34 Burst results for "Mcgill University"
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Weather's at we some evidence if not conclusive evidence of efficacy and of course what it comes down to then as well. How much harm are you doing. And that answer has evolved over time. So as we've learned a lot more over the last half dozen dozen years about the harm that these anti amyloid immune treatments do and we've learned ways to control it there elaborate. They're expensive And they're not easy but it can be done and so. I think in a very controversial decision which was not supported by a classical people who do trials for a living so to speak said. You didn't meet your point. You really can't you can't give this to people and the answer came back. We don't have anything else that really works to give people the harm is is is limited. Let us put this into practice and let us follow very closely the results as we put it into practice. So that's basically where we are. A lot of people would not have done that and they've been pretty vocal about That the other group is represented primarily by public interest groups like the alzheimer's association lobbied like fury to have this approved for use at least on a trial basis. So that's where we've ended up. Yeah i remember it wasn't as some certain amyloid Vaccine trial or is is yes that there've been many different t to induce immune responses or to passively transfer immune antibodies to people to to to to attack the the amyloid brain and most of the results have not only shown no benefit but actually showing substantial risks. People died developed. Some one of the reasons why people were a little bit leery about a approving lissa. This particular compound educate humam. But the truth is. I think that we've learned quite a lot about how to minimize the release reduce the risks associated with these immune treatments. And we did have this positive result in a subgroup and I think people will be talking for a long time about whether or not. This was the right decision. But i think ultimately the data will tell us the face for the face four data will tell us because it is a requirement of the administration of the drug that Results dooby reported back so that it will be possible to collect data on actual effect of the the of of the drug in clinical populations. Then john you have done a lot of work this area and continue to do so looking forward feick than years What does what is your sort of speculation. We going to solve this problem. The problem is in terms of aggregate..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"The answer that is potential. Yes we hope so i. I wanted to ask you in conclusion. John i i don't anything. I can't really studied this. I know that there was a controversial. Fda decision just lost week The have you studied it. But what is the mechanism. And why is it so controversial while the mechanism is Giving people antibodies At against amyloid the hope is that by removing amyloid either from the plaques or from micro clumps or amyloid that's inside the walls of the vessels. We haven't talked about that. But that's another place. Where it accumulates the amyloid hypothesis of alzheimer's disease would put it. That amyloid is toxic. And therefore you want to get rid of it now. We know from other trials already that you can get rid of the amyloid without actually improving the clinical state of the patient. So so that it's not as simple as that nonetheless. This new antibody had some very special characteristics and in earlier trials. It was shown that people who got high doses of this avenue kanye mab. It's a monoclonal antibody High doses seemed in some experiments to do better cognitively than those who got lower doses or those who've that a placebo for this reason the drug company biogen Mounted two huge phase. Three clinical trials with hundreds of people in home they gave varying doses of this antibody education. You have over time. And then studied their degree of symptom expression or improvement The early data from these experiments was very On disappointing and it appeared that there was no possibility that the drug was going to be doing any benefit. And so for this reason. It was announced that the trials were being stopped because they got some potential harm not much but some and they appeared to have almost no chance of producing a benefit and then they extraordinarily thing happened The company then went pouring over the data and they discovered that the people who received the highest dose it appears that they might have actually had some clinical batch and they did so they did some more analyses and in one of the trials. There had been a protocol change in the middle of the trial. People who had a particular genetic makeup were not allowed to have the highest does Then that was changed and the people with this particular gene were not allowed to have the highest those and those people in particular seem to do pretty well so the company went back to the fda essentially and said look we in the high dose groups here We do have evidence in one of these trials that there really is benefit and the other trial. Not so much it was it was equivocal. They had one positive trial when they've sort of cherry pick the high dose group which is not an unreasonable thing to do by the way And one trial they have evidence of efficacy and the other trial not so the. Fda was faced with this dilemma Can we really deny people. This ah drug..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Will probably produce symptoms in some people but not in others and that there's a great deal of variability in the degree of symptom expression for a given level of policy. So what we did my student. Pierre mayer and i did was to examine Spinal fluid markers of immune activity in people who had varying degrees of of pathology and looking specifically at whether The immune markers we made a a a a basically an index out of them by summarizing home grouping of them Whether those the level of those markers would predict Who had symptoms and who did not with a given level of of pathology and The the surprising finding there was that at least in the earlier stages of the development of the pathology having more immune monitoring activity in your spinal fluid at least these particular markers predicted that people would have actually better cognitive function or that they would decline more slowly Even to the point that you could look for differences in clinical diagnosis as to whether people would have a dementia versus mild cognitive impairment versus knowing paramount. This seemed to be a function. Not only of the pathology but also the degree of immune activity that was represented in the spinal fluid and they activity at least in this particular. A series of of of observations appeared to be beneficial rather than harmful in terms of preventing symptoms. So that's why we talked about symptomatic. Resilience ja the therapeutic implications scan if they are beneficial then declined them can be supplemented some well. You know in theory yes We're miles and miles away from that Up to this point we've only looked at a very small number of immune.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"It turns out to be very important for recognizing foreign substances and Responding to them so these folks typically die of of various kinds of often infectious processes. He asked this is a really interesting Study and up to ration- at i don't know much about this john but the feeling i get to step when using inflammation producing information is a physician saints are good thing so can be generalized. The subsidization that perhaps reducing inflammation is not necessarily good thing. Well inflammation is there for a reason. Yeah physiologically and in evolutionary terms but like many biological processes it can go awry can become exaggerated out of control or can become depressed for one reason or another so one very current example is now pretty clear that the thing that kills people with covid more than anything else is that they have a gross exaggeration of cellular immune responses in there mostly in their in their in their lungs in their respiratory tree and they speak of a cytokine storm so these various chemical molecules that are released by these cells are called among other things and they are very toxic. They are there for a reason. They are there to attack a foreign body and to disable it or destroyed it but in excessive can actually turn on itself and this is what happens with the side of the storm in cova and its many people wonder whether part of the pathology of alzheimer's disease particularly in the later stages maybe result some kind of excessive inflammatory response. The body trying its best limit pathology. That's already there and that the immune response may actually provoker exaggerate the the the symptoms. He said in sort of feedback mechanism meeting the immune response creates inflammation inflammation than a creates More amyloid beat the and Tall related issues. Any sort of feedback mechanism vip Not that i know of but that isn't to say that People aren't studying that. I'm just not aware of that. You know allied deposits in the brain are probably recognized as foreign bodies even though the amyloid itself is made up as a normal part of the biochemical constitution of the body and and then the brain if it aggravate aggregation these particular the forms that may be recognized as a foreign body and It's it so you you ask whether The thing feeds on itself. And i think the answer to that is that we we simply don't know except that it seems that in the later stage of the disease when there's prominent tau pathology there's a lot of Immune activities that looks like it should be probably be very nasty. I wanted to go cure maurice in paper against senegal spinal fluid protein markers suggest a pathway toward symptomatic zillions two. Ad of toddy One of the study here. So what does the study do. Basically we talked a little bit earlier about the idea that a certain level of pathology.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"You have a trial Here is that the private ad They'll provide day. D is not a trump rented. A is is a program of of many different kinds of studies in in people who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease pathology and alzheimer's dementia But the trial called intrepid which was a we. We gave a an anti inflammatory drug naproxin which you can buy over the counter. A two two people who were at risk of developing a cognitive symptoms when we did it over several years there was a placebo are harming people who've got a blue tablet that wasn't naproxen and What we discovered was that there was no protection against the development of symptoms or Dementia eventually in People who who who who got the active active treatment so this for me. At least i was one of the people who was very interested decades back now in this whole idea that inflammation could be powerful. Provocateur could be causing a lot of the damage in the brains of people who are at alzheimer's pathology hot. We're developing dementia symptoms. That turned out to be not the case and this bidirectional paper that you're talking about showed that if you look in the cerebral spinal fluid of people who have various stages of evil lucien in this process. Some of them actually may have dementia. Uh some of them may have milder symptoms and you can characterize them according to whether they have a significant amount of accumulation of amyloid or a significant amount of tau pathology as well or neither And then you can look in their spinal fluid at immune markers that are thought to represent this kind of immune activity. A part of the brain's immune cells. And what we saw surprised us because what we saw was that people who had got to the point of developing house timer pathology but didn't yet have tau pathology. They actually had But appeared to be a depressed state of immune activation represented in their southwood and later the disease. The evidence of immune activity went back up again. So this led us to wonder in fact whether the body may draw on immune activity as a way of fighting off. The amyloid. pathology you so that the people who had a is putting the cart before the horse said the people who had lesser immune activation. Were the ones who developed the alzheimer. The thalji not the other way around that it. It wasn't that the pathology caused immune depression it was at the immune. Depression was permissive. To the development of the pathology and this is a a theory that is still being investigated today to say that there are dozens of very very well equipped laboratories around the world. Now that are studying very intently. This process of human immune activity and it's a very complicated process but looking at it in relation to People developing either the alzheimer's disease pathology or if they have the pathology whether or not the symptoms. I hope that's clear. yeah Obviously lot of auto immune diseases but generally speaking the response is a good thing. Isn't it in Bitten set limits. Right so yeah. I'll of physiological. Functions can become deranged It's just part of life But for the most part Thinking just in evolutionary terms the ability to mount this kind of immune reaction our immune response It must be there for a reason and and we do know that people who have immune deficiency conditions. Don't do very well. I mean i guess the most classic example of this actually is is aids where the hiv virus basically destroys a part of the immune system..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"You see them in Older people who don't have Who don't have alzheimer's absolutely so If the question not of whether they are present but to what degree they are present. Particularly so with the amyloid plaques Almost everybody who reaches a certain age will have some amyloid plaques in their brain And we now understand that the process of pathological development if you will lead the development of these plaques in these tangles in the disruption in the connections and so forth and so on. This is something that starts. Early and accumulates maybe in an almost exponential way With the passage of time so there are many many old people who have What looks like typical. Alzheimer's disease pathology but who have not yet for some reason actually developed the dementia syndrome. That's why it's so important to talk about the syndrome separately from the pathology. They're not the same. Is it correct to think about them. As sort of this product shown that the brain just didn't have the ability to get to those on at the rate that is needed or get something different. I think there is some question still about whether that is the story with With with amyloid. It's it's much less common for people to have Abnormally physically ab normal. Tau that accumulates inside the neurons and eventually probably kills them but after diminish their function thus probably the result of some kind of very active specific biochemical process. That is just a a waste product. And the amyloid that's in plaques is a while it's implants probably harmless but there are Small clumps of amyloid that are not yet big enough to be deposited in plaques that are probably to be toxic to the narrows themselves. that's one of the principal theories of why this disease causes dementia and so the mere presence of them is not sufficient for the disease. because we see them in order people At at some level but but doogie avi to a point that we can actually say you know some kind of quantification that you see see beyond this level then the likelihood of the disease emerging as high as long as you're talking in probabilistic terms. I think that's a fair statement. There are people though. I have ferry substantial amounts of amyloid and tau.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"The characteristic attributes of this pathological entity. It's as the accumulation of Clumps of a material called amyloid in the extra cellular space. In the brain these are called plants. Either senile plaques in the case of old people who don't necessarily have dementia or alzheimer plaques. In the instance of where they do and this is a very very distinct feature that you can see very easily under the microscope. The other thing that you see very easily under the microscope is cumulation of deformed protein called tau protein that's actually inside the cell bodies of the neurons and The protein is in a tangled form. So that they're called neuro february tangles. And we now know the nature of the protein. That accumulates there so those are things that you can see right away when you look under the microscope and now we have the imaging techniques. Actually that can demonstrate the cruel of nab normal amounts of amyloid in the brain or even have normal amounts of tangled tau in the brain. So the these have long been thought of as the characteristic lesions of the disease. But i think it's now clear that there's a great deal more than that Going on That the most important thing is that the the the connections among the neurons in the brain are lost that there's an Basically a disconnection syndrome that causes the cognitive disruption and the end the and the dementia the ways in which the alzheimer amyloid pathology and tau pathology contribute to that are still not completely understood. And there's a great deal more going. On in the brain of people who are developing alzheimer type dementia that is just now being explored there intense involvement of the immune system There are disruptions of many kinds. and so we don't really understand even today what. Alzheimer's disease pathology is and why it is that people haven't developed Dimension working on it but we don't really know amyloid beaten the end the call proteins that you mentioned Do.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"So we'll we'll hundred years now over one hundred years. The condition that we call alzheimer's disease which is a combination of the dementia syndrome. And the pathology. was described in nineteen zero six and a paper by hours alzheimer The this was actually something that occurred in a younger woman. A woman who's i think. She was forty eight or forty nine when he first encountered she died when she was in her early fifties and he autopsied her brain. You saw the pathology and before that he had recognized that the severe psychiatric illness that she had which included not only severe dementia. But also some Hallucinations delusions that are sometimes president in this disease but are not the not characteristic of it. Necessarily it's really amazing Ninety six i would imagine lot of the nba living longer. Now and so I don't have a statistics on older people. Cab a higher risk of getting alzheimer's but but finding this ninety six marketable remarkable accomplishment. Well the thing is back. In those days there was an assumption that getting old meant that you would become in more more cases demented or have a dimension you develop a dementia syndrome. Okay so they called it then Senility which really just means nothing more than a brain aging and the assumption was that there were one in the same. You got old. You've got demented and The thing that drew alzheimer's attention to his particular case was that this woman was in her forties when she got this condition which he recognized it as being the typical kind of dementia that you see in older people but she was an old so that's why he investigated her and and that's what led him basically to his early observations in it took many decades in for people to convince themselves that basically this is the same illness or variant of the same That causes dementia in a very large number of older folks so that the proportion of old people who have dementia doubles with every Five years or so. So but by the time are Ninety almost half people will have dementia and it goes up from there in fact one of the things we talk about. In this exception that proves the rule paper is the posing the real question. We know that there are people who get age hundred who don't have dementia. But the question is are they exceptional And we believe that they probably are that there are many more hundred year olds who have dementia than who dumped. So it's very definitely an age related condition and the reason that it occurs in such a huge number of focuses is still industry. Yeah so what's the state of the art. I want to go into details in the paper was the state of the art into himself. Understanding the fat technology of the disease be looking site inside the brain of a of a alzheimer's patient Other distinct attributes that we can look for will the yeah. There aren't the attributes basically that alzheimer himself..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Exposures or characteristics or experiences that people can can can can have In their thirties or forties fifties whatever that may in fact influence the a probability that the wind up with dementia at age. Seventy five or eighty. So there's no way you could actually test that hypothesis in clinical trial. Because you'd have to expose people now and and and do the follow up study three or four decades from now and that's that's just not feasible so there there are questions that can be asked in observational studies. That simply cannot be addressed in in trials so i. I always been confused about this. John so alzheimer's is a disease is dementia sort of a bucket of symptoms or is a different disease state together. Well that's a very important question. so dementia really is a purely clinical description People who have dementia if they have demonstrable loss of abilities in a variety of different cognitive functions memory language calculation reasoning Visual spatial design abilities Ability to structure things in an orderly way These are just a few of the various kinds of cognitive things. You can measure When people lose a several not just one but several of those abilities to the point where they're no longer able to function normally in their accustomed environment then we say that they have dementia. So there's no implication there whatever for anything going on in the brain or anywhere on the body it's a purely clinical descriptive entity. It has many different diseases that are known to cause it. When i speak with disease. Now i'm talking about conditions typically that affect the brain which is the source of cognitive abilities. One of those conditions is something called alzheimer's disease although that's probably not the best way to talk about it. Because if you talk about alzheimer's disease people instantly think you're talking about dementia and i'm not talking about dementia here. I'm talking about a change in the in in the configuration. The structure the chemistry The connectedness in the brain It's a it's a pathological state that evolves over time and it provokes the dementia syndrome so several. My colleagues and. i are not talking sometimes. Speak about alzheimer's dementia as shorthand. We will be really mean has a dementia that can be ascribed to the current of this kind of alzheimer pathology or to be more explicit. Sometimes we talk about the dementia. Alzheimer's syndrome meaning that We identified the dementia syndrome and we attributed to alzheimer's as okay and so be used dementia as sort of a diagnostic Diagnostic measure and then and then we can look. I guess the quality of alzheimer's as you say there are some distinct things we can look the brain before before everyone thinks really get Get bad i guess right. So it's an old deceased and it don't have known about this..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"There's nothing there that i know of. But it's the gives you an example. You identify people by their characteristics and then you look at that in relation to this outcome whatever it may be in you can choose whatever it may be so this is not science but it is astute. Well i shouldn't say it's not. It's not experimental science. Let's put it that way it's an attempt to looking at the world to draw associations between some attribute of people and the likelihood that they're gonna to end up with a particular disease or condition trial. We're on the other hand is entirely a different proposition. So in a trial we Recruit people who meet a certain set of criteria. That you can make it any way you want. But a person's either eligible or not if they're eligible you can enroll them in the trial if they're willing And then the experiment is that you then. Randomly typically randomly assign Certain portion of the trial population to an intervention. A medicine A prescribed set of educational experiences. You can An exercise regimen. You you can use different kinds of interventions and now you're looking at a contrast between people who were assigned to that intervention versus those who were not or those who were assigned perhaps to a different intervention and now we're looking for again differences in their Outcome so you you might want you might want to set up a simple trial. This help people with a pneumonia. But we know the answer to that so it wouldn't be an appropriate thing to do is get in this day and age. But you could take a repeal who had pneumonia and you're gonna give half of them penicillin and half of them. Something else and you would show very distinctly. That people got penicillin work yard in the ones who were did not. Were too much for much much more poorly so said that the analysis that be do either Study is all post hog It's really the date of observing what's going on. And then they do some analysis. I guess one one not But one issue is that When we get lot of data we can always point relationships in those days there but that doesn't really mean causation rate. That's exactly right Association does not mean causation. If there is causation you'll see on association But the same does not hold in rivers at clinical trials Is a hypothesis study design. Randomized people going into cohorts but we cannot really clinical trials. I i guess so. Maybe long-running issues like alzheimer's. It's really difficult to do. Clinical trial right very much. So and that's One of the points that we address in this little editorial that you're speaking of which by the way has not yet been published by. I think it will be before too much longer. So we now know that. Alzheimer's dementia for example is a condition that evolves In people over a period of decades probably many decades And there are.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Targets for interventions. Almost without exception you say how would suggested intervention scott proven unable to do small beauty from the central so before we get to the details of this john. What does the difference. Between a two tile at an observational study so an observational study is not really An experiment and observational study that the investigator looks at the state of nature. He looks at people who have a this or that personal characteristic or maybe this or that part of their life history exposure to a substance or an occupation or even their educational background some attribute that is characteristic of or can be looked for among people and then The attempt is to That particular attribute to an alteration in their risk of getting a disease a condition. So it's You could ask the question for example Do paul do tall. People get more of thyroid cancer. That's a completely just spun right off the top of my head. There's nothing there that i know of. But it's the gives you an example. You identify people by their characteristics and then you look at that in relation to this.
"mcgill university" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we.
The Pandemics Ending Here. And Almost Nowhere Else.
"Rowling's. This is the big story dr yet. Tina banerjee is an assistant professor at mcgill university and the school of population and global health. She's an expert in global and public health equity as well as social justice. Hello dr benedict hydrated. Thanks for having me on this show. Oh you're so welcome. Thank you for your expertise today. Do you want to start maybe Giving us perspective. I think from outside. Canada from an equity point of view on when we worry about our vaccine wrote in canada. How are we doing compared to everyone else so as canadians. We need to be very grateful that more than fifty percent of our population has received the first fox nation. And that is extremely high when you compare it to low middle income countries if you are living in high income countries such as canada the likelihood is that you have already got your cove in nineteen vaccine or will soon get one sadly this is not the reality for millions of people living in several low and middle income countries more than half a billion vaccine doses have been administered so far guess what three quarters of them have been used by the world's richest countries which means that only zero point one percent of covid nineteen vaccine does have been administered in low income countries. And at this rate in might take many years for low middle income countries to reach a high level vaccine coverage
What 'Arrival' Gets Right — and Wrong — About Linguistics
"Jessica con was a teenager when she first learned that linguistics is a thing. She stumbled upon story of Your Life, a science fiction novella by Ted Chiang. It's all about linguist- trying to figure out how to communicate with well aliens I. Think it was actually probably the first time I heard about the field of linguistics. And then I started college the year I saw an introduction to linguistics curson signed up for it. These days Jessica's field linguist at McGill University in particular I work on. Syntax. Basically the way words combine to make sentences in a few years ago. She got an email to be a consultant on a movie, a movie that was coincidentally based on the exact novella she read as a teenager. I'm not trying to draw any connections that aren't there, but you read about linguistics for the first time in a book that became a movie that you became the the person they consulted with. It's amazing right? It's pretty wild I mean when I first got the email that asks me to work on this film I was really ready to push spam because it sounded very strange and then at some point I saw the story of your life and I wait a minute I haven't thought about that in years and then I responded That Film Twenty Sixteen Sifi hit a rival. So real quick. In case you haven't seen it. Here's the gist. This is Davy arrived. All of a sudden twelve spaceships land all over earth trouble saying. And we don't know why they're not doing anything after landing there. Still no signs of first contact or just the sitting there are at least and so governments around the world are panicking trying to figure out why are these alien spaceship sitting here and different teams are going into try to understand why they're here what they want. And we are following one of these spaceships that I think is somewhere in Wyoming and the. Amy Adams who is a linguist? Production. And her job is to decipher the alien language and figuring out what they want. So today in the show another installment of the Shortwave Science Movie Club what the movie arrival got wrong about linguistics what it got. and. Whether or not Field Linguists Jessica coon has actually communicated with aliens. Honestly it's a tossup. I mattie Safai you're listening to shortwave NPR's Daily Science podcast. So Jessica you were the linguist who consulted on the movie arrival. So give me a big picture sense of what that means like. What did they actually have you do? Yeah. So the first thing I did was I got to read drafts of the screenplay which was really fun because it's a very common thing to do and academia we read things and we give feedback on them but usually not this fund of a scale committee meeting ever exactly yeah. It was very funds so I got to read the screenplay and they especially wanted. Feedback on how linguistics and linguists were represented in the film. So there were lots of places where I gave feedback and they incorporated it into the film. There were other places where they would say, okay just, Kinda yes. Yes. Thanks for your help but really in the end linguists are not Hollywood's primary audience and we're not going to get everything right here and now linguists just get to join like all the other fields of people who get really annoyed when science misrepresented onscreen. So welcome to the club. Sorry, we're not GONNA change that. The movie makers also put Jessica through some exercises, basically giving her a whiteboard and asking her would you do if aliens showed up and those exercises actually informed one of the most famous scenes in the movie when the main character we spanks played by Amy Adams. Schools the guy in charge of the mission about the fundamentals of linguistics. He asks her for a list of vocab words. Essentially, the keywords she was planning on teaching the aliens, that day. Cavaliers responding. Lock. help you understand. So Amy. Adams walks over to the whiteboard and scribbles what is your purpose on earth? This is where you want to get to. The question. Okay. So first, we need to make sure that they understand what a questions. The nature of A. Request for information along with the response then. We need to clarify the difference between a specific you. And a collective you because we don't want to know why Joe Alien is here we want to know why they all landed. In purpose requires an understanding of intent we need to find out. Do they make conscious choices or is their motivation? So instinctive that they don't understand a why question at all and and biggest of all, we need to have enough vocabulary with them that we understand their answer. I love that scene Yes that is one of the great triumphs of of linguistics in the film. I mean this was. So this was one of the most interesting parts of the movie for me because I'm you know this idea of building a base for understanding of a new language is like really interesting and and like the first steps in trying to communicate, which is you know like your thing right? So but it's something that I think we. Just, don't think about into see it in kind of in practice was so fascinating and I'm glad to hear it was like pretty well done your eyes question Mark Yeah I. Think I. Think it was really well done. I. Mean I think one thing that is really neat about this movie and what makes it such? You know interesting and intellectual Sifi is. They're not just typical humanoid creatures. We don't already have some kind of magical universal translator in place, and so we have to figure out how how do they even communicate and will we be able to communicate with them given how advanced they are that they've made these spaceships have arrived on earth I, think it's safe to assume that they have some advanced form of. Communication and that that form of communication should have patterns in it that we could eventually decipher. But thinking about you know, is it audible or is it written or could creatures communicate with smells or we just have no idea what could be out there if it's audible is in a sound frequency that human
Covid-19 Causes a Seismic Quiet Like No Other
"Life has been quieter lately hectic at home. Maybe but you've probably noticed less traffic fewer planes, flying overhead new research published today shows it's not just quieter above ground. Coronavirus lockdown also meant a quieting of seismic noise below ground. The world's Caroline Bieler explains when you think seismic waves, you probably think earthquakes. The tremors caused by tectonic plates, scraping against each other and releasing energy in waves through the Earth's crust, but on a much smaller scale we humans make seismic waves to. From traffic. Lane landing and taking off even lots of US gathering in a stadium. Just have a word for this one. They're called football. Quake's anyway. We mostly stopped leaving home this winter and spring a lot of that seismic noise. It stopped. What we discovered is as lockdown measured. Swear taking place in different countries around the world. That was very clear. Significant decrease seismic knows that's Raphael the plan. A researcher at the National Autonomous University of Mexico research he co authored was published in the journal Science today, and shows manmade seismic noise dropping up to half globally this spring, so that was very interesting, because it was offering us a very concrete observation of decided of people were staying home as a way to protect the job it. It also presented an opportunity for science. Usually, lots of seismic noise makes it harder for researchers to detect small earthquakes. One of the plans co-authors compared it to trying to hear your phone ring at a rock concert this spring. The background volume got turned down. We each and focus on the natural signals. Trying to detect very small is derived, couldn't be absorbed before with last mount of filtering and processing more like hearing that phone ring in a library deploy, says identifying these earthquakes when it's quiet. Quiet is going to make it easier for scientists to find them again. When all that background noise comes back, scientists across the globe have been making local observations sometimes with small seismometers in their basements since lockdown started McGill University geophysicist Yang. Djing says this study brings those observations together to paint a global picture. She wasn't involved with the research. I think this is so far. The most comprehensive Stati on the global scale I'm very impressed by the scope of the study. It's part of a relatively. Relatively new sub field called social seismology, which finds connections between seismic activity and things like economic growth. This is sort of new direction that part of says Molly, branching into so I think there is a lot of contribution that's as you might be able to make in addition to just looking at the earthquake shaking records in this case, seismologists see the vibrations were making or not, as a gauge of how faithfully we're following doctor's orders to stay close to home for the world. I'm caroline dealer.
What is love?
"King is my brother. He's eight years old, and he's feisty and energetic, but he has some really good ideas. Hi, it's me He. was talking about. The question is what is Love Like one of your brain, it like someone and the their brain like like you in some. Kind of like that. Have you ever been in love I? Love My mom and dad knew yeah, so guess. What is what's that like? When I kinda love, you guys because Moiseyev Blink. Relatives and also I just live with you every day. Where have to adjust to you? Do you know why People Love Each Other? Because look the needle we put us. Yeah that that makes a lot of sense. If there was like there, there's probably a part of your brain. That's like I. Have to pass these genes on. Yeah, what do you feel when you feel love? What? What is it like well I. Love You, but it's hard to. This guy is just like someone that you just like. Uncomfortable comfortable around talking to and like. Don't get embarrassed about crime. That's Lov. Yeah, 'cause. You known them for a long time, and we also have to kind of stay to go because what bothers. By and I love you I. Love you. Bye. My brother said something really interesting there about how love actually is in the brain now I'm a science guy. I really think the brain is cool. So I did a little bit of research, looking at love, and how it works inside our brain, and what I came across. Is this weird thing called oxytocin? It's a hormone. Would in your brain that makes you connect with people? A lot of people even call it beloved hormone. And I came upon this really awesome psychologist Dave. Jennifer Barks Dr Bart's is an expert on oxytocin and how we build. In general I'm a professor of psychology. At McGill University I want to be honest. I! Looked at who you are in did a little bit of research about your work and it? You're pretty awesome. Let me say that. Thank you. Now I know this is a big scary. To tackle question, but what do you think is love so I guess? My preferred definition of Love was one that was put forward by the developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth, as an affectionate tie that one person or animal forms between him or herself, and another specific one a tie that binds them together in space and endures time a Thai. Thai. And just getting, but I really think that definition is awesome. It's like we're floating time space, and there's just a string that keeps us together that transcend space and time. I like that I'm gonNA use that from now on. Greg. Why do you think human love? We know love plays a role in procreation, but it's way more than that. It's really there to ensure that the caregiver stays in close contact with the infant for warmth protection nutrition, just keeping the infant safe in contrast to other animals in the animal kingdom, humans are pretty unremarkable, lacking physical strength speed, big claws, big teeth, so as a result, humans really evolved to be very social animals, living in the group was their defense mechanism strength in numbers, strengthened numbers exactly, but like nowadays off to worry about getting eaten by bears not trite. No you don't, but you still have to worry about you. Know Illness, and when we don't have those social connections, we don't do as well. Lack of closeness increases risk for morality.
Some Canadians have made it home. Others havent.
"Are you there. I'm always here Jordan. Where where am I? GonNa go fair enough. Well it's the first day of the work week was your weekend any different from your week. aside from not making this podcast not really. I mean. I've just been kind of cooking and taking long walks no complaints. Can you even tell days apart right now? No I usually ask about three times a day. What Day is it today? I keep thinking that I'm supposed to take my garbage out Because every day feels like garbage day now for whatever that's worth but here's a question. Have you felt lucky over the past little while I don't know about lucky of definitely felt very fortunate? I've been trying to look on the bright side of things I mean. I'm very fortunate to have been able to work from home as soon as needed and my partner and I keep each other company. Why have you felt? I really have for whatever it's worth you know when we do research for the show. I tend to dig into the worst stuff. The reports out of Italy Reports from frontline hospital workers in Canada and in the United States and it really drives home the point and this weekend we were reading and listening to stories of Canadians who found themselves abroad when Justin Trudeau said. Hey this is serious. It's time to get home yet. That's that's easier said than done. Yeah and I traveled in February and I think about it. Now you know if it had been a couple of weeks later at the time everybody said it was fine to go a couple of weeks later. I would have been in that same situation. Yeah and some people right now are stuck where they are and today We're GONNA talk to somebody who just made it home under the gun barely and We'll hear from somebody at the end of today's episode. Who is not as lucky? And she'll quickly tell you where she has her situation's very fluid So we wanted to get her information there at the very least but quickly for people who still do know what day it is. Can you tell us where we are? Clara's the quote Unquote workweek. What ever that means now begins while the latest from Canada's Health Minister Patty. Hi Do. Is that if you're back from a trip and you've been told to self isolate and you don't do that. You could face a big penalty. It is critically important especially for those returning home now to ensure that they follow this public health advice that we're giving them and the advice will be not just advice if if we if we need to take stronger measures we will and that actually happened in Quebec. A woman who tested positive for the Koran virus was arrested for violating quarantine order because she was out walking her dog. Prime Minister Trudeau says between Monday and Wednesday. There will be more than thirty flights bringing Canadians. Who are abroad back home. And we are now seeing the first case of Cova. Nineteen in the north. It's in the Northwest Territories. And they've now shut down their border to all nonessential travel uh some. Mp's are being called back. On Tuesday to adopt the emergency measures that were announced last week. Those include the twenty seven billion dollar fund for direct support and the fifty five billion dollars to help business liquidity through tax deferrals as of Sunday evening. One thousand four hundred and thirty six cases of Covert Nineteen in Canada with twenty one deaths. When you find yourself in a situation like our guest today did of course you second. Guess yourself a little bit. Why did I go? How did I end up? Here what could I have done differently? It's natural but I think you have to remember as fast as this thing. Seems like it's moving now a few weeks ago unless you are really paying attention. It didn't seem that it was going to get bad. And besides buck once. You're stuck you're stuck. There's no point in questioning how you got here. You just want to get home and to do that. You might need the help of the government and as we know government. Can't help everyone right now today. I can announce we're working with Canadian airlines to make commercial flights available for as many Canadians who are stranded as possible. Now we won't be able to reach everyone over going to do our best to help those. We can't nothing is really guaranteed anymore and so you take your chances like today's guest Jordan Heath Rawlings and this is the big story. Julia Morales is a student at McGill University in Montreal and today she is in Montreal and safe so first of all. Juliane glad to hear that. Thank you go out to you back your home now. Yes where were you last week? So last week I was in Morocco originally I was will kind of just traveling everywhere and ended up in ten years from where I was supposed to take a flight back to Montreal. Tell me how you got there. Why were you there? When did you go that kind of stuff? So Group of four other students and a professor and I left from McGill University on February twenty seventh to leave for Morocco on a geological field trip. We were going to go steady the geology of the area and sort of understand what processes lead to the current geology of the region and supposedly for two weeks however we were not able to board our flight out of Morocco because of travel bans that were then instilled by the government. What were you thinking? And I don't mean this in a bad way. But what what were you thinking as the flight approached? And you knew you were going. Were you worried Had you heard anything from the government or anywhere else advising you know actually going into the trip I think. Any of the stresses kind of just related to the usual stress of traveling. Do we have everything we need. Is Everyone have a tenth? Is Everyone have hiking boots Nothing related to the extra corona virus because as we had seen on government of Canada website about point. Morocco is very safe. There were no cases or I believe zero. The two case cases of corona in the country and Italy had yet to undergo this boon which we now have seen the past two weeks So we felt quite confident in going to the country and being safe in coming back. Tell me about when that situation changed in Morocco. What were you hearing? What was happening there so every night as we would have dinner we would actually go on the corona world meter website and see what the the statistics were saying about the spread of the virus and even until the last day we were supposed to be their only about. I believe eighteen. Total cases in the country So we weren't too concerned about our state in the country more was going on in the neighboring countries such as Spain particularly Because obviously we're seeing that it was exploding all over Europe and immediately saw that the political response in all these countries with started closing down borders. We started to get concerned about the fact that we may not be able to return but up until then we have not heard anything from our airline or the government in Rocco or the Canadian government. So we weren't we again. We're not too concerned about the idea that we were going to be able to come back home. Tell me about making the decision to try to get home. What happened and what you do that. Yes so we arrived at Tangiers airport as we were supposed to and as we walked into the airport we received the news that essentially Morocco was closing. Its borders to about twenty countries. It was GONNA stop international flights in and out of twenty countries and among those were Canada. Which is quite surprising because the USA was not on the on that list in the US has many more cases of corona virus than we do and at that point we immediately started looking for other flights out of the country and we managed to book another one through Qatar And three days later we were supposed to cash played. We found out that Qatar was also closing. Its borders and would not allow us to fly through there so this all began a whole spiral of trying to find any flights out. What did you do but did we do what we kept? Trying to find. More flights we booked another flight out of Casablanca on Foulon really quickly counseled expedia actually called us about like a few hours. After having both in told us that the play it would not be going out. We booked another flight with Air Canada which then got cancelled. We booked another flight through Royal Moroccan. That also cancelled we for pretty much just desperate to find anything that would get us out of the country so our original flight was supposed to go through. Casablanca before then heading to Montreal. So you decided to take a flight to Casablanca since it's like a major flight hub in the country and we figured that our chances of getting a flight out would increase if we were in that city and so we just kept trying once we arrived in Casablanca airport. We tried to make sure if our flight would actually be going out. And the people at the counter told us that they couldn't even find our
China's Efforts To Control Coronavirus Leads To Less Air Pollution
"China's efforts to control the corona virus have meant many residents stayed at home in factories. Just shut down. That had an unintended effect. Less air pollution cleaner air can improve public health. Maybe even save lives joining me to explain why that isn't so simple. In China right now is NPR climate correspondent Lawrence Summer. Hi Laurin I Rachel. All right first off just explain. How big the drop was in air pollution. In China it was significant. It was down a quarter two third in some places compared to the same time period last year. And that's because people have been driving less but the big thing is coal consumption because power plants and industry has ramped down. We're starting to see an uptick. As China's activity is increasing. And that hasn't been true everywhere. Beijing actually saw an air pollution spike outdoors and February. Because there was a weather pattern trapping the pollution there okay so if power plants factories were running less that also means carbon emissions dropped. That's right about a quarter now. That's a tiny fraction of China's yearly emissions but it still substantial because China is the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world so even that Short period of time in China equals would a state like Illinois or Ohio emits an entire year. Wow so even though. It's only a little bit over a month that we're talking about for these improvements. It's substantial enough to make a difference in people's lives. Yeah even a short term drop in something like air. Pollution can actually have benefits and a good example of that is the two thousand eight summer Olympics in Beijing to improve air quality during the Games government officials limited car traffic and they shut down factories and researchers actually tracked people during that time period and they saw improvements in cardiovascular health and lung health. They found that babies whose mothers spent their third trimester during the Olympic Games. Were born with heavier verse weights. Okay so that was years ago our people in China right now. Seeing those benefits yeah. It's a good question because the potential is really big here. You know. It's estimated that air pollution is linked to more than a million deaths per year in China. So I put that question to Jill. Baumgartner she's an environmental epidemiologist at McGill University. It would be a mischaracterization to say that the crow virus was beneficial to health because of these air pollution reductions in addition to tens of thousands of people who were impacted by the virus in China place stress on people's lives and on the healthcare system and lots of other sectors. She says that people with health conditions other than cove in nineteen may have not been getting the healthcare. They really needed during this time. Period and people may have spent more time indoors so they would have been exposed to more secondhand smoke potentially or indoor air pollution from coal-burning stoves which are used in some parts of rural China. Presumably though as the corona virus is contained in China. This drop we've seen in emissions is going to be a race by the fact that the factories the power plants. They're going to go back online and return to normal right. Yea and of course. There's an incredible human toll here associated with this reduction in emissions and there's also a high likelihood that it's going to be canceled out as China tries to make up for its economic losses and really starts ramping up power plants and factories in the near term. Npr climate correspondent. Lauren summer. Thank you
"mcgill university" Discussed on 860AM The Answer
"Okay this regards fertility it's often lost through cancer treatment and it may be possible to rejuvenate ovaries Sir for women after chemo therapy without the need for surgery this is having to do with store donated follicles the cells in the ovaries that contain eventually release excels until over result they found that they could prolong fertility in women this is research from McGill University in Montreal Canada and the approach is still new but some doctors worry that the risk of implanting cancer cells you know because the person has going for treatment for cancer if a woman has a bearing cancer leukemia you want want to put the cancer the tissue back in because the worst thing you can do for for a patient is to give the cancer back to the surviving patient right but this is a novel new research the follicles could also be taken from donors and other donors and that might be easier to obtain than donor aches and while people who receive donated organs need to take drugs to suppress the immune system those who receive these follicles might not need to as there's a minimal risk of rejection and a and and women so definitely more research needed but promising new of possible treatments for women that have of that one to restore their fertility after cancer treatment all right okay and let's go to the city I have lets us want to do one more article before we go to the funny bone pharmacy because we still have some time left on I can get to a few other not set in and get to and my first hour here right here some fast relief for some pesky indoor allergies you know as I sometimes say your home might be giving you I might be suffering itself from the house of ptosis and if you're always congested maybe your houses and maybe or contracting that house to tell us is to you know to your body fifty two million of us are sensitive to common hell sold irritants things like Dustin dander and specially since we're spending.
Warming Up Before Your Workout
"Sure all of you will have heard this before. You need to adequately warm-up before going the full throttle into any workout will that be weight training running any sort of sports and so on and more often than not this advice this falls on deaf is so why is it so important to ensure your warm up properly before you exercise. A warm up is a period of time prior to being doing physical activity which consists quite often of light cardiovascular exercises and quite often stretches as well and a woman activties serves two major purposes ready to enhance performance when we first gets help to also prevent injury now. What is really interesting to notice that Mike? With many topics in the health and fitness world there is contradictory advice out there. Because I'm sure many of you will have heard that you should did stretch before warming up as stretching spores exercise helps you to increase flexibility. It helps increase the ability of joint to move for. Its Fru range range of motion. But I'm here to say today that there might be some clues lifting evidence on stretching before we start doing size but before we talk about this contradictory trade balls dot that I should say. There are different forms of stretching. There's static stretches which of those where you're standing or sitting or you're lying still and you hold a single who position for a long period of time and these differ to dynamic stretches while you're performing genital repetitive. Movements perhaps like leg swing weh Edwin gradually increases the range of motion of movement but it always remains in the normal range of movement. Another example might be doing like chocolate cake Jorgen between each each one. But you're doing an open and close. The Gates Foil in an outer thighs are looked at up. If you're not sure I mean there but it has more movement involved rather than just being static taking sedentary as you'll doing the stretch so all of heard in the past is that regular stretching is thought to increase flexibility by making all muscles more supple and by retraining the nervous system to tolerate stretching further however according to the National Strength Conditioning Association a growing body of research has shown that pre-workout workout or pre event static stretching may actually have a negative effect on force production POW performance strengthen durance reaction time time and running speed in fact. Several studies said stretching before a workout or an advantage the race or a weightlifting competition. Whatever it may be has been shown to reduce performance went up to three percent? Dr Ian Schrager. A sports medicine clinician researcher and associate professor at the Department of Family. Medicine at Montreal's McGill University. Christie said that research now suggesting that stretching before exercise actually makes your muscles weaker and slower but it does help to increase. You'll range of the notion professor. Robert Herbert is a senior principal. Research Fellow Wave Neuroscience Research. Australia found that most of the evidence strongly suggest adjusted static. Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of injury and even a little bit quite negligible I mean study called a pragmatic randomized trial of stretching before and physical activity to prevent injury and soreness found what they called to be. A hint of an effect on reducing injuries like Ligament Tasr has muscle strains and sprains. So where does this leave. As if we've been told allies to do stretches and static stretching before exercising what shall we actually do. What free exercise warm up should we do? If there's a point in doing one at all so according to Dr Sharia your decision to stretch not distract should be based on what you want to achieve deep if the objective is to reduce injury stretching before exercise is not helpful. Your time better spent by warming of your muscles with the light. Aerobic Nick Movement. We talked about light cardiovascular movements getting some light joining in for example and gradually increased their intensity whilst of your objective is increase your range of motion so you can more easily do the splits. For example this is more beneficial doing stretches then doing a cardiovascular joke for example the purpose solve warming up has to prepare mentally and physically for your chosen activity so typical warm up should take at least ten minutes and involve the light Arabic movements we talked. What about with dynamic stretching that mimics the movements of the activity? You're about to four form unless as we said you're about to perform a split for example or something like the way you might want to consider static stretching you should then gradually increase the range of motion of these movements during the warm up to prepare the body for more intense versions of those movements that occurred during the sport itself so by doing this. This process will raise your heart rate. Increase the blood your muscles thereby warming your muscles up. And when he formed to muscles up less stiff they work more efficiently than has more blood flow. That's enabling your muscles two or more oxygen to reach your muscles and produce is energy and the woman also activates the nurse signals to muscles which can increase your reaction time so what is better recommended then. It's a combination Asian. Really if you're going to do a sport or weight training all a run. For example of dynamic stretching where into being cooperating some lights cardiovascular activity tippety as well as some more movement and Joe stretches raw than holding them in a static position so this episode might be very contrary to what you've heard before about stretching but I hope it has helped shed some light on pre-exercise war ups and what we should be doing What we should consider depending on what our objective
Sensory Prediction Error Signals in the Neocortex with Blake Richards
"Am with Blake. Richards Blake Blake is an assistant professor in the school of Computer Science and the Montreal neurological institute at McGill University as well as a core faculty member at et Mula and you've also got an affiliation with far yes. I'm a candidate C.. For a chair and a member of C far's learning machines and brands program. Fantastic fantastic passing. Well Blake welcome to the PODCAST. Thank you very much for having me. Also you are doing a talk here on sensory prediction error signals in the neo cortex yes Let's just jump right into that. What's the talk about sure? So a lot of people have postulated for a long time that our brains and in particular. The NEO CORTEX the region concerned with higher order thought or functions if you will is effectively. An unsupervised unsupervised learning machine. It is there to make predictions about incoming stimuli and that it would use. WHO's this differences between those predictions and the actual data that receives in order to learn about the structure of the world and develop a good internal model? And although Oh there have been many computational studies that have postulated this and this idea has also informed artificial intelligence a great deal. The fact act is that there isn't a lot of direct evidence for it in the brain. There are a few initial studies but myself and my collaborators Joel's Albert Virga York University Yatra Banjo also at Milan University. Molly AL and Tim Lily. Crap at Google deep mind. We put together a proposal to the the Allen Brain Institute a couple of years ago to run some experiments to explicitly look for some of the sorts of prediction dictionary signals. That these kinds of models of unsupervised learning in the brain predict would be there so the institute has been running a series of studies. Doing doing what's called two photon calcium imaging and mice is basically a way to record the activity of many hundreds of neurons at once as well as their dendritic processes in a live animal. And so we've got recordings of the brains of mice primary visual cortex. Well we expose them to new stimuli that follow particular statistical patterns which we then violate occasionally and we have found evidence for very clear sure and really strong responses to those violations of the expected stimulus and additionally there are some interesting kind of breakdowns in terms of where those signals appear in the critical circuit. And also ask some interesting data in terms of the way that it seems to be something that the animals actually learn over multiple exposures to the stimuli See your conditioning mice to expect some kind of response then you kind of take a left. Turn when they're expecting right so to speak and and you're observing. What's going on in their brains as a result and so that's not what you've found is what so what we've found is we've Zam? I'm in two different types of stimuli. One which is where you've got a consistent visual flow in in the screen as it were so there's these bricks that kind of drift left across the screen in a particular direction and they're always consistent in that movement and then occasionally some of the bricks will start moving in the different direction than the expected one or like pretty clearly. You notice it when you watch the stimuli yourself very much so And for those stimuli. We see a massive response. In a particular part of the neoclassical micro circuit the cells. Go nuts in response to the stimulus and this seems seems to happen right off the bat with no training so that suggests that this particular type of violation of expected stimuli is something that the circuit is hardwired wired to detect but we also have another set of stimuli where we present basically these random patches of edges That are all sampled from where the orientation of the edges are all sampled from a particular distribution and then occasionally violate that expectation by sampling. I'm from a different distribution for the orientations and when we present these stimulated the animal at I don't see any responses to the unexpected head orientations but over multiple recording sessions. We start to see huge responses to the unexpected annotations. So what's interesting about this. This is suggests that the circuit is able to learn as it were to be surprised particular types of stimuli and it might at the same time be a hard coded to respond to particular other types of violations. We hypothesize that this might have to do with the evolutionary purpose. This of most visual cortex one of which would obviously be to help the mouse avoid predators. And so it's very important that you detect violations of visual flow in your visual field if you're trying to avoid predators because that's something you want to avoid potential. You WanNa see that Hawk flying above or right exactly but for the other type Stimuli where that we're showing them where it's these oriented edges. That can violate these patterns. What's interesting is that they don't show that response right away but they learn to show it and so that what is some evidence that they're neo? CORTEX is in fact a sort of generative model that can learn the data distribution over time and learn to he surprised when data doesn't actually adhere to that distribution in the first case where you've got more of a stark difference in the visual pattern. Turn do they become desensitized to it over time. We don't actually see any evidence for desensitization which is interesting The signal continues to be very robust over three different days of recording sessions and each session is an hour long so even after many repute exposures of this stay still seem to signal this very strongly which again suggests that for that particular type of stimulus. This is a hard wired component which is very consistent with the evolutionary right. Like if you got desensitized to hawks probably be a bad thing if you're and so there was another element of this work ERC or at least one that you haven't gone into this level of detail yet but is talking about the hierarchical nature of inference in these kits. Is that kind of an ancillary result or is that core to the model that you've developed to understand the stuff yeah so The thing that I mentioned is that what's is interesting. Is that that second type of surprise signal that we see that the animals learned to be surprised to the orientation of edges in that occur in an expected elected way we actually see that signal not in the neurons themselves but in the dendritic trees of the neurons and in particular part of the dendritic trees that is the area drives being like the fingers that we see in our nerve. Yes that's right exactly. All those little branches is that comes out of the Dan right out of the neurons. Those are done rights and those are the sites of synoptic inputs to real neurons but real oh pyramidal neurons in the neo cortex which is a particular type of neuron comprises seventy five to eighty percent of the neurons in the CORTEX in. It's the kind of key the information Presence Cell type in this circuit these cells have a one unique dendritic. Nick process called the April damned right which they send up a vessel yet April okay and they kind of like the tree because what they do is they send it up to the top the surface the brain almost like what the trunk of a tree does the leaves up to the sunlight but in this case they ended up to the surface of the brain and what they receive at this location occasion are the top down in puts so higher order information from other parts of the brain and our data suggests so that is he's actually where we see those surprise signals that are learned and from some of the brain or in this structure overall in this dendritic structure. That is up at the top of the brain and what that data suggests and some of our other analyses suggest is that this surprise signal. Is this you know. Oh that violated my expectations signal that the animals learn is being driven by top down inputs. So that suggests that the entire model model that they have for the world that they're learning is a hierarchical model where it's actually the higher order parts of the network. If you will for machine machine learning people you can think of it. As the upper layers of the network that are actually detecting the violation of the expected statistics and then they are communicating that back down the hierarchy hierarchy to the lower layers of the
What's the Science Behind Bullying?
"Assuming all of you've been bullied at least once in your life. These are my friends piper fin cayden and zoe. We're all kids here and we all have dealt with it at at some point in our lives for me. Oftentimes i feel like my friends needed knee for their entertainment. It would weird because if they would be like teasing me or something and i would be like a but these are my friends. These are nice people. Why are they bullying me for me. It's something that i'm like credit. Experiencing is just someone at high school in my class who like they'll just jokingly journal show me. I think they take it too far. Sometimes they just don't really know when to stop. I just think like for me. There's just like the little things that kind of like build up like there's this one person who kind of criticizes me like about. Maybe my grades or something like fattened say like that. I'm not doing well just like making up stuff. Which i don't think is very nice young not nauta good feeling at all. It sucks you know and really bad blink can actually affect your life for a really long time. I took a listen through some recent c._b._c. A._b._c. stores on bullying and made me really really sad to hear from grownups who are still haunted by these heroin blink experiences that they had when they were a young small kit and being a small kid. I was bullied a lot. I was an easy target. I constantly get pushed around punched kicked bookstore on the hallway floor. I changed schools. A couple of times about the bullying followed me and i dropped out of school at sixteen eighteen years old but three of them <hes> after school would pin me down on the ground <hes> and push me down and hit me and kick me. I really became a shell of who i probably could have been. I was quite an emotional wreck. <hes> i think it's something you just never really recover from so i think you you know in a way we're we're sort of playing with fire when we think that this is just something not everybody goes through or many people go through and there are consequences <music> if popular and more popular. That's going to be a lot different for you than if you target somebody who's weaker. It's just you're. I don't wanna pick on someone. That's low risk high rewards yeah exactly that's that's a perfect way of putting it wouldn't be really effective if a grade twelve winning and sort of beating up a great one i mean nobody would be impressed by that because that's not a sign that you're tough for that. You can defend yourself so it's really a way of intimidating others bash putting on a display that on the one hand shows that you can be dangerous tough but on the other hand is not likely to cost you anything for humans in particular it helps us get a few different goals either resources so things that you need like <hes> food good luck money <hes> the best spot in the playground scholarship <hes> it can be your reputation or your popularity and then reproduction which is is dating and <hes> mating opportunities that allow people to pass on their genes so unfortunately the evidence suggests that bullying works and getting all three of those things so it sounds like the reason people are bullying is because it helps them get stuff you know they take advantage vantage of these people that have less power than them and they use them to get ahead in life but that's not really right because it seems like it's making bullying. Elect a good thing which i know it's not because my moral compasses decent. I'd like to say and that stuff eight right. Tony agrees that it's not as great as it seems. There is a flaw in this whole scheme. The problem with it is that as with everything has a cost so it has a downside and the downside is that you're burning bridges for cooperation later in the future so in many ways. It's kind of me first right right now. Strategy <hes> in that while we know bullies are rated as being more popular. They're almost always rated being less liked and that makes sense right. You don't wanna mess with them. But do you really want to have them as your homework partner. Do you really want to go and stay in their hotel room. If you go on a class trip you know so you can respect their power and that allows them to do certain things but in the long run <hes> especially if they lose their power then they're not very appealing for other people to be with so it's a strategy that has some benefits but also some costs as well for me is a person on the bullied side it hurts and it makes explorer life frustrating sad hard all these negative emotions so yeah there are costs for bullies and so many more costs for the victims which sucks the most because you know their victims like they didn't even want this and they're interesting experiments that neuroscientists have don to show that being excluded being socially rejected or ostracized have particularly intense effects effects on young people. This is super chowhdury. I'm an assistant professor. In the division of social i and transcultural psychiatry at mcgill university support thinks the cost of bullying not just socially but also in our brains especially especially when we're young which is great because i'm young in the last say twenty years neuroscientists have demonstrated how the brain goes goes through a really pronounced period of development around puberty and adolescence and the brain is especially responsive to the social the environment during adolescence probably because since you're like totally changing as a person you know you have to kind of be a little bit more aware yeah. I'm thinking about your question question about bullying. It's not surprising that harmful social experiences have especially deep effects on the developing brain and we know that you know being bullied. Persistently is a really stressful experience that ah is a predictor of later development of psychosis so psychosis being <hes> the experience of losing touch with reality in quite a disturbing having way so that you may see things that other people don't see or hear things that other people don't here and <hes> bullying can be a risk factor for the development of psychosis this so this psychosis thing seems kind of scary. What are some other effects that can happen if you're chronically bullied or just you know if if you're bullied really hard or yes oh well that can lead to depression and anxiety it can lower young people self esteem so it it it can be a part of childhood trauma of adolescent trauma and the outcomes can be enduring in one person's lifetime and they may even be transmitted into the next generation.
The Paradox Of Predator And Prey
"Here's a riddle for Yale. Imagine you're during an African Wildlife Park. One area of the park is teaming with prey animals such as head elope while another area is. is relatively sparsely populated prayed. Have we got into the real yet here it is where would you expect to find the most predators where there's more pray or less pray well. It would seem logical that where there's more pray there'd be more predators but since this is a riddle I suspect that the answer maybe counter intuitive. You're probably right. According to a study by scientists at McGill University here is with more pray do in fact have more predators overall than areas. As with relatively sparse pray but lots of pray does not result in as many predators as you'd think in fact in the most plentiful pray regions of Africa lions are much less populous than you'd expect okay but why why if there's more to eat wouldn't predators thrive and have more offspring you think so but it also turns out that when there's a lot of prey animals crowded into an area the prey tend to have fewer offspring per individual which in turn seems to. Limit the number of predators that because predators tend to prey on the youngest and weakest members of a heard maybe in any case this discovery may have a real not only a curious phenomenon but a full blown will of nature. There's still lots to learn about exactly how and why prepared to relationship works the way it does but this study has gotten things off to an intriguing start. This moment of science comes from Indiana University with production support from the office of the PROVOS. We're on the web.
"mcgill university" Discussed on The Dan Patrick Show
"Commercial. And I'm gonna throw a lot of numbers that you, please. Please stay with me. And just fifteen minutes. You could save fifteen percent or more on car insurance. The company that has been offering great rates and great service for seventy five years. It's gyco. I'm using it for a long time itself. And anytime you need help you could speak to one of their trains specialists, twenty four seven no recordings the company. Gyco. Go to Geico dot com today. Sorry for all the numbers, but I've been a fan and a customer guy go for a long time and five four three two one. I'm out. Stay tuned for sixty seconds of eight me news headlines right after this podcast. This is sports history. Paulie, do you have one sure do eighteen seventy four McGill University and Harvard met at Cambridge mass for the first college football game to charge admission McGill out of Canada trail, I think nine thousand eighteen Sunday baseball games were made legal in Washington. Dc nineteen seventy-two Willie Mays hit a home run in his first game as a New York met Eighty-six. Reggie Jackson his five hundred thirty seven th home run passing Mickey Mantle. And here's an interesting one the third Olympia to the modern era and the first Olympic Games to be held in the United States opened in Saint Louis, Missouri. The oh four games nineteen to four games. We're supposed to be awarded to Chicago, Illinois. But were later given to Saint Louis to be staged in connection with the Saint Louis world fair world expo, and it didn't have a lot of buzz only most of the entrance where Americans and it really didn't take off until like twenty years later in the games are held in Paris. I got a by the way are this team sports history. Brought to you by continental tire. Proud to be the exclusive tired of the Dan Patrick show to matter. What you drive where you drive how you drive they have a tire for new..
4/20 Traffic Accidents Claim Curbed
"This is Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Steve Mirsky dear ago, I reported on a study about an increase in fatal traffic accidents on April twentieth. Four twenty a day considered somewhat of a holiday by marijuana aficionados that study was in the journal Jaama internal medicine and it used ADA from the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The researchers looked at fatal accidents on four twenty between four twenty pm and eleven fifty nine PM from nineteen ninety two to two thousand sixteen and they compared that dates data with the day one week before and one week after they found a twelve percent increase in the relative risk of a fatal traffic accident after four twenty pm on for twenty four twenty pm being the time that a lot of pot smokers like to light up on four twenty the paper caught the attention of McGill University epidemiologists Sam harp. Over and Adam Pol you I should say at first I felt the paper was intriguing Sam Harper on the phone for Montreal. I think the most fundamental difficulty with the jam paper was really the large magnitude of the effect size, given what we already know about impaired driving. So in order to increase the national rate of fatal accidents by something like twelve percent would require, you know, either really large segment, you know, as much as fifteen percent of the population to be driving while high after four twenty pm on four twenty or really really incredibly high relative risks of driving after the kind of cannabis consumption that you might have had on four twenty. So I think this was actually a hard case to make substantively Harper polio decided to dig deeper so one way to test this is whether of this kind of elevated risk persists. If you compare for twenty not just to the same day when we before and after, but for example. To the same day two weeks before two weeks after or to every other day of the year. And that's that's part of what we did in. When did these sort of additional test? We found very little evidence of any elevated risk on four twenty. And then the last thing we we also looked at this question of whether certain days showed persistently high risks year after year, and that's another way of trying to assess whether or not something is really robust. So when we did this we found very little evidence that there was any kind of sustained effect of four twenty not even for recent years with this become a more and more popular event. But you know, other very well established holidays like July fourth weekends around thanksgiving Labor Day, these things show, very reliable excess risks fatal crashes basically every year since the data started in collected in nineteen seventy five. Harper is careful to say, they were not debunking the original research. That's not the way. I. See it. I see like, okay. These guys had an interesting idea. And now what we did was like poke a little more deeply looking look at it a little bit more carefully. And you know, maybe we find not so robust, and that's kind of interesting. I think that's the way the process should work. Hope for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Steve Mirsky.
"mcgill university" Discussed on The World of Phil Hendrie
"So I really think so talking to earn does your about joining those comments concerning his is his bad seasons as initial outing with the Cleveland Browns, or he doesn't do Xs and os and study film and the Browns should have known that. So you want to disabuse a guy of that any any guy that thinks he's he's hot stuff Iago give an example, we played I wanna play with the helm tiger catch. There was a quarterback forty rough riders and his name was Jerry messy. And he was a Canadian actually k p played it at but held Gill and school McGill University around Toronto at this guy thought he was great. And being point of fact, he had a great offensive line. He had one of the most amazing offensive lines. I think I've ever seen in Canada or in the National Football League. I get played twelve bene- side. So you have you always have the option of an extra band on the line. So you have your four you have to tackles got two guards. Then you've got a tight end. And then you have the option of bringing up you back or another you back. You have five six even seven men offensively on the line, and you still have five flares quarterback running back. Okay. And free wide receivers. So you can do a lot with offense. Like that that this this guy Jerry Messi who played for the Ottawa rough riders was so good and the offensive line. They had was so good at Ottawa. What are we talking about? We're talking about like nineteen sixty eight sixty nine. That they did an exhibition game season. He came out wearing slacks of blazer and like win Kip shoes not wing tips, but broke shoes and play quarterback for like a quarter that way. Okay. So that's what he did. What he got? He came out. He came out in other words and just regular street. Clothes. Yeah. He didn't. He did not wear football uniform because the offensive line was that good that. And he could read offense defense is that well peak I read the ball quick. He wasn't. I think he was he was grabbed once, but he never went to the ground the blazer he took off and put on a hanger at war that night out to dinner with his wife, and it I tell you one thing you're amazed at it. And you're also very angry. 'cause as a defensive back is defensive player, you feel like somebody just eight you. They just they just put the monkey on you, and in their mind giving their mind, you're hopping around going for it still hurts I gotta tell you can tell your voice guy is out there. What was he wearing? He was wearing a helmet. He was not wearing a helmet he came out. How is this legal? It was an exhibition. Game. And they basically dared us to tackle this guy. And we never got them. And I can tell you what it did to me. It Bev stated me I lasted another six months, and I came back to the states. I you know, what I'm done with this. I've done with us. I never wanna see another down of football as a player as long as I live as long as I'm breathing air and taking a regular dumps. Coach we get the idea of guide, but. So make a long story. So you answer the question, Robert, what would you wear and he came out in a turtleneck sweater? And I couldn't even tell you the color. Black turtlenecks sweater charcoal. Grey a sports jacket charcoal grey slacks. He had on black brogue dress shoes. He had a cream colored. I think he had a cream colored Hanky. No, actually, it was black as black Hanky and the upper pocket of his jacket. You're kidding me. Please tell me you're kidding. No. I'm not kidding. And this guy proceeded to play how he played a quarter played a quarter football. Yeah. And we'd never touched him bay. Scored did not continue that they stored once on a touchdown pass. It was it was freaky. It was a sixty yard bomb..
"mcgill university" Discussed on Mysterious Universe
"So this was kind of a way that he used to separate the people that just wanted attention from people who really needed help and with genuine because the people that just wanted attention once though asked to actually go through the process of writing something down yet that would of boulder they just yet. I didn't bother with it. Now cheryl's written story when he did get it in the mail. She immediately began talking about memories of wearing a helmet and receiving electric shocks. And he was familiar. A dial griffis was familiar with some of the experiments of Dr you and Cameron at McGill University in Canada using similar devices in a similar therapy. And he saw to decide look the more. I read of cheryl's history, the greater it seems that the possibility that she may have been in various locations where I knew Mont control experiments had taken place. He said for someone who had not heard of behavior. Modification and didn't understand it Cheryl was saying things that mashed experiments in the field. I learned about when I was working on my PHD included with cheryl's it. He said would drawings including one of a little Bill in a helmet and that pitcher of a goal and a helmet it immediately sprung to mind real full. He'd seen of some of these experiments taking place with adults. So we thought hang on a second that could be something more to this story. So he agreed to use his contacts in law enforcement to see if he could determine whether or not the programs and experiences she was describing had any basis. In fact, were they with a real later. He was cold by shell sister. Lynn who told him more about atrocious acts perpetrated upon her and a sister. So for the next four years Griffiths researched and investigated this unbelievable story, he such a witnesses. He such a hidden government documents and all the bits and pieces of evidence necessary to confirm their story, and what he found I'm going to describe to you off to the bright for Osman but spoil if you want to get access to that hit.
Resignation scandal mars Trudeau's shiny image
"Trudeau swept into power in Canada in two thousand fifteen championing equality, openness and social Justice, but the resignation of his attorney general who will let's shoot face pressure to go easy on one of the country's biggest companies in corruption case has dented this image. Nikki Zena discusses the case in what it means for Trudeau in the liberal party with Ravi, Matt and Amy Williams. Amy, tell us first about the company involved. SNC lavaman will the company has a few things, but bowling engineering company that works mainly with mining and energy services. So in this case, it's been accused of bribing Libyan officials around the time when he was in power. This is not as I brush with bribery, allegations the World Bank, actually, blacklisted its main subsidiary from bidding on projects and its own global corruption policy and that happened in two thousand thirteen over a project. It was worth on in Bangladesh. The key thing about the company in the stories that employs around nine thousand people across Canada. Most of those are in Quebec, which is the home for just intruders constituency in Montreal what was the attorney general's involvement, which Wilson rape, bogey Torney general. She was in a position to come up with the prosecution agreement with the company that would basically have seen him set. Lots of court avoiding huge find so base. Would have paid some money but being allowed to keep trading and avoid the court fees and big legal costs that would put them out of business. And who does she say put her under pressure to agree to a deferred prosecution agreement and why did she end up resigning? Well, she said that it was several people in Mr. Trudeau's government specifically in his office, and including Mr. shooter himself and Khushi his top advisor, Gerald books. Her resignation is a bit murky and a little unclear but what we do know is that shortly before she resigned, Mr. Trudeau effectively demoted her in a cabinet reshuffle and this caused quite a bit of upset. She initially refused to take the first portfolio that she was offered. So she was attorney general and Justice minister, Mr. to try to move her to indigenous services, which she climbed she eventually ended up at veterans affairs, and she shortly afterwards resigned. What has Mr. Trudeau said about this mister Suto and also his adviser Mr. buck who gave testimony to the Canadian House of Commons. Have both said that they did not try to force miss was able to make any kind of decision. They just asked her the independent advice and get a second opinion on her decision because they thought it was really important case lots of jobs are at stake. Mr. Trudeau has insisted he spoke to journalists day after Mr Bush gave testimony he insisted. That he was only ever trying to defend jobs as all he's ever tried to do and nine thousand jobs is really quite a lot of jobs to be lost. I know you've been wanting to hear from me directly on the SNC Lebanon issue. I've taken time to review the testimony to reflect on what has happened over the past months and on what our next steps should be. What has become clear through the various testimonies is that over the past months? There was an erosion of trust between my office. And specifically my former principal secretary and the former minister of Justice and attorney general I was not aware of that erosion of trust does prime minister and leader of the federal ministry. I should've been in regards to standing up for jobs and defending the integrity of our rule of law. I continue to say that there was no inappropriate pressure. Bearing in mind that elections are coming up in October. How has this all gone down with Canadian voters rudely, they don't like it? This Troodos popularity has taken a hit. And it's not looking all that good for him the elections approach. However in Quebec the province. Montreal is people are less bothered about this. And actually his popularity's is kinda held up in Quebec, they're a little more sympathetic to the view that jobs were at stake around three thousand of those nine thousand jobs in Quebec. And they are less unhappy with MRs Troodos alleged actions. Ravi you've written that Mr. Trudeau is partly to blame for setting impossibly high standards. Can you explain what you mean? Yeah. I mean, there's a couple of things there. I think first of all what needs to go back and understand why he won and how he won the election in two thousand thirteen to become prime minister, we need to remember that Mr. wasn't actually expected to win. He was in third place turning to other party leaders and play the Blinder in the campaign and suddenly became. Came prime minister with a massive majority. And I think the first mistake they made was to misunderstand their mandate. They thought the massive majority meant they had licensed to invoke a massive program of change in fact, because they went by surprise by good fortune in that voters had got fed up with the incumbent Stephen Harper. They didn't realize there was a bit of a delicate balance to achieve their the second bit was they one of the back of a progressive agenda. Mr. Trudeau had a great brand he sold himself as a modern politician whose advertising a more kind a more gentle immoral open way of governing and dean with politics rather than the very fractious way. Things are done in many other places including at times in Canada. But by holdings of that standard. He also needs to meet that Senator in government now for the first few years that kind of words he did very well on certain policy issues. He accepted twenty five thousand Syrian refugees into the country from the war, which is a very popular mid both within Canada and in June. Nationally, but further into government, he made some missteps party. I would argue because of the hubris I came with that stunning election victory. First of all he started to do things that flew in the face of that cleaner than clean impression. He was giving for example in twenty-six fell foul of ethics rules for taking a private family holiday on the private island of the con, the billionaire religious leaders not only did that contravene the rules in place for politicians. But it just looked really bad. It looked very elitist. When he told the world that he was anything. But similarly in terms of the people who put in place around him, Amy mentioned Gerald butts who's as close as adviser, but Mr. bus was also his best friend. They know each other for thirty years they met at McGill University and invariably when you put your best friend in your office as your closest advisor, even the smartest person in the world will find it impossible to separate the personal and the professional. And that was certainly impression given and that chumminess once again went to undercut pretty severely, the progressive agenda that open of politics that he advertised when he campaigned for office, and indeed nearly years of his tenure so you've already touched on this a bit, but looking towards the next election, and how he starting to campaign now, what would you say are has notable achievements, and what are his failures while a couple of things. I mean, he has achieved things I talked with the Syrian refugee policy. He's also legalized cannabis which was a big campaign promise of his and he certainly tried to create a different impression of how poses can be done. But if you count all the things where he failed in the city meet the targets, he said, they include reforming the electoral system. He hasn't done that finding a way of building a pipeline from the oil signs of northern Alberta to the Pacific coast of BC. He has done that reconciling relations with indigenous populations. He hasn't achieved that so they're a litany of these things where he set. Very vicious goals, and he just didn't achieved. And so I think unfortunately, while he has made some serious achievements. Such as renegotiate NAFTA agreement with Donald Trump. They're also number failures that his opponents will hold against them. And how well placed is Canada's opposition to capitalize on Mr. Trudeau's weaknesses. Well, go into the election. I think that's one of actually his advantages. So eighty mentioned that Mr. Trudeau's poll numbers of taking a hit. And yet the liberal government the liberal party, which he leads still is more or less neck and neck with the obstinate conservatives, and I think one of the things that he has to best advantage is the fact that his opposition rivals are relatively new leaders in their own, right? And they suffer from their own credibility issues. So Andrea sherr of the conservatives and the leftist NDP's Jagmeet Singh are both quite noon to the job. And they too are having some issues around trying to prove to the public that there are credible alternative. So in terms of how well the opposition can capitalize on it. They're doing the best to make sure this as in the news there. Making sure that it's very hard for the government to talk about anything else. Every press conference at happens invariably, the tension terms to this topic around the essence see Lebanon scandal and the resignation so it's very hard to change the Genda. However, the weakness of the opposition does give Mr. to who remains a very charming character and someone who can certainly connect with people gives them a plausible chance going into the election. So Amy what happens with the SNC level in case after this? We could you will rape with decision was not offer the prosecution agreement which means they have to go to trial. So there's already a hearing underway and a criminal trial will probably happen within an ear. Yes. Data what AB said, although wasn't able to make sure this is going to trawl from what it seems the political stray hasn't ended a lot of pressure on the top civil servant in Canada. Who's also been drawn into the affair and his role there further questions the opposition is raising about whether they'll process of how cases like this handled is inappropriate. And whether in fact. An independent third party should Judy Kate over the process. So the politics is obviously very strong and carrying on. And the opposite is gonna do their best to make sure this stays in the headlines. And of course, our media colleagues are watching very closely in Canada too.
Who is Gerald Butts? And what happens now?
"His resignation, the typical political scandal narrative swirled around Gerald butts, a political stunt up from Ottawa one of the prime minister's most trusted advisers, a longtime friend Gerald butts has resigned amid allegations the prime minister's office interfered to help Quebec engineering giant SNC loveline avoid a criminal prosecution statement butts flato denied any wrongdoing saying the allegations have become a distraction from the prime minister and the government's work. So he stepping aside except Jerry butts, isn't your typical political staffer resignation not at all as much as this move will dominate headlines all week. And of course, it indicates that the SNC level and scandal is probably going to get a lot worse before it gets better. The most interesting story from this is about a break-up. You see Justin Trudeau has never won anything without Jerry butts. And now he's got an election in eight months and butts walked away from his partner and his friend at the time. He was needed more than ever. So why? Who is the man that every insider on the hill has used as an unnamed source at one point or another how much Justin Trudeau's policy came from him. What will the prime minister of Canada do now without his right hand, man. I'm Jordan heath Rawlings. And this is the big story Holwell's is a senior writer at Maclean's. He knows more about the personal relationships at play in politics than anybody on parliament health. Paul who is jailed butts. He was until. Minister's principal secretary, which is which is a job title looking to have many meanings over time. He was the prime minister's right hand Ranya was his right hand since long before he was the prime minister he co managed the campaign in twenty fifteen. He went to McGill University Justin Trudeau in the nineties and they've been nearly inseparable ever since. I mean, I I was hearing rumors guesswork from people who the both of them better than I nearly twenty years ago. Just try to prime minister Sherry butts wants to make up and he did it and then he walked away. Yeah. He there is around town that Jerry butts doesn't have hurt in the job as much lately as he had those rumors are from before Christmas from last autumn. And so to some extent as amazing is not a huge surprise. This is not somebody who was in the middle of new adventures and was looking forward to the next grade accomplishment. There was there was a sense. That but says been a little listless and not not as deeply engaged with files as as yet been for. That's kind of interesting because the first thing that everybody went to is the timing and the relationship to the scandal you're saying that that this might have been brewing for some time. Well, it's pretty clear that the scandal has something to do with it. But it's easier to get someone to give up on a job, if they are have already in toying with the idea, you know, and and a lot of quite reasonably a lot of speculation a lot of the reaction to the announcement of his resignation was people say, well, look if he's done nothing wrong. Then why is he quit if you know if there's no fire than wildest smoke. And I think it's possible that possible we'll find out, but that the resignation was kind of an expression of to hell with this. I don't need. I you know, I made my best friend minister he's been prime minister for three years. I was in all the meetings. I was at dinner with Barack Obama off I go, you know, there's still there's still way more unanswered than. Answered questions around the sessions, he level and business. So I'm hesitant to speculate with great certainty, but that's a that's a looking supposition. What was to the best of your knowledge people around the hill. Anyway, what was their working relationship lake? How how close were they I I mean, I know they were really good friends. But but how did it work between them important decisions were made by the prime minister is chief of staff, Katie Telford and its principal secretary Gerald butts all three of them together in meetings that they would have a few times a day. And you know, sometimes the the circle would be extended is probably ten or a dozen people who would be frequent make frequent appearances at those meetings. But if they were all in the same city together and Telford or would never be absent from those big decision. They were at least as necessary to the process was the prime minister. Maybe who is he is a guy if you spent any time with them, you hang out with them. Remember the first time you met him. I don't remember the first time I met him. But I'll tell you an early extended. That a time. I spent with him was on a big maybe both in the Arctic for a week in probably two thousand eight why the hell did that happen? Because even Harper was would have the Canadian forces do annual sovereignty patrols in Arctic waters. Right. And I was interested in that as a journalist. He's coming Stephen Harper throw budget that point was the head of the World Wildlife federation for Canada, and he was interested in it for climate change. And so I asked the harbor PM. Would you put me on his boat? And when I got there Jerry was there, and so he and I spent a week on the deck of a Canadian navy boat in the art looking at icebergs, and what was he lying? What struck you about him? He he's a low T. He's not emotionally demonstrative. He is friendly to everybody he encounters. He is not nearly as sort of confrontational and abrasive in person as us on Twitter where he's very act and where. Since long before the election every night. He would cheerfully Perec journalists on on his perception of the flaws in their reporting and analysis, which is when I had a bit of a falling. But in person he seeks agreement rather than confrontation. He doesn't pull rank particularly he doesn't say, you know, look, I'm I'm Justin Trudeau in. You're not his competitive advantage in history comes to the fact that when when else these he's in the room until recently, he wasn't room with the leader with the prime minister. And so he he gets the last say, but in the moment, he doesn't he's not look looks for fights. There's been a ton of discussion since he resigned about him kind of being the man behind the curtain when it comes to Justin Trudeau. Do you have a sense of how much power he wielded there? And how many how much of of Trudeau's actions kind of came from him, or is that just kind of the typical stereotype people tend to exaggerate the roles of left tenants for people who are. Supporters or members of government. It's a way to criticize the leader with criticized leader, criticized the people around and for Ponant of the government. It is a handy way to make it look like the prime minister staffed himself up with monsters as having many times with conservative and liberal prime ministers people used to claim that Stephen Harper was we're in for a university of how profit and Tom Flanagan and then for the last seven years. Harper was prime minister was was well known that he wasn't even speaking time finding his angry. He didn't need the supposed send galley was controlling. Similarly, look, I expect that Justin Trudeau will be able to function as prime minister for the rest of this calendar year without without journal butts around, but even people in the gone, even people whose future was bound up with Justin Trudeau's continued electoral success would complain about the extent to which biggest then get made until Jerry butts got around to getting the file and and the decision. This government is not a super fast that decision. And since the beginning large part of perceived reason for that is that Jerry butts and or Tito for half to personally find off on every important decision. And so there was just this huge bottleneck. It was not a discentralising when he came to power Justin Trudeau announced that cabinet government cabinet is none other words ministers have power to make their own decisions. Everything I hear says that hasn't been true you've covered a lot of governments. Do you have a sense of how rare it is for it to be structured that way and decisions to made like that? It is everyone complains about excessive power in in five ministries EM Brodie who was chief of staff to Stephen Harper for a while. We're really interesting book that outlines all the reasons why that's kinda needs to be the case. Why important decisions have to go through the? But I mean, there could be six or eight people who make those decisions the definition of what is the decision. So important that it has to go through the pm couldn't does change from government to government and the combination of very elevated executive decision. Making power in the hands of prime ministers to principal tenants, and the very close personal relationship. It's not unprecedented. But it's very it's very novel. I mean chief of staff John tape phone after back city Christian and Peltier went to seize up together, you know, in the stone age, and so there there have been cases where personal relationship translates to a functional relationship in office. But Harper was not buddies with any of his chief of staff, so if a bit of a pendulum, and and and it can it can go both ways. Do we have a sense yet
"mcgill university" Discussed on Bulletproof Radio
"So if you wanna know exactly what's going on inside that biology. So that you can have better control of it. You better be paying attention amount of contra. And here's a guy who's paid more attention to those little bastards than anyone else. I know Martin welcome to the show. Thank you. They've it's really up desert to be here. All right. I gotta ask you has anyone ever called Maya contract little masters in your experience before I don't think. So I think that's the first time. I hear that. All right. I wanna know Martin. How the heck did you get so interested in might Akande of all the things you you could have done. I was a an undergrad student in physiology and at McGill University in Montreal. And I really was hoping to understand, you know, why that some people just stay healthy for very long time, and some other people just tend to get sick all the time. And I knew I guess maybe from personal experience, and my mom is it seemed to matter, you know, how people felt and that would influence their health and some physiological functions. We all have experience about you know, feeling not so good. And then, you know, being more vulnerable to getting a cold, and there's actually really good research on that. So when you feel stressed or anxious, you're more likely to get sick, correct? Okay. Good deal. And you wanted to figure out what the heck is going on there. Why? Yes. So as I was stupid. I thought, you know, surely, I'm going to learn about these things, you know, psycho neuro endocrinology, how the the psychological factors affect the hormones in effect, the body and and. I was a student. It would the the fashioned this at that time was, you know, sell leader physiology..
The Hypatia Stone, the strangest rock on Earth
"Might be an order whether you want to learn the guitar or you're trying to get good at swing dancing today. I've got a tip for how you can learn skills faster with a fifteen minute workout. I seriously wonder if this applies for video games to. Oh. I bet it does. Because he had us your thumbs. That's a motor skill. Yeah. I mean, any excuse to do a workout, you know, an excuse to play video games. It's more like it. This research comes from Mark rogue. He's an assistant professor at the school of physical and occupational therapy at McGill University in Canada, and he's done a lot of research into win. And how hard you should exercise to boost your learning in his newest study, he looked into what's going on in the brains of people who perform a post practice workout for the study twenty-five participants performed a computer tracking task that involved using a joystick to keep cursor inside of a moving target on the screen. Sounds like a video game to me. The joystick was a dynamo monitor which means it works by measuring how much you squeeze the grip of your hand. Instead of measuring which direction you tilt it half. The participants did fifteen minutes of high intensity interval training on a stationary bike. Well, the other half just hung out. Then participants came back to try that computer task eight hours later and again, twenty four hours later while all of this was going on the participants wore electro encephalopathy or e g sensors and electro, my Agassi or EM G sensors those. Sensors measured their brain and muscle activity. And when they comb through the data, researchers found that those who had exercised were better at performing the tracking task twenty four hours later, and they had quieter more efficient brain activity during the task than those who had an exercised they believe this was because exercise had made the connections between and within the two brain hemispheres more efficient overall one of the senior authors on the paper said, quote, what this means in concrete terms is that exercise may help free up part of your brain to do other things, unquote. And by the way, there wasn't much of a difference in performance between the two groups after eight hours the exercisers performed significantly better. Only after they'd gotten a good night's sleep twenty four hours later this suggests that sleep can interact with exercise to optimize the consolidation of motor memories, the takeaways clear, if you're learning a new skill make sure to include exercise is a fundamental part of your practice session. It the gym ride your bike or gopher a run after you learn something new, and of course, get a good. Good night's sleep. And you may learn faster than you'd ever believe you could I'm going to be unstoppable and smash brothers. Ultimate? Well, you have to work out. I don't have to work out after. Yes. Clearly, I haven't worked out learning.
"Hunger Hormone" Ghrelin Aids Overindulgence
"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All TIs the season for over eating, but it's not just your lack of willpower or the omnipresent holiday treats. No, you can lay some of the blame on guerrillan because new study shows that gremlin the hormone that makes you hungry also makes food and food smells irresistibly appealing. The finding appears in the journal cell reports grill in is produced in the stomach, and it's levels rise before your habitual mealtimes. And after you have an Eaton for an extended period. So the hormone reminds you to put something in your belly. Injecting rats with grilling encourages them to eat and people who receive a dose of Groen, grab extra helping the buffet. But how does the hormone induced overindulgence defined out researchers at McGill University trained volunteers to associate random images with the smell of food. For example, every time they saw a tree they might get a whiff of. Freshly baked bread at the same time, some of the subjects received gremlin others got only sailing the volunteers were then ushered into an FM Mariah machine where the researchers watched their brains to see which parts got turned on by different images. Seems that in subjects under the influence of Gretl in the brain region involved in pleasure and reward lit up only when the volunteers viewed the images they associated with food aromas, their brain pleasure centers were disinterested in images that had not been paired with food smells, also one. Participants were then asked to rate the pleasantness of the images, the ones who'd been exposed to grill in gave higher grades to the food associated pictures. Then did folks who got no grilling. So when visions of sugar plums or the smell of apple pie, get your stomach growl. And you can think or blame your grilling as you reach for a fork, thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
6 arrested on sex charges at Toronto all-boys school highlighting bigger issues
"Late last week disturbing. News broke about alleged assaults sexual assaults at Saint Michael's college. School in Toronto and elite Toronto high school is being rocked by a sexual assault investigation. The act apparently videotaped and then exchange stunning morning from police to a race any copies or face child pornography charges. Toronto police they're now investigating multiple incidents at the private boys school one of those incidents. It reportedly involved members of the football team and video it reportedly shows a group of boys holding down another student and allegedly sexually assaulting him with what appears to be a broom handle this video. It was reportedly shared on social media on Sunday the school announced it would carry out an independent examination of its culture. And it's values and is shocking. As the story is when I heard it. It was also really familiar university wants to know what really happened. During the alleged hazing ritual back in two thousand five something similar happened at McGill University. When I was studying dursey mccune was an eighteen year old rookie football pair at the time, and is part of an initiation he was sexually assaulted with a broom handle that incident. It also knighted a debate about assault sexual assault and hazing in sports today. I'm gonna talk with Darcy what happened to him. And what if anything has changed since our tried to be the voice of reason, the rookie locker room just letting them know that there's no way that the stupid enough to do that. I mean, they were smart enough to get into this university. So why would they think that that's okay that's coming up on front burner? Hi, I'm Dr McEwen from Toronto Ontario. I want to start in two thousand five when you were eighteen starting to attend McGill University and play for the football team. Why why did you choose to go to McGill in the first place? You know, the university had a great reputation they had actively recruited me along with some other schools, and they really show that they wanted me and how I'd fit in. And you know, there was a certain allure about playing on the same field as the Alouette was really excited to to try to start my versity critter. Can you? Tell me about the beginning of the season. What what was it like being on the football team? It was definitely intimidating coming in because I never been in that type of university facility as a player so you walking through and they're all these first athletes near there about a week or two before any of the other students are for training camp. So everyone there has a purpose. The staff are all fully devoted to training camps. And the players don't have to worry about classes there. The just there to get you know, to learn the plays to get the reps in to get back into football mode, and mentally you could maybe you feel that there's bit of a bigger jump between, you know, your friends in high school and you're playing with on the team they're versus you're playing with on the university level. You know, some post grads could be close at thirty injury eighteen what was it dynamically in those first few weeks? Was there anything that was happening there that made you feel uncomfortable as a rookie player coming in his rookie? You had to. Earn your spot and rookies all new players were in separate locker rooms you weren't allowed in the returning player or what would become the team locker room. We were singled out as rookies, you know, people a rookie can wait. I'm I I need to get taped. I in that kind of thing. So, you know. Trying to shift us a bit more to being second class citizens. Did you did you feel like this was abnormal or in those first few weeks? Are you just kind of going along with it thinking that this is just part of the course, I noted as long as I could you know, there were threats about initiation night and all these things blasting around. And I tried to be the voice of reason, the rookie locker room just letting them know that you know, they're just running their mouths. There's no way that the stupid enough to do that any of that type of stuff. I mean, they were smart enough to get into this university. So why would they think that that's okay? I kind of blew off until it got to a point where in between practices when we're at the lunch..
Judge praises U.S. efforts in reuniting migrant families
"WNYC stick around. We'll be right back after the news. Live from NPR, news in Washington I'm Shay Stevens President Trump is ramping up the rhetoric can the ongoing US trade. Dispute with China NPR's Windsor Johnston reports, that Trump now says he's willing to impose tariffs on all Chinese. Imports Trump is threatening to slap duties on roughly five, hundred billion dollars in Chinese goods the latest warning comes after the two countries levied tariffs on thirty four billion dollars worth, of each other's exports, earlier, this month Andrea Bjorklund and international trade expert, at McGill University says the. Trade impasse is stirring up, global markets there have been some sell off worldwide and stock markets have fallen apparently on fears of the trade battle the, US market has been remarkably resilient up to now but it isn't clear how long that will last when asked about the. Stock market potentially falling in response to larger. Scale tariffs the president said quote if It does it does Windsor Johnston NPR news Wall Street stocks fell slightly Friday due to strong earnings reports Michael Collins lawyer, acknowledges that his client secretly recorded Donald Trump talking about paying a former playboy model claiming she had. An affair with Trump in two thousand, six as first reported by the New York Times Cohen apparently made. The take two months before the election in two thousand, sixteen Cohen was Trump's personal attorney until about. Two months ago he's also the man who paid another woman suing Trump for, saying they never had, an, affair A. Federal judge says. The government is making great progress toward meeting his deadline for their reunion of thousands of migrant children and families separated at the, US Mexico border Julie small reports from San Diego four hundred and fifty families were reunited this week that's a jump of about one hundred and just. A day and the number of parents cleared to receive their children's soon has climbed to nearly one thousand US district judge Dana Subroto said he was very impressed with. The government's effort to meet a. Deadline next week to reunite all the families earlier this week the government said they had a total. Of two. Thousand five hundred. Fifty, one children in custody who had been separated from apparent but attorneys with. The American Civil Liberties union wanna know why the government believes, nine hundred other parents may not be eligible to get their children back attorneys also want to talk to more than one hundred people who declined to be reunited with a child to make sure they fully understand their rights for NPR news I'm Julie small in San Diego German. Police are seeking a motive for ninth attack on a bus in the northern city of Luebeck Check as NPR's Martin Kosti reports several people were injured before the suspect was overpowered and arrested witnesses in the local newspaper Lubeck say that the. Assailant used a kitchen knife to attack people that twelve people were slightly injured and two were seriously injured including one man who apparently was stabbed in the chest just. At the moment when he stood. Up to give his seat to an elderly woman NPR's Martin custody reporting you're listening to NPR news Hundreds of people gathered outside a tourism business that at a church. Branson Missouri last night to honor the victims of a duck book. Accident on, a local lake seventeen people including the driver were killed. When the vessel capsized and sank. During a storm the Republican National Committee says it will hold its next presidential nominating convention in Charlotte North Carolina the. Story from, NPR's Don gonyea the selection of Charlotte comes as no surprise as it was. The only city. Under serious consideration for the twenty twenty Republican national convention the event will take place in July or August of that year right now President Trump is the only official GOP candidate for president he's already been holding campaign, rallies the official press release described Charlotte as the place where the party renominated President Donald Trump and vice President Mike Pence the Democrats meanwhile are still choosing between three, cities for their twenty twenty Invention. Houston Miami Beach and Milwaukee Don. Gonyea NPR news Washington they Israeli military Amman say the two sides have agreed to restore calm in the Gaza Strip the announcement coming. In day after an Israeli air campaign on Gaza killed four Palestinians. Including three, HAMAs fighters the airstrikes were launched after Palestinian gunmen killed. An Israeli soldier along the Gaza. Border where they're they're sporadic protests since March Israel has accused HAMAs of orchestrating the protests as cover for militants cross-border..