35 Burst results for "Measles"
AstraZeneca Phase 3 Trials Paused Due To Safety Concerns
"As to Astra, Zeneca trials for the covid nineteen vaccine hit a snag. The debate resumes as to whether the guard rails and safety protocols worked as intended or it's proof that we're moving too fast in a quest to return to normalcy prior to the pandemic Liz Aibo senior correspondent at Kaiser Health News will update us on the status of the trials and what any setback may mean joining us now, with Liz Zibo senior correspondent. At Kaiser Health News. Thank you for coming on today. Liz thanks for having me. The National Institutes of Health has launched an investigation into the case of a patient who suffered spinal cord damage after AstraZeneca's Kovic Nineteen vaccine trial depending on what I read. It's either proof that the testing process is working as designed or that is evidence of moving too fast and the general public at risk start this out for me if you can. I'd say this is the first example I'd say this is the process working there actually several variety of safety valves that are built into the clinical trial process. So this is one in which a potential side effect was picked up, and we don't know yet if this side effect which is supposed to be a spinal problem if that really was related to the vaccine or not that's why the NIH and others are investigating. More is a comparison going back to h one n one and the vaccine which was developed and implemented very early in the Obama Administration politics aside is there any legitimate comparison as to the vaccine trials of? In one back in two thousand and nine and Kobe nineteen today. The process of getting a vaccine will be longer for Kovin because with H one, N one scientists already had a flu shot and other needed to do was to substitute the h one n one flu sequence for other flu sequences that we've used in the past sue scientists were familiar with the Vaccine Day. Knew how that SORTA vaccine worked the big delay was that the flu vaccine is grown in chicken eggs it's a virus so it's going to chicken eggs and not take some time. So there was a little. Bit of a delay some manufacturing delays with the H One n one vaccine this is very different because this corona viruses very new. We've never licensed vaccine against a corona virus before and the technologies that companies are using to create this vaccine are Ulsan new and most of them have never been used to make a vaccine before big picture. Can you describe the process as far as where we are in the progression as far as phase three trials I keep hearing face three what does that mean for the layperson? Any drug that's going to be used in humans goes through a set period of study and set sequence of trials. So I may be tested enough cell in Petri dish ABC dish they might tested on mice for this kind of vaccine. It's being tested in primates than the first type of trial is a phase one trial, and that's just to try to set the correct dose of the of the vaccine or drug, and to find out any early signs about safety. These are small trials just a few dozen people because these are first in human studies they keep them small to. Make sure that no one's hurt. Then we go to face to trial. Their doctors are looking also for safety and some early signs of efficacy and the big really definitive study is the phase three trial and for a vaccine, these are being given in the United States to thirty thousand people for each trial. So there are two trials that are ongoing right now in the united. States one from Pfizer and one from journal they both are going to enroll at least three thousand people in fact, Pfizer? Just announced a couple days ago they're upping that to forty, four, thousand people and. The reason that those trials need to be so big as they wanNA look for rare side effects, they might be able to find out earlier if the vaccine is effective with fewer people but sometimes, they're rare side effects and this spinal problem that patient apparently had with the Astra Zeneca drug called transverse That's really really rare. So you're not gonNA see really rare but serious side effects until you test them in huge numbers of people. So right now we've got two trials that are in face three, their ongoing the Astra Zeneca trial had just started that was also supposed to. Be a thirty thousand person trial that's been paused because of this potential side effect at the end of it. All best case scenario at least in terms of the Astra Zeneca propose vaccine would it be an annual shot like we get the flu shot or is it something which we may take one time and we're done like maybe the chicken pox virus that's a great question, and in some ways this going to resemble the childhood vaccinations. If anyone out there has kids, we know that they don't just get one shot they'll get a series like measles shots you'll get to what the Yeah, that's right. You'll. You'll get one when the child's around maybe a year or eighteen months, and then they get another one before they enter school. So with this one, people don't yet know how many shots were going to need. Now, the first two vaccines that are closest to making it to approval right now in the US, the Pfizer shot, and also the journey shot those right now to dose vaccines. So you get your first dose which primes your immune system, it sort of. The immune system and prepares it, and then with the Maderna's shot, you get your second shot four weeks later, and that really sets off the immune system to be ready to prepare for this virus and ready to respond with the Pfizer. It's slightly different. It's two shots three weeks apart. But one thing people should know is that let's say you get your first shot for weeks. Later, you get a second shot it takes your immune system, a good two weeks to develop those antibodies. So from the day, you get your first inoculation. Until you may be protected would be six weeks. We don't know yet if we're going to need annual boosters like with the flu shot or even a booster sooner than that, we just don't know but that's a really important question. She is Liz Sabo senior correspondent at Kaiser Health News. Thank you so much for coming on today. Thanks for having me.
Pharmacists now allowed to administer childhood vaccines, but pediatricians disapprove - CNN
"There's so much concern about kids missing vaccines because of the Corona virus, fear that the government is stepping in. So instead of going to your doctor, you'll be able to go to a local pharmacy for those shots. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Cesar is using emergency powers after declaring the Corona virus pandemic a public health emergency. It's to prevent future outbreaks of measles and other preventable diseases. Pharmacist in all 50 states will be allowed to vaccinate a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows. Orders for childhood vaccines from doctor's offices plummeted in late March in early April because of the pandemic, But a survey of pediatricians in May suggested most officers were open and able to give recommended shots. I made Donna here
Pharmacists can give childhood shots, US officials say
"Virus pandemic. Public health officials have become concerned about a potential increase in childhood diseases. They say vaccinations decreased while many doctors offices were closed. Correspondent Steve Kastenbaum says a new federal directive today gives pharmacist the ability to administer those vaccines move from HHS Secretary Alex Cesar temporarily overrides restrictions on pharmacies in 22 states. It means that pharmacists in all 50 states can now administer vaccinations with a focus on childhood vaccines like the one from measles, mumps and rubella. A report from the CDC said There was a dramatic decline in orders for childhood vaccines in late March and April, when many doctor's office is closed due to the Corona virus pandemic. More than three dozen
Why make a vaccine mandatory?
"Sino men were hearing that the Australian government is is trying to secure US supply of vaccine for strands. Once a vaccine is successful, which is great to hear, but we're also hearing from the peon that he wants to make it. As mandatory as possible that people would have to get it at, which is sort of interesting wording I thought given that the vast majority of Austrians have indicated this research showing that they've indicated that they would get it if they could and only a really small proportion say that they wouldn't. So what's the purpose of making a vaccine mandatory if people wanted anyway well, it is a risky strategy. Even, people that might be in favor of having the vaccine might say, well, you're going to force me to have it stuff you. I'M NOT GONNA have it and rebel against the idea just because you're forcing people to have it. So it is a is a difficult situation and you'd have to be pretty sure that the vaccine that you're offering is very, very safe. So that's that's the ethical side of it. There is there are two good scientific reasons for doing it although I'm not promoting the mandatory view I'm just giving you the argument here. So. There is one which is to do with the virus one reasons to do with the virus. So, the virus mutates all the time and by the play of Chen, some of the mutations will give that particular version of the virus an advantage. So we've got this virus that's one four G. that's dominant in Australia, and that's almost certainly dominant because two mutation on the spike protein that allows the virus to enter the body that six one, four g mutation almost certainly. Allows the virus to be transmitted more easily, and therefore that version of the virus will preferentially survive. There'll be more of it is doesn't seem to be a naseer form of the viruses just has more survival advantage. Now, the only selective pressure on the virus at the moment is social distancing. So by social distancing, we're making the harder for the virus to spread in the community. and. Therefore, the viruses that will tend to survive when your social distancing locking down will be those that transmit more easily. But as soon as you go to vaccine and vaccine is blocking a whole lot of mutants of the virus but there might be mutants of the virus which are resistant to the version of the viruses, the vaccine, and therefore those mutants might escape round and therefore it's a bit like antibiotic resistance and you've got a sense viruses that are resistant to antibiotics resistant to that particular form of the vaccine. Now if you mandate a vaccine and you try and get very quickly one hundred percent of the community or near it. Immunized there's almost no virus left in the community to mutate and spin around and get around the corner. That's a strong scientific reason for mandating it or trying to get almost one hundred percent coverage. The other reason is that you don't know yet how effective the new vaccines are going to be. It may be that the first versions are only fifty or sixty percent effective. So therefore, do the maths if only say seventy percent of the community gets immunized and it's only fifty percent effective. Then you've only got thirty thirty, five percent coverage that's not enough to give you large enough haired immunity to. Get the virus down to very low levels. I mean the other incentive is that you know if you WANNA go to Port Douglas for your holidays, you're GonNa need something like the old yellow fever vaccination certificate to show that you've had it before they'll let you in and that'll be a strong incentive to people to do that or if you want to go to the movies, you gotTa Show Your certificate but you've had it done robin mandating it you got to be immunized to get into certain environments right then that's what we have at the moment in the sense with child vaccinations. And being able to access childcare but there are problems with mandating a vaccine that on one hand is the individual side of it where you balancing someone's ability to have an individual choice against the greater. Good. But even on the greater good. If they were problems of the vaccine, because anything that we have is going to be brought out quite quickly if there were any sort of problems with it, then that really arrives that public trust and might make it even harder to get the sort of number of vaccinated people that we would need to get to get the reduction in transmissibility that is. What we need a vaccine full yeah and those are really good reasons. The reason that you can really push it hard particularly, which preschool children is that the vaccines we have given to hundreds of millions of kids, hundreds of millions of adults. We know the really safe. We know the site apart profile, really really rare and you can insist on it with a lot with a high degree of safety. In other words, you know what the risks of getting measles are, and you know what the risks getting polio are and the risks of the vaccine or infinitesimal highly almost non measurable comp-. In comparison. covid nineteen it's a little bit different because point six percent of people die from this although ten or fifteen percent maybe even more get quite unwell with it. So that's quite a large proportion of the community but you the you're right. That is the equation of the government is going to be very confident about. Okay. So let's say we do have a vaccine and one hundred percent of Australians get vaccinated what we still living on a planet with other people we can't. We can't guarantee vaccination for the whole globe. So there is there is an answer to that question and Garvey the global. Immunization Initiative not for profit initiative argues exactly that point is that there is no point and just having your own nation immunized because if you want International Border Open Up, you need the world to be immunised, which is why they've got this system through Sepe and Garvey of of funding vaccine so that low income countries get access to the to the
Putin Says Russia Has Approved 'World First' COVID-19 Vaccine. but Questions Over Its Safety Remain
"Breaking overnight Russian president. Vladimir Putin said that the first Russian produce vaccine for COVID. Nineteen has received regulatory approval from the country's Health Ministry the vaccine was developed by Moscow's Galilea Institute. Putin. said. It forms stable immunity and passes all necessary safety checks putting also said, one of his daughters has actually received that vaccine Brian this news about Putin and this potential vaccine is huge but I think we do need to take it with a grain of salt. Well, trying to make sense of it, Becky, good, morning Wolf Becky as well. I mean trying to make sense of it. You have what you think are the markets sort of key points, right? Trillions of dollars in stimulus potential payroll tax cuts, all the market themes that we've all been talking about on CNBC all day long powering the markets higher seven days in a row you wake up at whatever four o'clock in the morning and Russia says, Oh, by the way, we have a working vaccine it's been approved by our own institute and I gave it to my daughter says Vladimir Putin so it is a huge developing story and I think. Guys it really whether or not you believe it or not, and there's GonNa be a lot of scientists that want to see the data. What is this vaccine? What is it based on? How many doses are available? How much does it cost as the world get it either way the market did move a little. We were up before the headlines crossed, but it did move a little on this news and I think Becky it does call into question. What happens on the day and whether that day is today or not the day the world gets a working vaccine. What happens? What do we do? Do we know? I, guess drink some vodka do we go out and street down the street I have no idea you know I might look here. Here's what I. Here's how I kind of look at this news just from what we've been hearing in the last several months from experts. There is a huge debate here in the United States taking place about whether these potential vaccine candidates should be fast-tracked even more and brought directly to the public before it. Goes through the extensive as one face to face three testing the phase three testing that you would normally see it's very high bar. They want to make sure that that not only is it safe for people to take. But also that there is efficacy remember last week we heard from the Dr Anthony. FAUCI that there's a a real risk that you are not going to see something that has ninety percent or north in terms of its effectiveness. The FDA is now looking at fifty percent as the floor. If they can get fifty percent effectiveness, they would think that that is great. Sixty, seventy, five percent even better. But you probably not talking about a vaccine where you have ninety three percent effectiveness with the measles shot. My guess is that the Russians have taken a candidate and fast forward it without doing a lot of those types of extensive studies that you're going to see on candidates vaccine candidates here in the united. States and there's a big debate about that. There are people here in the United States are pushing for us to do the very same thing but if you talk to. Some of the more cautious experts, some of the people who look at this they say, no, we do this for a reason it would be disastrous if you approved vaccine and then it turned out it either wasn't safe or that it didn't work very well but people would lose faith in vaccination programs. It's difficult enough to get people to accept vaccinations and do this, and there are more people here and the United States who are anti factors at this point who are raising questions about whether they'd even take it but there's a real reason that you go through these extensive steps and try to make these things positive now again. Totally, a guess, but I don't know how they would have had time to do all the testing that that we are making sure everyone of the vaccination candidates here in the United States has gone through and that's just the safety question Becky I mean look at the day we've got so far from all of the US in European trials. If you could put safety aside has any of them showed yet enough effectiveness in treating this forest enough antibodies antigens or whatever it is they're trying to create. I'm not sure where even quite there yet. Anyway on some of the data points and to that point whether it's a safety concern or. Effectiveness concerned with the Russian vaccine I doubt will get the daytime. You put the news on twitter whatever you WANNA call it and there's a group of people that just don't want to believe anything. They don't want any good news is that people are just bad I don't know why that is like Oh, well, it's not real or it's Russia must be faked maybe it is fake who knows there's a lot of candidates out there not just on the vaccine side but on the antibody side, the treatment cyber general and other things we could have real candidates by September by the way September is next month. Let me give you a few reasons to be optimistic. The are one the reproduction rate has held fairly steady. There are community spreads parts of America, but overall fairly steady. The question I've got is this we're starting to get some indications that Americans maybe closer to so-called hurt immunity than we think because t cell reproduction rates have seen higher in some communities ironically corona queens a few weeks ago or a month ago they found twenty five percent of the population had developed t-cells or anybody's and twenty five percent was not ill indicating that perhaps there is a greater capacity for amazing bodies to generate these t cells and these antibodies than we think in other. Words guys. There's a lot of terrible news out there and a lot of families are suffering but the market I think have looked at the fact that we had nine, hundred, sixty, eight, sixty, million people got avian flu, the Hong Kong flu and Nineteen Sixty eight off and fifty thousand or so Americans ended up dying from that about two hundred thousand in today's numbers no vaccine was ever created for that. You can debate whether or not. We have a vaccine it's still exist in some form. The point is I think the market is at least looked out a year and said life will hopefully be. Much, different and maybe much more normal than it is right now
Wearing a mask could be even more important than we thought
"The case that a mass can protect the person wearing it is laid out by scientists in a new paper coming out soon in the Journal of General, Internal Medicine Catherine Wu wrote about that paper which ties together three different concepts about viruses and how they work. The first is the idea of viral dose. That's kind of the amount of virus that is hitting your face parts and the amount of virus that you're exposed to. The second concept is viral load, basically the amount of virus that has. has set up shop in your body after you get infected, exactly. The third idea which is not new to scientists who studied viruses by the way is that cutting back on the viral dose might mean that even if you get the corona virus, your immune system will react in such a way that you won't get as sick. This idea that you can encounter a tiny little bit virus and your immune system's going to have just a way easier time wrangling those kind of few invaders. and. So it's less likely that your body's going to struggle to control the infection and less likely that you're gonNA get really really sick again, not a new concept for scientists. But what is new is the corona virus itself. Remember how we all called it novel for those first few months, scientists had never seen this corona virus before. So saying masks might protect the wearer doesn't mean that scientists are just changing their mind. As Catherine and I talked about, it means that each day they're learning more and more about the virus, but things like viral dose in viral load a really hard to study. Yeah. Absolutely, and this this research is fascinating. I think the trick here is we have so much data that seems like it could support this idea. But a lot of it is totally observational people are looking at how much virus do you have when your symptoms start When is the easiest time to test someone, but the kind of gold standard experiment that people have done in the past with humans with you know, maybe kind of shady ethics and are now trying to do with a bunch of animal models is. Is. You actually have to give a living creature different doses of virus and see what actually happens to that animal or human, which is really hard to do. Yeah. And like you know we, we know a little bit about the flu because there are actual studies in which they gave people, certain amounts of these doses. But for Corona virus because we don't understand the complications we are you know in, it's because it's such a deadly disease. We really can't do that and and people are really not comfortable doing that. So we do have some studies in animals and one of the pieces that you talked about in your piece was the study out of China, where researchers studied this idea using hamsters. Yeah I thought, this was actually a really cool study These researchers basically put hamsters in adjacent cages, Some of them had the corona virus, so they were infected. In, one cage and then they were separated from their neighbors and some of the cages had these little partitions between the mink made out of surgical masks. So the researchers did not put masks on the hamsters. hamsters don't usually take kindly to that sort of thing, but it seems like they did kind of the next best thing and it turned out that the hamsters that were separated from their. Their neighbours by these surgical mask partitions were a lot less likely to get infected with the coronavirus in the first place and the hamsters that still ended up getting infected with the virus. They have less signs of illness than their neighbors that weren't separated by these masks, and there's like a little bit of nuance here Catherine. Right, which is that if the masks had just prevented some animals from getting. Getting, sick at all. You would say like this makes sense to us. Maybe there weren't enough particles to get the little hamster sick. But in fact, they did get sick. They just got less sick, which is kind of a piece of evidence for this idea of the dose makes the poison right I think that makes a lot of sense I. Mean. It's it is a little bit tough because I? I don't think it's as clear cut as to say like Oh, if I get ten viral particles on my face, I'm not GONNA get sick. But if I get fifteen I'm going to get a little bit sick and then if I get twenty I'm going to get super sick no one knows those numbers yet and those are absurdly numbers so feel free to ask yeah. Those are measles numbers Catholic. Keep going. Yeah. But like those are not clear cut and honestly what numbers hold true for me are probably not GonNa hold true for you. It's super complicated I think what researchers are trying to get at here are super broad trends at a population level. Yeah. Yeah. Because whether or not one. person has more severe symptoms to the other could be based on a lot of different things because the immune system is endlessly complicated as we talked about the last time you were on the show. Absolutely, and so there's also these observational studies, right. So these are not scientific experiments that are being done, but these are people trying to kind of look at these huge data sets we have and see, okay, here are a couple of different variables what could they be and so there are some that are around this idea of infectious does I mean you described? Described the situation in seafood plant in Oregon. What happened there? Catherine? Yeah. So during these really really big scale out breath that were happening at like meat processing plants and other food processing plants. A lot of employers wised up pretty quickly to this idea that these like very crowded insular environments are pretty high risk for spread and so they started giving out. Masks to all their employees so that they could work with some degree of protection there did end up being an outbreak at the seafood plant in Oregon, but more than ninety percent of the people who tested positive for the virus didn't end up having symptoms, which is pretty extraordinary. Considering that the CDC is still trying to really nail down this number, but they've put out some recent tentative. That maybe about forty percent of the infections that we know about our domestic as a huge difference between forty percent and ninety plus percent. Yeah. Definitely. Definitely. In the other thing, you know the other piece of data that again is very core live and we're not. We're still working to understand this is that you pointed out that more mask wearing in the US has coincided with. Fewer deaths and at the of the pandemic, although that's a very complicated thing to prove, right? Yeah. That is I i. think that's something people have been talking about a little bit over the past few months. There's a lot of factors that could go into this. You know we're much better at treating this virus, and there's some evidence to show that the average age of the person has gone down and we know older people are more susceptible to really severe covid nineteen. But. So many more people are also wearing masks now, and it's certainly possible that people are getting smaller doses of this virus on average, and maybe that's contributing to fewer symptoms and less severe disease, and thus peer depths, and we should probably say Catherine that the type of covering you're wearing matters, right. The type of mask that you're wearing does matter in how much protection you have. Absolutely. That's a really good point. A lot of researchers have said, you know you want to choose something. That's got a couple of layers to it. You want to have it. Fairly tight over your mouth and your nose is okay. That's a little loose fitting. We don't WanNA, make it really uncomfortable for you, but you want it to sort of seal off your mouth and your nose which means covering. All of those holes in front of your face. And when you actually put it on and take it off, try not to touch the front of it because that's where all the stuff that you're trying to keep out of your nose and mouth has probably accumulated and said, grab those ear straps or whatever is keeping it on your face. Yeah. Absolutely, and you, Catherine I do think there's a bigger threat here. I. Want to ask you because you're a scientist turned journalist just like me and it's you know about how science is done and interpreted in a pandemic. Sciences. So much of not knowing what's going on and learning little pieces at a time and going back and forth on an issue before you arrive at a conclusion is actually very very common. I. Mean it is my I. Mean I don't know Catherine. That's how it was aggressip school for me and so this idea that like because you know people don't know what they're talking about with masks or you know like the CDC's changing up their guidance like it under, you know it's frustrating, but it's also how it works. You know what I mean. Yeah. Absolutely I? Think the most humbling thing I had to go through in the process of becoming scientists was just getting more comfortable with being wrong all the time and then talking about. Run all the time because I think if if I. Didn't feel empowered enough to talk about my mistakes with other scientists who could. Broaden perspectives. I wouldn't have ended up learning anything, but you know to kind of flip it on its head I. Think it's just been incredibly humbling an incredible to watch how the scientific community has come together. Science is often so plotting and tough, and sometimes it paper will be published and then eight years later, data will come out that'll show. The stories a little bit different here. A lot of that timeline has been collapsed into just a couple months for this pandemic and people are coming together from around the world to learn
Colorado kindergarten vaccinations were up pre-pandemic, but officials worry for coming year
"And officials I know are that concerned others the current health crisis could reverse Don't the progress agree with this, of state but I is made had on vaccinations. pretty much thought. You know Has what? been a drop He'll come off back in the this number year, of vaccinations and for kids he'll since be the an pandemic above average began, tackle. I might state not be an elite epidemiologist tackle. You Rachel paid Hurley, him like He an warns elite that tackle. this could You lead paid to him the another most. crisis. These Of declines that we've any observed right tackle in in pro vaccination football history rates do in his put contract, us at risk for But another opt public out Maybe health maybe crisis, there's some potentially underlying above medical and issue beyond that the we're unaware Kobe crisis, of. Your Buddy B. K one says in which that seriously our preventable Broncos diseases insider like for the measles station said and pertussis that he can was told research. Wilkinson Tomorrow, will be The ready Thornton to go Fire by the Department time is they're going in to be Pat's. providing free Yeah, covert that's 19 that's common testing knowledge has from been 8 out a.m. there for to 1 the past. p.m. Three weeks. At the city Yes, of Thorin he Infrastructure wanted you to maintenance know that Center, 126th She ate that, and East Lake Avenue. You Um, do have to pre register go to just go it's funny bot Tweet. dot net Funny slash tweet right Cove under Mick in 19 my testing. classes. Ah, So
UK's Johnson dismisses anti-vaxxers as 'nuts'
"Johnson, Johnson, dismissing dismissing campaigners campaigners seeking seeking to to oppose oppose vaccinations vaccinations Thie Thie anti anti vaxxers, describing them as nuts. Johnson asked a staff at a London medical center today what they thought of anti vaccine while adding quote. Is all these anti Baxter's. Now they're nuts. They're all nuts. Johnson was touring the East London Centre to promote a campaign for flu vaccinations. I had a winter, the anti Vax movement, fueled by a now discredited article in The medical journal Lancet by Andrew Wakefield, which alleged the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine were linked autism. That article later retracted Wakefield. I ended up losing his medical license. Take us with you.
Hospitals Struggle to Contain Covid-19 Spread Inside Their Walls
"As the coronavirus continues its spread throughout the country, some hospitals are also struggling to contain the spread inside its walls. Well. It's only a small number of overall cases US medical centers have reported over five thousand cases of patients, catching coronavirus after being admitted there for other conditions, and that number does not include the case of medical staff that have caught the virus at work. Melanie Evans Hospital reporter at the Wall Street. Journal joins us for more on how hospitals try to protect both staff and patients from infection. Thanks for joining US Melanie. Thanks for having me wanted to talk about an interesting facet of this whole corona virus thing and how it plays out in hospitals. Obviously, people are going to hospitals to get the treatment they need. Sometimes they're spending long stays there and the hospital staff. Obviously, has to work with. With them. They have to work with regular patients as well. It can be a very difficult thing and right now. We're seeing that US. Medical centers have reported over five thousand cases of patients that caught cove in nineteen after being admitted to the hospital for other conditions I think that's that was just patients, but there's also a lot of a hospital staffers that are also catching it there from work as well. Melanie a little bit more about, please. Hospitals even outside of a pandemic. Go to some pretty extraordinary lengths to prevent infections from spreading inside the hospital itself. So you've got doctors nurses taking care of patients. Some of them have a contagious disease. You can think of measles you could think of to burke yellow says and so hospitals have all of these various strategies for trying to ensure that contagious patients don't infect hospital workers, and that the disease whatever it may be doesn't spread, and you don't get a outbreak. Hospitals began to try to adapt the way they operate in order to prevent the virus from spreading internally. What we found was that there was a pretty inconsistent approach across hospitals as the pandemic hit the United States, and so as you as you noted, hospitals are starting to report what they consider to be hospital onset cases so patients who've been exposed and contracted or respected to have contracted covid nineteen while inside of the hospital. There isn't good data for exposure of hospital staff. and. It's interesting I mean one of the things that kind of hinders. This is the reporting structure that they use to be certain that an infection occurred in a hospital. You know the federal government doesn't ask them to report everything. It's Somebody's gotta be there for at least two weeks and catch the virus there before the reported has an infection. You got there at the hospital, so there's a possibility of a bunch of other people that could have gotten it before that to expand their one of the hospitals that you. You focused on for your piece was the University of Illinois Hospital in Chicago as you were mentioning? Hospitals are trying to prevent the spread of this thing as much as they could, but even still it got through, and by mid June more than two hundred sixty nurses, clerical staff custodians texts had contracted the virus there four staff members died, so even still it's it's just tough to contain all this. The Standard, the threshold for reporting a case of a patient contracting covid nineteen inside the hospital is pretty high. It's also voluntary. So for those reasons, the infectious disease experts we talked to said the number is likely higher, so we've got about five thousand cases since May fourteen that excludes anything that occurred prior to that since May. Fourteenth there have been roughly. Five thousand cases reported voluntarily by hospitals that met as very high threshold, and to your point we looked at one specific hospital that struggled with these protocols for keeping patients and staff separate, and when we interviewed staff and the head of infection control. What we were told was. It is likely that the virus spread internally that they were investigating, but they declined to share with us. The results of their investigation, citing privacy for employees have died Joyce Hacker Bus Leblanc. She's fifty three year old nurse, Juan Martinez and. Room technician who worked on the third floor, Maria Lopez a nurse, who on the third, floor operating unit. And then FLA botanist Edward Starling. He's sixty years old and he died on June seventeenth. You know speaking to what you're saying about. Some of these protocols they isolate infected patients. The buildings are engineered to help reduce the viral spread. A lot of people talk about these negative pressure rooms, which kind of sucked the air out so the virus staying there, but then there's other research that shows that there's been a particles of the virus kind of hallways outside of those rooms, so it's a very difficult thing to. To contain and be clear these numbers that we're talking about these over five thousand cases, these are a very small fraction of the overall number of cases, but you know it's hard to for a lot of people to feel comfortable there. If certain things like these are happening you know, it just complicates everything. contact tracing is difficult in the hospitals especially at the University of Illinois Hospital that we're talking about at one point, there were so many people are getting sick and was the contact tracing their. They continue to work to boost their infection control practices. As we reported this story, we talked to hospitals across the United States over several weeks and the course of that reporting. hustles described the ways enrich their protocols, and their efforts were changing so early in the pandemic testing was limited. There was no requirement that everybody wear a mask. Now taking is more widespread and hospitals have policies that require universal masking patients and staff are being asked to wear masts to help slow the spread of the virus hospitals in the course of the pandemic raced to reengineer their ventilation systems and add negative pressure rooms, so yes, it is sort of involving response by US hospitals in order to try to contain any possible outbreaks. Hopefully as we continue to get through this, the hospitals can learn to manage it as best they
"measles" Discussed on GSMC Health and Wellness Podcast
"And that's really because in addition to harming the pregnant woman getting exposed to measles while you're pregnant, can cause fetal defects in addition to those in the individual who is pregnant. So, fifteen out of fifty eight women, who were study by the CDC, and these were pregnant, and they had active measles were followed to see what affected them as the parental figure who was pregnant, and also the fetal effects fifteen out of those fifty eight develop pneumonia. Two out of these fifty eight pregnant women died. The most common fetal effect that was found in this study was premature delivery, and that happened in thirteen out of fifty eight of these women, and remember that two of them died so thirteen out of fifty six, who survived were having these premature deliveries, which can be dangerous for babies in enough themselves. Additionally five of the pregnancies resulted in spontaneous abortion, and that means that the body just rejected the pregnancy. You WanNa. Be Really careful with us because that means that seven fetuses did not make it through so thirteen out of fifty one. Of these pregnancies resulted in premature delivery in two of the cases both mother and fetus died, and in the cases of five of these individuals. The fetus did not survive. So if a non immune pregnant patient is exposed measles directly prior to delivery or around the time before delivery, they could very well pass this on to the fetus, and it could cause severe complications up to an including death. Measles has not been shown to cause birth defects. But I would say that spontaneous abortion for wanted pregnancy is a very strong side effect that matters very much in and of itself the risk for a tanning these types of issues can be reduced with passive immunization. If you are interested in that, please do. Out to your doctor, if you suspect that you may have measles, go ahead and reach out to your doctor as well so they can check you using your urine, some nasal or virgil secretions, swaths, throat, swabs, or drawing your blood.
"measles" Discussed on GSMC Health and Wellness Podcast
"You guys I found myself wondering about vaccines. I've been speaking with my friends who have kids and most of them have chosen to vaccinate and others have chosen to go on a delayed schedule. And I wanted to understand more about this perspective as to why someone might choose a delayed. schedule. Really, it's not necessarily recommended at the very least for that child's specific health issues. So, we're GONNA. Start out today with talking about measles, mumps and rubella. The Mr. Vaccine is one folks tend to get pretty early on and I want to know about the actual diseases behind these vaccines. So today we're going to start out with measles. Move Onto Mumps and rubella and stick around to the end when we talk about who should get the Mr Vaccine and what the side effects may be as well as how these are regulated. So I stop measles, mumps and rubella are all viral diseases that can be prevented by vaccines, and if folks are not vaccinated against them, then they do have the potential to harm non immune pregnant women and their fetuses if they're exposed to the viruses. The most concerning out of the three is re Bella because that can cause congenital rebelo syndrome and have some devastating effects on the child. So we're going to take a look at each of these where they come from how they work and what it looks like when you have them. So with measles, measles is transmitted through droplet nuclei, and it's an rn a virus, so humans are the only natural host of this particular disease, and it's highly contagious. There are reports of measles cases in the US. Mostly dramatically declined since the pre vaccination era, however, we have seen rises of some of these types of viruses, including measles and mumps within the US in recent years due to a lack of vaccinations. Show? We're going to talk a little bit as well about some of these numbers. In the year two thousand this CD see declared that measles had been eliminated from the US. And we do still see some outbreaks that are a result of foreign travel. From January to September in two thousand eleven, there were two hundred and eleven confirmed cases in the US of measles and fifteen outbreaks, and that was the highest number since nineteen ninety six. Out of the two hundred and eleven confirmed cases that occurred eighteen percent were among folks who had received at least one emaar vaccine, dose. But until measles is totally eradicated, we're going to still season outbreaks in the world and in the US specifically right now there are over twenty million measles infections worldwide each year. And there are hundreds of thousands of deaths each year as well. So if you get twenty million measles infections in single year, and we take the number of a year like two thousand eight. That is one hundred and sixty four thousand deaths out of twenty million infections, so that's a mortality rate of about zero point zero eight percent. We're round to the nearest to decimal points, zero point zero one percent. If you contrast that with covid nineteen, the crude mortality rate for that is point two eight percent, so zero point, two eight percent, or for every three hundred and fifty eight people, one person dies or out of a hundred thousand people, two hundred and seventy nine people die from Cova. If we reduce that down to the same unit of measurement for per one hundred thousand individuals, then for measles, eight, hundred and twenty out of every one hundred thousand people die from measles in a single year, if we use the numbers from two thousand eight, for example, now that said the numbers that we used for the mortality rate of covid nineteen..
A COVID-19 Vaccine: What You Need To Know
"Joe you have been reporting on the pandemic for months now and specifically one crucial part of this story vaccines right I think vaccines are pretty much the way out of this. Most people agree it's been so far the most successful tool in preventing infectious disease. But, of course we don't have a vaccine right now, and so that's why we're doing all these other things like shutting things down and social distancing and wearing masks in washing hands, etc, until we do have a vaccine that safe and effective and available right, and we're basically hiding from the virus in the meantime right, but I've heard that vaccines have traditionally taking years to develop. So, what are we doing to speed up the process well quite a lot actually and just to give you one example. Example a couple of weeks ago. I got a virtual tour of a vaccine facility in Baltimore. What you're looking at here is one step of multiple step process. It's run by a company called emergent bio solutions, and Sean Kirk overseas the manufacturing and technical operations and what he's doing, he's he's pointing a cell phone camera through a glass window into another room with several large stainless steel pieces of equipment. You can see the banks taken out. Talk you, so what's going to go inside? This bag is actually. Believe it or not insect cells that have been modified to make proteins from the coronavirus. That's going to be used to make the vaccine. The technicians are loading this bag into a fifty liter stainless steel vessel. That's part of what's called a bio reactor around the outside of this is the vessel itself it provides. The heating cooling. And with the inserted agitator, the mixing the cells, spitting out a protein that's going to become the corona virus vaccine. All this is being done with the strict standards of the Food and Drug Administration. The vaccine is from a biotech company called Nova Fax, and emergent says they're ready to make hundreds of millions of doses of it on a short timescale. Hold up Joe. Because I thought there weren't any approved vaccine's yet. So what's happening here with this manufacturing? Well, you were asking what's going to speed up the process and this is part of the answer. They're not just waiting to see if the vaccine works. They're doing what's called at risk manufacturing it. They're getting ready to make hundreds of millions of doses of vaccine. And when they finish testing it, it might not work okay, but the government says we don't have any choice because we can't wait until we find out of it works to start manufacturing it. Because that'll just add months and months to the process, so they're getting going right away. Sounds like kind of a gamble, but we don't really have much of a choice. Is that right well? That's what people are saying. I mean it's a gamble that health officials say we have to make if we want to have a vaccine that's GonNa be around in time to put a stop to this pandemic. Okay Today on the show what you need to know about the virus vaccine from how it works to the challenges of disturbing it to. The world. This is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. Okay Joe Palca. Let's start with some vaccine basics I read. There are over one hundred vaccines in development for this corona virus, and these vaccines are trying to do the same thing trigger an immune response from your body without actually getting you sick. Yes, I've been thinking about it as a little bit like showing a picture to someone and say if this person comes to your door. Don't let them in and and that's essentially what you're doing with a vaccine. Right and I guess there are a couple of different ways. Occur virus vaccine can maybe trigger that response. Tell me about a couple of them. Well one thing you can do is you can actually kill the virus. What does that mean well? It's not really alive, but let's say treat it with heat or formaldehyde. It's no longer working and you inject into somebody well. It has the shape of virus and the look of a virus, but it doesn't do it. A virus does so the immune system can respond to that. That's kind of how the polio vaccine that Jonas Salk came up with. Or you can take the virus and modify it so that it's no longer able to make someone sick That's basically what the Sabin Polio vaccine did. It weakened the poliovirus. Immune system saw it made all the right responses, but didn't Cause Disease Gotcha. Since those two, there have been married of different ways. It's just the idea of getting the Munin system to recognize parts of the virus so that it'll have an immune. Without actually making somebody sick all right. Let's talk to about why vaccine development takes so long because we mentioned earlier, it's normally very step by step process and I'm guessing that's why it takes a while right well. Yeah I, mean there are lots of steps in the process. First one is to make sure that the vaccine is safe. You're GONNA, be giving it to a lot of people, so you WANNA. Make sure it doesn't cause any problems on its own important, and then you want to make sure it has an immune reaction immune response, so you measure the cells that people make are the proteins that they make from the immune system after you've given them the vaccine. And then you want to make sure it prevents them from getting sick from the coronavirus. None of these sound like easy tasks I gotta say Yeah No it's. It's all time consuming. It's all difficult. It all requires a lot of people and patients and coordination and You can't really speed it up I. Mean if you WanNa, see if something's going to work for six months, you kind of. Of have to wait around for six months to see if it's GonNa work right, and so with this coronavirus receiving manufacturers trying to compress the time line, but this takes a lot of money and a lot of financial risk, so does anthony. FAUCI of the coronavirus task force thinks we can develop a vaccine by the end of this year, because the government is helping these manufacturers financially through. An warp speed. Here's vouch speaking with NPR's Rachel Martin. It's risking hundreds of millions of dollars, maybe a half a billion to a billion dollars. The government isn't destined that taking that risk way insane precede, and you'll save several months, so joe aside from this. What else can be done to move the process along well I mean one of the things you can do. Do is just get a lot of people working on the problem at the same time, and then you can also do things that will make sure that the regulatory processes smooth so the food and drug. Administration is coming along with you in every step so that they don't have to review everything. After you've done it, they can review everything as you're doing it. But. This idea of having a lot of labs involved in something that's going to really be helpful and I talked with Dr Lewis Fellow over at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School his team is developing something. It's packed with micro needles that contain tiny bits of the coronavirus, and the Niger needles are so small that you don't even feel them, so you while slap on the patch and wait a few weeks and boom, immunity corona virus. Virus Patch. It works if it works, but this is just one approach, and I think that they will basically feed off of each other This is GONNA help us to do these trials both quicker, and to find vaccine. That's most effective when we start to be to be able to compare these different approaches seven Joe. Let's say sometime in the future we have a winning vaccine or a few vaccines that are fully approved. How on planet, Earth Are we going to distribute them like who's who is going to get it I i. m Evi one vaccination. Are Those people born on March tenth? This is a scene from the movie contained I know we promised we wouldn't play this movie again on the PODCAST, but. This scene is kind of how vaccine was deployed at least in the film. So Joe is there massive lottery drawing in our future to decide who gets the CORONA VIRUS VACCINE? I don't think that's going to be the actual way that it's going to be ruled out. Okay. Most of the people I've talked to suggest that it's going to go first to healthcare workers and people who are on the frontlines of combating the disease, but then you want to think about the sort of the societal infrastructure. I mean who makes things go and. I think a number of years ago. People wouldn't necessarily have thought of delivery truck drivers says people who are crucial to the infrastructure of the country, and yet more and more people are now relying on deliveries to get stuff, and so they may be considered critical people who need to be vaccinated or their people who are at high risk for the disease. But the fact is that at some point, we're going to have to figure out a way to get this to everybody. Right Seth Berkley, for the CEO of an organization called Garvey. The vaccine alliance put it really well. We're not going to be safe as a world unless everywhere save so even if you know, we had parts of the world that would have a low spread or no spread. If you had large reservoirs of the virus in other places, of course, you have a risk of reintroduction I like that we're not going to be safe. As a world, unless everywhere is safe. Okay, last question Joe. Will the corona virus vaccine be one that changes every year because the corona virus changes every year. If we know that, or will it be more like the measles are the polio vaccine? We don't know we don't know which I could give you a better answer. But the answer right now is. We don't know so. There's not enough experience with this virus yet to know for sure, of course what's going to happen? It's possible that they'll be a different version that they all need to make vaccines against for every year. or it's also possible, and this is probably more likely that. They'll need to be boosters from time to time, maybe not as infrequently as measles, but may be more frequently that some so that the it's not clear how long the immune response that you get from. A vaccine will work so. The trouble is just I mean it's so new. The understanding of this virus that the people aren't saying
Congo announces end to 2nd deadliest Ebola outbreak ever
"It's now official eastern Congo has month and then to the second deadliest the bailout breaking history the virus killed two thousand two hundred and eighty people if in eighty two years some troubles and a lack of trust in the community slowed down the promise of new vaccines the W. H. O. regional director for Africa Dr Majidi similarities says the challenge was a great one at times it seemed like a mission impossible the epidemic presented an unprecedented challenge because it was the first debate epidemic and a complex sign however the milestone was overshadowed by the enormous health challenges still facing conger the world's largest measles epidemic the rising threat of Kevin nineteen and another new episode outbreak in the novels about stocks and I. T. is optimistic about the future together we live in injuring legacy which is lost support in the fight against covert nineteen and the other outbreaks I'm Karen Thomas
U.S. plans massive coronavirus vaccine testing effort to meet year-end deadline
"Tastes have been on the hunt for something that could shut this virus down and give us our lives back. A vaccine. A few months ago, there was a lot of excitement. As the very first clinical trials for the coronavirus began, it was in time. The search for coronavirus vaccine has become one of the fastest moving in history. That scenes usually take years not months to produce. This is happening warp speed. Never before hundreds of scientists are over the world and focused on the same thing at the same time creating a vaccine for covid nineteen. And more and more vaccine candidates are entering the fray. Were at the point, where around a dozen clinical trials are on the go. Hundreds of people volunteered for jab in the arm to test old kinds of different vaccines. As part of this scientists are taking some be gambles. The vaccine were looking at is incredibly modern type vaccine. It's not the traditional way building a vaccine, so we're going as fast as humanly possible. Many of them are not traditionally vaccine companies. They are using novel ideas from oncology things. They've learned treating cancer. It's never been used in a vaccine before. And if one of these gambles payoff, it could be huge, we could get a vaccine soon. The US government says that the goal is to get a vaccine to Americans by January twenty twenty one. They're calling this nation warp speed. And if it could be done, this would be unprecedented. So could we really be celebrating twenty one with Champagne and shot in the arm to fight the coronavirus? And? What would it take to make that happen? That's Today on the show. Because when it comes to getting a vaccine, it feels like this is happening at warp speed, but then there's. Science. Scientist is when on Earth Are we getting? This vaccine is coming up to stop to the break. This episode of science versus is sponsored by Phillips Sonacare the electric toothbrush that combines decades of science and engineering to master the art of brushing with sixty two thousand brushstrokes minute you've got a month's worth of brushing in just two minutes for better checkups, guaranteed or your money back visit Phillips. Dot Com slash sonacare. This episode of science versus is brought to you by AFLAC. That lovable duct does more than just say. AFLAC access a safety net when the unexpected happens by helping with the expenses. That health insurance doesn't cover. Get to know them at half dot com. Welcome back. So back in January. We had from people like Anthony Fauci that we could get a vaccine in twelve to eighteen months. That could mean early next year. And in the land of vaccines, these would be record breaking. It often takes something like ten years for a vaccine to from the lab to the doctor's office. So can we really do it? Get Out of this pandemic by January, before Santa even catches these brands. Well to get them labs. All around the world s around experimenting with different kinds of vaccines. But they all have the same goal to train our immune system to recognize and killed this coronavirus. And to do that, many vaccine developers have homed in on one thing. Progress. And northwestern told us all about it. If you think about the picture that you've seen corona virus like everywhere, and it looks like a ball with little points coming out. Those points the spike. Spike protein you know it, I, know it. It's the most famous spikes in Spike Lee and the most famous protein since. College Eddie right. This spike is so important because it's a major thing that tells our body weight this virus. It doesn't belong here. That actually is what argue system fees most readily. It sees the spike. After our meeting system sees the spike. It lends to recognize quickly. Respond to it by creating things like antibodies to fight it, and then some of those antibodies hang around so that if the virus shows up, then the virus will just be cleared away by our immune system. So that the next time we see that disease, we don't get sick in the first place, so if you making Exane, how do you get your immune system to quickly recognized this spike? Well, one way is that scientists can take rhinovirus and then make less dangerous. Say They Kill the virus most comedy vaccines are made by growing up the virus. And inactivating that virus sometimes with the chemical, sometimes the heat, and then that is then injected. An otherwise scientists can do this version of the virus. That's too weak to make you sick. And this is how we make a lot of vaccines familiar with things like the measles and chickenpox and flu vaccines. It's tried and tested. We know it can work and some companies are going this way to try to make Alka, rhinovirus vaccine. But other groups at. This meat and potatoes vaccine method they using new attack more experimental ways of building vaccine. And these experimental methods getting a ton of attention and funding right now, because governments and big. Pharma hoping they'll deliver the goods pasta. So for they use instead of giving you a whole coronavirus, these vaccines, basically using genetic material from the coronavirus, and then they're plopping that into your body. And scientists have chosen a very particular piece of genetic material spike. It's the recipe for the spike, protein. And this can come in a couple of forms. One is called. Our body will see that as a normal M Arnie and just translate into a pro team. Wow, so this. If this vaccine works, it would encourage your body to make little corona virus proteins. Yes that's that's the idea. Wow, that seems so futuristic. As as is, that's really cool right, so you're getting the body degenerate that protein for you yet, so these spike proteins that your body has made will then be floating around and the idea. Is that your immune system? We'll see it. Make antibodies send Ta. You'll have immunity. And many of the vaccines in this race, delivering this genetic material to us in different ways, so some shopping Marin into a ball of fat, so that your cells will slip up while other groups trying to smuggle in that code using get this a totally different virus one. That weren't hurt you. Is it fantasy that they've taken a different virus? And then they're like like Halloween the dressing at all like the corona virus, yes. Say. So this all sounds a little bunk is mad. The question is will it really work that is. Will these vaccines protectiveness if we get exposed to the coronavirus? Because if they don't. Like on a useless. My boss is to stay if it's just dishwater that you're not gonNA get anywhere. This is Katie Stevenson. She's a doctor working on vaccine development at Harvard and she says that one of the key ways will know if a vaccine is working is if it makes you produce antibodies. And she's looking for not just any antibodies. But neutralizing antibodies, what what is a neutralizing antibodies? So a neutralizing antibody is an antibody that binds to virus and neutralizes it. This is the dream right? Yeah, exactly right inches binds to the virus and prevent it from entering a cell. So the body sees that and just thrown in the garbage to this is what Katie is going to be looking for. In the results of all these clinical trials, and if she doesn't see these neutralizing antibodies, shelby thinking well, that was kind of done. And Katie says I dealing see a lot of these. So! What's a lot? Well you measure milk leases. Okay so I've measure milk. And you can measure antibodies titus. So one study, which looked at people who had been infected with this virus, and then recovered found the antibody. Titus tended to be at least one hundred. And when Katie's colleague vaccinated monkeys with an experimental vaccine, they found that having similar antibody Tom of one hundred protected them from getting infected. So while we're still learning a lot, he all I have been kind of looking for one one hundred. Okay, that's it's nice, poetic, great one hundred yeah! We have a handful of results that companies have released from different clinical trials, but just one paper that's published in a peer review gentle. It was from a Chinese local company who injected more than one hundred people with one of those new fandango vaccines and it was back in March. They tested three different doses. And Katie says they didn't get. This antibody tighter. Like at the highest dose averaged around Bootie for you know I was a little bit disappointed, so a little bit reserved I'm happy that it elicited an immune response because that's not a given. Sometimes, it's just zero zero zero but I would've liked to see something closer to like one hundred another company. Medina injected forty five people back in March with the vaccine, and they said that eight people had good levels of neutralizing antibodies. But they didn't tell us about the opposite in the trial. When we asked dinner about this, we didn't hear back to Katie is holding out for more info. Yeah, I just wanted to see the rest because it is immune. A- promising I'd put promising right on there. But I do not know which one of these is GonNa work if any, and that that is the actual fact truth so I try not to stray from that, and there are other FAC truths to nail down him. Even if these vaccines do make you produce produces, antibodies will still have to make absolutely short that you'll protected from the corona virus. If you do get exposed, and then if you protected, we'll have to work out how long four so you might need. More than one shot of the vaccine say a booster shot in a or so.
Doctor Chris Smith Speaking About Coronavirus
"The longer the covid nineteen lockdown goes on the more we learn about covid nineteen not least because being locked down like this. We don't have a great deal to do but ever expanding testing is teaching us about the spread of the virus will hopefully help us figure out how soon something like normality becomes a possibility he in the UK Health Secretary. Hancock has suggested that seventeen percent of Londoners may now have covid nineteen antibodies. I'm joined with more on this prime article. Twenty four health and science correspondent Dr. Chris Smith also a viral adjust at Cambridge University. Chris first of all that figure seventeen percent which suggests as I understand that seventeen percent of Londoners have been infected by cove nineteen to one extent or another. Does that sound like a plausible number? Yeah I think I think it does some countries and indeed some commentators in many countries hyping the number would be a bit higher. But Tha that does seem to twin with what we knew about the circulation of the agent. We New London was hot spots. We knew it took off their more than in other parts of the UK and this is also backed up by the that in the parts of the UK. This the Ciro positively right in other words. The number of people with antibodies against the new kind of ours is between five and seven percent so that does align with that so quite high circulation in London lower levels of circulation across the rest of the country but across the whole it means that the vast majority of people are not immune therefore only a small fraction of the countryside. Fall has actually called the new cry of ours. Is there anything we can infer from that figure in London? Not Merely about the level of infection but the the level of exposure what. I'm wondering is if you take a given Londoner for the sake of argument. Let's say it's Me Prior to lockdown traveling at least twice a day on Tube trains most of which were pretty crowded frequently being out and about in London which is a busy city speaking to. I don't know dozens of people a day as a journalist does is there any meaningful chance? I wouldn't have been exposed at some point. I it's very likely that you probably have encountered this. But he's whether or not you encountered any infectious dose of it because that's the key thing nodal viruses virus particles might equally and when a person is infected. They are producing from their body and all of their secretions of from the respiratory tract. So that's coughing sneezing just breathing droplets of moisture which virus particles in the they hope for in the for a period of time and it may well be that some of those virus particles that just stopped so although that virus particles and although they might have some genetic information in them they just might not go off like a dodgy firework you like them nothing happens so a person who breathes in some of those particles isn't guaranteed that will catch it so it's not a given if you're sharing it with someone who's infected. You're definitely going to get it. Because it depends how much they're actually issuing from their body into the that you then encounter but yes people in London had an above average Johnson counseling other people who were infected and therefore infectious and because of the high density working environment in London. The high density of traveling in London as a result of that the opportunity afforded to the virus to spread was higher which is why London took off soon took off foster and had high levels of virus. I've rule and I think part of this is probably a reflection on the London's also right next door to one of the world's busiest airports Heathrow which would have an she connected with the London. Transport system would perhaps have been a a conduit into the country with many cases arriving via that route every day. And then probably moving into the capital and helping to spread it if seventeen percent is not it yet is. I don't know whether this is a useful way to be thinking or not but is there. A number percentage at which a widespread lifting of lockdown measures starts to seem like a sensible way forward. Well if we're using how immune people all the immunity right in the population. Then we'd need to be up in the high tens of percent like sixty seventy percent of the population immune in order for this to have any kind of serious impact on the ability of the virus to spread because this whole notion of herd immunity. The word is unfortunately been misrepresented misunderstood by many people as meaning some kind of a strategy to allow people to catch the virus naturally into become immune as a country herd immunity just means that the vast majority of people are immune which means that there are so few susceptible individuals left in the mixture that the virus Kennel circulate. And so you protect the UNAMUNE few by the immunity of the many. That's what herd. Immunity means but in order for that to work. You need very high numbers of the population to be immune so when we vaccinate people against diseases like measles with the Mo. That's why we try to get to ninety five percent of the population because we know even when we get to ninety five percent the population. A handful of people just won't respond to the vaccine so that gives us a bit of safety margin and it means that a good. It to eighty five percents people are gonNA be reliably immune and that means the fifteen to twenty percent who not and this includes newborn babies every year just unlikely to encounter so unlikely to encounter someone who's actually got it that there's no transmission chain in the population that is potentially achievable for this new corona vars volunteer routes. Either we all catch it and we become immune and then new members of the population who bowl not yet an organic. Because there's no disease can eating or more tracks if we make a vaccine against this when we get the vaccine into everybody either way we arrive at a stay of heard immunity where this too few people who are susceptible in the population for the Vars to be able to maintain a transmission chain Christmas. Thank you as always. That was our health and science correspondent. Dr Chris
Getting it right: States struggle with contact tracing push
"For us what it is that this contract tracing work in tales I mean this is a this is a pretty old approach to public health is it not you know not as if you think nineteen thirty seven as older not all prospective song perspective right this is been used primarily for sexually transmitted diseases it was originally designed for circles control but as we use it for HIV but we also use it for tuberculosis measles other things like that as well so the idea is that what we're trying to do is identify people who are infected or who may become infected and who are excreting virus shedding virus and those who have been exposed and may turn and may become fully infected and start to excrete virus so that's two groups those are were infected and those were been exposed so when someone is reported with covert nineteen infection from the labs are from their doctors are they self report someone from the city will call them and say you know we're sorry about your diagnosis do you need anything you know symptoms you need to have a hospital that kind of stuff got a case management and then they'll say we need to talk to you about your people with whom you pay cut in a contact the last five days or whatever the period of time is it's kind of defined by what your symptoms began at an all state will I need to know the people with whom you've come in contact and got it for how long and what sorts of contact so if we think that they're a close contact that they've been in close enough contact to actually become infected will say okay what we think you need to go get a test and so the test they would go get a test we would follow up with them find out whether the test was positive or negative the test is positive they're a case and they have to go into isolation until there are no longer infectious no longer contagious which is about eight days from the onset of symptoms clearly you can't tell people just gonna shut the door and good luck and also will open at fourteen days and see what's going on yet to be in daily contact with people a lot of people need to have things arranged someone can't shelter camp stay at home they don't have extra bedrooms they're they're living for people to up to a household are they might have to you know if it's a it's a wage earner in a family and that person goes into goes into isolation somebody has to make sure there's money for the family and that there's food and as well as for the prisoners in isolation but also for the family and the governor has brought in a weight support program where people have to go into isolation and contact which isolation and quarantine which the city is also supplemented so there's a fair amount of social service part on the back and for people who are actually have to go into isolation or or or quarantine but the idea here is that instead of finding someone has been exposed and treating them with the drug which is how we do it with with us support us or tuberculosis or with a vaccine just how we deal with measles here the the treatment is to get out of circulation so they made themselves they made them selves not get treatment depending on the severity of their disease point is is that we're limiting their ability to transmit the virus to other people so with the end of shelter in place this become as children play starts to wind down this becomes kind of our first line of defense against a transmission it's interesting calling in on the first line of defense again we're speaking on KCBS in depth to doctor George Rutherford who is a epidemiologist with UC San Francisco helping to lead up an effort to train more contact tracers in California so when it comes to the training that is taking place what does it take to be a good contact tracer and how do you train somebody I understand that the course that you you you mentioned some of its in person some of it's gonna be online it's something like a twenty hour training course what it take to make somebody able to do this work right so they have to be able to talk to people they have to be not afraid to call people up and and talk them through this I and I think it's ever since we've done a pretty good job the mayor's been great about talking about it and so people are just you know people are surprised when the calls come more last so it's you know that's the you know that's the big thing is getting your foot in the door talking to him understood having our understand we're trying to do what's in it for them right no more transmission the family number transmission of friends you know you get a diagnosis you're able to you're able to have your income supported while you're gone so that's you know that that's the important part is to get them yes past the first sentence and be able to talk to them talk through all the the issues what needs to happen next so the training is first of all understanding the biology of the disease and epidemiology of the disease a lot of the social aspects of that brings up you know this is as you as I think we're all aware we have haves and have nots in our society and this this disease has yet again emphasize those divides so that's an important thing for everybody to be really clear about we also do role plays a apps that sample scripts that people can work from in smaller workgroups hi and then we'll look over people's shoulders as they're making calls the look over our shoulders we'll do one together and then we'll we will look over their shoulders while they make them and at the end of twenty hours there actually you know quite competent at doing this I'm I'm kind of curious and and I I don't want to cut this to come off as a criticism or being impetuous and anyway but obviously everybody is very eager to come out of this like down as quickly as possible and obviously we have known that this is a need for some time now why is this something that's coming off the ground right now was we were there it is just help us understand that you know the difficulties in getting something this monumental up and running sure well we've been doing in San Francisco for four weeks just to give you my first things first things first so this was recognized early on by the department of public health and Dr Colfax and Dr Oregon and we you know we we with their help we yeah and you know it as a joint effort we pushed it down the roadway and got it launched and you know I've been doing this now for four weeks and have a lot of the the Kinks knocked out of it coming forward a lot of counties have been doing a little bit of this but not a lot they don't know where the work force is coming from the county all the county or most of the counties not the little counties but most of the big counties at people who do this for a living they do it for STD control they do it for tuberculosis control you do a premiumization programs the server standard public health programs but they're just not very many of them so in San Francisco for instance when this started your ten people doing this we were doing the case investigations and then trying to follow up on the context we've added a hundred and forty people to that so just to give you an idea of the numbers and so this ten thousand people that the governor talks about that's the
The Future of Surveillance
"The cove in nineteen pandemic is changing our lives in so many ways. And what's going to happen in? The future is still unclear. Are we going to have to download APPS? Will those under quarantine have to wear responds? Will we BE SCANNED FOR FEVERS? Every time we step into an office or restaurant I've been hearing all sorts of questions like these so I wanted to speak with Jennifer nozoe. She's an epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. I wanted to know what role technology might play in our fight against this pandemic. Could we soon be using these contact tracing APPs here in the United States I think it's inevitable and in fact it's actually already happening? That public health agencies are going to use APPS to help them conduct contact tracing whether these APPs fundamentally change tact tracing is done remains to be seen. I personally it would be a little bit worried if we used APPs instead of people. It's not clear to me that we would get better data that way. The question is how are we going to use it? And what features of the technology are we going to use? It's one thing to use it to keep track of data and to help you analyzed data. It's another thing to use it to figure out exactly where someone's been over the last fourteen days and I think there are some important operational questions that need to be answered about those approaches as well as some potential legal and ethical questions we do use contact tracing in this country for other diseases. A lot of people are hearing this term for the first time but with foodborne illnesses and things like that. That already happens right yeah. It's a traditional tool of public health. Tr- instance in tuberculosis outbreaks measles outbreaks. And there is You know case investigations that happened with Woodward outbreaks to I would say the frequency with which it's used has probably decreased in recent years purely due to resources it's incredibly resource intensive to do contact tracing as public health departments over recent years have suffered budget cuts and declining resources their abilities to do contact tracing has declined and that's I think one of the unfortunate kind of preparedness erosions that we've seen over time that we're now in the midst of a pandemic trying to make up for by hiring possibly hundreds of thousands of new contact tracers when you think about the APP based technologies again in merging that with some of these human contact tracers to help supplement that sort of work. Can you give some idea of what life would look like then so there are a few different approaches? There's one method where the phone tracks your movement things off of Cell Towers and it knows where you've been and authorities potentially could take advantage of the ability of your phone to say where you've been to once you become a case potentially look back at where you've been for the last fourteen days and then use that to identify places where you may have exposed people to try to get in touch with people who may have also been at that same place. There are other approaches. Where you use the phone's ability to kind of tell who you've been near and to try to find people that you may have exposed that way that's seen as slightly less invasive because it's more about identifying who's been near you rather than exactly determining where you've been typically in the US and we do contact tracing it starts with an interview where you ask the patient basically remember all the places they've been when you're talking about fourteen days though it can be tough for people to remember exactly and so sometimes you have to use other methods to maybe fill in the gaps for instance for foodborne outbreaks. We try to figure out where you spend money over the last fourteen days as a proxy for where you may have been but we haven't yet in the. Us seen widespread use of the cellphone based technologies the Location Services or the more Bluetooth ones. That tell you who you've been Aaron. I think there has been some interest in potentially using these technologies but in my view these are the ones that have some questions around them in terms of public acceptability and what the limitations for their use are. So what does this mean for all of us? Are we moving toward big brother surveillance? State government officials are now calling upon Silicon Valley's tech leaders to try and help. We need to view this as an information problem when we need to come up with estimates for where the disease is and when we can find hotspots. Put Schmidt used to be the CEO of Google. Now he's leading up a fifteen member commission to help guide New York toward using new technology in the wake of Kovic. Nineteen the Google Apple. Collaboration preserves your privacy but it's completely voluntary apple and Google are collaborating to develop software that would enable Bluetooth base tracking on their devices if users opt in this data would be shared with governments and public health authorities and then there's clear view a facial recognition technology company. What we do is we have database from day one of over three billion photos. We have a mobile APP and a desktop and we also have the highest accuracy out there in the market. The company claims that they can scan public surveillance camera footage to identify people who might have been in contact with confirmed corona virus patients last month they told NBC News that they're already in talks with several state and federal agencies to help with contact tracing
Coronavirus conspiracy theories don't go viral by accident
"If you've gone on the Internet in the past week you've probably heard about plan DEMOC. It's viral video full of misinformation about the corona virus it features a discredited scientist who accuses people like Dr Anthony Pao Chief of the NIH and Bill Gates of using the kkob in nineteen outbreak to seize political power youtube. Facebook and twitter have been trying to chase the video off the Internet but experts. Who FOLLOW DISINFORMATION? Say It's not an accident that it got so big in the first place. It's an old playbook that's even more effective in a time of fear and uncertainty Rene dressed as the technical research manager at the Stanford Internet Observatory she studies Discourse Online in the most recent viral misleading video. That went up on facebook. You know there was a strong marketing component to it because one of the people involved had a book to sell. What you see is the same text will be used. It'll be kind of a particular core message produced almost the way that you would see from a team where the message goes out alongside the link and there's a real attempt to get it all out of right around the same time in hopes that you can kind of trick one of the algorithms that amplifies popular content on platforms into thinking that it seeing something. That's organic and I just you know. simultaneous outpouring organic interest. In person or topic. What role do other influencers play in? Getting this into the mainstream like is part of the campaign to have a list of sort of ideal. Influencers that you would love to get to re tweet your content. Yes absolutely I if you get it to. A sufficient number of blue check accounts have a million two million followers audience members. You've really ensured that you're reaching an existing mass audience. People think that those accounts are more authoritative. A trusted influence with a large audience. Really does a lot to both reach. People also create an environment in which the information is coming from. Someone that you trust. How can journalists avoid amplifying these claims like what is the right response to a coordinated misinformation strategy? And how do you even identify quickly enough? With regard to this particular video that went viral with the discredited scientists That was actually the third or fourth video that had been posted to youtube that did get significant traction and so those of us who watch be anti vaccine in health misinformation communities really this was like a train wreck and very very very slow motion. You know people had seen indications that this marketing effort was really trying to turn her into an influence or the problem was nobody wanted to write the story including including researchers. Because you don't WanNa give it oxygen if it's just gonNA stay confined to the communities. That are the natural sort of affinity places for it and then you see the debunking pieces begin to go up because it takes time for journalists to write those articles. They usually don't go up for six hours. Maybe and the challenges at that point the viral information has had a chance to release with people for a couple of days and the correction is not going to go as far as did. This is where I do think that platforms bear a little bit more responsibility in terms of when you begin to see a video or post or a repetitive content about a person began to gain traction in what looks like an authentic or coordinated way. That's where there's an opportunity to kind of temporarily throttle while you have the fact checker. Go look and see what kind of information this is and how it should be dealt with got it. Are you saying that that platforms may have the technology or just is on to be able to get to it more quickly you can begin to see when velocity of mentions is what it's called sometimes beginning to do well of Coca Cola is all of a sudden mentioned five hundred times in a minute? It'll flag for their brand monitoring people who will go and look and see what's going on so these tools for social listening and understanding that dynamic they do exist got it. Let's say the content gets taken down? In which case the conspiracy theorist becomes digital martyr like is one of the goals actually to be taken down so the then you can claim that you were censored. Well what we saw in the prior take downs this video that achieved Mass Keel was actually the third video in which they declare exactly what you've said that someone somewhere is trying to keep people from knowing the truth that's in some cases the better response rather than doing the takedown just ensuring that the accurate information is attached as quickly as possible. What are the opportunities in this time? Exactly because you know obviously there have been a lot of conversations about misinformation about manipulating platforms platforms have tried to take a handoff hands off approach. And they're now essentially saying you know. The virus is a clear and present public health danger. We can act more aggressively because the benefits are indisputable from a health perspective. Does that give us a an opportunity for research or lasting change or data or really understanding misinformation better? While some of the work that we're doing at Stanford actually looks at The initial application of those policies so the current a virus misinformation policy in extension of policies. That were put in place in two thousand nineteen related to the measles outbreaks. That were repeatedly happening When the Brooklyn Measles outbreak struck the platforms did begin to take steps to reduce the amount of reach that anti vaccine groups were getting and they did that. Some very basic ways. They stopped promoting them in the recommendation. Engine they stop accepting money to run. Ads on their behalf. The challenge the interesting thing that we've seen come out of this is that the policies were designed to amplify the CDC in the World Health Organization and their information but during the current a virus. There was the additional challenge of institutions. Trying to figure out what was going on at the same time as everybody else and so there wasn't always great information to be amplifying because with something like hydroxy floor Clinton whether it works. A scientific authority isn't gonNA come out with a strong firm judgment all Matt Prior to the research being done and so. There's this gap where people really want information but the science isn't there yet and so what fills the void is? Whatever any random person you know with a sufficiently large audience produces about hydroxy chloroquine. And so there's there's just not a whole lot of authoritative information for the platforms to be amplifying. Says it's been an interesting time with just understanding. How how you get information to the public. When there's no information Rene Studies online discourse at the Stanford Internet Observatory and now for some related links in news. You can hopefully use if you don't find yourself to enraged by the level of willful conspiracy believing from your friends and family on facebook. The Atlantic has a piece from last week on what to say to people who shared links to things like the plan. Democ video or other debunked. Disinformation it does say that. You will have the most luck with people who are curious or uncertain wondering if thing could possibly be true and it says you should try to empathize with the fear and uncertainty and quote. Don't lecture someone. Don't get exasperated. Don't insult them and don't try to refute specific falsehoods.
200 years of change started by one woman
"Also marks the birthday of an amazing woman who in many ways transformed healthcare two hundred years ago this week. Florence Nightingale was born in Florence Italy to British parents. Her name may be familiar to you. What is less well known is how this Amazing Woman Changed Medicine Nursing and hospital care and drove us to use evidence to improve healthcare quality in other words. Looking at whether what we actually do improves health nightingale was born to a wealthy family and was exceedingly well educated. She spoke English French. German Italian Greek and Latin and was a skilled mathematician and statistician. In fact she was the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society. Now two hundred years ago there was no germ theory no understanding of bacteria or viruses but there was lots of infectious disease smallpox measles whooping cough diptheria kill thousands of people. Sick people were cared for at home. By family members hospitals were crude dirty smelly and dangerous places in fact one paper ninety gale wrote. It may seem a strange principle to enunciate as very first requirement of a hospital that it should do the sick. No harm well without antibiotics or vaccinations. Nightingales weapons were isolation hygiene and hydration hospitals. Were not built to nor did they function to prevent the spread of disease. Patients were placed in large windowless wards with no ventilation and no sanitation. Nurses often had no formal training and they worked only during daylight hours. Patients were left alone at night. Nightingales drive was to improve safety and care at the hospital. She Championed Pavilion Style Hospital. That's the type. We are all familiar with today. There are separate wings different so as to reduce the spread of disease there are windows provided fresh air and walls with smooth surfaces that allow for cleaning she also developed nursing into a learned profession with a defined curriculum and a rigorously trained skill set. More importantly she was passionate about nurturing the values that she felt were foundational to nursing including being honest sober and loyal as she professionalized nursing. She also felt. Nurses were best supervised by other nurses rather than male doctors later in life. She caused a social uproar. When published a paper documenting. That more men died. In hospitals of infections then died in battle. She insisted that hospitals change people. Listen to her because she was an experienced health expert. Perhaps this is a lesson for our government today. Listen to those around you who have expertise.
Childhood Vaccinations Drop Significantly, CDC Warns Of Potential Measles Outbreaks
"Health experts are growing more worried the corona virus pandemic could inadvertently spark an outbreak of other illnesses come was bill o'neill explains that concern over the fact you were children in Washington state are being immunized during the current pandemic that decrease could ultimately raise the potential for outbreaks of other diseases such as measles providers in Washington's childhood vaccine program report they have administered thirty percent fewer vaccines to children eighteen and under in March as compared with the same month in previous years in April preliminary reports show up forty two percent
"measles" Discussed on The Highwire with Del Bigtree
"Diseases were associated with subsequently reduced risk of melanoma over and multiple cancers combined in fact the American cancer looked like it was reduced by nearly fifty percent cut in half aw hundreds of thousands of people saved by simply allowing them to get wild measles and wild mumps compared to the four hundred hundred we brag about that no longer die from measles so there it is as far as I'm concerned for the decision making I'm going to do aw. I will take the reduction in cancer for my children reduction in heart disease and I will take the lack of danger. You're from getting the disease because I know my children are perfectly healthy and running around. They're not malnourished. They have plenty of vitamin A.. And I'll give them more vitamin eight. But that's just my choice. That's that's just the choice that I'm GonNa make with my family. You have to make your choice. And that's why all we're doing here on the high wire is presenting you with the facts. It's not bumper sticker slogans. Not Menia not panic facts medical journals things they will never see on CNN or MSNBC MSNBC or Fox or anywhere else you will never see it because they can't show it to you in. Why is all of this happening to close this all love? Why would they create such a panic? Why are they making his terrified of measles? Why are there laws trying to force vaccinate? The last ask two percent of the children who were raised by parents like me. We've done our homework. Why are they doing it? Take a look at this text that came out from one of the bill authors co-authors on Espy to seventy six. This is going to try and take away your doctor's rights to write you an exemption. This is horrific dear. Legislators and staffers if you are in the fifty to fifty six age range you may need a measles booster given the packed halls lately so many unvaccinated kids. This is serious well like I said anybody with the right socialization. It could be a Nazi so I don't blame people. That have their facts wrong. There are being heightened to the place of making people terrified but look what she just said she just say. Go get your your tires check. She said get yourself in to get a vaccine. Odds are anyone in an age. Group had the measles as a child and has no need to get the vaccine scene and those dirty backseat children that were running through our halls. We all have to protect ourselves now. And how are we going to do it by getting the adults. Backseat it see. That's the agenda. She just said it. Right there Senator Pan and people like this are working towards farmers dream. The forced backs nation program for adults. Because that's where the money is. It's not in the remaining two percent of unvaccinated kindergarteners gardeners. It's in three hundred. Twenty million terrified Americans that wrote away their rights one at a time because they were so terrified graphite of a disease. That didn't kill barely anybody. They wrote away their rights. And why do they want you to be getting rid of exemptions now because is there is so easy as I pointed out to write laws for your neighbor to write laws for your neighbors kids. That's easy it doesn't affect me personally. I'll take your neighbors. This kid's rights away. But you are an idiot because what you are doing is writing away your own rights because.
"measles" Discussed on The Highwire with Del Bigtree
"We've won the war against measles and and what eliminated means is that there will be no cases coming out in. Mary won't spontaneously up here in measles it's not on our continent. It's going to have to travel from somewhere else. And so when they said it was eliminated in two thousand they knew we would still have outbreaks because they knew the World Health Organization role multiple articles about this. All of science knows. You'RE GONNA have outbreaks because measles is still all over the world and and because we have open borders and airports and airplanes. It's going to come from other places. It could come from Africa. Come from Israel which is where it came from It appears this year. And if you look at the world map right now you'll see that Musil's is in an outbreak all over the world this pesky little yeah no virus it makes its way around and it seems to surge every three or four years if you look at it it goes up and then it goes down. We had the big these Disney's measles easels and then we didn't really have anything for year two and now we're going through another cycle and then it's going to go down. We won't and believe the run all these ads next year to say all right we did it. All of the fear and panic. You got out you got your vaccine and so now. It's eliminated again. And then the next he'll be another thousand cases like Oh man man. The antibacterial type actors. That are doing it. It's the natural course of the measles. Folks it goes in waves it always has every three to four years. Here's you'll have a big swoop and measles and then go away and and to be blaming it on the antibodies. I find absolutely comical. Let's just look at this. It's just really logically just for a second okay. If it is anti Baxter's that are really causing this measles epidemic all over the world. Then then. Why isn't everybody like three years old? That's getting it because the truth is is a lot of people say Baxter's causing Adele big freeze causing see the article. You know the mastermind behind the eight I've actors or whatever they WANNA call me whatever diabolical Dr Evil Eye apparently am but really you know. I've only been at it with this movement's really started growing only in the last three years backs came out so wouldn't it just sort of be like one. Two three year olds right now would would be where those Antibac- where the all got started. But it's not it's adults it's it's it's teenagers. It's kids there of all ages. Which means they they were either always there? There's no gross. That's adding to the only growth would be three years old. We don't see a huge amount of three year olds getting this disease. Aziz are all older than that so this things that total manufactured line first of all. Let's make you terrified disease that you don't need to be terrified up and let's make you hate a group that doesn't need to be hated and then let's blame the failure of our elimination of disease on the people that don't use our product. I mean this is what happens happens when you can afford billions of dollars of advertising. Let's here's a few of the facts even though even if you had a one hundred percent vaccine right this is what we know about. Khuda vaccine actually fully eradicate this disease. Well if you have one hundred percent of people vaccinated we know that there's a two to ten percent failure right away to to ten percent of people will not even react to the vaccine at all. Your body's just won't creators. It won't really work and now we're looking at something that's a growing problem. That's waning immunity. As I said before the vaccine was supposed to last for life the way real herd immunity would when you get the wild strain like the Brady Bunch Brady Bunch. They're never going to have to get back ever again. Everyone of US had a vaccine. You're not you're not. What does your on a conveyor belt to go time and time and time again because these vaccines just simply do not last and there's going to be an even greater question? Question of how much of the herd immunity was being established by all of those people that had true wild herd immunity. We don't even know there's some sort sort of boosting quality that's happening those people that have natural immunity that being around them were they boosting each other. Were they boosting your vaccine effectiveness so so much. Science still has to be done when we look at her immunity and when it comes to the vaccine and the fact had the vaccine eliminated disease and that the outbreaks are due to those. That are not vaccinating. Do we have this The slides slides. We found from health and Human Services. I want to go to that right now. Because I think you're gonNA find this absolutely fascinating so. HHS Gino typed the measles measles cases. That were in the Disneyland outbreak. which was now? It's now the number one biggest outbreak American had. Now they're calling it. Perhaps this one's passing. This is the the second biggest outbreak so look at this when they gino type. The measles. Thirty one gino type A vaccine strain from recently vaccinated persons with Phibro Arash illness. Seventy three specimens were Gino type. B three outbreaks strain so that right there thirty. Roughly thirty eight percent of the cases in Disneyland were vaccine strain measles. I want you to wrap your head around this if you're new to this and and this is what the show does we get into science. If you're bored go ahead go back to the talking heads they have a bumper sticker. You can repeat over and over again but I'm bringing you the science and you can look all this up again and type I can. I see an right now on your comments but think about this this this slide show we now have from helping the services was put together before whereas sp two seventy seven with past before sp.. Two seventy seven was passed health and human services with presenting the slide. Show saying we have a problem. Folks folks thirty eight percent of the cases in this measles outbreak that were making everybody terrified about that. We're going to pass a law to make you give up your rights to force backseat in every child whether the parent wants to or not. We're going to run that law and say that the reason we have to force vaccinate you and take your rights away as a citizen remove move body autonomy and the ability to control. What's injecting your child is because of the immunosuppressed child we need to protect? We need to build our heard around that immunosuppressed child and the only way to do that as everybody has to be vaccinated. But here's the problem. Nearly half maybe. I'm stretching the more than a third of the cases in the biggest outbreak that we've Gino types. So far we're caused by the vaccine and Japan. New This we know that Senator Richard Pan knew this when he lied to you and said You could protect immunosuppressed child. The truth is is the boxing needed are putting your child at thirty eight percent of the risk of coming in contacted Contact with the measles because if you are getting the measles from the vaccine same here it is during the measles outbreak in California two thousand fifteen. A large number of suspected cases occurred in recent vaccines vaccines of the one hundred nine hundred ninety four measles virus sequences obtained in the United States in two thousand fifteen seventy three right then defied vaccine sequences. Look at that and look who wrote that. I didn't write that they'll be tree. It's not from Bobby. Kennedy is now from Andy Wakefield this journal of Clinical Microbiology. The American can society for microbiology. I think they know what they're talking about. I would guess we should be able to trust them. I don't think they have an agenda to lie to US so so. Do you see the problem here. If you can get measles from the vaccine and shed measles which some of those cases the seventy-three we may very well have gotten it from being near people who had just gotten the vaccine. If you see the page in the oncology center saying if he been recently vaccinated do not enter here. This is all proof folks that vaccines shed that. Means that immunosuppressed child is being put at risk every single day. A child leaves the doctor's office after back scene and goes into the school. And what did that little sheet say in the hospitals. And say if you got accident accident yesterday if you've been backsied within thirty days thirty days you were contagious. After getting the vaccine this entire thing is crumbling. Do you see the science crumbling. Do you see the lack of a death rate. Do you see how incredibly overblown overblown our fear of measles is do you see how incredibly ineffective the Mr Vaccine seems to be. Do you see the terror around. You know there's unvaccinated children out there. There's no you're not going to protect you. And now we know that your vaccine give the measles and may shed the measles and caused the measles. It's getting very difficult difficult isn't it. It's getting very difficult to hold this together. And I'm sorry that you want to label it misinformation but the Journal of Microbiology really really gets in your way. So what's that pulled on safe and effective. I want to go to let's go to the whistle blowers. Let's move on. Let's talk so now. We know that you know is effective. It can shed on you the vaccine. Now why would someone not acceded whether or not you just say well. I don't want to vaccinate because frankly I don't think that the measles is really a a problem and I want lifelong immunity. I mean think about it. I would love it if my children could go down when there's a crisis at Ucla someone with the measles ran through there and everyone's terrified to they're not covered for it. Well wouldn't it be great to have children grew up to be your future doctors and nurses that they can just charge right in there. Said don't worry about. I don't remember I got this covered. I've already had this disease and I can take care of anyone than these. Were taken care of if you just had a vaccine. You may want to think twice about coming in here. You don't so how long have you got it. You don't know if you were one of the ten percent and it doesn't mean worked on you don't know if it's worn off yet you probably don't WanNa go through this. It would have been much better that you had the measles one I did when I was four years old. Now that you're thirty five it's going to be a little bit more dangerous so be afraid. Be Very afraid the vaccine puts you in that position. You should've had the wild measles when you're a kid like I did and like I hope my kids end up going through but it's more than that more than the fact that we're not worried about a disease that's not deadly are there. Dangers is to the vaccines themselves. And we will hear it over and over and over again. Let's hear it can bring the lady up. Measles vaccine is incredibly safe. It's incredibly effective..
"measles" Discussed on The Highwire with Del Bigtree
"Like the Brady's when he did you see that chalkboard. Did you see that already. All had the mumps the other deadly disease scarlet fever is checked off. It's like Oh we're getting through through all of it and think about this thing about the Hor- Africa going through this horror. The Brady's now say hey we've all had the measles we are done with that for life done with that for life. You mean you don't have to go back and five years for another Emma Martin Bucer. Peter has to go to college. He doesn't have to show up for an MR booster. He doesn't need it he's going to be immune for life. You mean these parents are going to have to come in every ten years and get in another. Mr Backseat like they're good for life. They can walk in any going to be a quarantine them at some point. You see people want to say that how you use the brady bunch but the entire a point of the brady bunch. Well let's let's just let's just let me just make one more point as we're saying is it. Scientific is the Brady Bunch scientific typic- I mean. Obviously you had a room full of writers who came up with this idea. And how do they know what the sentiment of medicine was the timer measles at the time I mean they were just a bunch of Hollywood writers right but look what the song of the Creator had to say in this inside edition piece my dad who created the Brady Bunch. He was a pre med student. Actually before he ever got into into creating TV shows and if we knew that it was going to be a controversy about this they're never we never would have done the episode. To begin with there wasn't going to be a controversy. And why would there be a controversy. He'd been he was premed. He'd gone through medicine. Everyone was getting the measles. It was stay home. Don't worry about light lever. Go ahead and drink some water. Take some vitamin A.. You'll be fine. We'll see you back in school next week. Good luck with that. That was where was that. Why would there be a controversy? We knew there was going to be a controversy. If we knew it was gonna be like the black leg if we knew we were marching children to their deaths. Maybe we wouldn't have made the episode but they weren't you see the whole point you know when we looked at all of the tweets and and how are the ANTIBAC- sers making fun of the measles saying somehow that that that the Brady bunch defends her point that that the science is there none of it just shows the sentiment of the time. And why is that important because of this quote. We're really working against the quote by one of the leading spokes holes because of the former `institutions. Dr Paul off it and this is what Paul often has to say about the issue. He said vaccines have been a victim of their own success. People don't fear the disease and he's been saying this over and over again. Essentially is because the vaccine program has been so successful. We've forgotten how terrifying these diseases were. Now antibacterial are getting away with making fun of it and laughing at it when really really it was tragic and deadly well because the pharmaceutical institution is bringing that to you through the news and they own seventy five percent of the The anchors I mean how much of that it's probably starts right about here and cuts across and you just hold onto your right leg is the only part of of your job. That's not owned by the pharmaceutical institutions. Because we know seventy five percent. The advertiser your televisions coming from where farmer farmer wants you to believe you're going to die of the measles therefore you will sign over your rights to control what's injected into your body and you'll sign over your neighbors rights which is really the easiest thing in the world do who wouldn't just sign off laws those that are going to take your neighbors rights away. That's what they are trying to do by making you terrified of the measles and Paul off his out there saying that is the antibiotics is the people that are that. Just don't remember how dangerous it was well as you've seen the Brady bunch that they didn't think it was dangerous. Were they the only ones as I. I pointed out in inside edition. Look at all media when we look at history when we look back in history one hundred years ago what historians do you read newspapers offers of the Times. You look at how people were talking about certain situations whether it's finance or disease or international affairs. You look at those and you say Oh look this. Is what the sentiment the time was. You read the literature. The books what books were being written at the time and now that we have televisions that date back back quite a ways we watch. What were they watching television? What was the sentiment on television in movie theaters will Brady Bunch? Weren't the only ones if we're to say that somehow Brady Bunch. Was this anomaly. In the middle of this horrific Ebola style death march that was happening in America. Brady Bunch somehow missed how terrifying lying it was looking at all the other television shows and movies. That must have missed it to watch the big mcgilla here. What's with my boy? Measles measles easels say. It isn't so doc you're kidding that's what it is. Don't get excited. It's not serious. You've got to help us out me and my boy are in big. A drummer boy. Takes it easy. It would be as good as a few days. He's only got measles only got measles. Doc if he only had gangrene or.
"measles" Discussed on The Highwire with Del Bigtree
"To date my team putting that incredible. Aw Montage together. What's been happening on television since it feels like that? Doesn't I mean when you walk like are you serious and I'm going to hear the same thing like this isn't news reporting. Nobody's having to go out. No one's looking up actual numbers. No one is looking into the database. No one's going back to the nineteen sixties. Excuse has it when was it a radical and how was it a radical. No one's asking any questions the news. That's what the news used to do. It used to say well the CDC is saying this we've done investigative story about it instead. Now they just repeat talking points that are being cranked out by the CDC and health and Human Services which ultimately is doing the bidding. That's the government agency who they listening to the most powerful lobby in Washington. Today I wanNA talk about the measles. We're going to get into the measles because whether or not you're tuning the show I wonder what is that crazy. ANTIBAC- CER- del bigs we got to say about the measles. That's killing children or if you're one of these people that is currently not vaccinating in has no fear of the measles. Then you're going to have to have this discussion or if you're somewhere in between we should all at least know the facts. I'm going to try and go through the facts. That were all laid it out all the all the information that was laid out there is it true is it not. I want you to see the facts. And where they come from and come to your own conclusion so to begin with we are terrified right now the measles you heard every single news anchor will say it's deadly we should be terrified has always been the case as measles have we always been terrified of measles will to get to the bottom of that many of us have been sharing video from the nineteen sixties and this week wake it made the news. This is what that looked like pain. The Brady Bunch. A classic.
"measles" Discussed on Science Friday
"So none of this is inevitable. We have certain diseases. We have vaccines that work overall. But not super effective here. We have really super effective vaccines available. So we have a solution, which is to get vaccinated. And if you're a liberal for to to to get the full schedule. Well, we've run out of time. I want to thank you very much for taking them to be with us today. We will we might get back to you Dr Omer because we're going to be tracking this story as the measles outbreak. Measles outbreak continues. Hopefully, not very much longer. Do you expect the Seaney signs might go down? We'll we'll get back to ask you about that. Dr doctors professor of global health epidemiology and pediatrics and Marie university. After the break, we're going to catch up with national poetry month, bringing back some favourite poems about science for one list. Yes. Polite applause. Stay with us. We're right back after this break. I'm Anna sale, and I'm the host of the death, sex and money podcast. At least most of the time. I'm Damon young. I'm John Cameron Mitchell. I'm Lisa Ling in for maternity leave some of our favorite past guests are having death sex money filled conversations with the people there most curious about I'm still extremely cheap. Damn it's like, there'd be session completely uncomfortable. Don't miss this series. Listen to death sex money from WNYC studios. Wherever you get your podcast. This is science Friday. I am I replied, oh, April is national poetry month. When the literary world celebrates with readings.
"measles" Discussed on WSJ What's News
"This outbreak is now on track to be the worst in the US since the disease was eliminated in the year. Two thousand put this in context for us as of April eleventh last week there have been five hundred fifty five reported cases of measles around the US in twenty states. The CDC reports total measles cases for the year. Every Monday last Monday, there were ninety fewer that means in in one week. There have been ninety cases, you know, if things continue like that within two weeks, this will become the the worst year. Here for measles since since the disease was officially eliminated in two thousand twenty fourteen. There were six hundred sixty seven cases so five hundred and fifty five and six hundred sixty seven or not that far apart given huffing going. That's most people are vaccinated for measles when they're pretty young. But I think a question that I've heard that has brought it up during this outbreak is m I still protected do I need a booster of some sort. If I've already been vaccinated when I was an infant. So the CDC says, no, you don't if you had to doses of the measles vaccine when you were young you are fully protected, and they say that the the vaccine has very long, you know, along duration that said, it's ninety seven percent effective, which means that three pad people out of everyone hundred for some reason aren't protected because of the, you know, even with the vaccine and you'll see that in outbreaks a few people do get the measles. Even though they are vaccinated. But ninety seven out of one hundred will be protected to turn to those who are not vaccinated. Researchers are concerned about the longer term effects on the immune system. Why is that? Well, you know, there are couple of things I there are some unknown affects of measles that happen. You know, he that when you have the disease itself or right after for example, a rare complication is in Seth Elijah's. And so that one out of every one thousand children in the US develops that. There's also some emerging research into how measles may affect the immune system longer term. These researchers believe that the virus may leave the immune system in this kind of state of 'em nesia, meaning that the body's defenses can't remember or fight off invaders that had has seen before it's sort of like wipes out the immune system for a period of time. So this is a an active area of of research right now, can you give us an update on public health officials efforts to contain this? Current outbreak here in New York City, for example, vaccinations have been mandated, but how can something like that be enforced? Yeah. It's a good question. Shen? So just to remind everybody. Most of the measles cases in the US right now are in a very large outbreak in New York City in Rockland county, just outside of New York City, and there is a sizable outbreak in Michigan which is tied to these to the New York outbreak in New York City has mandated as you said vaccination, basically said if you're not fascinated your kids aren't vaccinated you need to do it or pay a fine. It's really an effort to try to get people to take to take vaccinated seriously and to make sure that schools are not allow schools daycare centers or not allowing children in who have not been vaccinated. So that's the thrust of of efforts right now, they're working pretty intensively to try to to try to make sure this happens. New York City says that most of the unvaccinated children are actually not of school age. But kind of the newborn to five year old set, you know, they're in take care centers or they're at home. And so they really wanna make sure those those kids do give accented besides vaccinations. Are there any other steps? Health officials are recommending for people to protect themselves. That's really it to get vaccinated measles is a highly contagious disease. If you're not vaccinated, it's pretty hard to prevent from getting infected. In fact, anyone born before nineteen fifty seven is kind of a Sumed to have had the disease that contagious. It was until vaccination began. So that's really it vaccination or not breathe the air, which is sort of an impossibility. That's Wall Street Journal reporter bentzi McKay. Joining the inner studio with the latest on the US measles outbreak. Thank you so much Betsy. Thank you. Now onto some more headlines. From the Wall Street Journal waste management is buying its competitor,
"measles" Discussed on WSJ What's News
"And many people in that shells community are also vaccinated and the disease began spreading from there is concentrated in New York City in the orthodox Jewish community. Let's see this at all related to fears over getting vaccinations. Actually, you know, vaccination rates are fairly high in that community, but people sometimes delay vaccinations for their children. So some studies have shown in the community that school age children are vaccinated. But one four year olds are not with measles measles is. So highly contagious that if you don't have really high levels of immunity in the community meeting a lot of people vaccinated it can start spreading really easily. So that's what's going on. And the spread of this is excel arresting meaning that this past week. The number of new cases is the largest weekly increase that has occurred since the beginning of the year. The number of cases goes up every week. There were seventy eight new cases this week back in February. And March there were usually like twenty or sometimes forty new cases. So the other worrisome thing about this New York City operate because it it's actually spread to Michigan someone who was also in Israel. But also in new. New York went to Michigan, and it became began spreading they're just outside Detroit. What are the challenges public health officials are now facing as they attempt to control the further spread of the disease? Well, measles is notoriously difficult to bring under control and expensive. It's a highly contagious disease. It's so contagious that. If you go into a room where an infected person was up to two hours after they were there that person is no longer there. But the virus is still floating in the air and still active you can be infected so what public health officials and doctors need to do is find people who are infected and then talk to them find out, you know, public health officials do this with outbreaks regularly. But it's it's very difficult with measles. You have to do what's called contact tracing. Find out where they were who they were in contact with. And then try to find all those people with measles. You know, if you were in a supermarket or at a sporting event, literally everybody who was near you or there was potentially exposed. And so it can turn into thousands of people and trying to track down all those people and make sure they're vaccinated try to convince them to give vaccinated make sure they at least know about this is really really challenging and as the number of cases, grow that job just gets harder and harder and harder. So that's what's going on right now. Just in case you're wondering the percentage of a community that should be vaccinated in order to prevent a measles outbreak from spreading is ninety five percent. We've got more information on measles symptoms of the disease. What to do if you or someone, you know, seems infected and info on the vaccine at WSJ dot com. Joined the Wall Street Journal National.
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"Exemptions. So that means you have more kids going into the public school system. Who are not vaccinated. Right. So. Yeah. So obviously. People who are becoming infected with measles are those who chose whose parents choose to not have them back stated who choose not to be vaccinated, and those who cannot vaccinated or those who don't have access. Yeah. The ones who for health reasons cannot be vaccinated. Do we have any sort of measurable idea of how much they are being impacted by these outbreaks whether what proportion they constitute because presumably these people are immuno-compromised or might be in a way that where they cannot be vaccinated against measles. They get measles. It makes everything worse. Yeah. Yeah. No. That's a really good question. I don't know like I can tell you for sure that the vast vast vast majority of cases in measles outbreaks happened to unvaccinated individuals. So it's not like you got vaccinated in the vaccine just didn't work very well. It's actually a very effective vaccine. It's not one hundred. Sent affective, but it is pretty effective. So there are not stats that I can find on. Why those individuals are not vaccinated whether it's because of me, no compromise or personal exemption religious exemption or lack of access. Okay. So let's zoom out a little bit. And we'll talk about the world. And I'll also address a little bit more about this idea of why some people can't get vaccinated because it's an important part of the story right worldwide. Measles is still huge huge problem. It's a little difficult to get really great numbers. Just like it is for most diseases. It's estimated that only about ten percent of measles cases are actually reported. Wow. That's very low. It's very low. It's surprisingly low but the measles rebel initiative, which is a collaboration between the CDC the WHO the United Nations UNICEF and the American Red Cross they have this big initiative where their goal is to eliminate measles from five out of. The six WHO regions by twenty twenty one year away, by the way. Oh, okay. Yeah. They're not gonna hit their goals. They know it, but they're trying, but they estimate that while in twenty seventeen there were one hundred seventy three thousand cases reported worldwide. It's estimated that seven million people were infected with measles in twenty sixteen for example of sorry. Seven million of million. But but only the ones that were reported were one hundred seventy thousand. Yeah. That was in twenty seventeen. So it was a little bit higher in twenty sixteen. Oh my God. And so it's estimated that ninety thousand children a year die from measles. Again. These are estimated numbers not actual numbers of deaths that we know are confirmed. But that's like two hundred forty six children day..
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"Way lower. Well, those are those are going to seem ridiculous to what I will tell you about the new world, so Caribbean islands and Central American regions where the first hit by measles and other diseases brought over from Europe and Cuba, for instance, may have lost up to two thirds of its entire population. Due to measles in fifteen twenty nine. Oh, two thirds. That's I play status. Yeah. Jesus. I had no idea. I didn't either measles was the leading cause of death in many of these places competing with smallpox typhus mumps influenza Setzer. Wow. Yeah. I mean, the history of measles in the new world reeds pretty much like you'd expect it to just a horrific tragedy the keystone or Francisco Pizarro brings to Nicaragua. And then to Peru as he's on his mission to destroy the Incan empire. And then from there just sort of spreads all throughout South America. Completely unimpeded by anyone or anything. And it also moves north all within the span of a century or so from one Columbus landed, but it's not like it swept through killing an enormous chunk varies populations. And then disappearing it became endemic in many of these regions with more major epidemics happening at irregular intervals killing thousands regularly. So mortality rates they they ranged from sixty percent at the beginning. Then fifty than twenty five and sixteen sort of slowing down or creeping down a bit over time. Right as the immune population built up, right? And obviously, it's hard to separate out the the effects of measles and smallpox all the diseases that were going on at the same time. But measles took much larger toll than I knew. Yeah. It did. Yeah. So measles and smallpox are considered to be. The two big killers of native American populations of the new world with only smallpox outranking measles in the number of deaths caused. Wow. And measles was also an epidemic disease and European settlements in north and Central America, primarily affecting children. But also every now and then getting its grip on a larger proportion of the population. And it seemed for some reason like measles was more severe in the colonies than it was back in Europe. And our good friend cotton Mather, remember him. Why does that name sound familiar smallpox? Oh, I have such a hard time airing with the names and the date something Hotton Mather. We lost our minds over it. I believe any sure it was smallpox anyway. Well, poor cotton lost his wife three children and his made to measles in a span of two weeks to. He has a bunch of found an article that had his diary entries during this time. And it's really heartbreaking. Yeah. He he noticed this big difference. He was like why is it so deadly here back in the back in Europe? This is seen as a routine illness. And probably had to do with the lower population density may be a larger -ceptable population was built up. But yeah, also I wanted to shout out a listener named Meredith who sent us an Email who had some fun cotton Mather tidbits, such as the fact that he may have been an instigator of the Salem witch trials and his father's first name was increase. Fantastic. I remember that. Okay. Over the years from eighteen forty to the early nineteen hundreds the world's population grew tremendously, so almost doubled. And during this time, we see a lot of measles epidemic of two kinds. So the typical cyclic measles outbreaks in debt countries and the epidemic devastation in youth populations. Broadly urban ization increased as transportation, and as did our understanding of how measles spreads. Okay. So does this dude named Peter Ludwig PanAm who is the measles guy? He really set the groundwork for what we understand about measles, or at least what we did going into the twentieth century..
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"It was there. Although I wonder I read this is a little sign it to myself. I wonder how the black death booboo plague in the fourteenth century how that disrupted the measles epidemic pattern. It probably screws everything up as we saw as we've seen. I just I don't know. I didn't look it up though. Okay. Anyway. So during the middle ages when physicians started to recognize describe measles disease, although the term medals, for instance, was used to refer to the lesions from leprosy. And so it's not fully clear when it switched from being used interchangeably to being reserved just for measles alone. Okay. But the earliest reference that we can say for sure is talking about measles is from the physician Raza's, which was Latin is d- from try to pronounce this Abboud Bacar Mohammed bin Zakaria al-rassi. So he was from close to where Tehran is today. Okay. Not only was he one of the first people to suggest that a fever might be your body's natural defense against disease in like the year nine hundred also wrote a whole treatise on how measles and smallpox different things. And how to tell them apart cool so in nine hundred. Yeah, super cool. That's awesome. Them. All right. So now all of that was just me laying the groundwork for getting to the real part of the story, which is fifteen hundreds onward. So by fifteen hundred which is the end of the middle ages measles was established in pretty much all parts of the old world. But how much of it was actually impacting populations as we've talked about. If you wanna trace historical patterns of disease. You have to rely on some pretty iffy records one of these. Which is absolutely fascinating. I came across is the London bills of mortality, which I think was started to keep track of plague outbreaks. But now, they're golden not just for like statistics and looking backwards in time, but also for ridiculous names for diseases, for instance, in sixteen sixty five which was a play gear three hundred ninety seven people died of quote rising of the lights. Which had to do with lungs possibly crew? Okay. Eighty six people died of king's evil, which is to Bricusse scruffy from the king. Well, this is the whole Royal touched. Right. They didn't cure them. So. And five died of distracted. Driving? It happens. That horse when we're buggies invented. Okay. Anyway..
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"The measles virus probably came from something. Like bovine rinderpest. Oh episode. Someday or canine distemper virus, but archaeological evidence isn't really clear on that. We don't really know exactly where it came from. Okay. But what do we know what we know that the Musil's virus would have needed a pretty large population density with sufficient influx of susceptible people in order for it to be sustained make sense the crowd disease. Yeah. But saying pretty large population density, isn't exactly me being precise. So let's let's let's get them precision here. Erin, I mean middle name. Not at all. Okay. But there is some pretty cool math here, actually, a some researchers calculated that the virus has to move to a new host at least twenty six times a year. If it's going to survive in a population interesting that makes sense if it's two two week to week disease. Yeah. Yeah. At a bare minimum. There needs to be twenty six susceptible people in population every year for measles to persist. Okay. But there are a lot of buts. But then those people would have to be in close or frequent enough contact for transmission. And then once infected and hopefully recovered your immune so new -ceptable had come in from somewhere being born whatever basically while in theory, you only need twenty six new hosts, but in practice, you need a whole lot more. So the real the more reasonable estimate was calculated to actually be a population. This includes both susceptible 's and immune okay of two hundred and fifty thousand people. Wow. That's a huge jump up. And so that that's that's for maintenance. Okay. To keep the virus around. Right. Because otherwise, I mean, of course, the virus could could go get into population and sweep through it. No problem of any size. Right. This is for the cyclic outbreaks to happen. Yeah. But yeah, that is that is a pretty big size. So then when? And where did people start to even form settlements that big? Yeah. The authors of this measles book that I read which by the way has a million cool maps so full of information. Holy cow. So so much work on it. Anyway. So they started looking through archaeological records to make a list of possible places where a there'd be enough people and be there would also be agriculture and exposure to domesticated animals because that's probably where the virus came from. And so then they came up with a list and dates for these so-called urban nuclear areas, most of which were in the fertile crescent. But some were also in central and South America and west Africa, but the most likely place where measles was first established was in Sumeria and the Tigris new freeze river valley around three thousand BC. Wow. So it's old. That's a long time ago five thousand years. Yeah. Okay. Cool done. There you go. And that's the maze. Okay. But still were there measles Samaria three thousand BC. Okay. But it wasn't there for long, or at least it wasn't only there for very long measles. Did what does is to spread the virus spread north to southern Europe the rest of the Middle East and east to India China Japan where early writings indicated it was there by like three hundred or eight hundred eighty. As for Africa measles didn't seem to sabotage their the way it did in Europe and Asia, possibly because of lower population density that no possibly because of physical or landscape barriers making pathogen exchange not super frequent or possibly it was there, and we just don't know about it. Because there aren't as many written records. Okay. I dunno distinguishing between measles and smallpox and historical texts is really quite tricky. Make sense. Yeah. I mean physicians didn't often or at least at various points didn't make a distinction between the two, but that would change in the middle ages when measles really came into its own. It's like I need to distinguish myself. Own person my own person. Measles going through its teenage years. Yeah. I mean that side swept beings. The eyeliner I hitting close to home. I know right. Right. Okay. So by the middle ages, which let's say the fifth to fifteenth century measles was fully established throughout the old world. I mean, it was it was there with the population center is big enough..
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"Sense in light of vaccination because what we know is that vaccination with the measles vaccine, not only protects you from measles, but Atta population level, it decreases mortality from non measles diseases for years after vaccination, and the reason that that is what's happening with vaccination is because of how strong the effect of infection with measles is on your immune system. It just destroys it. I think that the the long enjoyed of is that being vaccinated against measles and getting measles naturally and gaining and you need to art not the same thing in any respect whatsoever. -actly being naturally infected will lead you to have adverse health outcomes probably ones that you won't even realize that's needed protects. You exactly they're not even comparible because that's something that I think a lot of people, you know, it's like oh well. Why can't I just let my kid get the chicken pox? Instead of you know, giving him the chicken pox scene or whatever. And in this case, especially with measles. That is not the case vaccination protects you not just from measles. But it protects your immune system and infection with measles wipes your immune system out. So that's it's amazing remark. I had no idea. I'm glad really fun to get to tell you. Yeah. So that is that's measles. That's the virus. That's how it makes. You say. So I've got Erin. So how did we get here? How did we learn how to fight this sucker? It's a good story. Cool Choi take a quick break. Let's do it. But for real get a corn teeny. When was the last time you ate a breakfast that you felt good about not a bowl of sugary cereal..
"measles" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"But I don't remember. Yeah. We'll have to look it up. I remember her writing on the board measles fourteen. Yeah. I think she wrote polio on there, which was like six or seven. Yeah. Anyways. Okay. Let's get worse. Okay. So measles is transmitted airborne not just in respiratory droplets. But actually airborne I told you it gets worse. So what that means? Is that measles can stay the virus infectious measles. Viral particles can stay suspended and alive and infectious in the forking air for up to two hours after an infected person leaves the room. Wait a second. So the out of like, you know, how pig pen in when he's got that cloud of dust around him. So if you were a measles kid, it would just be a cloud of measles. That would stay in the room two hours after he left. Yeah. That's the thing. It stays in the room. And so what happens when there's okay, we have had some measles cases here. Champagne and every time there's a new case public health sends out in alert. And they give you a list of all the places that this person was during the time that they were infectious along with the times that they were there and those times include a two hour window after that person left because the room itself remains infectious gracious. Okay. All right. Let me summarize the things we've learned so far measles is a virus. That if I haven't before I even know I'm sick for five full days. I can be walking around breathing coughing into a room. And once I leave that room for two hours people can walk into it and become infected by the air, which contains my measles. And if those people are susceptible, meaning if they're unvaccinated ninety percent of them will become infected and then for four to five days after my symptoms resolve I'm still infectious. Oh, wow. Yep. I'm just wondering the total amount of time that an individual is infectious. The total amount of time is probably a good two weeks. Okay. So okay. So let's talk about this. Tim's it starts as the name of our future. Spinoff podcast. Would suggest with a fever. And in this case with measles..
"measles" Discussed on New Jersey 101.5
"Jersey chime time it is four nine and it's a Friday, and we are diminshed Doyle, Jeff. And I'm big Bill Doyle now this has been a fluid situation that we've been covering and our last correspondent who called in about sniffles. The mouse sniffles, the mouse, it turns out we have we have sound reason to believe while well-intended that that was improper information. Now, I tried to find sniffling measles measles. But I have not. But you have found you found a measles measles. And it's not sniffles. It's something it's a FOX and hound and. Fox and hound was that it rabbit, FOX and rabbit. Yeah. I don't know. I'm thinking of the restaurant. Swear to God. There's a restaurant. And it's an old cartoon, and it's the bunny rabbit. That's why you were thinking rodent. I was because it looks like a rodent rabbit rabbit have measles. The rabbit has the measles. And the FOX is trying to get away from the rap because he knows that it has measles and the rabbit is running after the Dan FOX, and he keeps screaming these measles. And we actually played it. You heard it. The audio meals. Finally after twenty years people people have been emailing us, the actual video clip. So with all due respect to the sniffles guy. I believe we have our answer. So was the name of the cartoon FOX and rabbit. See I don't know if it was in context of something else. I forwarded it to you. But you're having an Email. I haven't gotten anything one twenty five. I just noticed that you were just not meant to find this out. I guess not. But I'm telling you, that's a is a FOX and a rabbit, okay..
"measles" Discussed on The Science Hour
"This is the podcast with our pick of the science health and technology stores from around the world all in one place on today's show, we'll be asking why cases of measles have hit a record high in Europe. That's in just a moment and the world's favourite banana is under threat chapels very well as thick skin in us high yielding and it tastes pretty good. It's not a bad banana and seedless. Yes, full. If you've ever actually tried to a banana seed, they're very charged for you. Don't have on one. We'll hear why the seedless nece could lead to its downfall also how morning crushes can reduce the number of small children drowning in Bangladesh. And my studio yesterday is David Robson science writer and columnist for BBC future, and you'll be bringing us news of another groundbreaking. Project in Bangladesh that could help reduce the lifelong problems caused by childhood malnutrition. But throat we'll be looking at the kind of key to this big problem is the gut bacteria well before all that the childhood disease, measles cases in Europe have hit a record high according to the World Health Organization more than forty. One thousand people were infected in the first six months of twenty eighteen leading to thirty seven deaths two years ago. We were saying just over five thousand cases in a year. So this is a very worrying rise. A measles epidemic is also spreading across parts of Latin America. Just two years after the Americas were declared free of measles. Altogether, Claire, Wilson is medical reporter at new scientists. And when she came to the studio, I began by asking her about the epidemic in Latin America. Venezuela seems to be where it's all coming from and the countries to bordering Venezuela seems to be because the such a lot of political turmoil in that country and the spiralling. Inflation people having a really hard time it's affecting health services. So vaccination rates are falling for that reason and what can be done about it? Well, obviously they just got to redouble our efforts to get more people vaccinated. We do know that if you have ninety five percent of people vaccinated in our country, it just stops the virus from getting around is called herd immunity. So even if one person does happen to come in contact with the virus and debt the disease that just not likely to meet anybody else who's Annette vaccinated, so it just can't spread on what about Europe, how many cases of we seen the we Europe is really alarming in two thousand and sixteen. There were about five thousand cases in the following year. There were about twenty thousand a now in two thousand eighteen just in the first half alone. It's going up to forty thousand and do we know what that's down to? Because the thing is, as you say, there is a very effective vaccine against measles there is, but coverage husband suffering for a couple of decades now ever. Since you might remember about twenty years ago, rather controversial research and Dr made a claim that turned out to be totally unsupported by evidence that the seen could cause autism. And then since then, there's been a lot of research which shows he had no basis for saying that. Unfortunately, people believed it, the idea of stuck, and it's now gaining quite a lot of credibility on the internet and its striking all this time later within saying this leap in measles, yes, I'm not is a bit of a mystery because it hasn't been such a dramatic fall in vaccination coverage rates. So we don't really know why it's just happening now..