3 Episode results for "Mohammad Shah"

The Great Mogul Diamond

GONE

41:16 min | 2 years ago

The Great Mogul Diamond

"The world is full of leaders. Religious military activists heads of state many people look to these leaders for guidance. Some people reject them, but a small percentage want to kill them assassinations looks through the lens of both the target and the assassin and asks did the assassinate she'd his or her underlying objective. And if so how did it change the world search for and subscribe to assassinations wherever you listen to podcasts. In seventeen thirty nine Persian emperor. Nuttier Shah, let an army of approximately twenty thousand men against Mohammad Shah the mogul emperor of India in a ruthless invasion that deer in his troops decimated. Muhammed's armies in what is known as the battle of karnal Muhammed, eventually surrendered handing over his empire in Delhi. This empire wasn't only land but included something so rare and tantalizing its true. Value was incalculable the great mogul diamond. However, this two hundred eighty carat gemstone came with the curse those who came into contact with a great diamond had gone bankrupt been exiled and had their entire empire. Overthrown now. Dear its new owner was not spared in seventeen forty seven assassins broke into the dears quarters and decapitated him. And just like that the great mogul diamond disappeared forever from the annals of history. Hi, I'm Molly. And I'm Richard welcome to gone the show where we search for everything missing. Every other Monday, we examined mysterious disappearances and the theories they spawned from the amber room to Michael Rockefeller, the Cosso paintings to the trust in language. The Roanoke colony to the lost Russian cosmonauts if it's gone, we're looking for it. You can find previous episodes as well. As park has other podcasts on your favorite podcast directory. Some of you have been asking how you can support gone if you enjoy the show the best way to support us is to leave a five star review. Wherever you listen today. We will be looking into the seventeen forty seven disappearance of the great mogul diamond which arose from the dirt of dried riverbed in India and became one of the world's most puzzling precious. Stones the great mogul diamond had a brief and troubling history. It was kept as a testament to its owners wealth and power. But it was never in the same hands for long, the brilliant diamond witness this exile of kings in the fall of empires, but in seventeen forty seven after the assassination of its final owner all records of the diamond virtually disappeared. How could such a grand treasure be so quickly lost to time? Our first theory claims that it ended up in the British crown jewels after England's colonisation of India. Our second theory assumes that the diamond is actually masquerading as another famous diamond the Orlov now residing in a Russian museum. But whether it's hiding in plain sight or the diamond remains in some other unknown location. The great mogul diamond remains a much sought after mystery to fully explore this story. We must go back to the diamonds origins at the center. Her of the earth. Most people believe that diamonds come from coal. But the truth is coal rarely plays. A part in the formation of diamonds coal is produced by ancient plant deposits on the earth surface. But most diamonds come from the earth's mantle nearly one hundred miles below the surface. And when diamonds emerged from those extreme depths. They don't come quietly. There spewed out through violent volcanic eruptions known as kimberlite eruptions. These are extremely rare. And it is believed that the last kimberlite eruption occurred more than twenty five million years ago. The great mogul diamond was most likely formed from one of these eruptions. It was discovered along the Krishna river in the Gulf Kanda mine in India. India was the birthplace of the diamond trade, which probably began around four hundred BC in fact, until seventeen twenty five when diamonds were first discovered in Brazil. India was the only source of these gems. These unique stones were quickly seen as valuable indicators of class status and traded along the silk road a network of trade routes, connecting the east with the west not to mention early civilizations actually believed the diamonds were gifts from the gods. And those who found received them. Would be blessed with wealth strength and good health. If that was the case, they must have believed the great mogul diamond would bring them immortality. Because it was so massive in sixteen fifty six when it made its first real appearance in written histories, the Islamic mogul empire was thriving in India Prusiene, emperor, Shah Jehan whose name means king of the world presided over the throne and his taste for extravagance reflected. This uh contagious title in sixteen thirty two. He commissioned the famed Taj Mahal in Agra a stunning muzzle. EM had built for his young wife after her death Shah Jehan also had the famous peacock throne adorned with gold and covered in rubies emerald and pearls built for himself. But he was about to get even fancier because in sixteen fifty six a wealthy general named emir gem LA came to Delhi and met with Schaja Han too. Establish good diplomatic relations Jemma worked for Dula king of Gaul Kanda India and was trying to broker an alliance between the two leaders, but he didn't come empty-handed among his gifts for the emperor was the great mogul diamond at the time. It was the largest diamond ever discovered in its rough original state. This stone weighed a whopping seven hundred eighty seven and a half carrots. That's equal to more than one hundred and fifty seven grams about as heavy as a billiards ball or half as heavy as a human heart. That's huge the average size for an engagement ring in the US in twenty seventeen was zero point nine carrots. So not even one carat and that size goes for about six thousand dollars, depending on design retailer and other factors to give vague sense of its value. One of the largest diamonds ever sold at auction. Was a one hundred and eighteen carat diamond a fraction of the size of the great mogul that went for thirty point six million dollars in twenty thirteen as for what it looked like it has been described as an egg cut in half the top end formed a cone shape. The opposite end a flat circle this shape was referred to as a rose cut because the shape somewhat resembles a Rosebud rose cuts are relatively rare. And this gave the great mogul diamond. And even more unique quality Shah Jehan was quite pleased with the gift, but ordered that the diamond be cut to make it fit for an emperor such as he the stone in its natural state would not do there were too many aesthetic flaws like lines and cracks which in jeweler speak are called inclusions. Ancient Indian text the round Paryski alluded to the importance of a flawless diamond, saying, quote wise, men should. Not use diamond with visible flaws as a gem and quote, so Jehan hired or tense. Yo boy GIO of Incheon lapidary or gemstone cutter to refine it borough began cutting the stone grinding away all the problematic flaws, but go figure the more he ground, the smaller and lighter the stone. God after Borgias work. The stone was a mere two hundred eighty three carats less than half the size of the original. This would weigh about two ounces as much as a stack of twelve Nichols. Not a billiards ball, but still quite the hefty jewel on. Fortunately, the new size and weight became a bit of a problem. The size of the stone was one of its primary. Appeals emperor Shah Jehan was furious so much so he wanted to execute boy GIO for his poor workmanship. But Jehan stopped short of that. Instead, he find bores yo ten thousand rupees. Basically all the money the diamond cutter had to his name Bormio, pay Jehan and laughed a very poor and shamefaced, man. It seemed that bore geo may have been the first man to fall prey to the curse of the great mogul several years later in sixteen fifty seven Jehan became very ill in his old age this launched a competition for the throne between his four sons. The youngest are ings Zab killed one of his brothers and eventually claim the empire. He sent his father away to the Red Fort as sandstone fortress located on the yarmulke river. It was basically a prison for Schaja Han where he spent the last years of his life until his death in sixteen sixty six whatever happened to respecting your elders little own your own father. And I have to ask could the so-called curse of the diamond have led to John's plight possibly, but we can also blame or ings ABS greed. He wanted the kingdom and all its treasures to himself in colluding. The great mogul diamond are exempt kept all that he wrongfully inherited in a special chamber in the palace. He was very proud of it his collection caught the eye of famous jewel merchant from France named John Baptiste Tavernier Tavernier was a world traveler and Jim aficionado who made six voyages to the east between sixteen thirty two and sixteen sixty eight. He wrote extensively about as experiences eventually publishing the two volume book, the six voyages of John Baptiste Taverny it became a best seller and was translated into four languages in his lifetime. This man was so obsessed with diamonds that he traveled at his own expense in search of them and reveled in the opportunity to study them since only royalty in the extremely affluent could get hold of such prizes tavern gay met with a lot of important global leaders. He was known internationally for his expertise in gemstones. One such leader, which Shah Jehan son king orange ebb who led Tavernier get acquainted with the great mogul diamond. Officers escort a tiger nee into a small chamber where the king was sitting on his throne Tavernier's, then met the chief keeper of the jewels. I cal- Khan who commanded for Unix to fetch the stones. They brought the gyms out on gilded wooden trays covered with red velvet cloths to protect them such presentation. And understandably so Taverny was off by all this and documented the experience writing, quote, the first piece which Cal con put in my hands was the great diamond, which is around rose cut very high on one side on the lower edge. There is a slight crack and a little flaw in it. It's water is beautiful unquote water refers to diamonds degree of brilliance. So according to her knee, a the great mogul was extremely bright and sparkly to put it in simpler, terms, it made quite the impression on him. And he forever. Immortalized it by drawing a sketch of it in his book after this Taverny continued on his journey of Jules leaving the great mogul behind better to have loved and loss than never to have loved at all they say the diamond remained with the mogul empire passing hands to an emperor. By the name of Mohammad Shah in seventeen nineteen a little over fifty years after orange ebb ruled the region, but it would not stay with this new leader for long, perhaps we have the curse to blame for that. Because emperor. Muhammad Shah was in for a world of trouble could the great mogul diamond had been responsible for the fall of Mohammad Shah's empire. We'll find out after the break. Richard. And I have some exciting news for you starting now, you can listen to gone episodes that are older than six months completely ad free exclusively on Stitcher premium. We are always looking for ways to improve listener experience. We found an amazing partner in Stitcher to bring you episodes ad free. Six months after they are released again, this will only affect episodes older than six months. Nothing else will change will still be releasing new gone episodes wherever you listen to podcasts for a free month trial, go to Stitcher premium dot com slash podcast and use promo code park cast that Stitcher premium dot com slash podcast and use promo code park cast. Now back to the story. In seventeen thirty eight mogul emperor Muhammad Shah possessed one of the region's most valued treasures, the great mogul diamond. But that and everything else Mohammed-owned was about to be threatened a bloodthirsty emperor from Persia was coming for the mogul empire. His name was nuttier Shah born in sixteen eighty eight in Khorasani Persia, dear grew up a poor peasant. He was forced into slavery, but escaped captivity in eventually became a soldier the military was where he thrived Nadiri advanced quickly there. But when he conflicted with a high ranking official Nadiri went rogue and formed his own army. Bold move, definitely. And it set the stage for Nadir's rise to power in seventeen twenty nine he freed Persia from Afghan control and seven years later ascended to the throne as emperor of Persia not. Long after he went on a conquering rampage throughout much of the east which led him to just outside of Delhi. India with a foolproof strategy for a takeover at karnal, sixty eight miles north of Delhi. Nadu Shah led his army of twenty thousand against Muhammad Shah's forces consisting of nearly three hundred thousand soldiers and two thousand wars elephants, although deers troops were greatly outnumbered. Muhammed's forces had a disadvantage. There are Tillery was fairly antiquated much too heavy and hard to maneuver Nadir's Shaw. Ever the military strategist used a three prong approach. Dividing? His limited troops into three main sectors using one of these lines of offense as a diversion, Shah commanded an ambush, and it was downhill for the mogul troops from there. The Persians defeated their enemy within three hours of the battles. Start. This was the beginning of the end of the mogul dynasty, Mohammad Shah soon handed over his empire tuna dear soon after the deer began enforcing strict laws and taxation on citizens. The Persian military presence was oppressive soldiers were quick to punish civilians this intern catalyzed an uprising as civilians fought back killing the dears men when the deer himself rode out from his newly claimed palace a man fired a musket at him narrowly missing him, this was the last straw, and it drove nuttier to seek safety at the top of a mosque once there he ordered his men to enter all the areas where Persian soldiers were being attacked and kill every civilian inside. He raised his sword. Which signalled the start of a massacre? Around thirty thousand civilians, including women and children were killed by Persians after the bloodshed now, dear had his men plunder all the riches and treasures of the mogul dynasty, stealing the famous peacock throne. And of course, the legendary great mogul diamond, sadly, Nadir's bloodlust only increased as he traveled the lands to gain more territory, he loved war, and he took pride in decimating villages and cities at one point when told that there would be no war in the afterlife. Dear responded with quote, how can there be any delights there? End quote, his murderous rampages caught up with him though. And he developed severe liver and gastrointestinal problems not to mention his mind began to get the best of him as he became increasingly psychotic. As time went on then in seventeen forty one and assassination. Attempt. Put him over the edge. The deer was convinced that his eldest son raise Kuli Mirza was the man behind the plot. So he had him blinded six years later afternoon deers physical and mental states continued to deteriorate several of his commanders entered his private quarters while he slept once they're they attacked him. But he awoke and fought back. He killed two of them. But the others managed to cut off his head that's in seventeen forty seven deer. Shaw's violent reign came to an end Nydia left behind a treasure trove among the valuables, the great mogul diamond or so we think we don't know for sure because after Nadir's death the diamond couldn't be found or tract. Where did that majestic stone sneak off to was it? Strategically taken or did it simply get lost in the mix. One thing to note is that the great mogul diamond is only called that in John Baptiste have as report that's the name. He gave it many believe that the great mogul diamond could have become the Kohinoor diamond the great mogul diamond disappeared from written history leaving no track record. So in a similar diamond popped up in British records. Some historians and jewelers suggested. It was actually that same stone making a reappearance. Let's take a look at the story of the Kohinoor and see if it lines up with the great mogul, first of all Kohinoor means mountain of light in Persian. According to an article in scientific American it was Nadu Shah who named the great mogul, the Kohinoor when he first laid eyes on it. This would have been in seventeen thirty nine when it fell into his hands after the battle of karnal, perhaps the great mogul was simply renamed by it's last confirmed owner mountain of light sounds as though it would benefit anyone who possessed it, however, Hindu text claimed only a woman could wear the Kohinoor if a man owned it. He would be cursed another aspect which links the two diamonds making a case for their shared identity. Bright Shah Jehan died in captivity after his son, basically imprisoned him. Dear Shah was murdered by his own men in the store. Of the Kohinoor afternoon. Dear Shah's, death, the stone passed to one of his generals Ahmad Shah Durrani, his descendant Shah shoe, John Durrani, eventually got a hold of the diamond and brought it back to India in eighteen thirteen in the early nineteenth century, the Kohinoor diamond pass to shy. Shia of Afghanistan who had inherited it. Now, the maharaja of Punjab India a man by the name of Ron Jeet Singh. Got wind of the Kohinoor prestige. And he wanted it badly. He tried to strike a deal with the Afghan leader. But Shashi ah didn't want to hand it over this caused some diplomatic issues and mighty the political waters between the two regions sing stalled by lying several times. I saying that he pawned the Kohinoor then saying it was lost with a bunch of other jewels. And after the third request he sent a Topaz gem to run Jeet Singh. Cl-? Claiming that was the jewel seeing was furious at the ruse and in a surprising power move Senate guard to she has house to prevent him from drinking or eating for two days. She finally caved and agreed to hand over the diamond. And so it made its way to a new owner yet again in eighteen forty three Duleep Singh. The last of Ranjit Jeet Singh sons became the ruler of Punjab and inherited the Kohinoor. He was only ten years old at the time while this was going on the British of the East India company and the sick empire were entangled in a series of wars for control of the continent. The East India company had first arrived on the shores of India in sixteen eight with two goals in mind established trade and acquire territory in sixteen fifteen the British established a factory at Seurat and eventually formed several trading posts along the coast. The British established large communities around the three primary cities of Calcutta Bombay and Madras, but what started out as a business venture eventually transformed into a military takeover. The company gained a stronghold in the region and eventually began to dominate Indian government and education by eighteen forty nine the British claimed the ultimate victory and gained ownership of Lahore, the capital city of Punjab, and guess what the British wanted the Kohinoor they made this clear in the treaty. They forced young leap sing to sign part of the treaty. Read quote, the gem called the Kohinoor Shelby, surrendered by the maharaja of Lahore to the Queen of England and quote, once surrendered the diamond was put in supposedly safe, keeping it was weighed at one hundred eighty seven carrots, which is almost one hundred less than the last week of the great mogul. So if the coup. Nor is the great mogul diamond. It would have been cut sometime in the century between Shana deers murder and the British acquisition of the diamond. It seems odd that any owners would want to cut the diamond while Taverny did note a slight flaw that an owner might have wanted to remove cutting the diamond that severely seems illogical losing so many carrots would certainly sink its value. But there are Irie similarities between the great mogul diamond and the Kohinoor once it was weighed three members of the British government at Poon job tasked with holding the Kohinoor until they were ordered to do. Otherwise, one of those men. John Lawrence would be the one to keep it on his person. But one night Lawrence place, the diamond which was now encased in a box inside his coat pocket. However when he changed for dinner and removed his coat. He forgot to transfer the diamond about six weeks later. The men received a message that Queen Victoria wanted the diamond immediately. And then came the Ono moment for Lawrence. He didn't know where the diamond was will find out where the diamond went after the break. Now back to the story. In eighteen fifty nine John Lawrence tasked with protecting the Kohinoor diamond had forgotten it in his coat pocket several weeks earlier. And now the Queen of England herself was ordering it to be delivered to her as soon as possible pretending. He knew exactly where it was Lawrence quickly. Ran to find his servant and asked if he had found anything in his coat pocket weeks. Earlier the servant replied, yes. I've found it and put it in one of your boxes. The servant brought the box to him and Lawrence opened it to find the diamond safe and sound. Wow. Can you imagine the relief? Lawrence must've felt what a close call. Indeed, it was it could have easily been stolen or lost. And that would have been a hefty price to pay. Now that the diamond was located it was on its way to England. But I it had to survive the streets of Bombay India and some of its rougher areas it passed through unscathed, and once it reached London it was put an iron box and deposited in the government treasury on July third eighteen fifty the deputy chairman hand delivered to Buckingham Palace for the Queen. But as it crossed into Britain's epicenter it brought with it the whispers of suspicion the legend of this diamond that it carried a bad luck Kerr's became a rumor that swept the nation in many were wary of its potential power. This curse is reminiscent of the curse that came. With the great mogul diamond the similarities between that and the Kohinoor are stacking up and this curse. Only made the Kohinoor. More alluring in England it debuted in the great exhibition in the crystal. Palace in Hyde Park, people came in droves to view it. It was the toast of the town. But then people started to talk and criticize the diamond the main note was that it didn't shine as brilliantly as everyone had hoped. And there was one important man who agreed with the sentiment Prince Albert Queen Victoria's husband. So he ordered it be re cut and polished Prince Albert higher deduction named voice longer a reputable diamond cutter who travelled to London to do the work this process took thirty eight days the gem now weighed one hundred five carrots, but the re cutting allowed it's face to refracted more light. So it appeared to be brighter and more brilliant Queen Victoria began wearing it as broach. There's a photo of her taken in eighteen eighty seven in which she is clad in diamonds, but the Kohinoor stands out as the largest and most notable. The stone wouldn't stay in that broach forever though, it was eventually placed in the center of a Royal crown and Queen Alexandra Victoria's daughter-in-law was the first to wear it. Then in nineteen thirty seven the Kohinoor was reset into a new crown and the Queen Mother began wearing it. The Queen Mother refers to Elizabeth Angela Marguerite bowes-lyon the wife of King, George the sixth and the mother of Queen. Elizabeth the second and Princess, Margaret, she even more it at her own funeral in two thousand two that was the last time the Kohinoor made a public appearance. The diamond remains in the crown and now resides in the jewel house in the tower of London. There's been much controversy surrounding the true ownership of this diamond Indian government officials have repeatedly demanded it be returned citing that it was forcibly taken during England's colonisation of India. According to an article from the telegraph posted in two thousand sixteen the ministry of culture said quote, the government of India further reiterates, its resolve to make all possible efforts to bring back the Kohinoor diamond in an amicable manner, and quote and the controversy continues to this day, but the history of the Kohinoor prior to being in British hands is muddy and it's hard to verify who exactly owned it or where exactly it came from other than a mine in gull Kanda the same area, the great mogul diamond came from could this mean that the Kohinoor was indeed the great mogul diamond at one point, and perhaps it was only its name that changed a mineralogical by the name of James Tennant think. So he believes that the Kohinoor displays similarities to the great mogul described by expert jeweler Jean Baptiste Tavernier during his study of it tenant rights, quote the. Kohinoor had a flaw near the summit which being on a line of cleavage parallel to the upper surface may very possibly have been produced when the upper portion was removed, and quote, if you'll recall much of the great mogul was removed in the mid sixteen hundreds when Shah Jehan had it recovered. However, the Kohinoor wait never matched up with a great mogul. According to record the last known weight of the great mogul was two hundred eighty three carrots. But when the Cohen nor made it to England it was only one hundred eighty seven carrots, some historians. Believe that this is because John Baptiste have Rene may have recorded an inaccurate weighed when he wrote about the great mogul in his report interesting putting the Kohinoor aside for a moment. There's another name another identity that the great mogul could've assumed it's time to hear the story of the Orlov diamond which ended up. In the hands of Russian empress, Catherine the great in seventeen sixty eight. This story is steeped much more in mystery legend and criminal intrigue and it begins in the temple of three wrong gum in southern India. It's unclear how this legend originated, but it's closely tied with the Orlov inside a temple dating back to the mid seventeenth century stanzas statue of the deity Lord rung enough. His eyes were composed of two stunning diamonds in the mid eighteenth century, several countries were competing for territory in India in what is known as the Karnik wars during this time, a French soldier abandoned his post and deserted his unit going under the radar. He found a job near the town of three Ron gum as he worked. He listened to the local speak of the temple and the idol containing the precious jewels. This Frenchman's desire was sparked any knew he had to steal the diamonds. But this would be a most impossible mission. Why because only Hindus were allowed in the temple and the statue remained in a sacred space several enclosures deep, so the Frenchman converted to Hinduism and gain the trust of several priests who worked in the temple eventually he gained access inside. And as he continued to prove his devotion. He was given the task of guardian to the central shrine not long after he began serving. They're a storm struck the land and the Frenchman found himself alone inside the temple. He saw his window of opportunity. He approached the statue stared up at the gleaming diamond is and began to pry one from it's socket until it came free after this. He must have gotten scared because instead of prying out the other diamond the Frenchman fled. He climbed the temple walls managed to swim across a river and navigated the nearby jungles until he reached the city of Madras there. He quickly sold the diamond to a British sea-captain for much less than it was worth probably. So he could get out of the area quickly with some money in his pocket. And maybe he was afraid of a possible curse. It was rumored to carry after that the diamond was sold several times by different merchants until it was purchased by a man named Schaaf RAs, he was an Armenian diamond dealer. Living in Amsterdam the year was seventeen sixty eight twenty one year. After the great mogul disappeared following the deer Shah's assassination count. Gregory Gregoria vich Orlov bought the diamond from Schaaf Ross in Amsterdam like the Frenchman or loft to was on a mission. But instead of stealing jewel he was looking to steal back a heart the heart of Catherine the great born in Prussia in seventeen twenty nine and originally called Sophie, Catherine was the daughter of a German prince who didn't have much money to his name. But what he lacked in funds? He hadn't connections and Catherine was married off to Peter the third of the Romanov dynasty in seventeen forty five. It was hardly a match made in heaven the two couldn't stand. Each other Peter inherited the throne in seventeen sixty two but he was strongly disliked by his people, including his wife who decided to take a lover count Orlov. They began an affair and with the help. His secret group of conspirators planned the assassination of her husband, Peter once the assassination was carried out in seventeen sixty two Catherine became empress. The throne was hers. It was a new horizon involving new responsibilities and new desires or loft became a thing of the past for her. She had her eyes set on new suitors or luff was crushed. He was determined to win Catherine back, and that's what led him to the jeweler named Schaaf RAs who showed him the stunning rose cut diamond. He bought it immediately and had it sent to Catherine while she accepted the diamond with much delight. She didn't rekindle her romance with lawf-, but she did shower him with lavish gifts as she did was all her lovers that was the end of their story. But not the end of the diamonds it was placed in the imperial sceptre a metal rod wielded by the person in power. The diamond remains. In the sceptre, which is displayed in the diamond fund in the Kremlin museum in Russia. Now, there are a number of reasons why some historians have claimed this diamond could be the great mogul. I is the striking similarity between the ARL off and the drawing done by Giambattista vignette back in sixteen sixty five. Both diamonds have the same half egg shape. Both a rose cut stones with similar facets and their coloring. Both diamonds are described as white with a hint of the slightest blue, but there's a specific detail that seems to really intrigued historians Tavernier wrote about it saying there was a slight crack and flaw at the bottom of the great mogul. They're also happens to be a slight indentation at the base of the Orlov that could be this very flaw. The weight of the Orlov is about one hundred ninety carrots slightly more than the Kohinoor was when it first came to England. However, neither diamond matches the supposed weight of the great mogul. Various jewel, experts and historians have debated whether the great mogul might have taken on a new identity following the chaos of war yet. There's another theory that has been tossed around that the great mogul was cut into several smaller pieces and all those pieces went their separate ways. While this is possible. It seems as though whoever came into possession of the great mogul would want to preserve its grandiosity to maintain its value, which leaves us with the likely scenario that the great mogul adopted a new name, and is hiding in plain sight the question is which name did it take. I think it makes the most sense that the great mogul became the Kohinoor Nadir's Shaw who acquired the great mogul after defeating Muhammad Shah called it the co in nor because it reminded him of a mountain of light. Also when drawings were done of the Kohinoor in England it had. Similar diameter to the great mogul when drawn by John Baptiste Tavernier, you make some good points. But I have to say I think it's a stronger possibility that became the Orlov I say this because of the color the Cohen, Noor is simply a white diamond noticeable bluish tinge, but the are lawf- has that blue coloring attributed to the great mogul, the diamonds also share the unusual rose cut and the Orlov diamond closely resembles Tavernier's drawing. Well, I guess we have to acknowledge that there's no definitive answer. But I will say this if you'll recall the great mogul diamond supposedly carried with it occurs that its owner would face terrible misfortune, if the owner was a man, but any female owner would be immune to the curse and actually prosper if we look back at the history of the Kohinoor, especially the female leaders wore it. We see a long line of British women surviving and thriving Queen Victoria, Queen Alexandra Queen Mary the Queen Mother. And even though she doesn't wear it. The diamonds current owner Queen Elizabeth the second is the longest reigning monarch since Queen Victoria. So if you believe the two diamonds are one in the same you're admitting that you buy into the legend of its curse, I guess I am. Yes. Well, whatever the true identity of the great mogul is now we know the great mogul in all its brilliance despite its so called imperfections sparked greed it fed into human hubris. It was one of the most coveted rewards in the spoils of war. It's many wars deaths and assassinations through it sometimes tragic always tense history. The great mogul diamond has probably stood witness to more than we can even imagine. Thanks for tuning in to gone. If you wanna find more episodes or any of par casts other podcasts, you can find us on apple podcasts, Stitcher, Google, play cast box tune in or your favorite podcast directory. Many of you have asked us how you can help the show if you enjoy the show the best way you can do that is to leave a five star review. You can also tell us your theories on Facebook and Instagram at par cast on Twitter at parkas network or at parkas dot com. We'll be back in two weeks with another episode just because it's gone doesn't mean it can't be found gone was created. By max Cutler is a production of Cutler media and is part of the park cast network. It is produced by Maxon Ron Cutler sound design by dick Schroeder with production assistance by Ron Shapiro. Paul Moller Maggie admire. And Carly Madden gun is written by Jessica Malo and stars. Molly Brandenburg and Richard Rossner. We really want to thank you for all your support with the new content park cast is released. Please don't forget to rate review and subscribe to assassinations as well as our other new podcasts, hostage and kingpins. And if you can tell a friend about your favorite park cast show, it'll really help us out search for assassinations wherever you listen to podcasts. New episodes come out every Monday.

Kohinoor India Shah Jehan Mohammad Shah England Gregory Gregoria vich Orlov Kohinoor John Baptiste Tavernier Tavern Muhammad Shah John Baptiste Taverny Delhi Richard Rossner John Lawrence Muhammed billiards Catherine Queen Elizabeth Nadir Kohinoor Shelby
S8: Treasure Hunt: The Great Mogul Diamond

Parcast Presents

39:58 min | 9 months ago

S8: Treasure Hunt: The Great Mogul Diamond

"It outlasted the reign of kings survived the fall of empires but after the assassination of its final owner in seventeen. Forty-seven all records of the great mogul. Diamond virtually disappeared. If you enjoy this episode and want to hear. More Tales of history's most mystifying. Disappearances subscribe to our series gone today in addition to new episodes of gone. Every other Monday. You'll get a special mini episode on off Monday's but only on spotify until then enjoy this road in seventeen thirty nine Persian emperor dear Shah led an army of approximately twenty thousand men against Mohammad. Shah the mogul emperor of India in a ruthless invasion deer and his decimated Muhammed's armies in what is known as the battle of Karnal. Muhammed eventually surrendered handing over his empire in Delhi. This empire wasn't only land but included something so rare tantalizing its true value was incalculable. The great mogul diamond. However this two hundred eighty carat gemstone came with a curse. Those who came into contact with a great diamond had gone bankrupt been exiled and had their entire empire thrown now dear. Its new owner was not spared in seventeen forty seven. Assassins broke into New Year's quarters and decapitated him. And just like that. The Great Mogul. Diamond disappeared from the annals of history. Hi I'm molly and I'm Richard. Welcome to gone the show where we search for everything missing every other Monday. We examined mysterious disappearances. The theories they spawned from the Amber Room to Michael Rockefeller the Costco paintings. To the address can language the roanoke colony to the lost Russian cosmonauts. If it's gone we're looking for it. You can find previous episodes as well as podcasts. Other podcasts on your favorite podcast directory. Some of you have been asking how you can support gone if you enjoy the show. The best way to support us is to leave a five star review. Wherever you listen today we will be looking into the seventeen forty seven disappearance of the great mogul diamond which arose from the dirt of a dried riverbed in India and became one of the world's most puzzling precious stones. The Great Mogul. Diamond had a brief and troubling history. It was kept as a testament to its owners wealth and power but it was never in the same hands for long. The brilliant diamond witnessed this exile of kings and the fall of empires but in seventeen forty-seven after the assassination of its final owner. All records of the diamond virtually disappeared. How could such a grand treasurer be so quickly lost to time? Our first theory claims that it ended up in the British crown. Jewels after England's colonisation of India. Our second theory assumes that the diamond is actually masquerading as another famous diamond. The Orlov now residing in a Russian museum but whether it's hiding in plain sight or the diamond remains in some other unknown location. The great mogul diamond remains a much sought after mystery to fully explore this story. We must go back to the Diamond's origins at the center of the Earth. Most people believed that diamonds come from coal but the truth is coal. Rarely plays a part in the formation of diamonds coal is produced by ancient plant deposits on the earth's surface but most diamonds come from the Earth's mantle nearly one hundred miles below the surface and when diamonds emerged from those extreme depths. Don't come quietly there. Spewed out through violent volcanic eruptions known as Kimberlite eruptions. These are extremely rare and it is believed that the less kimberlite eruption occurred more than twenty five million years ago. The great mogul diamond was most likely formed from one of these eruptions. It was discovered along the Krishna River in the Gulf Kanda Mine. In India India was the birthplace of the diamond trade which probably began around four hundred BC. In fact until seventeen twenty five when diamonds were first discovered in Brazil? India was the only source of these gems. These unique stones were quickly seen as valuable indicators of class status and traded along the Silk Road a network of trade routes connecting the east with the West not to mention early civilizations actually believed the diamonds were gifts from the Gods and those who found or received them would be blessed with wealth strength and good health if that was the case they must have believed the great mogul diamond. Would bring them immortality because it was so massive in sixteen fifty six when it made its first real appearance and written histories. The Islamic mogul empire was thriving India prusiene Emperor Shah Jehan whose name means King of the world presided over the throne and his taste for extravagance reflected this estes title in sixteen thirty two. He commissioned the famed Taj Mahal in Agra a stunning mausoleum built for his young wife after her death Shah Jehan also had the famous peacock throne adorned with gold and covered in rubies emeralds and pearls built for himself but he was about to get even fancier because in sixteen fifty six a wealthy general named Emir Gem. La came to Delhi and met with Shah Jehan to establish good diplomatic relations. Jemma worked for Abdulah King of Gaul Kanda India and was trying to broker an alliance between the two leaders. But he didn't come empty-handed among his gifts for the emperor was the great diamond at the time it was the largest diamond ever discovered in its rough original state. This stone way to wapping seven hundred eighty seven and a half carrots. That's equal to more than one hundred and fifty seven grams about as heavy as a billiards ball or half as heavy as a human heart. That's huge the average size for an engagement ring in the US in two thousand seventeen was zero point nine carrots so not even one carat and that size goes for about six thousand dollars depending on design retailer and other factors to give vague sense of its value. One of the largest diamonds ever sold at auction one hundred and eighteen carat diamond a fraction of the size of the great mogul. That went for thirty point. Six million dollars in two thousand thirteen as for what it looked like it has been described as an egg cut in half. The top end formed a cone shape. The opposite end a flat circle. This shape was referred to as a rose cut because the shape somewhat resembles a Rosebud. Rose cuts are relatively rare and this gave the great mogul diamond and even more unique quality. Jehan was quite pleased with a gift but ordered that the diamond be cut to make it fit for an emperor such as he the stone in its natural state would not do. There were too many aesthetic flaws like lines and cracks which in jeweler speak are called inclusions. Ancient Indian text. The ran up periscope alluded to the importance of a flawless diamond. Saying quote. Wise men not use a diamond with visible flaws. As a gem end quote so Jehan hired or ten CIO born Gio of Venetian lapidary or gemstone cutter to refine it. Bora Gio began cutting the stone grinding away. All the problematic flaws but go figure the more he ground the smaller and lighter stone God after Borgias work. The stone was a mirror. Two hundred eighty three carats less than half the size of the original this way about two ounces as much as a staff of twelve nichols not a billiards ball. But still quite the hefty jewel. Unfortunately the new size and weight became a bit of a problem. The size of the stone was one of its primary appeals Emperor Shah. Jehan was furious so much so he wanted to execute Borneo for his poor workmanship but Jehan stopped short of that instead. He Find Bores. Yo Ten thousand rupees. Basically all the money. That diamond cutter had to his name. Borgias page gone and laughed a very poor and shamefaced man. It seemed that bore Joe may have been the first man to fall prey to the curse of the great mogul. Several years later in sixteen fifty seven. John became very ill in his old age. This launched a competition for the throne between his four sons. The Youngest Orange Zab killed one of his brothers and eventually claimed the empire. He sent his father away to the Red Fort. A Sandstone fortress located on the Yarmuk River it was basically a prison for Shah Jehan where he spent the last years of his life until his death in sixteen. Sixty six whatever happened to respecting your elders. Let alone your own father and I have to ask could. The so called. Curse of the diamond have led to John's plight possibly but we can also blame orange ebbs greed. He wanted the kingdom and all its treasures to himself including the great mogul diamond are exempt kept all that he wrongfully inherited in a special chamber in the palace he was very proud of it is collection. Caught the eye of a famous jewel merchant from France named John Baptiste. Tavernier Tavernier was a world traveler. And Jim Aficionado who made six voyages to the East between sixteen thirty to sixteen sixty eight. He wrote extensively about his experiences. Eventually publishing the two volume book the six voyages of Jean Baptiste Tavernier. It became a best seller and was translated into four languages in his lifetime. This man was so obsessed with diamonds that he traveled at his own expense in search of them and reveled in the opportunity to study them since only royalty in the extremely affluent could get hold of such prizes tavern. Yay met with a lot of important global leaders. He was known internationally for his expertise. Gemstones one such leader which Schaja Han Sun King. Orange Ebb who led Tavernier get acquainted with the great mogul diamond officers? Escort Tavernier into a small chamber where the king was sitting on his throne. Tavernier then met the chief keeper of the Jewels Cal Khan who commanded for UNIX to fetch the stones. They brought the gems out on gilded wooden trays covered with red velvet cloths to protect them such presentation and understandably so. Tavernier was awed by all this documented. The experience writing quote the first piece which CAL CON put in. My hands was the great diamond. Which is around. Rose cut very high on one side on the lower edge. There is a slight crack and a little flaw in it. It's water is beautiful unquote water refers to a diamonds degree of brilliance. According to Ta- Varney a the great mogul was extremely bright and sparkly to put it in simpler terms. It made quite the impression on him and he forever immortalized it by drawing a sketch of it in his book after this Tavernier's continued on his journey of Jules. Leaving the great mogul behind better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. They say the diamond remained with the mogul empire passing hands to an emperor by the name of Mohammad Shah in seventeen nineteen a little over fifty years after Orange Ebrell the region but it would not stay with this new leader for long. Perhaps we have the curse to blame for that because Emperor Muhammad Shah was in for a world of trouble. Could the great mogul diamond had been responsible for the fall of Mohammed shots empire? We'll find out after the break now. Back to the story in seventeen. Thirty EIGHT MOGUL. Emperor Mohammad Shop possessed one of the region's most valued treasures. The great mogul diamond. But that and everything else Mohammed owned was about to be threatened a bloodthirsty emperor from Persia was coming for the mogul empire. His name was nadir's born in sixteen. Eighty eight in Khorasani Persia nuclear grew up a poor peasant. He was forced into slavery but escaped captivity and eventually became a soldier. The military was where he thrived nuclear advanced quickly there but when he conflicted with a high ranking official name dear went rogue and formed his own army bold move definitely and it set the stage for. Nadir's rise to power in seventeen twenty nine. He freed Persia from Afghan control and seven years later ascended to the throne as emperor of Persia not long after he went on conquering rampage throughout much of the East which led him to just outside of Delhi India with a foolproof strategy for a takeover at Karnal Sixty eight miles north of Delhi. Nadu Shah Army of twenty thousand against Muhammad Shah's forces consisting of nearly three hundred thousand soldiers and two thousand war elephants. Although the deers troops were greatly outnumbered. Muhammed's forces had a disadvantage. There artillery was fairly antiquated. Much too heavy and hard to maneuver. Nadir's Shaw ever. The military strategist used a three prong approach dividing his limited troops into three main sectors. Using one of these lines of offense a diversion shock commanded an ambush and it was downhill for the mogul troops from there. The Persians defeated their enemy within three hours of the battles start. This was the beginning of the end of the mogul dynasty. Mohammad Shah soon handed over his empire tuna dear soon after the deer began enforcing strict laws and taxation on citizens. The Persian military presence was oppressive and soldiers were quick to punish civilians. This intern catalyzed an uprising. Civilians fought back killing the dears men when the deer himself wrote out from his newly claimed palace a man fired a musket at him narrowly missing him. This was the last Straw and it drove nuttier to seek safety the top of a mosque once there. He ordered his men to enter all the areas where Persian soldiers were being attacked and kill every civilian inside erased. His sword which signalled the start of a massacre around thirty thousand civilians including women and children were killed by Persians. After the bloodshed deer had his men plunder all the riches and treasures of the mogul dynasty stealing the famous peacock throne and of course the legendary. Great Mogul diamond. Sadly Nadir's bloodlust only increased as he traveled the lands to gain more territory. He loved war and he took pride and decimating villages and cities at one point. When told that there would be no war in the afterlife? Dear responded with quote there be any delights there end quote. His murderous rampages caught up with him though and he developed severe liver and gastrointestinal problems not to mention his mind began to get the best of him as he became increasingly psychotic. Time went on then in seventeen forty one and assassination attempt. Put him over the edge. Nadiri was convinced that his eldest son raise Kuli Mirza was the man behind the plot so he had him blinded six years later afternoon. Deers physical and mental states continued to deteriorate. Several of his commanders. Entered his private quarters while he slept wants there. They attacked him but he awoke and fought back. He killed two of them but the others managed to cut off his head thus in seventeen forty seven. Now Dear Shaw's violent reign came to an end. Dear left behind a treasure trove among the valuables. The great mogul diamond or so. We think we don't know for sure because afternoon deers death. The diamond couldn't be found or tract. Where did that majestic stone sneak off to? Was it strategically taken or did it simply get lost in the mix? One thing to note is that the great mogul diamond is only called that in John. Baptiste Tavernier's report. That's the name he gave. It many believed that the great mogul diamond could have become the Kohinoor diamond. The great mogul diamond disappeared from written history. Leaving no track record so when a similar diamond popped up in British records some historians in jewelers suggested it was actually that same stone making a reappearance. Let's take a look at the story of the Kohinoor and see if it lines up with the great mogul. First of all Kohinoor means mountain of light in Persian. According to an article in scientific American it was NYDIA. Who named the great mogul the Kohinoor? When he first laid eyes on it this would have been in seventeen thirty nine when it fell into his hands. After the battle of Karnal perhaps the great mogul was simply renamed by. It's last confirmed. Owner mountain of light sounds as though it would benefit anyone who possessed it however Hindu taxed claimed only a woman could wear the Kohinoor. If a man owned it he would be cursed another aspect which links the two diamonds making a case for their shared. Identity Bright Schaja. Jehan died in captivity after his son basically imprisoned him dear Shah was murdered by his own men in the story of the Coen afternoon dear. Shah's death the stone passed to one of his generals Ahmad Shah Durrani his descendant Shah Shujaat. Durrani eventually got a hold of the diamond and brought it back to India in eighteen thirteen in the early nineteenth century. The kohinoor diamond passed his shy Shia Aghanistan who had inherited it now the Maharaja of Punjab India a man by the name of Ranjit Singh got wind of the Kohinoor Prestige. And he wanted it badly. He tried to strike a deal with the Afghan leader. But Shaw Shia. Didn't want to hand it over. This caused some diplomatic issues and mighty the political waters between the two regions sing stalled by lying several times. I saying that he pawned the Kohinoor. Then saying it was lost with a bunch of other jewels and after the third request he sent a Topaz gem to run Jeet Singh claiming that was the jewel seeing was furious at the ruse and in a surprising power. Move sent a guard. She has house to prevent him from drinking or eating for two days. She finally caved and agreed to hand over the diamond and so it made its way to a new owner yet again in eighteen forty-three duleep Singh. The last of Ranjit Singh sons became the ruler of Punjab and inherited the Kohinoor. He was only ten years old at the time while this was going on. The British of the east India Company and the sick empire were entangled in a series of wars for control of the continent. The east India company had first arrived on the shores of India in sixteen hundred eight with two goals in mind established trade and acquire territory in Sixteen fifteen. The British established a factory at Seurat eventually formed several trading posts along the coast the British established large communities around the three primary cities of Calcutta Bombay and Madras. But what started out. As a business venture eventually transformed into a military takeover the company gained a stronghold in the region and eventually began to dominate Indian government and education by eighteen forty nine the British claimed the ultimate victory and gained ownership of Lahore the capital city of Punjab. And guess what the British wanted the Kohinoor. They made this clear in the treaty. They forced young. Delete sing to sign. Part of the treaty read quote. The Gem called the Kohinoor shall be surrendered by the Maharaja of Lahore to the Queen of England. End Quote once surrendered. The diamond was put in supposedly safe keeping. It was weighed at one hundred. Eighty seven carrots which is almost one hundred less than the last week of the great mogul. So if the Kohinoor is the great mogul diamond. It would have been cut some time in the century between. Shawna deers and the British acquisition of the diamond. It seems odd that any owners would wanna cut the diamond while Tavernier did not a slight flaw that an owner might have wanted to remove cutting the diamond. That severely seems illogical. Losing so many carrots would certainly sink. Its value but there are earier similarities. Between the great mogul diamond and the Kohinoor once it was weighed. Three members of the British government at Punjab were tasked with holding the Kohinoor until they were ordered to do otherwise. One of those men John Lawrence would be the one to keep it on his person but one night lawrence place the diamond which was now encased in a box inside his coat pocket however when he changed for dinner and removed his coat he forgot to transfer the diamond about six weeks later. The men received a message. That Queen Victoria wanted the diamond immediately and then came the Ono Moment for Lawrence. He didn't know where the diamond was. We'll find out where the diamond went after the break now back to the story in eighteen fifty nine John Lawrence tasked with protecting the Kohinoor. Diamond had forgotten it in his coat pocket several weeks earlier and now the queen of England herself was ordering it to be delivered to her as soon as possible pretending he knew exactly where it was lawrence quickly ran to find his servant and asked if he had found anything in his coat pocket weeks earlier the servant replied yes. I've found it and put it in one of your boxes. The Servant brought the box to him and Lawrence opened it to find the diamond safe and sound. Well can you imagine the Relief Lawrence must have felt what a close call? Indeed it was. It could have easily been stolen or lost. And that would have been a hefty price to pay now that the diamond was located. It was on. Its Way to England but I it had to survive the streets of Bombay India and some of its rougher areas it passed through unscathed and once it reached London it was put an iron box and deposited in the government treasury on July third eighteen. Fifty the deputy chairman hand delivered to Buckingham Palace for the Queen. But as it crossed into Britain's epicenter it brought with it the whispers of suspicion. The legend of this diamond that it carried a bad luck curse became a rumor that swept the nation in many were wary of its potential power this curse is reminiscent of the curse that came with the great mogul diamond the similarities between that and the Kohinoor are stacking up and this curse only made the Kohinoor more alluring in England. It debuted in the great exhibition in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park people came in droves to view it. It was the toast of the town but then people started to talk and criticize the diamond. The main note was that it didn't shine as brilliantly as everyone had hoped and there was one important man who agreed with the sentiment. Prince Albert Queen. Victoria's husband so he ordered it. Be Re cut and polished. Prince Albert hired a Dutchman vermonter reputable diamond cutter who travelled to London to do the work. This process took thirty eight days. The GEM now weighed one hundred five carrots but the re cutting allowed. It's face to reflect more light so it appeared to be brighter and more brilliant clean. Victoria began wearing it as broach. There's a photo of her taken in eighteen. Eighty seven in which is in diamonds but the Kohinoor stands out as the largest and most notable. The stone wouldn't stay in. That broke forever though. It was eventually placed in the center of a Royal Crown and Queen. Alexandra Victoria's daughter-in-law was the first to wear it. Then in nineteen thirty seven the Kohinoor was reset into a new crown and the Queen. Mother began wearing it. The Queen Mother refers to Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes Lyon the wife of King George the sixth and the mother of Queen Elizabeth the second and Princess Margaret. She even wore it at her own funeral in two thousand two. That was the last time the Kohinoor made a public appearance. The diamond remains in the crown and now resides in the jewel house in the Tower of London. There's been much controversy surrounding the true of this diamond Indian. Government officials have repeatedly demanded it be returned citing that it was forcibly taken during England's colonisation of India. According to an article from the Telegraph posted in two thousand sixteen the Ministry of Culture said quote the government of India further reiterates. Its resolve to make all possible efforts to bring back the Kohinoor diamond in an amicable manner and quote and the controversy continues to this day but the history of the Kohinoor prior to being in British hands is muddy. And it's hard to verify who exactly owned it or where exactly it came from other than a mine in Gull Kanda the same area. The great mogul diamond came from. Could this mean that the Kohinoor was indeed the great mogul diamond at one point? And perhaps it was only its name. That changed a meteorologist by the name of James Tennant thinks so he believes that the Kohinoor displays similarities to the great mogul described by expert jeweler. Jean Baptiste Tavernier. During his study of IT tenant rights quote. The KOHINOOR had a flaw near the summit. Which being on a line of cleavage parallel to the upper surface may very possibly have been produced when the upper portion was removed and quote. If you'll recall much of the great mogul was removed in the mid sixteen hundreds when Shaw Johann had cut however the Coen ores wait never matched up with the great mogul. According to record the last known weight of the Great Mogul was two hundred. Eighty three carrots but when the Cohen nor made it to England it was only one hundred eighty seven carrots. Some historians believe that. This is because jean-baptiste have rene may have recorded an inaccurate weighed when he wrote about the great mogul in his report. Interesting putting the Kohinoor aside for a moment there's another name another identity that the great mogul could have assumed it's time to hear the story of the Orlov diamond which ended up in the hands of Russian. Empress Catherine the great in seventeen sixty eight. This story is steeped much more in mystery legend and criminal intrigue and it begins in the temple of wrong in southern India. It's unclear how this legend originated but it's closely tied with the Orlov inside a temple. Dating back to the mid seventeenth century stands a statue of the Deity. Lord Ranga Nafa. His eyes were composed of two stunning diamonds. In the mid eighteenth century several countries were competing for territory in India in what is known as the Karnad wars during this time. A French soldier abandoned his post and deserted his unit going under the radar. He found a job near the town of three wrong as he worked. He listened to the locals. Speak of the temple and the idol. -taining the precious jewels. This Frenchman's desire was sparked any knew he had to steal the diamonds. But this would be a most impossible mission. Why because only Hindus were allowed in the temple and the statue remained in a sacred space several enclosures deep so the Frenchman converted to Hinduism and gain the trust of several priests. Who worked in the temple? Eventually he gained access inside and as he continued to prove his devotion he was given the task of Guardian to the Central Shrine. Not long after he began serving. They're a storm struck the land and the Frenchman found himself alone inside the temple. He saw his window of opportunity. He approached the statue stared up at the gleaming. Diamond is and began to pry one from. It's socket until it came free after this. He must have gotten scared because instead of prying out the other diamond. The Frenchman fled. He climbed the temple. Walls managed to swim across a river and navigated the nearby jungles until he reached the city of Madras there. He quickly sold the diamond to a British Sea. Captain for much less than it was worth probably so he could get out of the area quickly with some money in his pocket and maybe he was afraid of possible curse. It was rumored to carry after that. The diamond was sold several times by different merchants until it was purchased by a man named Shaw Friis. He was an Armenian diamond dealer. Living in Amsterdam the year was seventeen. Sixty eight twenty one years after the great mogul disappeared following the deer. Shah's assassination count Gregory Gregoria. Vich Orlov bought the diamond from SCHAAF. Ross in Amsterdam like the Frenchman or love to was on a mission but instead of stealing a jewel he was looking to steal back a heart. The heart of Catherine the great born in Prussia in seventeen twenty nine and originally called Sophie Catherine was the daughter of a German prince who didn't have much money to his name but what he lacked in funds he hadn't connections and Catherine was married off to Peter the third of the Romanov dynasty in Seventeen forty-five hardly match made in heaven. The two couldn't stand each other. Peter inherited the throne in seventeen sixty two but he was strongly disliked by his people including his wife who decided to take a lover Count Orlov. They began an affair and with the help of a secret group of conspirators planned the assassination of her husband. Peter once the assassination was carried out in seventeen sixty two catherine became empress. The throne was hers. It was a new horizon involving new responsibilities and new desires or loft became a thing of the past for her. She had her eyes set on new suitors. Orlov was crushed. He was determined to win Catherine back. And that's what led him to the jeweler named shoppers. Who showed him? The stunning rose cut diamond. He bought it immediately and had it sent to Catherine while she accepted the diamond with much delight. She didn't rekindle her romance with. Olaf but she did shower him with lavish gifts as she did all her lovers. That was the end of their story. But not the end of the diamonds it was placed in the imperial sceptre. A metal rod wielded by the person in power the diamond remains in the sceptre which is displayed in the diamond. Find in the Kremlin Museum in Russia. Now there are a number of reasons why some historians have claimed this diamond. Could be the great mogul I is the striking similarity between the ARL off and the drawing done by Bob. Tease Tavernier back in sixteen sixty five. Both diamonds have the same half egg shape. Both arose cut stones with similar facets and their collaring both diamonds are described as white with a hint of the slightest blue. But there's a specific detail that seems to really intrigued. Historians Tavernier wrote about it saying there was a slight crack and flaw at the bottom of the great mogul. They're also happens to be a slight indentation at the base of the Orlov. That could be this very flaw. The weight of the Orlov is about one hundred and ninety carrots slightly more than the Kohinoor was when it first came to England however neither diamond matches the supposed weight of the great mogul various jewel experts and historians have debated whether the great mogul might have taken on a new identity following the chaos of war yet. There's another theory that has been tossed around that. The Great Mogul Wisconsin to several smaller pieces and all those pieces went their separate ways. While this is possible it seems as though whoever came into possession of the great mogul would want to preserve its grandiosity to maintain its value. Which leaves us with the likely scenario that the great mogul adopted a new name and is hiding in plain sight. The question is which name did it take? I think it makes the most sense that the great mogul became the Kohinoor. Nadir's Shaw who acquired the great mogul after defeating Muhammad Shah called it the co in nor because it reminded him of a mountain of light also. When drawings were done of the Kohinoor in England it had a similar diameter. To the great mogul when drawn by Jean Baptiste. Tavernier some good points. But I have to say. I think it's a stronger possibility that it became the Orlov. I say this because of the color the Kohinoor is simply a white diamond noticeable bluish tinge the Orlov has that blue color attributed to the great mogul. The diamonds also share the unusual rose cut and the Orlov diamond closely resembles Tavernier's drawing. Well I guess we have to acknowledge that. There's no definitive answer. But I will say this. If you'll recall the great mogul dynasty supposedly carried with it occurs that its owner would face terrible misfortune if the owner was a man but any female owner would be immune to the. Kerr's and actually prosper. If we look back at the history of the Kohinoor especially the female leaders wore it we see a long line of British women surviving and Thriving Queen Victoria Queen. Alexandra Queen Mary the Queen Mother and even though she doesn't wear it the diamonds current owner Queen Elizabeth. The second is the longest reigning monarch since Queen Victoria. So if you believe the two diamonds are one and the same. You're admitting that you buy into the legend of its curse. I guess I am Yes. Well whatever the true identity of the great mogul is. Now we know the great mogul in all its brilliance. Despite its so called imperfections sparked greed it fed into human hubris. It was one of the most coveted rewards in the spoils of war. It saw many wars deaths and assassinations through it sometimes. Tragic always tense history. The great mogul diamond has probably stood witness to more than we can even imagine. Thanks for tuning in to gone. If you WANNA find more episodes or any of par casts other podcasts you can find us on apple podcast stitcher. Google play cast box tune in your favorite podcast directory. Many of you have asked us how you can help the show. If you enjoy the show the best way you can do that is to leave. A five star review. You can also tell us your theories on facebook and Instagram at podcast on twitter at podcast network or at PODCAST DOT com. We'll be back in two weeks with another episode. Just because it's gone doesn't mean it can't be found gone was created by Max Cutler is a production of cutler media and is part of the podcast network it is produced by Maxon Ron Cutler sound design by Schroeder with production assistance by Ron Shapiro. Paul Molitor Maggie Admire and Carly Madden Gun is written by Jessica Malo and Stars Molly Brandenburg and Richard Rosner.

Kohinoor Jean Baptiste Tavernier India Diamond Emperor Muhammad Shah Emperor Shah Jehan Mohammad Shah England Vich Orlov Muhammed Delhi Count Orlov Karnal Shaw Nadir Queen Victoria John Lawrence Ranjit Singh Sophie Catherine Queen Elizabeth
The Peacock Throne

GONE

51:06 min | 2 years ago

The Peacock Throne

"The Amazon prime original series lore returns on October nineteen with new true tales from an executive producer of the Walking Dead and an executive producer of the exorcist Laura explores haunting real life tales that give rise to our modern day myths and legends this six episode series includes two stories that have never been heard on the podcast before the scariest stories are true season. One of elible now watch the new season of lore October nineteenth only on prime video. Richard, and I have some exciting news for you starting. Now you can listen to gone episodes that are older than six months completely. Ad free exclusively on Stitcher premium. We are always looking for ways to improve listener experience. We found an amazing partner in Stitcher to bring you episodes. Ad free, six months after they are released. Again, this will only affect episodes older than six months. Nothing else will change will still be releasing new gone episodes wherever you listen to podcasts for a free month trial go to Stitcher, premium dot com. Slash par cast and use promo code park cast that Stitcher, premium dot com slash podcast and use promo code park cast. Have you ever been in a life or death situation? What's it like to be in a position where your life hangs in the balance or to be the person responsible for freeing the innocent held captive on par, casts new show. Hostage will explore these complex heart pounding situations. Some with endings that went tragically wrong and others with miraculous reunifications subscribe now to hostage as our hosts go behind the scenes inside the world's most intense hostage negotiations and be sure to stay tuned to the end of this show for a sneak peek of the first episode hostage premiers Thursday, October eighteenth with new episodes, every Thursday search hostage, wherever you listen to podcasts and subscribe now. The Taj Mahal widely considered one of the most magnificent buildings ever constructed a member of the new seven wonders of the world commissioned in sixteen thirty two, but not completed until sixteen fifty. Three icon ick Mughal emperor Shah Jehan dedicated the Taj Mahal to his beloved wife, Munoz Mahal who died giving birth to their fourteenth child over twenty thousand workers, labored alongside one thousand elephants to erect the great Rogo mausoleum. It's constructed from white marble and its interior is inlaid with gemstones such as lapis Lasley and Cornelia. N- some say it's valued today at over one billion dollars to others. The view of the grand Taj Mahal is priceless, but many people don't know that shy Jehan. Mission. Another treasure won twice as expensive and twice as grand Jehan oversaw the construction of the costliest single piece of treasure built in the past millennium the peacock throne. It was originally housed in the Red Fort a Royal fortress palace in Delhi. According to author, k r n Swamy the peacock throne was valued at eight hundred four million dollars or four point. Five billion rupees in nineteen ninety nine rod out of over twenty five hundred pounds of gold and over five hundred pounds of precious stones. It easily caused twice as much as the Taj Mahal to build yet for almost three hundred years. No one has seen the original peacock throne since seventeen thirty nine. The costliest single piece of treasure crafted in the last millennium has been gone. Hi, I'm Molly and I'm Richard, welcome to gone the show where we searched for everything missing every other Monday. We examined mysterious disappearances and the theories they spawned from the amber room to Michael Rockefeller Picasso paintings to the trust in language, the Roanoke colony to the lost Russian cosmonauts. If it's gone, we're looking for it. You can find previous episodes as well as par. Cast other podcasts on your favorite podcast directory. Some of you have been asking how you can support gone. If you enjoy the show. The best way to support us is to leave a five star review online. This episode were looking into the extravagant peacock throne, the seed of the Mughal empire, a Muslim dynasty, which ruled most of northern India from fifteen twenty six to the mid nineteenth century somehow the. Peacock throne has been missing since seventeen thirty nine. The peacock throne was last seen in its entirety during the Persian sacking of Delhi led by the Iranian conqueror Nadu Shah as a token of war Nadu Shah supposedly took the throne back to his palace. In Iran, there are three main theories as to wear the peacock throne may have ended up the first and simplest theory is that the peacock throne was taken as a war prize afternoon, dear Shah's failed campaign against the Afghans in Kurds in seventeen forty seven. The throne was then apparently broken down dismantled and distributed amongst the soldiers who then sold their shares for pennies on the dollar. The second theory is that the Afghans and Kurds didn't plunder the original peacock throne, but merely a recreation of the peacock throne created by nuttier Shah this theory posits that the original peacock throne remain. Back at new deer Shah's palace in Iran, during his failed campaign against the Afghans and Kurds in seventeen forty seven. This theory also suggests that afternoon, dear Shah's death. The original peacock throne was reclaimed by the Mughal empire and return to Delhi. The third theory suggests that the peacock throne was aboard the Grosvenor an eight hundred ton British ship that wrecked off the South African coast in seventeen eighty two and the peacock throne is to this day acting as a habitation for aquatic life somewhere, deep in the Indian Ocean. To begin our investigation, we must. I look at the Moghal empires, golden age, a period of great prosperity for the Muslim dynasty in northern India. The golden age lasted from sixteen twenty eight to sixteen fifty eight, which were the years of emperor Shah Jehan rain Shah Jehan which translates to king of the world was the third son of emperor Jehan gear. And the Rajput Princess mon- Mati John became a member of the influential Noor Jehan click and exclusive group of people centered around Noor Jehan John gears twentieth and final wife even before John gears, death in sixteen twenty seven, a war of succession was raging between his sons Jehan gears first son and Shah Jehan elder brother. Koos Roux was killed in sixteen twenty two uprising in Deccan some speculate that Sean Jehan had ordered his brother to be killed to increase. His own chances of sending to the throne Jehan gear. Second son Parvaiz was considered weak and was rumored to be addicted to alcohol. He died in sixteen twenty six. Some immediately suspecting the death was caused by poison. At the hand of Shah Jehan when John gear died the following year Shah Jehan and his younger brother Shari are where the only remaining heirs. Although Schaja Han was a member of Noor Jehan exclusive circle. She cited with Shahryar in the bid for succession. She feared that if the strong willed Shah Jehan were made emperor, she would lose a Royal influence. She believes Cherie are would be easier to manipulate but newer. John's brother us of Khan was jealous of his sisters power. He also happened to be Schaja Hans father-in-law unsurprisingly. He sided with Schaja Han. At this point, the battle for succession turned into a literal war. Shahryar raised an army and Asaf Khan and Shah Jehan met them near the Mughal city of Lahore Shah Jehan Khan, victorious defeating Shahryar forces, Sean Jehan, ordered Sherry are to be blinded, then executed along with any remaining contenders for the Mughal empire's thrown. He also ordered Noor Jehan to be confined in Lahore mansion where she remained until her death, two decades later in sixteen twenty eight with no other contenders for the throne in the war of succession officially over Shah Jehan officially proclaimed himself. The next Mughal emperor. Jehan had an unquenchable thirst for building in the early years of his thirty year reign. Jehan oversaw the construction of two great mosques. The moti Majid's or the Pearl mosque and the Jami Masjid or the great mosque. After he sifted is capital from off to Delhi in sixteen thirty nine Schaja Han ordered the construction of a huge fortress palace known as the Red Fort which took nine years to complete his Royal court was full of splendor and great pomp, his collection of jewels, arguably the most magnificent in the world. And of course, by sixteen fifty three, he had the splendid Taj Mahal erected in Agra for the favorite of his three queens. But Schaja Han wasn't satisfied with these earthly riches and wonders. He wanted to be the shadow of God or the arbiter of God's will on earth and in order to speak for God, he need to craft a throne. Similar to the throne of Solomon, which appears in the Hebrew bible and is commonly represented in Islam, art. This holy throne is seen as belonging to God himself. Shortly after he became emperor, Shahjahan commissioned and encrusted gold throne. The throne was to be arrested upon a pedestal, so that he would be able to sit above his onlookers closer to God. The throne was constructed under the supervision of Beppu Alcon, the superintendent of the goldsmiths department. It was built at a cost of one crore of rupees by today's estimates. Aside from the priceless pieces of the peacock throne, the construction labor alone would have cost one hundred forty, five thousand dollars the peacock throne or the tucked Taus with truly a celebration of Schaja Hans extravagant rule. This was no ordinary seat of power. The throne was a gilded platform measuring four feet. Wide and six feet long ascended by silver steps upon its four massive golden legs, which were set with jewels were four bars that supported the base of the throne rising from the bars were twelve columns, which sustained a silk canopy encrusted with precious stones. There were three large cushions placed on the golden throne. The middle cushion was set with the Timour ruby a precious stone, which was gifted to Shah Jehan by his father inscribed on the ruby where the names of Schaja Hans father, John gear, and his grandfather Akbar Shah Jehan followed suit inscribing his name as well. The peacock throne was a no shortage of notable gemstones including the famed one hundred sixty eight carat Baba's diamond later known as the Kohinoor diamond which translates to mountain of light. The throne was backed by representations of two gilded and enamelled peacocks their tails. Open revealing diamonds, emeralds rubies, and other precious stones that made up the vibrant multicolored. Peacock feathers as well as other embellishments. Thus it was named the peacock throne. It took a total of seven years to complete the spectacular peacock throne upon its completion in sixteen thirty five. The peacock throne was housed in the hall of private audiences in the Red Fort of Delhi Shah Jehan thrown was a stunning reminder of the Mughal empire's golden age. The extravagance didn't go unnoticed. Embedded on the throne is at twenty couplet poem by Mugabe poet. Laureate could see praising Jehan in emerald letters. Another poem written by Haji. Mohammad, John was set into the canopy of the throne in green and nam lettering. Unfortunately there are few accounts from anyone who had an opportunity to personally visit the fabled peacock throne. The most notable firsthand account with from a French merchant Jean Batiste tub in year who travelled between Persia and India, six times between sixteen thirty and sixteen sixty eight. It was on his sixth voyage which began in sixteen sixty three and ended in sixteen sixty eight that Tavernier was able to personally inspect the peacock throne tavern yet confirms that the throne was almost the size of a bed easily six by four feet in dimension. He estimated the throne was set with approximately one hundred eight large rubies and one hundred sixteen emeralds. Taverny also claims that suspended from the throne were a sword, amaze as shield and bow, quiver and arrows. These were also set with precious stones as were the silver steps ascending the throne. Interestingly, instead of seeing to peacocks represented in the thrones backing Taverny claims that there was only one in his account, the golden peacocks raised tail was set with blue sapphires in front of the Peacock's breast was a large ruby from which hung a pear shape yellowish Pearl. The p. Kok was flanked by two flower bouquets also made from gold and precious stones. In sixteen fifty eight then sixty six years old Sean Jehan fell ill. His son DARA was chosen to rule in his stead. It was rumored that Sean Jehan remove two panels of diamonds from the peacock throne. Perhaps afraid is sons would attempt to steal his wealth in the succession war that was sure to follow. And a succession warsh surely did follow when Shah Jehan other sons Shujaiya Murad and orange have learned Darras ascent to the throne. They declared independence crowning themselves, kings of their own respective territories. They all gathered their own armies and marched on Audra the capital to battle for dominance. Orange and Murad came to agreement, they would combine forces. And if they were victorious, they would partition the empire in rule together with their combined forces orange Zab, and Murad defeated their brother shoe joh-. In sixteen fifty nine sending Hsu fleeing to Oricon present day Burma where he was executed by the local rulers. Next orange ebben Murad combined forces ward with Darras army, although Darras forces outnumbered orange ebben Murad army sixty thousand to forty thousand DARA new little of the art of war and was ultimately defeated in sixteen fifty. Nine orange Zab had his brother DARA executed. His head sent to shot Jehan even though Schaja Han had fully recovered from his illness, orange ebb, had him declared incompetent to rule and confined to the Red Fort inaugura orange zip then declared himself. The new goal emperor in sixteen fifty nine. He broke his promise of ruling together with Murad instead having his last remaining brother arrested and executed. John is rumored to have returned the panels of diamonds to orange tabby a few years. After removing them. But even so schon, John stayed confined until his death in sixteen sixty six. There may be no connection between the rumor of the removed. Panels are exurbs strict orders, but it's possible that orange zips confinement of his father was a punishment for hoarding pieces of the empire's beloved thrown. I treasure like the peacock throne would seem to drive any family quarrel to the extreme. Now that we understand what the peacock throne was and what made it. So Splendors we now need to track the thrown up until it was last seen to do this. We must turn our focus to a man who would become known as the Napoleon of Persia. The second Alexander a man who strive to be Gingas Kahn that man is nuttier Shaw. Nadu Shah was born in Iran in sixteen eighty eight. Well, after the peacock thrones completion as an Iranian ruler and conqueror ruling from seventeen thirty six to seventeen forty seven. He was able to establish a Persian empire that stretched from the Indus river to the Caucasus mountains, which included all of Iran and parts of Afghanstan as your by John and modern day Pakistan Nadu Shah was brilliantly victorious as a soldier in general, but had little success at statesmanship or had been. Distraction. Toward the end of his reign, Iran's forces became utterly exhausted, tens of thousands perished in ceaseless military campaigns and purchase economy was ruined by the incessant exactions of nuttier Shah's tax collectors. It seemed battle was the only thing he cared about once when the deer Shaw was informed that there was no warfare in the paradise he remarked quote, how then can there be any delights there and quote, it was this thirst for glory that set the deer Shah's sights on conquering India and claiming the fabled peacock throne as his own. What led a deer Shah to invade India in seventeen thirty, nine to enter the gates of Delhi to depose orange great grandson Muhammed Shah the last Mughal emperor to supposedly ever sit on the peacock throne. It begins and ends with something as simple as a broken promise. Will investigate the last sightings of the peacock throne. After this quick break. I had a high school reunion recently traveled back east and finally got to use my away suitcase. I love my way suitcase. What do you like about yours? I liked it away, comes in a variety of colors and four different sizes, and that the carry on size are compliant with all major US airlines. 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The peacock throne has been missing since seventeen thirty nine when the Mughal empire was invaded by the Persian empire led by Nadu Shah it wasn't the first time. The two empires were in conflict from sixteen twenty two to sixteen twenty three the Mughal and Persian empires fought over the fortress city of Kandahar in Afghanistan. The Persians proved Victoria's the two empires board again from sixteen forty nine to sixteen fifty three once again over the city of Kandahar the Persians one again by seventeen thirty six Nadir's Shah a brilliant soldier in general was now the ruler of the Persian empire. He was leading his Persian forces in an intense war camp. Pain against Afghan forces. Once again, the conflict was being waged over Kandahar during this time, the Mughal empire was being led by Mohammad Shah great, great grandson of former emperor Shah Jehan who built the glorious peacock throne over the past three decades. The Mughal empire had been considerably weakened the Mughal military had been decimated by routine wars of succession between generations of the Royal family parts of the Mughal empire had been captured by invading forces of the Maratha empire and neighboring Indian empire. Also, Mughal nobles were able to assert independence founding smaller states within the empire. The new Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah was enabled to stop the slow disintegration of his empire in seventeen thirty eight nerdier Shah sent to embassador to Delhi to request that Mohammed Shah prevent any. Afghans from taking refuge in Mughal territories. This seems like a strange requests to an empire that was not one of nuttier Shah's allies. It's possible Nadu Shah was trying to start an alliance between the two empires. It's also possible that he was setting Muhammed Shah up looking for an excuse to start a war with the wealthy, but weakened McGowan empire regardless of deer Shah's intentions, Muhammad Shah agreed to the request to not grant Afghans refuge in any Mughal territories. But he didn't keep his promise when dear Shah learned of Muhammad Shah's actions. He decided to send a third ambassador Muhamed Khan, but much to new shows chagrin he never received a reply, nor did con- ever return at Delhi Muhammad Shah and his Royal ministers cap con from returning mulling, their options while waiting on the outcome of new Shah siege against the Afghans. Kandahar their response to a dear Sean depended largely on whether his siege succeeded or failed nuttier Shah an expert in Warren conquest did not fail. He eventually conquered the Afghans at Kandahar in a decisive victory annoyed by Mohammad Shah's, lack of reply and likely yearning for his next conquest. Nadeesha March towards the Mughal cities of Ghazni and Kabul slaughtering any Afghans. He saw that had been given refuge in the Mughal territories by seventeen thirty. Nine Nadu Shah had captured the Mughal cities of Ghazni and Kabul facing virtually no resistance due to the Mogole empires weakened state. He experienced the same lack of position as he crossed the Indus river at talk eventually occupying the Moghal city of Lahore. Back at Delhi. There were hurried preparations being made to defend the great city. But Muhammad, Sean is faction. Ridden noble ministers could not agree on a strategy ultimately in seventeen thirty. Nine Muhammed shy and his Mughal forces met Nadeem Shaw's host on the battlefield at karnal. Nadir's Shaw ended the day victorious defeating them galls in what is now known as the battle of Colonel. Deer shot took Muhammad shop prisoner. After the battle. It is rumored that the Mughal emperor was treated with the utmost respect, civility and equality while being held captive Nadu Shaw and his Persian forces marched south to Delhi his Royal prisoner in tow behind closed doors in the Red Fort Delhi near shop promised to reinstate Muhammed Shah as the Mughal emperor and inex- change for his reinstatement as the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed upon the deer Shaw, many of the priceless treasures held inside the palace, including. The peacock throne. There's an interesting rumor regarding one of the prized pieces of the peacock throne. The one hundred eighty six carat bobbers diamond. The rumor goes that sometime during these closed door negotiations Nadu Shah was tipped off that Mohammed Shah was being deceptive. He believed that Mohammed Shah was hiding bobbers diamond in his turban to weed out any deceit. Dear Shah invited Muhammed Shah to a customary turban exchange ceremony after the exchange dear Shah searched, Muhammad, Shah's turban, finding something concealed in the layers. None other than bubbles. Diamond Nadir's Shaw couldn't believe his eyes. He exclaimed Kohinoor which translates to mountain of light. It's here according to the rumor that bobbers diamond received its new namesake, the Kohinoor diamond. This effort to deceive a deer Shah is reminiscent of Schaja. Hons rumored withholding of two diamond panels from his son are exam. The similarities in these two actions shows how possessive the Moghal Royal family was of its fabled peacock throne. Dear Shaw and Mohammad Shah exchange titles and treasures inside the Red Fort outside. A rumor was causing discord between the citizens of Delhi and the Persian forces. The rumor was that Nadeem Shah was dead. This caused a riot among loyal resistance warriors of Delhi who believed the Persian forces weakened without their leader. They attacked the Persian forces, killing thousands upon hearing about the rumor and the riot dear Shah ordered a massacre of the city. Nearly one hundred thousand citizens of Delhi were slaughtered and parts of the city were set on fire. Nadu shy and his Persian forces were camped at Delhi in seventeen thirty nine for a total of fifty nine days upon his departure, dear Shah officially reinstated Mohammad Shah as Mughal emperor personally, placing the crown on his head despite the Moghal rioting and the killing of thousands of Persians Nadeesha of filled his promise to Muhammed Shah perhaps because an idea Shaw was satisfied. He'd gotten everything. He wanted a victorious campaign unimaginable amounts of treasure and thrown fit for God. Muhammed Shah regained his crown, but he was the last Mughal emperor to ever sit upon the original peacock throne in seventeen thirty nine dear Shaw and his Persian forces left Delhi and marched back to Persia with plunder of Mughal treasure, including the peacock throne, a few years later sky. Punish travel writer. James Bailey Frazier estimated that nuttier shos hall of Mughal treasure amounted to seven hundred million rupees which acquaints to over ten million dollars today. And he certainly wanted his loot to be on full display according to a duel Kareem who accompanied net dear Shah on his journey back to Persia, quote the outside of new dear Shah's tent was covered with fine. Scarlet broadcloth upon which representations of all the birds and beasts in the creation with trees and flowers. The whole made of pearls diamonds. Rubies emeralds amethyst, and other precious stones on both sides of the peacock throne was a screen upon which were the figures of two angels in precious stones and quote. Before an dear Shaw returned to Persia. It's rumored that he had a facsimile of the peacock throne constructed to divert hopeful thieves from pilfering the real thrown. Here's where the original peacock thrones location and authenticity comes into question. There's no way to ensure the throne Kareem saw was the original instead of the recreation. But it seems likely that a man like Nydia Shah would have had his greatest war prize on display for all to see assuming Kareem saw the real thrown as part of the tent display in seventeen thirty nine. He may have been the last recorded eyewitness to see the original peacock throne, because soon after new deer Shaw returned to Persia, the precious thrown vanished. After this break, we'll continue our search for the peacock throne. And now back to the story. The famed peacock throne commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jehan was taken from Delhi in seventeen thirty nine by Persian conqueror. Nuttier Shah it was last seen on the March back from Delhi as part of Madeira Shah's elaborate tent display of his newly acquired treasures. Nadu shy is rumored to have carried both the original peacock throne and affects simile or recreation back with him to his palace in Persia. And if our first theory is to be believed, that's where it stayed for the better part of the next decade. This theory posits that the peacock throne was taken from the Persians as a war prize during the deer Shah's failed campaign against the Afghans and Kurds in seventeen forty seven ever. The showman Nadir's Shah must have brought the peacock throne with him to the military camp as show of force. But after the Persians lost, the throne was dismantled and his. Attributed amongst the Afghan incurred soldiers who not knowing the value of the precious stones, supposedly sold their pieces for pennies on the dollar Scottish travel writer. James Bailey Frazier wrote that according to quote an old cord speaking to me in eighteen twenty two money and jewels were unknown among us until the days of Nydia. When that king was murdered and his camp plundered. The peacock throne fell into our hands and quote, the old Kurd must have been referring to Nadir's Shah's seventeen forty-seven campaign to quell a Kurdish uprising in chorus on toward the end of his eleven year rule Nadir's Shah became increasingly cruel to his own people extorting more and more taxes to pay for his military campaigns. He ruthlessly crushed any revolts resulting from these tax exactions even building towers of his victims skulls it was this increasing cruelty that led to fifteen Persian conspiracy. Tres meeting outside a deer Shah's tent during the chorus on campaign in seventeen forty, seven. According to one of nuttier Shah's concubines, the conspirators quote, entered the Royal tent pushing and smashing their way through any obstacles. No, as they made on entering woke Nydia Shah up who goes there. He shouted out in a roar, where's my sword? The assassins were struck with fear. By these words and quote, the assassins began to flee, but quote, ran straight into the two chiefs of the murder conspiracy who allayed their fears and made them go into the Tanta gin and quote Nadu Shah was able to slay two of his assassins, but he was outnumbered the great conqueror was finally killed by his own countrymen. With Nadu Shah no longer leading the Persian forces. Their military camp fell into chaos, succumbing to looting and rioting from the Kurdish forces Frazier's old Kurds states that the peacock throne present at the military camp was quote torn in pieces and divided on the spot. Although our chiefs themselves little new, their value, many of us through away the pearls is useless. And our soldiers ignorant of the value of gold offered their yellow money in exchange for a lesser quantity of silver and copper and quote. The question is, was this a giant missed opportunity for the soldiers or Nydia Shah's last left? Didn't endear shop. Bring the original Mugabe peacock throne on his campaign against the Kurds or did he bring its recreation keeping the original safe at his palace in Persia researchers claim it's unlikely that Nadir's Shaw would have hauled the original peacock throne with him on a war campaign. Remember the peacock throne was wrought out of over three thousand pounds of gold and precious stones alone. It would have been a massive undertaking to bring the throne with him. It's more likely that the throne looted at the military camp was a lighter, less valuable replica. But even so that doesn't mean the original peacock throne was safe. It's certainly possible the Kurds also ransacked Nadir's Shah's palace at a later date where they would have found the original peacock throne, they likely would have dismantled and distributed like they did with the throne from the military camp, leaving the original peacock throne, and it's less valuable, replica both lost to mankind. Our second theory concerns. The writings of av Williams, Jackson and American specialist of Indo European languages in his nineteen eleven book. Jackson discusses the concerns of Lord George Curzon viceroy of India over the authenticity of thrown found at the Shah's palace in Toronto. In the early nineteenth century, according to Jackson quote, Lord Curzon believes that the real peacock throne or one of the two in a deer Shah's possession disappeared from the scene after the battle in seventeen forty, seven and quote. But Jackson goes on to posit that the other thrown, whether the fact simile or the original was discovered in a broken down condition by Mohammad Shah at deer Shah's palace after his assassination, eager to regain his stolen treasure Muhammed Shah must've extracted the throne by use of brutal torture of deer Shah. Ause blind grandson after reclaiming the peacock throne, whether original or replica from Nydia Shah's palace, Jackson writes that Mohammed Shaw then had the recovered portions fashioned into a new thrown of modern shape and style. He goes on to say that this new throne now resides at the Shah's palace in Tehran. It is here supposedly that the sole surviving remnants of Shah Jehan original peacock throne are found, but Lord Curzon insisted that the thrown at the Shah's palace contain no pieces of the original peacock throne and was built in the early nineteenth century long after Mohammed Shah died in seventeen forty eight. One of his main points of argument was that the throne in Tehran had seven legs while the original peacock throne only had four could Mohammed shy have changed the number of legs when he revamped the thrones style before his death. This seems unlikely Muhammed Shah supposedly. Reclaimed the pieces of the peacock throne from nuttier Shah's grandson sometime between the deer Shah's death in seventeen forty, seven and his own death in seventeen forty eight. Remember the original peacock throne, seven years to construct. It's unlikely that Muhammad Shah would have had time to completely redesign the throne structure before his own death. Jackson still skeptical, visited the Shah's palace to see the throne for himself. And there he noticed the detail that put the nail in the coffin for his theory. The inscription Jackson was a language specialist, and he decided the inscriptions on the Tehran thrown were not consistent with Moghal inscriptions from Mohammad Shah's time. This confirmed Jackson, that Lord Curzon suspicions were correct. The throne in Toronto was indeed in nineteenth century recreation on related to Muhammad Shah or the original peacock throne. But if the peacock throne wasn't reclaimed by the Mughal empire, where could it be? It's beginning to seem more and more likely that the original peacock throne really was looted and distributed between Kurdish soldiers in seventeen forty, seven unless the original peacock throne now resides on the ocean floor somewhere off the coast of South Africa. As our third theory posits the theory stems from a rumor that suggests the original peacock throne was somehow aboard the eight hundred ton British ship the Grosvenor, which was travelling from Madras to England when it's shipwrecked off the South African coast in seventeen eighty two, the Grosvenor was owned by the East India company on its fourth and final voyage. It said to have crashed into the African continent in the early hours of misty morning to stimulate summer growth. The farmers near the shore were burning their winner grasslands. Through the spray in stormy weather, these fires appeared to the crew of the Grosvenor as lights in the air. The captain dismissed the light says something similar to Northern Lights, believing them to be only a natural phenomena in the sky. He continued course toward the mysterious lights. Only moments later plowing into the rugged, rocky coastline of Africa. What's interesting is that despite multiple efforts to recover the loss loot in the Grosvenor shipwreck in the eighteen eighties, there was no mention of the peacock throne being aboard, the Grosvenor until rumor began circling in nineteen hundred. The rumor of which the origin is still unknown. Stated the original peacock throne was aboard along with many other priceless. Treasures may lose to say this sparked more heated expeditions in search of the uncovered riches the first of which began in nineteen o five. But this search ended quickly after a diver drowned and the expedition was abandoned in nineteen twenty one, the Grosvenor bullion company or syndicate was formed. A member of the company was none other than Sherlock Holmes. Creator author, Sir Arthur Conan, Doyle Doyle would stir the rumors of the Grosvenor shipwreck by mentioning it in a couple of his stories. The Grosvenor billion company propose. That a tunnel dug under the seabed. So as to reach the ships strongroom which by then was rumored to hold unspeakable amounts of treasure. The company's prospectus list included seven hundred twenty gold bars as well as nineteen boxes of precious stones. It seemed like pure fantasy, but the company was able to raise the money for the expedition. Unfortunately the company ran out of money before finishing the tunnel more unsuccessful expeditions in search of the Grosvenor shipwreck continued after the Grosvenor bullion companies nineteen twenty one attempt, but by nineteen thirty nine World War Two ceased all expeditions. Perhaps the discovery was made in two thousand Jonathan shaft. Minna former university of Cape Town, archaeologist lit a group of Hungarian divers as they supposedly found the ill-fated final site of the Grosvenor shaft. Men claimed his team had quote, found objects, which give us almost one hundred percent proof. And we have convinced the national monuments council that what we have found is indeed the Grosvenor end quote. The discovery received further confirmation when the former Natal parks, board chairman, Pat Goss, who is also able to dive at the claimed site stated quote, I have been one of the greatest skeptics about this wreck for nearly fifty years. But what I saw has left me quite breathless and quote, Goss claimed shaft. Men and the Hungarian team proved the authenticity of the claims by showing him several gold and silver coins, as well as other unnamed artifacts. But there was no sign nor mention of the peacock throne by Hungarian team according to GAAS, they did not believe the throne had ever been on the Grosvenor was the original peacock throne ever on board the Grosvenor to begin with writer, Tony, Kearney reported in two thousand that it was only quote a legend and extravagant falsehood invented to tantalize fortune seekers to invest in the Grosvenor billions. Syndicate and quote Percival. Our occur be who produced the most authoritative work on the Grosvenor was skeptical about the presence of the throne in his nineteen sixty book. He states quote undoubtedly the Grosvenor was a richly Laden vessel, but the visions of scores of chests of diamonds, rubies emeralds and the like are, but idle dreams and quote, nobody knows where the rumor came from that. The peacock throne was aboard the Grosvenor according to curb Ian Carney, it's certainly seemed more fiction than fact. This seems to sink this theory. Was the original peacock throne taken in bloody warfare dismantled and distributed amongst the Afghan incurred forces couldn't endear shy, have left the original thrown back at his palace could Mohammed Shaw have recovered it before the Kurds had the chance to ransack it or could the peacock throne of been aboard, the Grosvenor lost to mankind amidst the ocean currents. It doesn't seem likely that the original peacock throne was ever aboard. The Grosvenor rumors didn't start to spread until over one hundred years after the ship's untimely end. The thrones absence in the two thousand discovery of the supposed rag seems to this theory for good dayquil e unlikely Mamad Shah reclaimed the peacock throne from Persia before the Kurds ransacked the deer Shah's palace. The rumored remnants of the peacock throne in Tehran appeared to be nothing more than a nineteenth century recreation. This is the theory we find most likely. As a show of force a reminder of Nadeem Shah's utter devastation of the Mughal empire. He brought the original peacock throne with him to fend off the uprising in chorus on, but in a dear shot never expected to be betrayed by his own men. He was assassinated by a conspiracy of murderers and the original peacock throne in all its fabled glory was dismantled and divided up between the soldiers. The pieces were sold in scattered around the corners of the world and may never be seen again. Some antiquated experts believe the legs of the eighteen thirty six hours are thrown also called the peacock throne may have come from the original, the Metropolitan Museum of art in New York City also claimed to have possibly discovered a marble leg from the original thrown a few years later, the Victoria and Albert museum in London claimed the same. However, neither of these claims have a leg to stand on. They remain unconfirmed. There are also claims that a majority of the peacock thrones pearls now reside in the Tehran central Bank as part of the crown jewel collections. Speaking of crown jewels. We do know where the fabled Kohinoor diamond ended up afternoon. Dear Shah was assassinated. The diamond fell two different Afghan nobles. Eventually being acquired by the British East India company, the same company that owned the Grosvenor, the British government claimed the die. Diamond from the East India company and transported to England on the h. m. s. Madeira it now resides in the British crown jewels despite India, wishing it to be returned perhaps Nadeem shod did get the last laugh if he can't have the peacock throne, at least no one else ever can. Thanks for tuning in to gone. If you wanna find more episodes or any of par, casts other podcasts, you can find us on apple podcasts, Stitcher, Google play, cast box tune in or your favorite podcast directory. Many people ask how to help the show. If you enjoy the show, the best way to do that is to leave a five star review. You can also tell us your theories on Facebook and Instagram at par, cast on Twitter at par, cast network or at par, cast dot com. We'll be back in two weeks with another episode just because it's gone. Doesn't mean it can't be found. Gone was created by max Cutler is a production of Cutler media and is part of the park cast network. It is produced by Maxon Ron Cutler sound design by dick Schroeder with production assistance by Paul. Moller additional production assistance by Maggie admire and Carly Madden gone is written by Edward g. Excalibur and stars. Molly Brandenburg and Richard Ross ner. Thanks for listening. Don't forget that hostage debuts on October eighteenth with new episodes, released every Thursday search hostage, wherever you listen to podcasts and subscribe now as promised. Here's a brief sneak peek of the first episode of hostage on the kidnapping of Patty, Hearst, we hope you enjoy it and be sure to tell your friends about it. Patricia. Hearst was trying to make sense of art history. She stared down at her textbook trying to ignore her fiance, Steve, who studied economics next to her on the sofa. She tried to shake the feeling that something wasn't right between them that she wasn't happy with her comfortable housewife, existence that she didn't have friends at Berkeley that she might not really love him focus. She thought midterms were coming soon. Steve answered the door before Patricia could want him not to last week. She'd worried someone might be following her. You never knew it was a strange girl at the door. She was agitated. She'd hit a car in the garage into the complex and wanted to borrow the phone, angry and disgusted. Patricia went to the door. The dump girl probably hit Patricia ze m. g. roadster she'd give her a piece of her. Two men burst into the house and the girl grabbed Patricia, be quiet and nobody will get hurt. The girl pointed an automatic pistol at Patricia 's face before Patricia could scream. Again, one of the men was straddling her on the floor, pressed against the linoleum. She could hear Steve crying, take anything you want anything you want. He said, Patricia tried to get free, but the man yelled at a keep her head down and gagged her intruders, blindfolded, Patricia, and dragged or to the door. Steve continued screaming in complete shock, Patricia worry. They were stabbing him. She spit out her gag and screamed bloody murder praying. The neighbors would hear the neighbors heard, but the men hit Patricia in the head and dragged her outside. They threw her in the trunk of a car and drove off. It was approaching nine thirty PM on Monday February fourth, nineteen, seventy four and Patricia Campbell. Hearst had just been taken hostage.

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