20 Episode results for "Mike Rosen"
The presidential pardon the country never forgot
"Hey History lovers I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered on August ninth one thousand nine hundred seventy four vice president Gerald Ford ascended small stage of the White House and raised tained that his decision stemmed from a desire to shield the country from further harm in fact four testified before Congress about the party in part to have his reasoning on the record and in doing so he became the first sitting president ever to deliver sworn testimony and then just a month after taking office controversy erupted again when Ford employed one of the most powerful function when four died in two thousand six the pardon and its consequences still hadn't faded but history may have finally voted against me and the net result is that they probably helped that I didn't win critic saw the pardon as forgiving Nixon's Ford was taking over the presidency from Richard Nixon who resigned in disgrace over the Watergate scandal and everything that followed even approval ratings took a dive even his own press secretary resigned in protest the decision probably times recounted the encounter after Ford's death writing that Mr Hey told Mr Ford that White House tapes would soon crew Nixon my duty not merely to proclaim domestic tranquillity to use every means that I have is role in the Watergate cover up and outlined several possibilities for Nixon's departure he handed Mr Ford two pieces of paper is to which I can turn in this matter he pardoned Nixon Mike Conscience tells me that only I as president behavior for worse a meeting between Ford and Nixon Chief-of-staff Alexander Haig in the weeks leading to the resignation created suspicion some thought that Ford had struck a deal to pardon Nixon in exchange for becoming president wants Nixon was gone the knee the presidential power a decision that would haunt the rest of his political life there are no historic guard legal precedents with four taking over two years after the scandal began the weight of the incident remained a burden on the White House and on a country trying to move on the description of the presidential power to pardon and the blink part inform Mr Ford later said he had given no definitive answer but when it was swift the New York Times reported the next day that the White House switchboard was jammed with angry calls heavy and constant Ford to ensure Ford had deliberated with his top aides and secret for days and the reaction to his decision doomed his chances of reelection in nineteen seventy six four told the post there is a group of bitter people who never forgave me and probably he described the meeting to his aides they were alarmed at the implication that Nixon through Mr Haig might be offering Mr Ford the president missing in return for a party the to always denied the pardon was part of a quid pro quo Ford read with the Thirty Eighth President's version of events on interview late in life with Washington Post the constitutional power to firmly shot then seal this book my conscience tells me it is order Bob Woodward who unraveled the Watergate scandal with Carl Bernstein Ford explained his true reasoning for pardoning Nixon the economy was trouble the nation was still engaged in the Cold War in the United States could not afford to be swept up in criminal trials over Watergate for years Woodward was suspicious of the Party but Ford convinced him you later said that the pardon was an act of courage rather than the final corruption of Watergate Mike Rosen walled thanks for listening especial thanks to Kayla Epstein for reporting the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history visit Washington Post Dot com slash retro Pie
The original Alcoholics Anonymous book was auctioned for millions, but its author was never paid
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pot bus show about the past rediscovered the guidebook for alcoholics. Anonymous, participants has stats most authors only dream of more than thirty million copies sold translated into sixty seven languages in two thousand twelve the library of congress ranked it as number ten in its top twenty five books that shaped America that book is called the big book and in two thousand eighteen it's original manuscript complete with handwritten notes was auctioned off to the highest bidder. But its author a man named William Wilson was never paid for writing. It wasn't even credited. Wilson was once a successful stockbroker but descended into alcoholism in the nineteen twenties and nineteen thirties back then during the height of prohibition alcoholism was considered to be a moral failing the crime ascend our all three there were no rehabilitation centers, but a few hospital specialized in the treatment of alcoholics and Wilson found himself in one of those hospitals towns hospital in Manhattan there he met a man who introduced him to the idea that diction was a medical condition and not a character flaw. Wilson liked that theory, but still he struggled. He ended up going back to the hospital. Three more times over the next year. His wife had to support the family. It was during this time that Wilson found out about the Oxford group from an old drinking buddy, the Oxford group was a Christian evangelical movement that promoted the confession of one since restitution for harms caused frequent meditation and unselfish service to others Wilson's buddy was able to quit drinking after joining the group at first Wilson was skeptical. He wasn't super religious but in nineteen thirty four. He took his lash drink and threw himself into the Oxford group to help other alcoholics get sober. It took them a while to get any traction. But after several months a doctor he met with a guy named Robert Smith got sober. Smith took his last drink on June tenth nineteen thirty five alcoholics anonymous considers that the day of its founding Wilson and Smith eventually assembled a group of about one hundred recovered alcoholics, and when they were pushed out of the Oxford group, they started their own movement. They had an idea that publishing book could help promote the move Wilson. Volunteer to ride it and in the spirit of unselfish service. The group voted not to pay him for the work. Wilson's name isn't even listed as the official author Wilson drew on a number of influences to write the book. Philosophers doctors psychologists he used the Oxford groups idea of six steps to recovery but expanded them twelfth Wilson and his friend scribbled notes all over the original one hundred sixty one page manager, one of the friends even persuaded him to change the tone altogether. The book originally offered lecturing advice, but the French adjusted a more humble tone would work better. Finally, it was published self polls. The thing didn't look at five thousand copies of the book sat in the warehouse for months, but after some good press sales exploded and requests for help came in from alcoholics who wanted to get sober today. AA has more than two million members in its publication has spread the famous twelve step program. She one hundred seven hundred. Wilson kept the original manuscript of the book with him till his death in nineteen seventy one. And eventually went missing when the manuscript resurfaced in two thousand four a legal battle, ensued. And ultimately alcoholics anonymous, waiting the rights to it opening it up to be auctioned off to the public. How much do they get for the words Wilson and his friends scribbled down back in nineteen thirty nine millions. I'm Mike Rosen Rosenwasser, thanks for listening special. Thanks to Gillian throttle reported this story for the Washington Post in for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Day was once just for daughters
"History lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pot show about the past rediscovered today is take your child to work day. And I have a guest sitting next to me. Any resume and who exactly are you. Daddy. Silly is seven a second grader at only elementary school in Maryland. She really wanted to come to work with me today. So we decided to record this episode together about the history of take your child to work day. First of all, we should think the person who came up with this idea my wife, Megan high nanny from history perspective. Really glad is here with me today because daughters little girls all over the country are the region take your child to work date actually exists. Here's EMMY to explain. In nineteen Ninety-two, some famous important women. Chorus steinem. We're worried about girls that didn't feel so good about themselves. Silly came up with a great idea. It was called. It was called shake your daughter to work day in the idea was to show little girls the importance of women in the workplace, and how they could use all the things they were learning in school to have really cool careers. Well, after about ten years some people got set that foyers Ryan Alagic come along too. So goes, okay by you can unto all around the country companies big and small began hosting special programs for kids on the fourth Thursday of April. Why Thursday so kids can go back to school on Friday and discussed all the cool things they saw and learn. The day itself is promoted by take our daughters and sons to work day foundation long. You're going to has become a powerful force in integrating lessons about possible career paths in the classroom every year, they send along worksheets was questions for children and their parents to promote discussion of career choices. Daddy. He's question. How did you choose this curry? I like being reporter because I get to be interesting people, and I like to write until stories, and I like to do cool things like this podcast with new. So now, it's my turn. What do you think of the Washington Post? And do you think you have a pretty cool job? Well, this has been pretty awesome. But we have other work to do like get lunch. Okay. Mike rosenfeld? Thanks for listening for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
Meet the Press
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pot a show about the past rediscovered quick, what's the longest running television show in American history. Here's a hint. That's meet the press. For seventy one years now, meet the press has been appointment viewing on Sunday mornings politics. Big ideas controversy agenda-setting interviews the show began on November six nine thousand nine hundred forty seven. The first guest was retired postmaster general it got better. The show that popped up that day on the boxy black and white sets that were just beginning to appear in American living rooms would go onto host every president since John F Kennedy the show also had on world leaders from India's Indira Gandhi to Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe cabinet president Kennedy's and members of congress also graced the set. Meet the press came to define public affairs shows the show itself was born of an unlikely radio show called leave it to the girls, which was a weekly roundtable on women's issues with an all female panel, plus one guy to provide a gender counterpoint that show was created by Martha Rountree a hard charging reporter in a producer with a South Carolina drawl. She persuaded magazine publisher Lawrence speedway who had appeared on her show in the man seat to pitch. The idea of a similar live radio press conference in which newsmaker would face a panel of journalists. They launched meet the press in nineteen forty five on the mutual radio network and two years later, they talk their way onto NBC with television show Rountree served as moderator a job. She would hold until nineteen fifty three when she sold her share of the show to speed back. Steve AC was a regular panelist for over thirty years and his approach as he described it to future beat the press. Moderator? Tim russert was quote, learn everything about your guest positions on the issues and take the other side. Almost immediately. Meet the press was camera catnip for the powerful the show in the many imitators with inspire became an institution in political journalism, but it moved to Sunday mornings it single handedly added a day to the new cycle by putting a camera in the room with an official in a panel of interviewers meat as it's known in the TV industry gave viewers one of the first peach inside, the sometimes combative relationship between those who had information in those who tried to pry it free at the beginning of the television age meet the press dented, the dominance of newspapers and thrill news junkies with the you were there power of live broadcasting to this day per reporters are assigned to watch the Sunday shows and report the news. That's what reporters in one thousand nine hundred ninety nine after Donald Trump was asked whether to run for president one day. He hasn't shown up on the show yet as president St. Jude. Mike Rosen Rosenwasser, thanks for. Listening special. Thanks to Steve Hendrix, who reported this story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
The best birthday card ever
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pot a show about the past rediscovered history is filled with bizarre stories here is but one the story of perhaps the most elaborate birthday card ever sent. Tober fourteenth nineteen twenty six the United States received a greeting card from Poland for the United States. One hundred fiftieth birthday it was a little late. The anniversary of fourth of July was months in the past the pollen had a legitimate excuse. It took a long time to finish the elegant gilded artwork to photographs poems. The press flowers. Oh, one more thing. There were also five point five million signatures on the card. Why so much love? Poland wanted to show its affection towards the United States for what it had done in World War One after the war. Poland was finally independent after more than a century of domination under neighboring nations, but the country was also in a state of famine in institution and the United States came to its aid the American sent trainloads of food in the years after the war. They gave half a billion meals. Poland Hungary, almost a decade later. The polls did not forget, and they decided to send the United States the best birthday card ever. The card was really more. Like a book the good wishes came on thirty thousand pages in one hundred eleven bound volumes. Nearly a sixth of Poland's population signed the card to put that in perspective that's like passionate cart around Chicago in Los Angeles. For everyone assign schoolchildren signed Dr sun factory workers signed there were salutes from cycling club skating banks medical enrolling societies loot singers journalists army one school in Poland sent the students pencil drawn it appears to depict destitute family eating a meal under a tree children reached for food. Or woman is preparing there's a ruined smoldering building in the background. The caption reads, quote, God has sent us help from American. A distinguished polish citizen was selected to present the card at the White House on behalf of Poland. He posed for photographs with Calvin Coolidge, holding the first volume of the car, the dour Coolidge. He just smiled. I'm Mike Rosen Walt. Thanks for listening special. Thanks to Michael Wayne who reported the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
She spent years fighting to create Mother's Day, then lost everything trying to protect it
"History lovers. I'm Mike Rosen wall with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered. Each year on the second Sunday of may. We celebrate mothers often with flowers. Sometimes candy, whatever it takes to shore moms that we care. And no one would hate that more than the woman who invented mothers day. This is the story of Anna Jarvis who spent years fighting to create mother's day. And then went broke trying to protect it. Jarvis was born in West Virginia the daughter of a Sunday schoolteacher who helped start clubs to teach women how to care for their children after one lecture Jarvis's mother prayed that someone would create a day commemorating mothers for their service to humanity. Twelve year old Anna never forgot that. When her mother died Jarvis promised at her rave site that you'd answer the prayer. Jarvis embarked on a relentless letter writing campaign to persuade governors of every state to declare the second Sunday of may as mother's day that was the closest Sunday to her mother's death anniversary. The first mother's day service was held one morning in one thousand nine hundred eight and in nineteen fourteen after Anna had written so many letters that she had to buy a second house to store them in congress finally passed a law and president Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation declaring the first national mother's day. Jarvis had one. Or did she? It certainly wasn't the holiday she'd had in mind and that made her furious so furious that Jarvis spent the rest of her life railing against flower shop owners card makers and the candy industry for profiting off the holiday she felt they were trying to take it from her. Jarvis wrote letters to newspapers complaining, quote, they're commercializing my mother's day. She threatened to sue New York. Governor Al Smith over plans for mother's day meeting. She got into a fight with Eleanor Roosevelt. Not even charities were spared her wrath during the great depression charities held fundraising events on mother's day to help mothers in need Jarvis heated it her campaign to protect what she saw as her holiday drain the modest fortune. She didn't herited from her family and Jarvis died in a sanitarium in one thousand nine hundred forty eight alone blind and penniless, but her holiday lives on mother's day has since become one of the most profitable US holidays with annual spending in the billions and growing steadily ama-. Jarvis would be enraged. I'm Mike Rosen wold, thanks for listening special. Thanks to Christine Phillips for reporting the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
The rookie pilot who was ready to give her life on Sept. 11
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered September eleventh two thousand one Lieutenant Heather Penney waits on a runway at Maryland's Andrews Air Force Base. He's ready to fly that morning to commercial airliners crashed into the World Trade Center towers in New York. A third flew into into the Pentagon. A fourth hijacked airliner seemed to be hurtling toward Washington. Penny had a simple mission. Stop Stop It. She didn't have ammunition missiles though she didn't have anything to attack the plane with except her own plane so that was the plan penny and her commanding officer would fly their fighter jets straight into the hijacked jacked. Boeing seven fifty seven penny was one of the first generations of female combat pilots in the country. Her nickname was lucky she grew up smelling jet fuel. Her father other flew in Vietnam. Though she earned her pilot's license in college at purdue she had no plans to join the military. She majored in literature. She wanted to become a teacher but something else was also holding back a career in the air. Combat Aviation wasn't open to women aw in graduate school that changed and so did everything for Penny. She signed up immediately. She would would become a fighter pilot just like her dead in the fall of two thousand one penny was just a rookie the first female F sixteen pilot ever at one hundred and twenty first fighter squadron of the DC National Air Guard on September eleventh they had just returned from two weeks of air combat training in Nevada. They were sitting around the briefing table. When someone popped in with news of the unthinkable couple a plane had hit one of the World Trade Center towers in New York. They assumed it was just some. Yahu in assessment when when it happened to the second tower they knew the situation was different much different it was but in the monumental confusion of those moments it was impossible to get clear orders. Nothing was ready. The jets were still equipped with dummy bullets from the training mission after the plane hit the Pentagon word came almost immediately of a fourth plane taken over by terrorists. It was clear that someone I had to fly weapons or no weapons Colonel Mark Sasseville Barca Penny lucky. You are coming with me. She climbed in and rushed to power up the engines. She didn't have time to go through the routine checks on the plane nor did she. You have time to think about the fact that her father now a captain that United Airlines could have been on one of the hijack flights the the crew chiefs still had his headphones plugged into the fuselage as penny nudged the throttle forward he ran along safety pins from the jet as it moved ahead soaring into the air. They strategized how to hit their target and survive. They hadn't of course ever trained to bring down on airliners but their chances at ejecting just before impact were slim. Penny believed that if they were successful in their mission this would be the last time she ever took off penny and Sasseville never had to complete that mission after flying for hours the two learned learned that United Ninety three had already gone down not in DC but in a field in Pennsylvania the passengers on that flight who learn from loved ones on the ground about the other hijacked planes were willing to do what penny in Southville were going to do anything they fought the terrorist Orissa forcing them straight into the ground penny and Sasseville flew the rest of the day clearing the airspace in escorting the president looking down on the country changed forever. I'm Mike Rosen Rosenwasser. Thanks for listening special. Thanks to Steve Hendricks for reporting the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history visit Washington Post. Dot Dot com slash retro.
How the Greeks once used a lottery system to select government officials
"Hey History lovers I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered one of democracy's most reliable cliches is that anyone can run for and win elected office if they really just put their mind to for more forgotten stories from history visit Washington Post Dot com slash retro pot in advance backroom deals would be nearly impossible in all of these benefits would trickle down throughout society happy times but while these political wards hadn't yet surfaced in early Greco democracies the Greeks in there groups the electoral college polls gerrymandering hackers fake news social media and occasionally the weather is the decisions made by the population factionalism and corruption would be greatly reduced government officials couldn't be brian logical but he also believed that even nominating people for election would ultimately be unfair political historian George for all well probably not for Socrates Treaty Mass wrote Socrates Post Modern democracies the use of a lottery to select a city government seems counterintuitive yes especially if you believe that standing in line to vote for hours as millions of Americans did this week for the midterm elections is one of the fundamental pillars of democracy infinite philosophical wisdom no doubt sensed robocalls were coming run instead of holding elections for government offices they simply pulled names thought it was ridiculous that the sins appointed magistrates chosen by lot when they would never have thought of choosing a helmsmen or architect Freddie Mass in an academic journal paper titled Constitutional Choice in Ancient Athens the rationality of selection to office by lot wrote that advantages historians say were many in advantage for local councils. Chubby mass wrote was that the decisions made by such a board will be accepted we helped institute a system whereby any male citizen at least once in their lives could serve in key government positions like councils or tribunals the any of the most important positions of government the Greeks held lotteries one minute you could be irrigating your growth the next you were banging again got a political system that relied on powerful men simply picking other powerful men to govern was a gross injustice to the broader republic sounds enabling more citizens to hold office for short time periods gave the people an opportunity to experience holding office irregardless of wealth or class apple in his new book Can Democracy Work James Miller wrote to anyone accustomed to the importance of periodic elections in out of a Toga Kim well not a cap per se and not everyone's name was up for grab just the men but to Phil qualifications some of these lucky winners were no doubt very dumb so the Greeks made exceptions insides to lotteries namely that totally unqualified people would be making decisions on matters instead of those with specific doing names out of hats way back when the Italians and Swiss did it to as contemporary democracies emerged the lotteries swollen or flute player that way putting aside the flouts issue which is probably not Germane to democracy there were real positions and financing the military done by election and also at times in conjunction with aptitude tests and the Greeks weren't the only ones the the Greeks weren't really feeling that especially a fellow named born around five seventy BC his family US picking names out of a Toga Cap Clinton's reason was actually the opinion of democracy he successfully vanished in favor of ballots and voting booths but the spirit of these ancient Greek lotteries live on in daily democratic life popular support with help from their networks of wealthy friends and clients in some ways Clinton's was a man of the people he this cliche while inspiring to third graders seeking election this classroom captain fails to account for lobbyists political action committees focused. It was well to do this sort of people who as Miller put it preferred a system of letting prominent men of noble birth like Kleisthenis vie for like when your number comes up for jury duty. I'm Mike Rosen. Well thanks for listening.
All the Presidents' Ghosts
"Richard pod is sponsored by T. Rowe price. Are you looking to learn a thing or two about getting your finances in order saving and investing? Check out the confident wallet a personal finance podcast series by T. Rowe price and the Washington Post brand studio find it wherever you get your podcasts. Hey history lovers. A Mike Rosen Rosenwasser with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered. On a lonely night in nineteen Forty-six president Harry Truman went up to bed about nine pm about six hours later. He heard it. Truman was startled. He later wrote. In a letter, quote, I jumped up and put on my bathrobe open the door, and no one there went back to bed after locking the doors, and there were footsteps jumped up and looked at no one there. The damn place is haunted. Sure shooting. Truman didn't shoot anyone that night. But like other White House occupants he was convinced that the old place was haunted by more than political ghosts. Whether you believe this stuff or not the many accounts that have spilled out of sixteen hundred Pennsylvania Avenue over two centuries. Give ghosts and undeniable place in the country's history. They also make that address arguably the nation's most famous on it house. Abraham LINCOLN said he received regular visits from his son Willie who died of typhoid fever in the White House. When he was eleven years old first lady Mary Todd Lincoln. It was so grief stricken by the loss that she remained in her room for weeks spoke of seeing her son's ghost wants. The raw also reports have her hearing Thomas Jefferson playing the violin. An Andrew Jackson swearing. Not only did president Lincoln see goes he actually became after his assassination in eighteen sixty five. First lady race Coolidge spoken magazine. Accounts of seeing Lincoln look out a window in what had been his office. Many more sightings would come in the decades in presidential administrations that followed Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands was sleeping the Lincoln bedroom in one thousand nine hundred eighty two when she reportedly heard a knock on her bedroom door, she opened it to see the tall bearded president and fainted two years later. British Prime minister Winston Churchill just stepped out of a hot bath in that same room and was wearing nothing but a cigar when he encountered Lincoln by the fireplace. Churchill reportedly said good evening. Mr president. You seem to have me at a disadvantage, the Lincoln weirdness just goes on and on all the way up to Reagan, and maybe even beyond in a nineteen eighty nine Washington Post article. White House curator Rex scouting said that President Reagan had come in that his dog. We'd go into any room except the Lincoln bedroom. Scouting said that the dog would just stand outside the door and bark. So if you ever get a White House tour, you might not get to see the current occupant in the Oval Office, but do keep an eye out for guy with a tall hat and a long beard. A Mike Rosen Rosenfeld, thanks for listening. This episode was adapted from a story written by Teresa Vargas for the Washington Post for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
The first female Marine
"Richard pod is sponsored by T. Rowe price. Are you looking to learn a thing or two about getting your finances in order saving and investing? Check out the confident wallet a personal finance podcast series by T. Rowe price and the Washington Post brand studio find it wherever you get your podcasts. Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen walled with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered. This is a story of a marine the first female Marie her name offer may John it was close to the end of World War One when the Marine Corps decided to fill some of the gaps left behind by all the men fighting overseas. In one thousand nine hundred nine Johnson was one of three hundred women who showed up to take one of those jobs. Women weren't even allowed to vote at the time. Johnson was born in Kokomo, Indiana, and she was a rapid fire typist. She was working in the Interstate Commerce Commission when the marines issued that call for help Johnson was literally the first one in line. She took a job clerking at the Marine Corps headquarters in Arlington. Even though they were clerks the women have the train and drill. Just like other marines. You'll sergeants made their displeasure clear calling the women marinates. That's according to Linda l Hewitt's book women marines in World War One. The female marines were not amused by the nickname in a letter included in Hewitt's book, one of the female marines wrote, isn't it funny. The minute a girl becomes irregular fellow. Somebody always tries to quit by calling her something else. She added. Well, anybody that calls me anything, but marine is going to hear from me. The women were all in. But their time in the marines was brief after the end of World War One all of the military branches began disin- rolling the women who signed up. Johnson was let go in nineteen nineteen she stayed in the Washington area and was active in the first American Legion post dedicated to women for decades, she met with new veterans supporting women as their roles brew more prominent in the military. She live long enough to see women raising the colors at the marine barracks to see captain and lengths become the first female commissioned officer to see staff sergeant Barbara olive Barnwell become the first female marine to be awarded the navy and Marine Corps medal for heroism today, the marines make no distinction between men and women in the recruiting materials. They simply say becoming an enlisted marine requires the ability to meet the highest standards of moral mental and physical strength. When the Johnson who was very thirty seven years to the day when she made Marine Corps history by signing on that dotted line. I'm Mike Rosen Rosenwasser, thanks for listening special. Thanks to Petur divorce for reported the store for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
The origins of the Unknown Soldier
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen mauled with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered. At Arlington National Cemetery, high on a hill. Overlooking the nation's capital lies to final resting place of a single soldier known. But to God, the tomb of the unknown soldier. The Hocking slabs of marble are held ground on the side of the white marble sarcophagus are sculptures of three Greek figures. One represents peace another victory. The last one valor millions of visitors pay their respects at the tomb every year, the president of the United States makes an annual pilgrimage as in green as this place is in our national psyche. The story of how it came to be is surprisingly not well known. On November eleventh nineteen twenty one a funeral. Unlike any other took place at Arlington, the nation's highest military officers were there along with congressional leaders supreme court justices and diplomats from around the world. The crowd was so huge that the car. Transporting president Warren g Harding had to drive across fields for him to get there on time. Before that autumn morning monuments to the unnamed dead had always been collective, but the killing technologies of World War One brought new levels of identity, wiping devastation. More than one hundred sixteen thousand Americans were slaughtered, including one thousand six hundred fifty two who were too damaged to be identified the British which suffered even greater losses. Didn't want to upset the country with scores of funerals for unidentified soldiers. So they buried a single unknown casualty at Westminster Abbey was state honors that prompted Hilton fish and African American congressman in World War One veteran from New York to make a similar proposal fish told congress the whole purpose of this resolution is to bring home the body of an unknown American warrior who in himself represents new section creed or race who typified moreover the soul of America in the supreme sacrifice of her heroic dead. As work started on the tomb officers in Europe began the tricky work of finding a suitably unidentified body to Philly. It took tremendous efforts to keep the unknown soldier from being known even just a little bit officials didn't want anyone to suss out even wear the soldier had been killed. So he could better represent every casualty. To start. They disinterred four sets of remains from American battlefield cemeteries in France in made doubly sure there was no way to get a trace on their identities. New scrap of a letter, no rosaries. No distinguishing marks. The fallen soldiers were taken to the city hall of a small village in northeast France where they're unmarked coffins were placed on shipping. Crates draped with American flags a combined French in American honor guard stood post. Early the next morning in American. Major shuffled the coffins putting them on crates other than their own with the crowd of onlookers outside a military band in the courtyard in senior officers lining, the corridor a much decorated American enlisted man sergeant Edward f younger entered the chamber carrying a spray of white roses. After circling the forecast gets more than once younger placed the roses on one step back and saluted. The casket still carrying it spray of roses was rolled through the village to a railroad station by army units from both countries. Local widows many in black lined the route the casket traveled by rail to Paris then to a port where it was loaded onto the USS Olympia which sailed to Washington's navy yard. For the funeral more than five thousand tickets were distributed following the ceremonies. The soldier was lowered onto a layer of soil from France into three volley salute fired. Nearly a century later, countless flowers and Reese have been placed before the tune laid by presidents and veterans and the simply grateful within the stone beneath the dust of ancient white roses. Wres- a nameless soldier known around the world. I'm Mike Rosen mold thanks for listening special. Thanks to Steve Hendrix, who reported the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
"Retro pod is sponsored by Tito's vodka. Drink responsibly. Hey history lovers. Mike Rosen walled here and today on Retro Pot. I want to introduce you to a new Washington. Post podcast called Moon Rise. I mean rises hosted by Lillian Cunningham creator of the post history podcast presidential and constitutional her latest series tells the real origin story of why America went to the moon and the first episode is out today. Take a listen to the trailer and subscribe on your favorite podcast APP or at Washington Post Dot com slash moon rise. It's conquest deserve the best of all mankind and it's opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again but why some say the move. And why choose this as we all recognize this and they may well ask why climb the highest mountain one of the most iconic American presidential addresses of all time why thirty five five years ago fly the Atlantic. Why does play Texas we choose to go to the moon we choose to go to the Moon Muster politicking uh we choose to go to the moon and this decayed and do the other things not because they are easy but because they are hard they called that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of all our energies in this speech is the classic explanation you've heard for why we went to the moon why for a decade the United States invested billions of dollars colors into racing the Soviets to a desolate rock spinning around our planet? The reason President Kennedy gave because it was hard a challenge. That's not the full story. Join me on a reporting journey to uncover the real y behind that decision. The full story is twisting complex dark wild. It has so much more to tell us about the America we live in and about the dreams and nightmares of being human on this earth you'll enter a world of sounds declassified presidential documents and once secret recordings like this he thinks and I think that space may be one of the things if you approached it secretly and without too much fanfare in the open that you might possibly have some kind of a of Sir Agreement well you you and Cuccia might be able to come closer together on this and many other map a world world of space historians. The dream of going to the moon really's a lot older than people think astronauts and no way we go to do that. We sort of who hide you know all of us in our school. KGO eight hundred presidential biographers the three presidents had very different impacts on the program and archivists things come to the whole process of declassifying defined information is complex. You'll also see how the dawn of modern science fiction pushed us toward news science reality we an a real sets sets we science fiction writers readers helps create the present world. You've probably heard a lot about the Apollo mission the details about how we landed on the moon now now find out why we went there. I'm million Cunningham with the Washington Post and this is moon righs feelable subscribe today for free wherever you get your podcasts and find out more about the launch at washingtonpost dot com slash rice.
How are you, Grandmama?
"Richard pod is sponsored by T. Rowe price. Are you looking to learn a thing or two about getting your finances in order saving and investing? Check out the confident wallet a personal finance podcast series by T. Rowe price and the Washington Post brain studio find it wherever you get your podcasts. Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen walled with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered everyone knows Alexander Graham, Bell invented the telephone. You know, who doesn't get a lot of credit his dog. And he should bells adorable. Terrier is part of the crazy story of how the telephone came to be today. I want to share the stories of two unlikely characters in the development of the telephone. The first is the dog go back to eighteen sixty three. Alexander Graham, Bell was twenty years old, his father and grandfather were prominent speech and language experts in England one day bells. Father encouraged him to make a machine that could mimic the sounds of speech bell solution. He turned to his dog bell. Brought out some treats as the terrier growled bell moved the dogs. John by doing that. He was able to make it sound like the dog was talking. He manipulated the growls into real sentences. How are you grandma was one of them? The incident. Cemented bells determination to follow in the footsteps of his father and grandfather bringing sound to life. It also awakened the crucial curiosity and creative instincts. He would need to bring the phone to fruition. The dog isn't the only unusual character in this story. Another is a cadaver while teaching at Boston University bell began working to improve device for the death device turned sound into wavy lines on paper, which the death cadet read bell wanted to approximate a human ear to test whether the sound waves could travel through the idea was to help the death. See the sound of words, he turned to an ear doctor friend for help who suggested that bell should just use a human ear for his experiment. One arrived in the mail a few days later bell set the Europe with the transcription contraption in began shouting into it it worked, but not well, not well enough to help the death in the way, he'd imagined. Then bell had another idea. Maybe the vibrations could travel along an electrical line like telegraph and be turned back into sound on the other end on March tenth eighteen seventy six in his Boston workshop bell setup receivers in separate rooms connected by a wire in powered by batteries, his assistant Thomas Watson helped it was late afternoon. They were both tired bell went to one room Watson to the other. And then it happened almost like magic bell spoke on his receiver Watson heard this Mr Watson come here. Bell was so excited. He spilled battery acid on himself that night he worked late with lots and taking turns talking seemingly through the air. They read books to each other Watson sang eventually bell signed off belting out God, save the Queen. The telephone was quickly transformed the world in so many ways bell seem to know it after that first phone call he sent a letter to his father. He wrote, quote, I have constructed a new apparatus operated by the human voice. And the day is coming when telegraph wires will be laid onto houses, just like water or gas and friends converse with each other without ever leaving home. I'm Mike Rosen will thanks for listening for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
This security guard discovered the Watergate break-in, but nobody remembers him
"History lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered. It was thirty minutes past midnight on June seventeenth nineteen seventy two Frank, wills twenty four year old security guard was patrolling the parking garage at the Watergate office complex in Washington. It was a night, just like any other except for one tiny very important detail, there was masking tape covering the locks on a stairwell door. Maybe the maintenance crew had taped the doors to keep them from locking. We'll thought he ripped off the tape then took his shift when he came back about an hour later. He noticed the tape had reappeared. Then we'll made a decision that would change the course of history in American politics. He called the police and reported a burglary in progress. That little piece of tape. We'll spotted was the beginning of the biggest corruption scandal in US history in led to the resignation of president, Richard Nixon, but despite his crucial role in the incident wills rarely gets any credit. Take the best selling book all the president's men, wills wasn't even mentioned by name. He was cast to play himself in the nineteen seventy six film version, but you could barely even call it a cameo appearance. The movie opens with an eleven second scene of wills turning a doorknob the shadowy shot. Captures him inspecting the tape on the door before ripping it off the camera cuts. That's in. Will's named faded from headlines quickly after Watergate post reporter, Carlin Barker remembers him as a nice guy when she met him at his house. He opened the door carrying a kit. The security guard would give speeches or interviews when ever the anniversary of Watergate rolled around, but he would never profit the way other players did during Watergate, even those who were convicted. He quit his job with a security company in nineteen Seventy-three after he wasn't given a raise. He couldn't find work in Washington and wondered if he was being blackballed later on he returned home to care for his ailing mother. He was arrested for shoplifting. A twelve dollar pair of sneakers a charge. He denied and was sentenced to one year in jail. Even their Nixon had been pardoned for his crimes. We'll spend the rest of his life in poverty, not even being able to afford hot water and electricity. He passed away in two thousand. His forgotten role in the Watergate scandal. Got a new burst of attention recently when the movie the post it fears the final scene in the movie depicts, wills wielding, a flashlight in the Watergate, but the moment is brief and once again his name doesn't show up in the credits. I'm Mike Rosen walled. Thanks for listening special. Thanks to deneen Brown who reported this story for the Washington French, and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.
The campus massacre before Kent State
"Ruling over the Vietnam War the Ohio National Guard shot at a group of unarmed protesters. At Kent State University nine students were wounded. Hey History lovers I'm Mike Rosen walled with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered in nineteen seventy as the country was Kent State University as well as who was depicted in the iconic photograph taken at that protest this episode has been corrected opened fire the shooting lasted eight seconds most of the students who were hit were shot in the back and their feet finally a patrolman fired a carbine into the air it was intended to be a warning shot but instead other police female students across their heads and backs the next day South Carolina Governor Robert e McNair the report states that the police were specifically ordered to target and kill activists Cleveland Sellers Seller suggesting they coward or fled some police use buckshot much heavier ammunition than would be used to disperse the crowd storekeepers nearby arm themselves against rumors of quote black power threats then later that night students Dan the release of the protesters this time one hundred and fifty police officers responded civil rights leader Bowling alleys owner defied federal law and refused the next day the students tried again and again twenty-seven students that's right twenty seven were wounded three died it was absolutely horrific ever convicted and imprisoned in relation to the Orangeburg massacre nine patrolman who fired on the students were acquitted ordered more officers and two hundred and fifty national guardsmen to the scene the following day a- and assault with intent to kill a police officer he spent seven months in prison sellers was the only person bonfire at the campus gate to try to stop the white shooters from driving through campus police responded but not to protect the black students yea black students at South Carolina state we're trying to desegregate the all star bowling alley an all white establishment the through campus shooting at students and into buildings armed police on campus did nothing to protect the students even though a campus guard was wounded wins sellers later recounted how officers came armed with wooden batons some of
The first campus shooting
"Hey History lovers I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered this is a remarkably sad thing to say but it's true we live in an age of school shootings but a lot of things in life both good and bad released on bail and then he disappeared rumors spread about his whereabouts for several years readings go try eighteen forty Martin van Buren was president to tell the truth Sam's protested that he was atheist the next thing that happened would seem unbelievable today story based on the shooting describe what happened in an essay for the Huffington Post in two thousand eleven hat quote the ball was received just below the Navel Davis died a manhunt was on for his killer some students said they heard he moved to Texas others said he committed suicide one rumor was actually correct but it was only confirmed fairly now almost totally forgotten the episode bears some resemblance to the modern scourge of school shootings the senselessness of motive the randomness short time later the student was Joseph Sense and his classmates were poor us a beloved University of Virginia Law Professor was shot by an unknown hand with a pistol in front of his dwelling and a newspaper from July of eighteen forty seven that reprinted an item from the Charlottesville Republican about sems death this time November twelfth eighteen forty the tradition made its way to the campus homes of the schools professors and staff Professor John Davis heard the victims the gun culture as American as Apple Pie gone totally Awry Matthew Pearl a novelist who wrote a short recently in two thousand Thirteen Jeanne Cooper a UV librarian who maintains a blog about nineteenth century UVA students tracked down a Baltimore have been put in place they had an annual tradition of blowing off steam by rioting on campus and shooting pistols in the air on the evening of Antarctica had just been discovered and on the morning of November
America and warfare were never the same after World War I
"Hey History lovers I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod a show about the past rediscovered World War One it was known back then one hundred years ago as the Great War but there is nothing great about war especially so heinous it was as the late art critic Robert Hughes put it industrialized death the weapons for those who survived the scars physical emotional we're in many ways as painful as death were absolutely horrific flame throwers machineguns fos gene gas weekly blown off hoke recalled and it was just hanging by few ligaments he was conscious as he lay on the ground and didn't seem to be get them off the subject one nurse remembered invariably you'd get them to sleep why was this particular war there was a lot of misery though to suffer. I one of the boys under hoax command predicted that he'd lose a leg recalled those days would take out their small trench mirrors and survey the damage to their faces noses shot off chins million soldiers from other countries had already died many American soldiers raise their hands proudly to serve like re-enlisted after the United States entered the great war between all the shooting he talked with his men about what they would do when they got ended hoke remembered including the man who predicted he'd lose a leg he was right one of his legs had been practice home hope plan to go to the local drugstore and have a thick pineapple malt as soon as he got back replace it with an artificial one then fill it with whiskey and pass it around so all the boys can have a drink resting in a farmhouse one day destroyed malls torn apart the nurses would stop by their bedsides at night and talk to them about anything but war all lined up there for the child fifteen to twenty men were killed it about thirty German artillery zeroed in on the trees were hoax comrades we're eating hope told the story of what happened next as part of an oral history project at the library agent Arnold s hulk was a veteran who served on the Mexican border in one thousand nine hundred sixteen after being honorably discharged for the wounded nighttime in the job award of Red Cross hospitals was the worst the doe boys as soldiers America's Dobos knew what they were getting into when they left for war by the time the US entered the war in one thousand nine hundred seventeen five Rosenwasser thanks for listening special thanks to Michael Bruin who reported this story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history visit Washington Great War Hawk went to the drugstore he ordered that Thick Pineapple Malt I'm mike this war still without any other words to describe it the world's somehow settled on great it lasted demand died in an ambulance in route to a hospital. I apologize for rather unpleasant or story but let me assure you army depot make Bourbon. The soldier was taken to a battle field dressing station where the damage leg was amputated in the summer of nineteen fourteen to November eleventh nineteen eighteen tens of thousands of brave American warriors died of Congress but anyway through our shelter into this would little patch of woods and They cut our man talking about war in any shape or manner and I hope that nobody will ever see another the day after he got home from the in a lot of paint he laid there on the ground. I mean have you guys thought kidney said I I know my leg and I can see that.
Close encounters with the Capitol's Demon Cat
"In early October of eighteen ninety eight the Washington Post reported on eight truly frightening development in Congress history lovers I'm Mike Rosen walled with retro pod the show about the past rediscovered Untied Alley Trooper with Glowing Eyes Atlas Obscure further explained that the drunk guards were never disciplined because of who they were related official explanation for this legend drunk security guards Steve Living good the US Capitol considering other ghostly legends of the nation's capital like President Abraham Lincoln Reading Winston Churchill as he steps during one of Washington's notoriously dark alleys so what's the real deal or at least the best or at least Lugosi when I shot at the critter jumped right over my head explained the guardian of capital Traditions in decorum the nineteen thirty five out of a White House bathtub good evening Mr President Churchill reportedly said half-naked you seem to have me and a disadvantage shot at a big black cat from his description the cat grew is he looked at it. The policeman told the Post that jobs because they were related to senators the guards would get
"Richard pod is sponsored by T. Rowe price. Are you looking to learn a thing or two about getting your finances in order saving and investing? Check out the confident wallet a personal finance podcast series by T. Rowe price and the Washington Post brand studio find it wherever you get your podcasts. Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen walled with retro pod. A show about the past rediscovered nowadays, you can get almost anything ship to you clothing groceries. Toilet paper, if it fits in the box travel by airplane or truck or even by drone it can problem ship. But there's one thing that you can't have delivered anymore. That was a totally normal thing to send in the mail in the early nineteen hundreds and he guesses. That's right. Kids. No, you couldn't wrap them up in bubble wrap and seal them in a box but back in the days when travel was expensive and posters, which cheap. It was perfectly legal for parents to mail their children. The children were carried to walked along by the mailman to their relatives. They could also be sent by train the service cost a few Nichols for postage though. The optional insurance was much more. The stories of these children turned freight are collected at the national postal museum. Though records are scarce the museums archives identified the first child ever sent through the mail as a ten pound infant boy whose parents mailed him a mile away to grandma's house in nineteen thirteen. Just a year later, the postmaster general ban humans in the mail, but some parents skirted the law in one thousand nine fifteen a six year old was mailed for her mother's home in Florida. Tur- father's home in Virginia. That was the longest recorded trip of a child sent through the mail. She made it safely. The most famous trial to travel by mail was a little girl named may pierced off. She was eight years old and her seventy three mile journey to grandma's house. Became the subject of a bestselling children's book called mailing may in the book may tells the story with excitement and a little dread. She said the big Clack. Steam engine was hitching and snorting like a boar hog may had never been on a train before. And certainly she had never been a package. Luckily for her parents, she was two pounds under the fifty pound weight limit. They attach fifty three cents in postage stamps to her coat. This must have been a moment. She remembered forever the train whistled, and then it was off the postal service successfully delivered its package May's grandmother was there waiting. I'm Mike Rosen will thanks for listening special. Thanks to Steve Hendrix, who reported the story for the Washington Post and for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash. Retro pod.
The invention of sarin
"Hey history lovers. I'm Mike Rosen with retro pod. A show about the past. Rediscovered today's subject is one of the deadliest weapons on earth Saron gas. There is a very strange story about its original intended target the enemy back then wasn't Syrian rebels who have been targeted with the gas by their own government. It was wait for it. The weevil of a Rochas Beadle founding fields and orchards Ascot garden about legal or ask the pest control experts. Here's what their website says about evil, quote, they can be very destructive and their damage is often very expensive. The mid nineteen thirty's. There is a weevil problem on German farms, the German government forced to buy expensive pesticides from overseas. Turn to a scientist bear. Yes. The aspirin one to develop a cheaper alternative. His name was Gerhard Schroeder as head of bears plant protection group Schrader got to work mixing various molecules. He was trying to concoct the substance strong enough to kill tests, but spare animals and human he take her for months with compounds before he had a Eureka moment. He added cyanide too. Two. The scientists quickly developed a splitting headache and struggle to breathe. Suddenly he could barely see trader spent three weeks recovering he had failed. But by accident. He also succeeded in a different much darker way. I G Farben the drug conglomerates that owned bear reported traders discovery to the German military mustard gas, I used in World War. One took a long time to kill hours or even days. Shredders discovery only needed about twenty minutes. The Third Reich was so impressed with his work that he was granted a bonus worth about twenty thousand dollars. According to the trade journal chemical and engineering news as the army works weaponized. A concoction trader went back to work in his lab. Trying to find more pesticides this time. He came up with a compound that was ten times as toxic trader called it seren-, the German military authorized construction of a Seren factory in one thousand nine hundred forty three high level officers wanted to use it during the war, but Adolf Hitler declined. There's never been a totally clear explanation for why. But some stories theorize it was because he had witnessed the horrors of mustard gas while fighting in World War One it was. More likely that he didn't want to expose his own troops or horses to the stuff. In time other countries would develop Seren, including the United States in nineteen Ninety-three more than one hundred sixty countries signed the chemical weapons convention which banned production and stockpiling of chemical weapons, but bad actors have still used it Saddam Hussein for one. And of course, the cult that you Seren in one thousand nine hundred ninety five attack on the Tokyo subway killing twelve and sickening. More than five thousand lately, it's been unleashed by Syrian president shar all Assad in a chemical weapons attack that left scores of men women and children dead as for Schrader. He died in nineteen ninety but invention is still killing. I'm Mike Rosen will thanks for listening for more forgotten stories from history. Visit Washington Post dot com slash retro pod.