5 Burst results for "Mcculloch Pitts"

"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Talking Machines

Talking Machines

12:19 min | 9 months ago

"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Talking Machines

"You are listening to talking machines Catherine Gorman Lawrence and Neil. We are again taping an episode in front of a live audience digitally recorded though on on talking machines. And if you want to be part of our live. Studio audience big quotes. You can follow us on twitter at Ti Okay. N. G. M. C. H. S. Or hit us up on the talking machines at gmail.com and our guest today for this interview on talking. Machines is Dr Terence. Annouce key doctors and thank you so much for taking the time to join us today. I really appreciate it Great to be here so we ask all of our guests the same question I. How did you get where you are? What's been your academic and industrial journey. You're also very involved in the reps conference. Tell US everything well. A wise man once told me that careers are only made retrospectively and I have no idea how he got here. There was no plan. It went through a sequence of stages starting with graduate school at Princeton in theoretical physics. From there when I finished that I for reasons that have to do with the field of physics. At the time which was a little bit more bummed I went into neuroscience so that was a post doc and then from there that's when I met. Geoffrey Hinton and had changed my life because we met him at a small seminar here in San Diego and set nineteen seventy nine. We hit it off and From that over the next few years you know blossoms the the Boehner Sheen and back prop and you know. The rest was history. Terry who you post talking with where you post talking in San Diego no no. This was a post doc at Harvard. Medical School in the Department of Neurobiology with Stephen Kofler who was widely considered to be the founder of modern neurobiology and It was an experimental post. Doc I actually recorded from neurons. Subic seventy nine. You mentioning physics. It was a little bit more bond a in some sort of connection modeling. That was also a very quiet period. That wasn't a lot going on it. Was this sort of age of classical. Ai Right you're absolutely right. This was in fact. It was the neural network winter. The seventies and it was primarily because of the failure of the perception. That's neat because you say failure of the percents on I read about that a lot. Do you really did fail. All was the men's ski paper little. What the mid ski books are in Minsk. Eighty books have killed it but was it a fair representation. Well you know it's interesting. I think that that's the myth that that book killed it but I actually think that there are other things going on and and Rosenblatt had died as well which seems pretty significant. Yes well He. He was a pioneer. But you have to understand that digital computers were regally primitive back. Then you know that even the most expensive you know the biggest computers you could buy. Don't have the power of your wristwatch today. Rosenblatt actually had to build an analog device. It a million dollars in today's dollars to build a analog device that had potentially otters driven by motors for the weight sums the learning. Wasn't it potentially because you know digital computers? Were good at logic but they were terrible. Doing a floating point is amazing so he built that at Cornell. Right that's right yeah Funded by the owner. Any case by by the time that we were getting started computers was the vaccine era. It was becoming possible. Do Simulations You know they were small-scale by today's standards but but really meant we could explorer in a way that Frank Rosenblatt couldn't so what you're saying around the perceptual and so just forbid of context for Central and sixty one. Is that right? It was fifty nine. I think it was the book but you know it was in that era of early sixty zero and so then there's this period where the digital computer actually wasn't powerful enough to do much and then digital kind of overtook and divinity but these analog machines would just now impractical from a point of view of expense. So you're saying it's less the book and more of a shift to the Digital Machine. That in those early days wasn't powerful enough to simulate the perception. Yes so I I have you know. I have a feeling that history will show that A. I was like the blind man looking under the Lamppost. His keys and someone came along and said where did you lose your keys He said well somewhere else. But this is the only place right can see. I was reading Donald BACI quote. I recently At the beginning of his book about the I which is just a fascinating area and I guess he spent a lot of his career and he did work in in the wool on radar and he was talking about the Radio Club. Which is these early Cybernet assist and the potential of the analog or digital computer to be what represented the brain and his perspective was he. He was sure it wasn't a digital computer and he wasn't sure it was an analog computer either and he thought it was kind of somewhere in between but it feels like that in between is what you're saying is that was the difficult bit to look and perhaps a police were able to look now. That's right I you know. It's I think it's being driven. This is true all science that what you cannot understand is is really determined by the tools that you have for making measurements for doing simulations in it's really only this modern era that has given us enough tools both to make progress with understanding how the brain works and also with a because of the fact that we have a tremendous amount of power now but just to go back to that early era. I think you know I once asked L. Annual you know who is at Carnegie Mellon and it was a time when Geoff Hinton was an assistant professor and I was at Johns Hopkins and I you know he was at the first fifty six meeting at Dartmouth or a I was born and I I said well. Why was it that you didn't look at the brain and for for inspiration and he said well we did. But there wasn't very much known about the at the time to help us out so we just had make doing our own and he's right. That was a era. You know the the fifties was kind of the the beginning of what we now understand about the signals in the brain. Actually potential synoptic potentials. So you know in a sense. What what he was saying was that we basically use the tools we have available the time which was basically computers but what they were good at. What were they good at? They were good at logic at rules. A binary programming. So that you know that was In a sense they were forced to do that. That's a really. WanNa come back to nine hundred seventy nine in a moment but this is an interesting context to that because of course. Vena initially was someone who spread across. Both these areas of Norbert Vena who was at mit founded cybernetics spread across both these areas of the analog and digital he did his PhD thesis on Russell and Whitehead's book but one thing I was reading about recently is there was a big falling out between Vina. I'm McCulloch Pitts. And it's sort of interesting. That Vena wasn't there at the I. E. T. in fifty six and I sometimes wonder was that more about personalities and wanting this sort of old guard to stay away because you always feel veto with someone who who bridge these worlds it. You know that's the fascinating story. I actually wrote a review of a book about Warren McCulloch came up. They were friends. They actually had had been friends yet. It has something to do with their wife's. Yeah I think the lifestyle McCullough was not line with its a side story but but I guess the point you're making which I think is an I'd like us to take us back to seventy nine and the meeting with Jeff is and I think that that's true. Despite the story between humans the real factor that drove things then was the sudden available at a t of increasing cheap digital computer. And no longer the need to do this work that Rosenblatt and McCain and others had done having to wire together a bunch of analog circuits. That you couldn't reprogram to build system. Yeah I think that was a dead. End It for the very reason you gave. Which is that you know you. It's a special purpose device. That isn't good for anything else. And and really if you're trying to explore you need the flexibility of being able to try many ideas and that's in that really is a digital simulation allows you to do you see with Aaron seventy nine so by the time. What was the picture like? In this era in seventy nine that seems like a critical period. You had the facts. You had personal machines now in effect all personal ish machines so the interesting story. My first job was at Johns Hopkins University and I was Lucky. Enough to be awarded. The Presidential Science Award Young Investigator Award from you know the the government and along with that was a grant basically and was also matching so I had to get matching funds but because of that I was able to purchase ridge computers to enrich computers which had the power of VAC seven eighties. Ulta myself and for a while had more power competing power. Thenia Tire Computer Science Department. Google of one thousand nine hundred seventy nine. That's that's right but it really. You needed it because we were doing round the clock simulations that was the era of net. Talk which made a big splash and was tell us about net talk. Because it's it's a I I know what an inspiration to people who were an inspiration to me so tell us more about net dot net tool. Well it arose from a visit I made to Princeton and a graduate student. Charlie Rosenberg. Who was working with George Miller? Who's a very eminent cognitive scientists language area and and so Charlie was really enthusiastic about neural networks. And he asks he cannot come do a summer project site. Sure and you know he was studying language. So he's he wanted to do a language network and you know we cast around for a problem. You know a small network might be able to make some progress on what were the architectures of what year is this and what were the architects is available. It was eighty five. I think summer of eighty five and it was. You know at that. Time is really interesting because when I visited Princeton we were doing bonus jeans but by the time that he showed up. Jeff had with Dave Rummelhart had just broken through with backdrop which was an order of magnitude. Faster meant we could simulate a much bigger network. Well the problem we picked out was in phonology which is how do you pronounce words. And we we. I remember going to the library. And there was a two hundred and fifty page book with filled with rules and exceptions to the rules and rules for the exceptions because English is a very irregular language and there are a lot of different influences and that notion was kind of driven by logic that was the approach to language. Let's break language down into its which was the flavor of the decade double decade. Yeah no that was the era of Chomsky and Syntax. It was clear that you know. Rule based descriptions of something regular English was really complex and I actually remember Jeff visiting during the summer and telling us. We're crazy that this is much too difficult a problem. It's a real role problem and that we should MRIs pronounciation. So we're going to build a neural network to look it. Tax Restaurant pronounced text to speech text. Which is the problem is it. The world's first text to speech system no In fact there were systems. That are out there. We bought deck talk actually which allowed us to actually hear the output of talk which made it can't come alive.

Frank Rosenblatt Princeton Jeff Geoffrey Hinton Norbert Vena San Diego twitter Catherine Gorman Lawrence Charlie Rosenberg Dr Terence Subic N. G. M. C. H. S. Harvard Minsk Warren McCulloch Thenia Tire Computer Science D Johns Hopkins University Boehner Sheen
The Evolution of ML  and Furry Little Animals

Talking Machines

08:58 min | 9 months ago

The Evolution of ML and Furry Little Animals

"You are listening to talking machines Catherine Gorman Lawrence and Neil. We are again taping an episode in front of a live audience digitally recorded though on on talking machines. And if you want to be part of our live. Studio audience big quotes. You can follow us on twitter at Ti Okay. N. G. M. C. H. S. Or hit us up on the talking machines at gmail.com and our guest today for this interview on talking. Machines is Dr Terence. Annouce key doctors and thank you so much for taking the time to join us today. I really appreciate it Great to be here so we ask all of our guests the same question I. How did you get where you are? What's been your academic and industrial journey. You're also very involved in the reps conference. Tell US everything well. A wise man once told me that careers are only made retrospectively and I have no idea how he got here. There was no plan. It went through a sequence of stages starting with graduate school at Princeton in theoretical physics. From there when I finished that I for reasons that have to do with the field of physics. At the time which was a little bit more bummed I went into neuroscience so that was a post doc and then from there that's when I met. Geoffrey Hinton and had changed my life because we met him at a small seminar here in San Diego and set nineteen seventy nine. We hit it off and From that over the next few years you know blossoms the the Boehner Sheen and back prop and you know. The rest was history. Terry who you post talking with where you post talking in San Diego no no. This was a post doc at Harvard. Medical School in the Department of Neurobiology with Stephen Kofler who was widely considered to be the founder of modern neurobiology and It was an experimental post. Doc I actually recorded from neurons. Subic seventy nine. You mentioning physics. It was a little bit more bond a in some sort of connection modeling. That was also a very quiet period. That wasn't a lot going on it. Was this sort of age of classical. Ai Right you're absolutely right. This was in fact. It was the neural network winter. The seventies and it was primarily because of the failure of the perception. That's neat because you say failure of the percents on I read about that a lot. Do you really did fail. All was the men's ski paper little. What the mid ski books are in Minsk. Eighty books have killed it but was it a fair representation. Well you know it's interesting. I think that that's the myth that that book killed it but I actually think that there are other things going on and and Rosenblatt had died as well which seems pretty significant. Yes well He. He was a pioneer. But you have to understand that digital computers were regally primitive back. Then you know that even the most expensive you know the biggest computers you could buy. Don't have the power of your wristwatch today. Rosenblatt actually had to build an analog device. It a million dollars in today's dollars to build a analog device that had potentially otters driven by motors for the weight sums the learning. Wasn't it potentially because you know digital computers? Were good at logic but they were terrible. Doing a floating point is amazing so he built that at Cornell. Right that's right yeah Funded by the owner. Any case by by the time that we were getting started computers was the vaccine era. It was becoming possible. Do Simulations You know they were small-scale by today's standards but but really meant we could explorer in a way that Frank Rosenblatt couldn't so what you're saying around the perceptual and so just forbid of context for Central and sixty one. Is that right? It was fifty nine. I think it was the book but you know it was in that era of early sixty zero and so then there's this period where the digital computer actually wasn't powerful enough to do much and then digital kind of overtook and divinity but these analog machines would just now impractical from a point of view of expense. So you're saying it's less the book and more of a shift to the Digital Machine. That in those early days wasn't powerful enough to simulate the perception. Yes so I I have you know. I have a feeling that history will show that A. I was like the blind man looking under the Lamppost. His keys and someone came along and said where did you lose your keys He said well somewhere else. But this is the only place right can see. I was reading Donald BACI quote. I recently At the beginning of his book about the I which is just a fascinating area and I guess he spent a lot of his career and he did work in in the wool on radar and he was talking about the Radio Club. Which is these early Cybernet assist and the potential of the analog or digital computer to be what represented the brain and his perspective was he. He was sure it wasn't a digital computer and he wasn't sure it was an analog computer either and he thought it was kind of somewhere in between but it feels like that in between is what you're saying is that was the difficult bit to look and perhaps a police were able to look now. That's right I you know. It's I think it's being driven. This is true all science that what you cannot understand is is really determined by the tools that you have for making measurements for doing simulations in it's really only this modern era that has given us enough tools both to make progress with understanding how the brain works and also with a because of the fact that we have a tremendous amount of power now but just to go back to that early era. I think you know I once asked L. Annual you know who is at Carnegie Mellon and it was a time when Geoff Hinton was an assistant professor and I was at Johns Hopkins and I you know he was at the first fifty six meeting at Dartmouth or a I was born and I I said well. Why was it that you didn't look at the brain and for for inspiration and he said well we did. But there wasn't very much known about the at the time to help us out so we just had make doing our own and he's right. That was a era. You know the the fifties was kind of the the beginning of what we now understand about the signals in the brain. Actually potential synoptic potentials. So you know in a sense. What what he was saying was that we basically use the tools we have available the time which was basically computers but what they were good at. What were they good at? They were good at logic at rules. A binary programming. So that you know that was In a sense they were forced to do that. That's a really. WanNa come back to nine hundred seventy nine in a moment but this is an interesting context to that because of course. Vena initially was someone who spread across. Both these areas of Norbert Vena who was at mit founded cybernetics spread across both these areas of the analog and digital he did his PhD thesis on Russell and Whitehead's book but one thing I was reading about recently is there was a big falling out between Vina. I'm McCulloch Pitts. And it's sort of interesting. That Vena wasn't there at the I. E. T. in fifty six and I sometimes wonder was that more about personalities and wanting this sort of old guard to stay away because you always feel veto with someone who who bridge these worlds it. You know that's the fascinating story. I actually wrote a review of a book about Warren McCulloch came up. They were friends. They actually had had been friends yet. It has something to do with their wife's. Yeah I think the lifestyle McCullough was not line with its a side story but but I guess the point you're making which I think is an I'd like us to take us back to seventy nine and the meeting with Jeff is and I think that that's true. Despite the story between humans the real factor that drove things then was the sudden available at a t of increasing cheap digital computer. And no longer the need to do this work that Rosenblatt and McCain and others had done having to wire together a bunch of analog circuits. That you couldn't reprogram to build system. Yeah I think that was a dead. End It for the very reason you gave. Which is that you know you. It's a special purpose device. That isn't good for anything else. And and really if you're trying to explore you need the flexibility of being able to try many ideas and that's in that really is a digital simulation allows you to

Frank Rosenblatt Geoffrey Hinton San Diego Norbert Vena Twitter Catherine Gorman Lawrence Dr Terence Subic N. G. M. C. H. S. Harvard Minsk Boehner Sheen Warren Mcculloch Princeton Cornell Donald Baci Terry Mcculloch Pitts
"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio

C-SPAN Radio

12:15 min | 1 year ago

"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio

"In the cloud. I'm in VR where we're gonna find you. I have nothing to add what David said in reply to that question. I think I think it's important just to take a deep breath. Remind ourselves. How unbelievably complex sprains are. Late as counts as eighty six billion neurons, but. There's some reason to think that the Cleal cells and the Astra sites which outnumber the neurons are playing an important role in cognition. If they are we've been studying the phone system all the time while leaving the the communicators out of the picture, the brain, maybe. When I started out thinking about brains. I had this. Very simple elegant wonderful model of the McCulloch Pitts logical neuro, oh, I can understand how this works. And I didn't want to see it get much more complicated, and it's become much more complicated by orders of magnitude. And when you start realizing that it might even turn out that. Viruses, play a role in modulating, our brains gonna realize that we we may have laughably impoverished view, the actual dynamics of a human brain. It's all in the quantum superposition stand. No it is. I draw the line. Vecchi Ramakrishnan is the president of the Royal Society and noblest embolic for the Reivers on a question about evolution. Is the volition of carbon based intelligence simply catalysts, the dilution of silicon based intelligence. One that can survive greater streams of environment and does have Aleutian even care about intelligence and speaking of viruses. In one of his interviews with me, he noted that the MARCY, which is an eminent biological lab where he's been deputy director said we make viruses. People earning is is opaque. We can't go that we have to know every step of the way in check it. And right now, it's problem. Well, the the problem of blackbox science hasn't been mentioned before. But you basically raise it here. I think that's important. We're at the point now where thanks to the deep learning technologies. We can delegate to black boxes. Finding the patterns in all sorts of very large data sets, and we don't know really how systems work, but we were making oracles and trusting them, and we can even. Have proofs that they're trustworthy that? They will give very good answers. But this means a demonstration in the role of the individual conscious scientists and also the distribution we're now moving away from the the great scientists the individual, and we're we're beginning to. Deal with. Let's face it distributed understanding where no one person understands the results, but the team in a certain important sense. I think that's a good thing. It's changing the whole structure of of science, and it may do the same thing with philosophy where the idea of of an intelligent designer whether it's a designer of a theory or or the discover of scientific. Model that will be a role. It is distributed that well, they might have to just discontinue the Nobel prize. For instance, the point about evolution is a is an interesting one. I mean, it's commonplace at least in humans that force of biological. Evolution is now largely being supplanted by the force of cultural evolution, which moves so fast that the development of language and writing and computers and so on, but it wouldn't surprise me if cultural evolution will continue to be a fullest. But if this vision of AI is right at some point cultural evolution itself. Maybe supplanted by a different kind of odd official design. Evolution where systems move ahead by leaps and bounds by humans, designing artificial intelligences, which design ever greater out official intelligences and so on and that could be a kind of illusion which which supplants which greatly outstrips even ordinary cultural. Evolution and the question is is that the future evolution of humanity? I mean, when do you is the future evolution of wholly different species? That is in fact, the view that sue Blackmore argues for that. Human hosts will no longer be necessary for memes to evolve and we'll have when she calls teams, which are sort of technologically hosted memes. If you just want to have an example of how that might work. Right now. There are algorithms that are being used to predict the popularity of popular songs. They're getting better. The day may come. We're son goes platinum would without ever having been heard by a human being. That's the best takeaway for the evening. I'm all for the I'm all for the future wherever conscious of the song, and someone's actually experiencing it because that's that's where this this team actually gets to have some value to someone. But. Sam champion. I just wanted to I'm going to curate the questions from the audience, which is to say, I'm not going to create it at all. We're just going to have a Mike running around if you are in possession of a Mike you are ago for question high. Okay. Janna Levin director of sciences at the pioneer works, but just hosting this event. Okay. Just just to make a comment. Anyone who has her hand up? You can give them a Mike while we're listening to the questions. So my question, I guess kind of going off of what you were just saying that. Is there any regulation happening among the US government or any government? Dan, you mentioned that elder care is going to become a, you know, is going to take over elder care. I know that already there's sex robots that are taking over so much of sadly of people's lives. Kind of like what keeps this from fire allowing into this evolution where human beings don't matter anymore. So is there any regulation, and what can we regular people do to make sure that it doesn't go in that direction? It's a good question. There's a lot. Let's say right now, there's a lot of discussion. The issue of regulating is the risks and the downsides on the ethics of they I have become extremely prominence in the in the popular discussion of the last two or three four years. Especially mean, I went to a conference in Sylmar about two years ago, which was devoted to coming up with some ethical principles for guiding. And we came up with twenty three principles. It was supposed to supposed to play some role. There's something called the partnership of on which involves some of the leading companies involved in I like, Google and Facebook and deep mind and so on supposedly coming up with some principles. I think there's also at the same time a fair. Bit of skepticism about how much difference that's actually making it easy for people to pay to pay lip service to this kind of regulation on this kind of ethical principle. But when is actually going to matter is whether it's going to be an incentive, like, a financial incentive or military incentive or some other incentive for for you know, for to be developed if people say avoid arms race, that's one of the twenty three principles. We don't want that because I'm gonna go in unpredictable ways. It's a great thing to say, but what actually happens once the Americans and Chinese around say comp. Petition possibly in say the context of a military situation. People are then going to say, well, there was this regulation from are. So in fact, I asked I talked to Mike talk West Point the military institute. A couple of years ago when I asked people, you know, what's going to be what do you think is gonna be the military's attitude towards say super intelligence, and the singularity they said, this is something we should prevent they said, no their their attitude is better American super intelligence than Chinese super intelligence. So I think it's an incredibly important question. I don't know exactly what it is an ordinary citizen can do right now. But I think thinking about this and talking about this and keeping the issue. Active in the in the public is a is a very good step. And I know there's a lot of questions I can see a lot of hands. If you have a Mike go for it. He's got a Mike Erica. Hey, this problem. I'm not sure exactly how to phrase it. And unfortunately, it might go into the hard question of consciousness. Here. Yes. So you guys have been talking about the idea of uploading your mind, or sort of translating it into another medium of the thing that doesn't really doesn't really click with me because I I'm thinking, you could clone me create another me with all of my experiences my mind, but I'm not going to be able to share awareness with that person. And I feel as if it's the same issue is saying, I'm just putting my intelligence, computer. You're racing me now and just copying someone who's going to have my memories. But the me who exists now no longer will. Exists now, no longer will in about ten minutes. Either. Why don't I try real short answer to that? Just imagine this happened, slowly, your brain is dying. And thanks to technology. You get to upload a little bit every day. And and so you you get used to the fact that more and more and more of your brain is actually residing in the cloud and interface with you and eventually your brain, your biological brain is dead and you go right on that's one of the possibilities. And if you think of it that way, it's it's like the ship of Theseus you go right on living. If if I'm ever going to upload myself. I'm going to do it that way when you're on at a time, I'll stay conscious throughout here. I am here. I am here. I am now. I'm here. Okay..

Mike Erica Nobel prize Astra David sue Blackmore official McCulloch Janna Levin Vecchi Ramakrishnan deputy director US government Sylmar Pitts Google Dan president of the Royal Society director military institute Facebook three four years
"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone

Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone

04:04 min | 1 year ago

"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone

"So let's talk a little bit about this whole AI neuro science thing, let's start out with well. How do they inform each other or fail to inform? Each other. Do you wanna start with just maybe giving us a primer of some of the important terms and principles that we need to be able to even talk about artificial intelligence that would take a week, I suppose, but if somebody's coming to your show, what kind of terms do you sort of assume they already understand. It's a changing assumption. Right. Because in the early days of the show, I would define all the terms. And I've I've found myself leaving that a lot of it to the audience assuming that they're coming in with some of this knowledge. A lot of what we talk about on the show is deep learning gladly because there has been this recent just explosion in deep learning in all sorts of industry and in neuro science. So a lot of my guests on the. Show and we explore other topics as well. But a lot of the guests on the show are exploring the the relationship between deep learning and neuroscience, and what they can gain from each other essentially, so this is a heavy topic on the show. I could give you sort of a deep learning background in the story of how that came to be if you'd like that would be a good place to start if we get a basic concept of deep learning, and then maybe we could talk about where deep learning fits into the bigger picture beautiful. Okay. So this is going to be a very abridged version of the sort of the history of depleting. And and just what it is what it means. But there's a really good book that I recommend to your listeners, and I interviewed Terry Santo ski who wrote this book called the deep learning revolution. And it really lays out the story of how we got to this point in deep learning from its founding ones, and Terri knows this stuff because he was involved in like so many steps along the way and. So many people involved in it were either from his lab or if he collaborated with them, so and it really lays this story out. Well, so I just wanted to recommend that book to your listeners. Yeah. That's on. My I wish I had time to read it list. I haven't gotten around to well, it's well written in tears, a good teacher too. So anyway, I'll send you a copy and make in guilt you into reading it. Okay. And I'll put links to it in my show notes for sure great. So just to set the context and give a little bit of background before really dive into deep learning in nineteen fifty six the term artificial intelligence rather was coined by John McCarthy during the summer conference at Dartmouth College, and this would become the famous conference called the Dartmouth College summer AI conference. This is after Walter Pitts and Warren McCulloch developed what came to be known as a McCulloch Pitts neurons, which basically is the precursor to the artificial neuron units that are used in deeply. Earning networks these days. It was also after Alan turing set the stage for computers, as we know them and machine learning as we know it, but at this time when this conference happened, most engineering and computer based solutions to solving intelligence problems were based on logical steps and manipulating symbols that humans would manually build in to the systems. Now, really where I wanna start is with what's called the perception. And I wanna start here because basically perception is deep learning without the deep part. So if we understand a perception will it's really easy to understand the deep part of the learning of you could call it. Shallow learning, I suppose, everything that's not deep learning is shallow running. Okay. So Frank Rosenblatt invented the perception in nineteen fifty seven and basically this is right. When you were being conceived. Ginger. No, I was born in nineteen fifty five fifty five. So you are maybe almost on the swing sets by this point. Not that precocious..

Dartmouth College Walter Pitts Frank Rosenblatt Terry Santo Warren McCulloch Terri John McCarthy
"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Brain Matters

Brain Matters

11:24 min | 4 years ago

"mcculloch pitts" Discussed on Brain Matters

"When you look at emergency medicine there, lots of good reasons to have EG's, but very few facilities provide for knee in the emergency department, but we can save a company or a hospital, you know, thirty percent of the cost of managing any patient in the who comes in in an altered mental state, which is four to ten percent depending on their hospital. So it can turn into billions of dollars of savings just by doing an AG and they -mergency department at turns out and the reason it makes for big savings as again, totally logical. When you see them, that things must make sense. People get he jeez already in. Emergency medicine. They get them like a week after being in the hospital, but if they got them within an hour of being in the hospital than they end up in a cheaper part of the hospital, they don't end up in the ICU and you get information that helps you manage them most cost effectively. So took time to sort of figure that out under the presumption that it would all make sense if just like paying attention to what the company does, it was see, this is a collaboration with you, said someone the you were in Prague. Can we'd like point in your life? Was that did you go back and hundred? I get to Prague. We went to your in Canada, so here's my life. Let's just do it all. I wanna hit the big points. So when I was seven, I moved to Toronto. I grew up in Toronto until I'm eighteen. Then I go to McGill at McGill University. I spent four years. They're getting a biology degree. Was there? Was there a path to being a scientists at that point, said, no. In fact, I started McGill a interested in philosophy and English, and I think I applied to McGill in the biochemistry program and I did and know what biochemistry was at all, but I knew it was hard to get into biochemistry and if you got it and I was a good student could get into my chemistry. So logic went, then I could change to anything I wanted. Nobody could tell me. No. So that was my lunch. So I, I don't think I took any street. Yeah, I guess you know, again, it chemistry. I don't think I took a proper book of history. I stay philosophy and English. I get disillusioned with philosophy not being able to answer and I learned a biology class. The Jerry Levin experiments, McCulloch Pitts what the frog tells the frogs brain, which was what I was interested in. So I became a neuroscience major and your bulgy major in the biology program. Nineteen. Ninety happens. I graduate. So nineteen ninety is cool because eastern Europe has opened up the Berlin Wall has fallen and I graduate and I have a girlfriend who had been living with for a year or two. Even she's American cheese from New York. I'm from Toronto. We both need to work so I can't work in the US. She can't work. In Canada. We wanna stay together point or something. I think you need a visa and you know a skill. Right. So let's kill. So we have none. So I heard money, but I learned to sell whiskey and gin actually. And so I sold whiskey and gin in eastern Europe, and we went t- stern Europe because the same professor run chase who gave those lectures on what the frogs I tell soprano sprain he's a snail biologist, and I said to him, I wanna go somewhere. Interesting. That's not US or Canada and do some kind of interesting Euroscience. I was a vegan at the time and so I wanted to work on invertebrates, but in really tell anybody that and he was a snail biologist. So because that's such a wrong and narrow mind, sort of view of what science was, I assume d- anyone he recommended must also be snail biologist because so I went to Prague because he suggested this person yon Boris, who is not a snail biologist. You got there. When you're surprised I was trying look for snails for like three days, snails realize, wow, they're no snails z. work. He, he's one of the early people who studied the brain and its relationship to behavior in rats. Well, known rent, behaviorist, Electrophysiology. And so. Kinda great because I had to learn all sorts of things really quickly. And because I pretended I knew what I was doing. This is a mentor give you this sort of just open it up and he used to like this guy in Prague. You should go there and it was like, sure, that sounds crepe. Yeah, he's he pointed to shelf, you said? Yeah. He wrote those books and I went on vacation and never had access to library, so I never checked the books and I never found out what I was gonna get around to it. You know, there was no internet and so on. I just never got around to figuring out what I'm borscht until I got there. I don't know if this is a lesson and I actually talked to lots of these people here about how did you become, what's the story to get there? I just think it's maybe hopeful for listeners out there to know that like there's this strange kind of random walk that happens and it's usually these influential people in your life that you just like. I like the way that they think I like that. They seem to have a lifestyle. I kind of enjoy and sort of using them as so that's exactly what happened. I would say Mike, and I would suspect in in many people's case, there's a thread that connects it. Also when I get to yon, what's cool about young bushes, he studies anything and so he can do anything. Gave me a huge list who said, what do you wanna do motor learning? Do you want to imprinting studies breading depression? What do you want? And one of the things he said was spatial memory. And so having been a philosophy student and having being familiar with cont, I was. Tonnage to learn that there were cells called play cells that actually seem as an individual cell to recognize locations in space because that was supposed to not be possible or if it was it was supposed to be some kind of inherent property of the mind. And so it was not random when I said, oh, I want to study that that was sort of obvious that I was going to study that is very familiar to me, and it had been thing. I was actually very interested in how does one come to possess knowledge? And here's an ability to possess knowledge about something that in principle doesn't exist. There's there's there's no, if you will absolute space. And yet we all agree about mostly what spaces and there were single cells that seem to know this. So that made it really easy to pick that topic for me. So sort of. Pandering, but I could smell the thing that was always interesting me and I've stayed interested in exactly that kind of thing. That's why I was a philosophy student. I wanted to understand how we come to know things that are. In principle arbitrary. Yeah, it's almost like things happen. And then if you look backwards and like just look down the path, the things that you are having the Finnity towards you're going to gravitate to. I think that's everyone's story, but it's cool then to realize like, oh my gosh, I. And what did you do with weight selling? Did you still sell gin and whiskey. In Prague to like. I soldi in Wisconsin the site to make money. I was. I didn't actually, no. I didn't have an academic family background. In fact, no any academics. So no one told me that you can go to university and get a graduate degree for free. I know that I didn't know that either. So I assumed I needed to somehow collect enough money to build afford to go to graduate school. I was only familiar with that school which I had been told was to pay for get grants. And I was like, I can't do that. And it wasn't until I had already graduated that somebody told me you can go back and they'll pay you for like an advanced degree. And that's how you do that thing that your professors are doing. Right. So surprise me if I didn't actually figure it out until I, I was there, but I sold Genoa sqi along the whole time or just like couple of years three, two, three years. You know whiskey. So again, it was one of these things I knew ended to earn money. And I thought, okay, I'm going eastern year. What can I sell in eastern Europe that actually has value, but no one here value so much and so should be something that doesn't spoil. It should be something that there's excessive and if you think about it, well, alcohol is one of those things and turns out that if you look a little bit, not so hard to find out that the liquor industry was sort of consolidating into these big conglomerates. So if you made Jin a and you bought a company that sold Jin b. and b. was the one you chose to market while you had a whole lot of Ginny that was costing you money warehouse. So I called up companies and I said, hey, I know you have a bunch of alcohol in a warehouse, and it's costing you money and you can't sell it because it will interfere with your marketing program. I'm going to this place where you don't have a marketing plan. I'll sell it for you and you give me. A five percent commission or whatever. And so that's how I did it. So I went and I said to people, do you want. One of its western. Aren't you on by whiskey? Its western did you can actions? I get the US just called places from my bedroom and acted like I had a real office and the Nudo is doing and so, and it seems to work out. Well, I wonder if that like entrepreneurship within also lead you to start this company. Probably again, it it worked and it seemed again, you could understand these things. They weren't like magical and they weren't hard just had to like try them. And so when the I wish I could find probably could find the skies name who was a pretty semi important liquor company exact who came to visit me from his offices in London, which I, of course, had no offices in Toronto, and I convince them to me at a restaurant or at a hotel lobby restaurant. He insisted on paying the ten dollars for the coffee or whatever needs looked at me said, you know. This company has much deeper pockets than you. He doesn't know.

Prague Toronto Europe US Canada McGill McGill University EG Berlin Wall New York Jerry Levin Wisconsin Jin Genoa sqi professor Mike London Boris Pitts Ginny