ritual is introducing essential for men the obsessively researched multivitamin that's formulated to help fill nutritional gaps in men's diet ritual is your new type two days from helping support heart health, normal muscle function, and normal immune function. This tiny step can have a very big impact, these vegan friendly sugar-free non GMO gluten free and major algebra vitamins are traceable because where it's from is just as. Important as what it's four ritual always delivers this subscription based supplement is to start an easy to snooze. It's only about a dollar a day to have essential nutrients delivered right to your door. Personally I'm excited about it. I'm always looking for better ways to maintain my health step up your nutrient game with essential for men get ten percent off your first three months when you visit, which will dot com slash d'artagnan and start your ritual today. That's ten percent off during the first three months at. Dot Com. Slash Star Talk. We'd like to give a patriarch shoutout to the following Patriots on patrons Matijas Manzini and Sandra Bolger. Thanks so much for being our bright shining star without to we couldn't do this show and if anyone else listening what like their very own patriotic shout out please go to Patriotdepot dot com slash star Talk Radio and support us. been. Very, calm. I've got the game facade, my coast, and at least starkey who's our resident expert except she's the UK right now. So she's a resident of somewhere. Yes. Again, somebody just asked about cars is that right? That's right. They asked would like how different chemical compositions change the color of the comet. So how does the Leopard's spots and how to comments give their colors and see this should be in the same book? Yeah. That's a great question because it's one of the ways we can figure out what comments because we can look at color as they come NSA, the system, and it tells us what is literally coming off the surface, which is a sublimating interning from solid to gas as they they get hotter. So I mentioned value that the first gas that tends come off his carbon monoxide glaze blue and neo can probably explain the physics reason behind the ions interrupting and why that plays blade you want to. Know. I. Tell you I can tell you. So these these molecules have certain sort of energy states and that exist in and if they're fed another energy source, they can you can kick electrons off of them or you can bump them up into a higher energy state, and then they release that energy back to you but in a very specific part of the spectrum and you so and different compounds, different different molecules, different atoms have different colors corresponding to what their energy levels are. So it's not deeper than that and that's going on all the time. So yeah so go on length. Exam question isn't it that I should. Go. Ahead. By the way, do you remember the glow in the dark frisbees? You know you'd put it under a light and then you throw a Frisbee your. Pale, green, while you put it under regular light and bumps up the energy levels, and then when you take it away from the light, the electrons descend and emit this green light yet corresponding to the material that's in in in the frisbee itself so and it doesn't do that forever. Right. You only get to play with it for ten fifteen minutes before you don't see that signature at all but the communists constantly getting stoked by the sun so you get these colors sustain along. Sometimes get a green which I think is related to elemental carbon because we know this little carpeting commits the just past who's tend to be made up of carbon hydrogen. Nitrogen particles. So all the stuff for life is brilliant and you can sometimes get a retail and which is with college. You tend to have two main tales. The first one is is made dust and that can be quite diffused at tends to be. White. Grey together. You get the second tale, which is the ion tail, which is these gases that do come off, and that's tends to be Blue Greenie lives and sometimes says his sodium tail, which is red and I think she was saying we come in here why with three different tales coming off comment so you've got the comment traveling towards the Sun and these tales. Face away from the sun basically. So, tail is a misnomer. Solar System. Out of out of the inner sole right if it goes out tale I. Think of tale is something that trails? Yeah. Exactly. It's only trailing on his way in. The head of the comments over tailed. Off Line, with each other because I was just in it, I guess they get just to be to differently and they react differently to the gravity Zahn on the site of wins and everything. So they end up being separate and that he can see them and I mean some of the images that people have got have been absolutely beautiful. And everybody's got a camera and you don't need full telescopes to do this anymore. So the camera with a good limbs I like the old days I sound like Oh man. By Day. Can we go to lightning rounds lightning rounds? Actually it's not up to you. It's up to Natalie. Questions. The? Pretend you're on the evening news and they want soundbites. This this your sound by quiz. Okay. So what do you have all right rob? Kirsten from the Netherlands Rights on Instagram let's say a by the way by the way John or was from the Netherlands. The. The the Dutch have had a long time in the twentieth century very long and proud history of participating in cosmic discovery just thought I'd give a toss out to the. The Dutch, but go on. Okay. Does Comet Haley always had the same tail tail color every time it comes around the sun, the chemical composition burns, but cannot comic gain other chemical compositions on its way to us. Yes. I think should your recipe with the same color that will have the same isis within it but as they get depleted, it could change with each orbit the Sun, but it definitely isn't going to gain any material is. To losing stuff. Good short answer. Let me ask. Could it be a layer below? That's different from the layers above. Gets revealed as a new chemical signature. have no idea because we haven't studied enough place we haven't studied enough. Of An orbit say. They can't be completely different as they go us you drill down into them. It's great. We have not lost to finance you like a layer Nacho dip. Morning. Okay. We have from Oxford Comma Twenty at on twitter. How many? Twenty. Literate person here. Okay. How many encounters with the inner solar system do comments from the Kuyper belt and or cloud get before they're totally steam cleaned and become plain old asteroids like that. So he had a similar question earlier and actually it's again we know we don't really have any individual comment how long it's GonNa take for it to just die and lose Olis' Isis. So we have. To study each one in detail, and then once we see it doesn't as first orbit that we look at it. We gotta wait till it comes back and see how it reacts again, we really no idea but we have the comments about other than that. So we know that that can happen but how long it takes for that to happen we really did not. So when you say dead, you don't mean destroyed. You mean there's nothing to evaporate to Brendor visible. hunk of Rockin. What I'm gathering from all of this is that comets are a really fickle lover. You know don't know what they're gonNA. Do. You don't know. Fairly. Soon again, keep going right. Two more we got one minute left. Okay. We have two more on a roll she she's. Okay go real tired hours on instagram. I WanNa Know Comet's orbit all the same direction in the same way planets do and if not, what would it look like to comments collided while visible from Earth with the naked eye? To that would be so cool. Hey, we've seen cars disintegrate when they near the Sun I mentioned earlier when these things very volatile they they are very fragile because they made basically a stable with a bit of certain we're thinking. The Sunday counts played and we have sort of seeing that with a telescope before and if to Clyde space well. It's unlikely to biff it were to happen. We weren't basically see these things sort of collide and disintegrate. It might be as exciting as you might think is like if you have to rocks colliding 'cause they probably just. Melt into each other a little bit. But. If they was Clyde, in the outer solar system that going pretty kind of is kind of far Paul out there and they're not. Going to hit each other with very much force. So if they was client way out in the See Much We. Happen Anyway but A. Very citing. Burma's out. This is a great question. Now, you turn it into lake. No. Say. I was geared up for like the macy's fireworks. Instead you're like, oh no, this is like the sad like Larry outside of Sheboygan doing fireworks off the roof. You know that's what we're. All nothing like the comments. They can collide collided though planet and they done in the past actually the time we'd ever kind of observed this happening. A kind of explodes coming through the atmosphere because they just can't maintain their shape because they're just not consolidated not held together very well and intend to explain the atmosphere before they even reached of the planet. So yeah could be very exciting. All right here's your. Last question go last question is from dudes Perea on facebook is it possible for probe to hitch a ride on a comment baby an extra solar comment that will leave the solar system loving question I say yeah have done this with the European Space Agency. Mission there was estimates mentioned a few times because it was just one of these groundbreaking missions to. It landed a little land on the side of command. Fully commit then as it went via the sun came out the other side and it's still less. So this is now heading out in the outer solar system again, and that lenders to with the even August with that coach they basically crash landed onto the court because they were like science. Now, his son we need son to Hapoel solar panels what we're GONNA do space. Car Off we'll just crash landed or decelerate into the comex say then with it. Now, if you did that with a comment like you're and it was going out of the solar system at great speed and sure you could then hitch rides you'd have trouble with power and it's very cold. You get away from the sun suspicious cost I really like that, but it is possible. Let. Me Add that. It's not so much the hitching a ride because if you match speeds to the interstellar object a more. than once you match speeds, you don't have to attach to it because you will have the exact trajectory that. Would have. So it's an interesting fact. It's not like you took it and then it pulls you on. Your match matched your there. You are with the comment whether you're touching it or not this kind of. Then just as the physics of it but now I think it's it's funny to think that we've got our hardware sitting on a comment so that with the with the Rosetta mission. So the next time it comes around if it's jostled loose a spacecraft. Heading jettison off the back of. As worried about when they call it went five sun. The latter may have just been throwing off into the space if it'd be gentler of gases, show off the commitment to go heated up. So yeah, it was room. We had no idea what was going to happen. We've never done it before so. I am super prone to motion sickness. So the idea of hitching a ride on a comic just sounds horrifying. Just sounds like a vomit bag, a constant use of. I. Should be more worried about a jet spewing forth under you and the Heston you back out into space rather than just being on the comment and worry that you might need some grammy. So we gotta enter their the game. It's always great to have. You always is the second time. Hope to see more of you as my co host Cell Fun. I learned so much and your book how to make people laugh crazy title and even crazier a podcast title What is it again? Fake than nation good luck with those and we hope to see you again and Natalie always good to see you keep it going. We'll look for you when you come back to New York, and maybe we can arrange for another comment for you talk about. Emissions coming up at the moment going to ask for what we WANNA talk we want to learn about those definitely. Definitely. So thank you and the title of your next book you're working on. An ice baseball kanye's foreign. Very nice. Very nice. Okay. This has been star talk cosmic queries, Neil degrasse in your personal astrophysicist as always I didn't. Keep. Working. WG You has created an online university for people who am Bishen never rests WGC use competency based learning model was designed specifically to fit the lives of busy adults, wvu offers, online bachelor's and master's degrees in business it education and nursing, plus it's about half the cost of most other online universities get your sixty five dollar application fee waived at wgn dot edu slash star talk that's w dot Edu Slash Star Talk.