4 Episode results for "Maria Mitchell"
The father of climate science, my Foote!? A mystery revealed
"This is an ABC podcast. Hey heads up podcast vans. We are revisiting some families popular science fiction editions, and here's a very special one. Helena, tash ritual. Hugh, a real Kika of a detective story in this episode and intriguing her story from the history of science some suggest it's nothing short of a scandal. It was the finding that launched modern climate science, right? The carbon dioxide is a potent greenhouse gas it traps, the sun's radiation within the earth's atmosphere that is causes global warming. And the man who made this connection became supremely famous. That was the idea. This is where the controversy, begins stolen. Did it all really start with while just get cracking with the story showing? Do you? Remember the day you first heard of Eunice Newton for this woman. Who should probably be a household name? I read assured article by Sorensen about UNICEF foot John pill, and is in a story of solar energy based at the university of California Santa Barbara like an incredible story that short little paper has attracted more attention than everything else. I've ever written combined. Rice, orange in Oklahoma worked as a petroleum geologist in the oil industry for more than thirty years. I just like basically solving problems sleuthing undiscovered oil fields, you tend to get in the habit of looking for a novelist pieces of data things like that that just don't match what you've been taught and rise an obsessive collector of antique books too. I have a very big basement shells by my wife is very tolerant lily. Killaly old scientific and geological tastes are also every once in a while. I come across something historians of missed. The UNICEF foot thing was not the only time I've done something. Like that thought of like bring it alive. It'd be a one of the most incredible stories never told before she didn't necessarily define her life as a scientist. Whereas as a woman or as an artist inventor, she was all of those things Norma, recital blanking. Washington DC is the arc of and records manager at the American Association for the advancement of science, the triple AS, which kicked off back in eighty and forty eight and is the world's largest scientific society. But she didn't have a appear machine, and it she may have just presented and done. The key research that defined the foundation of modern climate science, which is just extraordinary think. Yeah. And she shouldn't realize the sort of significant of that. But we do. Yes. We certainly do because what UNICEF foot fan is foundational to everything we know today about human induced climate change. So why haven't we heard of her will you've just met the three to take in this episode of science friction? They von earth hidden story working independently from each other as it turns out. So this particular stories starts with an impulse purchase. Gather one particular book, I know the first copy I ever got would have been an impulse purchase. And I liked it. Well, enough that I started collecting them to the extent that eventually I ended up with a complete set of what was called the annual of scientific discovery published over twenty years from the middle of the nineteenth century, it summarized HEB's big scientific news and findings and in a copy Reiger his hands on the Asia lighter economics advisor, ABRAHAM LINCOLN less. David Wells had reported on presentations, given at the being conference of the American Association for the advancement of science triple s and one of them was the one by UNICEF, erred. Now Cape in mind, this was in fifty six women didn't even have the right to vote little on the case. Celebs? So her paper was actually presented by professor Henry who was the head of the Smithsonian institute at that time. This percents was professor Henry, then read a paper by fisa Henry then read a paper by MRs UNICEF foot prefacing with a few words to the effect that science was of no country and of no six the sphere of woman. Embraces not only the beautiful and the useful. But the true. There. Okay. That's a interesting way to talk about a scientific summary of presentation. And I read the rest of it. It was really only a single long paragraph describing laboratory research second stance effecting the heat of the sun's rays by MRs Eunice foot. Saratoga springs. Eighty experiments were made with an airp- and two cylinder. Receivers of the same size four inches in diameter in each place to monitor the air was exhausted from one and convinced the after both at acquired the same temperature. They were placed in the sun side by side. So UNICEF took two sealed glass containers evacuated them and then feel one with cub. Ona casted. That's just the only speak for carbon dioxide and the other with air, and then she put them in the sun. Mine vista Gatien's have had for their object to determine the different circumstances that affect the thermal. Action of the rays of light the precede from the sun. Several results have been obtained I at the IT fifty-six meeting professor Henry proceeded to list those results from her straightforward, but Graham, breaking experiment. A high affect of the defender signs. I have found to be in Cobb onic acid gas, the receiver containing the gas became itself much heated very sensibly more so than the other and on being removed. It was as many times as long in the cooling and was much longer in cooling. Now, that's an earth shattering finding literally. And this is why it just apparently clicked with her that, you know, of seal to can absorb that much more heat than the amount of CO two in the atmosphere could be one of the controls on historical climate changes. That is a critical thing. An atmosphere of that guess would give to our earth a high temperature, and if a some suppose at one period of its history the air had mixed with it. A large was the first person to discover the carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which is incredible in itself. I mean that one discovery would make her one of the stars of the world's in the scientific community. There had been quite a few papers Britain that were speculating on how much climate varied over geologic time, and what could be causing it. But then she went onto to other great things and was to describe global warming. So she entered ucsd the whole idea of paleo-climatology to now one thing she didn't do is look at methane or other hydrocarbon gases because they do the same thing. But you got it started the whim. Mba moment was if the earth had more carbon dioxide in that for than it did at that moment. It would be much hotter place seat. We know that now. But at the time how at standing was that finding how absolutely defining wasn't all it was brilliant, one of those great discoveries because people knew a lot about carbonic Gus would gas or carbon dioxide that was emitted when you a burnt coal or charcoal. But they did not have a clue as to its role in the atmosphere as far as temperature went which is the crucial discovery for current climate science and appreciate finding for the time to the second industrial revolution was getting underway and carbon dioxide levels were on a much upwards and this occurred one hundred sixty two years ago by a woman and yet we have. No since that this woman plied that role in the history of climate science will others for the big O's of Tyndall stola show. Teen Dol stole the show. That's John Tyndall. He's celebrated today as the father of modern climate science one of the leading centers in climate change research busies name. But was there a mother of modern climate science to that's missing from the story? Hold your breath before I get to that back to the scene of the triple AS meeting in eighteen fifty six that use apparently tainted with her husband Elisha, and he also presented scientific work related to who's this was a collaborative effort. He wrote about solar rays, the amount of light coming from under solar conditions, and she wrote about lab work of what impact that has on the gases almost certain they had worked together on on this research and in the American journal science they were printed back the back with authority but Unis's husband Elisha presented. He's on pipe at that trip. Elias meeting in eighteen fifty six somewhat didn't Eunice it's possible. There was a lot of pushback regarding a woman, presenting paper. Aaa S. There's a reasonable chance. It was presented by professor Henry because women were not allowed to present at that conference. Although I'm not certain that's a case that a caveat to that is AAA ES was welcoming to women in the society when we're allowed to attend our meetings as well as become members. So so in the nineteenth century women did have a place in the American Association for the advancement of science. They certainly did one woman in particular Maria. Mitchell was an astronomer, and she was the first member of AAA s and the eighteen fifties and she eventually became a triple s fellow. So that's very interesting. So it's not necessarily the case that Eunice wasn't allowed to present. Who? Cape. Hyper, it just might have been the circumstances. Because all the women were presenting papers. Is that right? Right. Right. Yes. That's right. After finding this. I I went out and acquired a copy of the proceedings volume for that convention and her husband's talk was listed by title. And he was elected to become a member of the society. And there's no mention of her at all or her paper. So I figure well, that's that's kind of interesting interesting is one way of putting it. Unis's pipe Adid get written up though in the esteemed scientific American magazine. Three weeks later, some have not only entertained, but express to the main idea that women do not possess the strength of mind necessary for scientific investigation. They made much of the fact that she was a woman a woman scientist deny prosciutto actually, had the quaint title of a scientific ladies to the nature of women's duties few them have had the leisure or the opportunities to pursue science experimentally. But those of them who have had the taste in the opportunity to do so have shown as much power and ability to investigate and observe correctly. As men. And the experiments of MRs foot before abundant evidence of the ability of women to investigate any subject with the regionality and precision. Thank you, gentlemen. I'm glad you finally worked out what we all is knew about us ELS. Okay. Well, of course, this is speaking in the twentieth century. Now Natasha Mitchell with ABC ins science, friction podcast broadcast get us. Anyway, you can and everything has changed now. Rot women. Scientists don't cop any of that stupidity anymore. Right. Yeah. Right. So this is where the plot thickens in the story of MRs Eunice foot, the something else you need to know about unis. Her husband later became head of the US patent office Washington. Her daughter became a real estate Bogle in Washington DC area and her son in law was a congressman that introduced the emancipation proclamation to abolish slavery, abolish slavery and a figure. Okay, and hang on more interested in what Eunice Steed also found out. Unicef foot had been heavily involved with some of the early important meetings of the women's suffrage movement. And the thing was in the eighteen forties. Infect Eunice was wrought at the of the action, according to science historian John pill, and she attended an extraordinary college called the Troy female seminary with scientific educa-. Nation of women was given priority. I'm price it ended at the time. The whole attitude was women have other courage, or the of the mindset do great science carriage, right? It was considered you know, to explore and create was analogous to say, captain cook. For example, then unis found his self living in Sinica foles Nick store to Elizabeth Katie Stanton, the founder of the women's movement. N-i-l-l-a-s the speculation they would distant cousins and husband Elisha, he studied law under Katie. Stanton's father was one of those people sort of like in the movie Forrest Gump, or she's always at the most interesting place of the most interesting time. So when they call the first women's rights convention in Seneca, falls, of course, UNICEF foot a towns alongside Elizabeth. Eighty Stanton who was the fourth signatory to one of the most incredible documents in the history of the women's movement. If you haven't read the Seneca falls declaration of sentiments seek eat at it's a foundational statement Eunice was its fifth signatory was her husband. Well, he was the fourth of thirty two men who signed and in the declaration. It was stated we hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women created equal that they are endowed by creator with great in eilly Annable rots that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and it goes on to say, I gather securing woman, an equal participation with men in the various trades professions and commerce will actually that was the last resolution that was brought up out the convention and considered to be the most influential on women in America. And no doubt. Influential on UNICEF's to behalves it pushed her on to do who scientific experiments. Now contained emerging over whether Unis's experiment actually would have demonstrated the relationship between carbon dioxide and global warming. She's unlikely to have oscillated the heating effect of the sun's radio station on carbon dioxide, so she might have come to the correct conclusion. But in the absence of the correct data in any case all science is each receive Florida experiments, laid the way and allow the refining of techniques. Lynn comes on the scene in Irish scientist by the name of John team dole. Hey is hugely famous for his work on climate change and four really beginning. The science of the modern science of climate change, what's he credited with funding his creditably finding but carbon dioxide gas was instrumental depending on the amounts in changing the climate. So he DEA series of experiments to prove this what were those experiments, she took a certain type of material, but would focus infrared radiation, which is what we call heat onto a carbon dioxide gas. Hey, made an absolutely K discovery in the minds of modern climate science. He's the guy that did it will with us what he's he stayed at. He's claiming not only priority. Not. But the fact that no one ever studied of these gases before three years after her papers published in the American journal science. So he says with regard to the action with regard to the action of other guesses. Not so far as I am aware possessed of a single experiment precisely one one thing you find looking at scientific literature that time period Sorensen again at retied petroleum geologist with a postal collecting historical scientific texts sighting. Previous authors was dot as consistent as what it would be today. If you were writing major research paper didn't just not site, UNICEF, foots, previous experiment. He emphatically stated in his Cape paper that the finding that he'd made had not been made before by others look at it was caught distinct. He's claim to priority with the exception of the celebrated memoir of Monsieur prey on solar radiation through the atmosphere. Nothing so far as I am aware has been published on the transmission of radiant heat through gaseous. Modi's we know nothing of the effect even air upon heat radiated from terrestrial sources was telling the truth at the time or not I I don't know that took me on a white exciting. You might say chase because nobody explored the fact that Tyndall who claim this field was totally unexplored. And he was a now going to be the Christopher Columbus of atmospheric science. What you'll suggesting is that UNICEF foot made the findings. I just look at the dates the papers if you look at Ellis foot space as dated August twenty third eighteen fifty six and his first paper on gases, and he is a published in eighteen fifty nine. Tinsel was sort of showmanship person quite interested in presenting his findings. And he in fact, he did a tour of in the US an eighteen seventy two, hey, really embrace public relations. He was a PR machine as much as a scientist in a saints. Right. Yes. And Eunice didn't know she she wasn't. And I think that sort of goes to her ideas about science, and as well as her husband, which is scientists for the betterment of humanity not necessarily for furthering yourself or becoming famous for it. Did you have any interactions with the American Association for the advancement of science? I'm not sure enough he presented at any of our meetings. What I do know is he was a good friend of Joseph Henry who was the triple ES president in age. Eighteen forty nine. Joseph Henry was also the presenter for MRs foots paper. So I think there may have been some sort of connection between the three parties. Yes. And there's much speculation over with John Tyndall. My have known of UNICEF footwork and fell to credit her as I with the idea and faced with the evidence is quite possible. Yeah. Right. But you've got nothing to to suggest that John teen dole did know about UNICEF Foot's work be. I I have not found anything. But you went looking I did my research continues Joan pill and thinks he has found evidence a possible smoking gun. Let me tell you by great mama of detective work Tyndall was aided her at the time of the prestigious science publication, philosophical magazine. Tim Dahl and his other editors did was they reprinted Elisha article on solar heat from the American journal of science. In the philosophical magazine, but they don't publish Unis's paper. However, if you thumb through a license paper, the adjacent paper of Unisys is right there. So if you finish a license paper you have to be staring at Unis's paper. And then three years later, he comes upon this great discovery. And this was explained by some male scientists, and I felt this was most incredibly lame where he said, he probably read Unis's paper. But then it got into his sub-conscious any put it away for several years. And then it was regurgitated by him as his original idea, different experiments and more thorough experiments than unison exactly exactly you did more precise experiments, but that makes Eunice even greater because of the material she had to work with coming up. With the earth shaking breakthrough discovery, but it's a terrible scientific sin. Not to mention the people before you suggesting that he consciously suppressed, perhaps even stole Unis's idea. Well, that's up to you. You know, I'm just telling you what happened that's for you to decide and your listeners to decide as a strong supporter of ten finally conceded. There's a cloud under of this work because of my research and what I came up with. Why are you so committed to setting the record straight about unis foot several years ago, a gave a lecture in Linz Austria, I met a woman from Iran who is a pay. She in physics. She told me that she had to risk her life to escape Iran under the revolutionary guard a government, so she could pursue what she wanted. And that was to be a scientist, and I truly believe that women are equal to men and to keep fifty percent of the population out of science is a terrible waste of amazing material. What evidence east they have you on the UNICEF foot continue doing scientific experiments after that paper continued to be involved or knowledged by the AAA is the next year. She did for another paper sort of a continuation or building upon the findings that she under findings and the eighteen fifty six experiments who is really brilliant paper on a new. A new way of electric has produced by the fear. And that actually ironically was published by Tindall's journal a year later, and they guy, but we don't have any evidence of of science off to bet. She's sensually disappears. After that. She does not conduct any experiments if she does she doesn't present them. She doesn't publish them. Do love one of you findings couple of years after a few years after she received a patent will actually to one for the improvement for soles of boots and shoes and the other strep la- skates. Right. She was thinking all the time. What I read about the pet. One of her patent is the primary reason was to eliminate the squeaking in her shoes. Let's so that's the reason why she decided to add Fillon to the bottom of the soles of her shoes. So she was thinking practically and strategically. I'm going to vote a patent on this. I'm gonna pretend my property. Well, it also helps that when your husband is a patent lawyer than eventually the Commissioner of patents to apply for true. At least thirty thousand patents granted between seventeen ninety one and eighteen sixty four and of all those thirty thousand patents only seventy were awarded to women and UNICEF foot was awarded to patents out of that seventy to show you what unique woman she was. We'll look to. It's a fascinating story. And clearly there's more to be told Cape digging forests plays. Yeah. Me too. Oh, yeah. No tasha. I am. I am a bloodhound. You staying on the case. I am. And I love it. She discovered everything that we're working on today and climate and shisha every climate school in the world should be named the UNICEF foot Senator for climate science or for atmospheric studies, just as Tyndall up the credit Tyndall should get the credit for more precise measurements. He deserves that. But he was not a generous man to say, the least excluding UNICEF foot. And there's one suggestion that was his misogynous out lick that could have influenced this to evidence to say that John Tyndall soul women as inferior or not capable of scientists OWI's. He believed that women could read the work of male savant. But they couldn't be creative like him. So he said that he was. Explicit about that explicit about it. In fact, this is the irony of everything he had insomnia and his younger wife gave him in excess of dose of I believe it was chloride and killed him. That's a good. Go figure speculate. All right. What a story. More info about MRs UNICEF foot over on the science friction website and heads up and new bull cuss time in twenty nineteen. It kicks off next week still Sundays, but at five pm and Stu fraud is at eleven thirty in the morning. And of course, always anytime on the podcast. Subscribe leykis review on our teams at all helps and you can find the on Twitter at Natasha Mitchell. Love to hear what you make of UNICEF foot story and own UNICEF foot. I want to leave the last words to archivist Norma recital Blake. She's a what I think of as a renaissance woman. She was a an inventor. She was a scientist. She was a mother. She was a daughter. She was a wife well educated and quote, unquote, neutral, beautiful woman and she lived her life. As she wanted. You've been listening to an ABC podcast. Discover more great ABC podcasts. Live radio and exclusives. On the ABC. Listen up.
What is Fudge, Part I: The Science, The Curious Name
"Brought to you by IBM nice days can come with a hidden cost seasonal allergies. Channel is using IBM Watson. Predict local allergy risk up to fifteen days out. Get Allergy insights with Watson on the weather channel APP and whether dot. com brought to you by IBM. Nice days can come with the hidden cost seasonal allergies, so the weather channel is using IBM Watson predict local allergy risk up to fifteen days out. Get Allergy insights with Watson on the weather channel APP, and whether Dot Com ridiculous histories of production of iheartradio. Welcome to the show. Ridiculous historians as always thank you so much for tuning in my name is Ben, this is an interesting one today. I gotta ask. When you hear the word, Fudge, what what do you think of? Inferior chocolate. Super Producer Casey Federal. What about you? I like Fudge, so I'm going to say is a not a superior chocolate per se, but you know it's on equal footing with milk, chocolate, or dark chocolate, or any of the other fine chocolate products. To disagree. My friend I will I will say like I do have experiences of going to like. Hell in Georgia in like getting fudge, they're in. It's just too much is too heavy, and you feel sick for like the rest of the day after you consume it so moderation, but I like I like a little fudge now I. Guess My thing is I'm not by the way I. Just don't know what it is like. It's like it's almost chocolate. It's almost caramel. It's bordering on cake. It's just it occupies this limited space of confections that I just can't quite wrap my head around. Yeah, yeah, that's my take on. Fudge also a fun substitute word for a naughty word. ASPECT OF IT! It's funny we. We were supposed to start recording about a half hour ago, but we ended up just shooting the breeze about multiple things, including the most famous use of fudges occurs word. I think was in the Christmas story. And you're right I like the freeze limited space here because I like maybe like you. Casey I like many people associated. With stuff you'd see in like a country store on a rural road trip next to the pepper jelly, or whatever, and I think most of US associate fudge with chocolate, but it doesn't have to be right. There's maple fudge. There's all kinds of fudge on there. Like a seventies kind of southern rock band called Vanilla Fudge Oh absolutely there is. Anybody that saw. The Tarantino movie once upon a time in Hollywood, the climax of that movie is. No way what Oh man. Semi free. Why don't you babe that that whole? Somebody else's song, but it's their version of I never knew that. And if you go on and look up the live version, it is the most seventies thing you will ever see in your life I love it well. We gotTA. Stop the show for a second because we have to check out vanilla fudge. I can't believe someone beat us to that name. We're going to have to come up with something new for our band, but while we're exploring that we have to tell you I don't know about you guys, but I just found out that I didn't know anything about. Fudge like the history of. The actual origin story in the genesis of it fudge is first off much more recent invention than I thought I. Don't know about you guys, and secondly as we're gonNA find today, Fudge was in its heyday associated not with like. Country Stores or cracker barrels, or whatever, but it was associated instead with a bit of rebellion. Yes, it's true. I didn't realize it was such. A relatively modern invention to I assumed it was like developed on the prairie by the pioneers you know, or even earlier than that. It's just I just assumed. Fudge should always kind of been you know you turn your butter and you'd make your fudge, but that's not the case at all Let's start with a little bit of at Amal Aji Fudge. It wasn't the other way around. Fudge wasn't a word derived from the chocolate thing it was the other way around. Fudge was a verb before it was a confectioner on the seventeenth century. It was something you would use to say. Oh, I'm GonNa Fudge that you know sort of cheat something to the left or the right a little bit like. Maybe you've got some woodworking that you're an just an example and you need to fudge to pieces, so they become flush i. must not a great example, obviously not a carpenter bank, and you think of a better example of fudging something in the physical sense. I, think the woodworking example is good. I think that I. Don't know how accessible this is to our fellow listeners, but I think the three of us have all fudged a little something in production where we maybe don't have the ideal audio we want, but we're like. We could play with this a little bit, so we've been able to to fudge around. You know it's interesting because etymologists now think that fudge came from an older obsolete term. which sounds like fudge with a weird New England accents FA, D G right, exactly FA Digi e with the silent e, which I still don't understand one of the great mysteries through the English language, the silent e, but that's a story for another day. Yeah, the Oxford English Dictionary There's an article on the invention of Fudge on Chow. Hound and they referred to that entry where it describes fudge. Fudge or fad as meaning to fit together, or even the idea of something turning out well the implication, maybe being despite less than ideal circumstances, but the implication is more that it wasn't about a mistake exactly, but we also know that there is at least legend Fudge, Legend Fudge, and about the idea that someone was trying to make a batch of camels as I was saying earlier. Earlier like what is fudge and they ended up with fudge because fudge contains sugar crystals, and that's actually something. That kind of is a no, no in baking for the most part you don't want there to be sugar crystals, because that can give a grainy kind of texture and fudge is sort of the exception to that rule these micro crystals of sugar that give it that firm texture. Texture and they're small enough so that they they do melt in your mouth, and they don't feel weird and sand like on your tongue, but they melt so quickly that it has sort of a smooth consistency and I think that's part of my weirdness with fudge is the consistency. It doesn't act quite like chocolate because the crystals are there. It's a little bigger, so it has more of A. I don't know loopy kind of thing I don't want to Nag Fudge for anybody. Yeah it's It's got almost a paste like consistency. For anyone familiar with? The Middle Eastern North African Food Hulda which is a popular snack. It's like that. That might not be the best comparison, but you're spot on with the weird state importance of these sugar crystals so in a previous episode we. We endeavoured to clumsily teach you how to whistle and guys I. Listen Back to that part is actually it was worth it. It was pretty Larry's. I made my kids do it I held the phone up to her ear during the mouth sounds more, and she just made the most offended face, but then she started laughing uncontrollably. Because it's just it's I know not delay talk about ourselves, but it is simultaneously disgusting and enduring. You know for that one. I think it's okay for us to talk about ourselves this way because we're not saying we did a good job. The I think the fun. Part of that was the brilliant fact that none of the three. Three of US pointed out that. Maybe we shouldn't try to explain how to put fingers in our malls while we were doing it, but but still it's pretty hilarious so now we're going to attempt to teach you the secret to cooking fudge. This is with help from the exploratorium. So now that you've mastered that weird problematic Wolf Whistle. It's time to begin your fudge career. like Moles said you want these crystals to form. Forget all the other stuff you hear about candy. This is not apply to fudge. But. You want them to form a certain time certain temperatures, so if you want to avoid that gross kind of grainy, fudge? It's not so much how you cook it as it is how you cool it, so you'll see a fudge recipe that will call for just in general hall for heating all the ingredients to two hundred and thirty four degrees Fahrenheit. That's what's called the softball stage where you can kinda mold it, and then you allow it to cool. Don't touch it. Allow it to cool to about one hundred and ten degrees Fahrenheit, and then when it hits one ten. That's when you start stirring. and You keep stirring and stirring stirring as the candy becomes thicker and thicker and thicker, and what's happening is every time you stir. You're creating more crystal seeds and you. You get lots of lots tiny ones instead of the big ones and I think that that goes to the texture. You're talking about right. Yeah, it absolutely does, and you know if you start too much, you don't get the crystals at all I. Guess or there so many of them. That doesn't give you the same consistency. Don't stir enough. It becomes grainy and unpleasant, so it really is I. Mean Honestly Fudge. Making is kind of an art. You know you have to really keep an eye on the temperature It's not something that you can just go in. Do without knowing what you're doing. So kudos to all the the fudge stirs the Fudge. Impo I. Don't know what's what's a word for a fudge maker. Fudge Suzy. I like it. Like, but you're AKC, I do think about like you know. The little candy store is on the Boardwalk in Savannah or in Jalan where you can get a free sample you know, and you can see their whole assembly line for like making Fudge pralines or Saltwater Taffy, and all that that's definitely what I think of when I think of this treat. This episode of ridiculous history is brought to you by truth versus Hollywood. You know one thing I'm always curious about is whether when something says based on a true story and a movie you know, how true is the depiction of that story? And if that's your deal to than boy, do we have a podcast recommendation for you? My friends guests. That's right. This comes to us from audio boom, a brand new TV and film podcast, cold truth versus Hollywood. It's hosted by the film lovers David. Chen and Joanna Robinson Yeah David. Enjoying a do a fantastic job of deep diving into well-known films and discussing how similar they actually are to. To the story, there's supposedly depicting the podcast also features interviews with experts, witnesses, people who were involved the time and more, so you can get one of our favorite things about film. The true stories behind them join David Jonah every week as the dive into classic movies and stuff like the social network, or what else y'all so things like Munich, and even American gangster and tons and tons more. This audio boom original podcast releases new episodes, every single Friday, and is available now on your favorite podcast APP while you're listening, be sure to search for and subscribe to truth versus Hollywood and Apple Podcast spotify iheartradio or wherever you listen to podcasts. This episode is brought to you by IBM Today. Every answer matters more than ever before, because whether it's about health, deliveries or finance. Something's just can't wait. That's why IBM's helping businesses manage millions of calls texts and chats with Watson Assistant. It's conversational a I designed to help your customers find the answers. They need faster. No matter the industry. Let's put smart to work with IBM. Dot Com. Slash Watson Assistant to learn more. So yeah like chocolate Cara. Mel's could be seen as being kind the. progenitor. Is that the right word under the CURSOR I guess to? And those have been around. Since the eighteen sixties, we found a recipe in an eighteen seventy cookbook from Maryland very very similar process so totally understand the notion that fudge was created by fudging this caramel recipe, because if you end up with these crystals like we're talking about what you would not want in a sticky chewy kind of Caramel, you end up with a little bit more of a crumbly and substantial kind of like we said Fudgy really for lack of I mean. That's really it's the best word for it because that's kind of what it is really nothing else quite like it, and that's one theory behind it, but we. We really still aren't quite one hundred percent, sure of who truly invented the desirable we do know is where it came from which is a college Vassar University in eight, hundred, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, two or thereabouts. Yeah, be not confused folks. Fudge is marketed in a dishonest way. Fudge is a food of the elite. Okay, it's not. It wasn't a case where somebody was selling produce on the side of the road, and accidentally also made fudge. No, this comes from a storied institution like you said no the earliest origin of it dates back to a document by one emlyn batteries be Hartridge. She wrote a letter describing her encounter with fudge, but. She says this happened while she was attending classes at Vassar in the eighteen eighties eighteen eighty six, but she says there was already fudge employees. There was a store in Baltimore, that was selling it for like forty cents a pound, so we know it originated around that time, but we don't know. Exactly who invented it for a long time, Hartridge was credited with inventing the substance Fudge, but vassar itself disagrees. They have an article in their encyclopedia called Vassar myths and legends that says Essentially Look Emily Hartridge described fudge. That's the first known written account. We have of Fudge, but she in her letter said that she got the instructions to make it from someone else. Else well good on Vassar for trying to set the record straight, and not just you know coopting fudge for themselves, because we know that Vassar has really interesting history when it comes to food, was originally a women's College. Now it's a coed private school that happened in the one, thousand, sixty nine pretty recently was founded in eighteen, sixty one by Matthew Vassar. Very, remarkable architecture There's a pub on the campus called the Mug for short which is the full name is Matthews Mug named after the the owner and founder who is a brewer and Vasseur as many of you will know is located in one of my favorite cities to say out loud in New York poughkeepsie and it's fun to look at because it looks like it would be spelled poof, keep see because it's. K. E., E. P. S. I e., but it's poughkeepsie. It's a good one Cheboygan man myself, but that's just because of our our recent episode. You know what one day forget it one day. Let's just do an episode. Perhaps Listener Mail episode where we just read off weird place names, I. Don't know about you, guys. It's always hilarious to me when we have someone right in, and they're like you know that weird. CACOPHONOUS agglomeration of consonants and vowels that you tried to pronounce is actually pronounced Papa Bolia near like no, there's not a P in there. Those are all Geez anyway, proper names. Another one, in Boston for example, that's you know you'd looks peabody, but they say it's peabody peabody peabody. WHO's to know unless you heard? It spoken unless you grew up in that area, you know our listeners are always super respectful when they correct us and we appreciate that I WANNA do this before we move on. I. Don't know about you case you're you know. Being a nerd I spent. The vast majority of things I learned I learned by reading, which doesn't help with pronunciation, right? So I WANNA. Give a shout out to the person who wrote to us on our. Our our Wolf Whistle episode and said it's pronounced. Boatswain not boats Wayne. So. We'll see you, we hear. You. It was all of us to WHO's eight entry. What that now? I don't accept that? I reject that someone made a horrible mistake. They did, but. What is a living language, but a mix tape of horrible mistakes that we all accepted. The boat job. It's a job that takes place on a boat. The boat out of this boat job. It's yet. It's weird. There's so many maritime traditions you know what I mean and boats ways pronounced boasted and so. There, we have it which. I learned something anyway, speaking of learning back to Poughkeepsie so it's interesting because Vassar has this fascinating history with food and it exists before fudge, we went. Introduce you to one. Ellen Swallow Richards class eighteen seventy. Widely acknowledged as America's first professional female chemist, not the first female chemist, of course, just the first one who had the full time job it and one thing that she is known for today was a book. She wrote called food as a factor in student life. This convinced the Boston School Committee to change its usual policies about it. She was so ahead of her time. You know even I think we've all even. In recent years, I started to understand the link between nutrition and development especially kids right in elementary schools. Middle Schools This goes on when you're in college and she has quote. She went to the women's Congress at the eighteen ninety three Chicago's world fair and raised an excellent point. I want to do the honors. Sure Yeah, and I think it's interesting, too. Because we know, there's a history of college students eating trash. Idea of like Rahman, and and you know kraft macaroni and cheese pervades to this day because it's like a period where you really have a lot of money in your kind of trying legis make it on what you've got so definitely an argument that continues to be part of student life right and she was really ahead of the curve, so she says the following a cow is worth to the state, perhaps one hundred dollars a year, a trained mind, one hundred thousand dollars a year. A nation which so carefully feeds it's cattle should take care of its young men and women with promising brains. In fact, the future of our nation may be said to depend on the feeding of the students now in the schools. Yup Yeah and that's. I mean she makes an excellent point in you. Make an excellent point as well. No, the only thing I am not with you on is that Rahman is amazing cheaper almond, I WanNa thank my college days, and my like my traveling Hobo days for lack of a better word for teaching me. How Amazing Robin is bull sesame oil in that bad boy soft boiled egg. We have course it tastes good I love Robin, but the sodium content is like through the roof, and the noodles are deep, fried and. There's really nothing value in an accent unless you you know, sex it up a little bit and add a little cabbage, a little vegetable or soft boiled egg like you said that is the beauty of Rahman. Though it's very adaptable, but I don't think. Kids in dorms are doing a whole lot of true. Oh, Gosh, yeah, that's true and you make a good point about nutrition I. Just I just have to go to bat for man I miss going out to like a rom in place, but you're right. You're right. Today's episode is brought to you by IBM for businesses around the world. Today isn't a restart. It's a rethink that's why they're partnering. With IBM retailers are keeping their systems up as millions of orders, online call centers are using IBM Watson to manage an influx of customer questions with AI and solutions built on the IBM. Cloud are helping doctors care for patients remotely today. We're rethinking how business moves forward, so let's get to it. Let's put smart to work visit IBM DOT com slash. Slash smart to learn more. Does finding a job feel like the hardest job ever with linked in learning? You can take course like ten ways to stay motivated while job hunting one way is to create a vision board. It'll be there for you. Reminding you y you're looking and what's most important key learning to land your next job? Get this course and thousands more top by industry experts free for one month at Lincoln learning dot com slash trial linked in learning. We're in together. And Richards has this interest in the science of nutrition right now. Historians believe this is partially inspired by some classes. She took with Vassar professor of Astronomy Maria Mitchell. Maria Michele held weekly gatherings for her classes at her own apartment, which was inside the observatory. How cool is that and students really looked forward to this time because they would have kind of a social visit almost a salon, right? They would drink coffee. They would have cookies and snack served, and then they would get to meet Professor Mitchell's friends right? Her fellow intellectuals, who included a quite prominent activists and forward. Thinkers like Elizabeth cady. Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone. Blackwell this was a great opportunity for these kids, but there's a question was were they there because they wanted to learn more about the suffrage movement, and abolition in other progressive policies, or were they there because miss? Mitchell's cookies were better fair than they could get normally. Yes, a good question Vassar has all these great resources like the encyclopedia. We talked about in an very intense archive that. That shows that Hannah Lyman. WHO's The colleges? I? A woman principal really was into this Victorian idea that women are frail and delicate creatures and need to subsists only on biscuits and bland T- I'm you know editorializing? They're a little bit, but the idea. They didn't need any kind of robust flavors or anything or any. You know hearty food. They just needed. The the word is bland nourishment that there was in the. The Archive, an eighteen, sixty six. She wrote this letter to Vassar President and she complained that new students were getting too many packages from a home with unhealthy foods and treats, and she wrote this the short supply, an improper selection of food, during the first months had the effect of exalting eating into a prominent theme of conversation and of perpetuating a habit I had hoped measurably to eradicate love letters, a receiving boxes from home. Yeah so who that's where she was coming from boxes from home by the way is I- Talis is. Pictured as a curse word. Yeah, you know I think a lot of us who are in college now or are planning to go to college or have attended? Know that food is food has always been more than just nutrition. Right food is conversation. Breaking Bread, not for nothing do some of the oldest works of literature talk about the importance of eating together? So these students, these kids, some of the best and brightest in the country weren't content to sit around with you quivalent of just I guess the the plane non spiced food like we all look out, say we all hear that stereotype nowadays about quote, unquote, white people not spicing their food, not only was this happening at Vassar. They had like a scientific. Perceive scientific basis for that I don't know that going too far like they explicitly say Bland Food and lack of spices that you say that. About, it okay, okay, so they said that we're not making that up, but anyway in this fertile cultural soil elicit fudge parties begin so these kids who again are brilliant. They say look if we can't get the kind of cool stuff, we want the kinda sweet want or something then will begin making them for ourselves, and this is very macgyver, and it's as dangerous as that dryer. We were talking about earlier off air. That's an Easter egg for just the three of us. I guess. They would take their their gas lights that they used in their dorms at night, and they would use the gas from the gaslight, or would use spirit lamps from the chemistry lab to heat up these confections, and they would like. Make Fudge basically with the stuff. They could find their room on campus. Yeah, at great like physical peril to themselves and others I. Mean think about it. They're using these very dangerous lake lab items in dorm. That could easily be you know. What if they get into the throes of fudge ecstasy and they're like drew, fudge drunk, and then they knock over a Bunsen burner and the whole place goes up. You know I'm just speculating here. Here, but I surely fudge drunkenness thing, but luckily it didn't happen, but it was controversial activity. These were considered illicit fudge parties. Oh, no, no, no Hold the fudge old the fudge phone. Casey just pointed something out off Mike the case. You feel like you have to. You have to be on air. We want to be transparent you have you have admonished US and quite correctly? You know it's one of those things where we're. We're rounding the thirty minute mark and The ending is nowhere in sight so I. Think we all know what that means I think. It is a a bifurcated podcast that were doing right now and hey, knocking to lie. That is perfectly serendipitous because all three of us. I think are out on vacation next week, so hey, you gotta feed the content monster and I think this one actually is worthy much more so than I realized on the on the onset that there's a lot of stuff wrapped up in fudge, not literally, but just you know historically speaking sometimes literally though I think that's a good point. Yeah, we have so much more fudge to get to. We have so much to sling there. We go, we have. We have so much more fudged unpacked to heat up that. We have not yet begun to fudge. It's true, so we are going to make the supervisor, so please join us for the studying conclusion to this fudge saga on the next episode of Ridiculous History in the meantime huge thanks to producer Casey Bedroom. Alex Williams, who composed our theme and of course Christopher, Haciendas here in spirit. Big Old thanks to. GABE! Who I will I, will title as the Emperor of Fudge. Tangential Wallace Stevens reference and big thanks of courses, always to are pure podcast Eve's Jeffcoat, while you're waiting for part two of our continuing fudge strata. Why not check out her show this date? In history you can also continue the conversation with your favorite or least favorite Cluj recipes on the Internet with the best part of this show, your fellow listeners find us on facebook. Twitter, Instagram, a checkout ridiculous with. FACEBOOK and pro tip, you can find us as individuals if you if you would like to send us. Your best worst fudge buds is true. You can find me exclusively on instagram where I'm at how now Noah Brown and you can find me on twitter at Ben Bullen H, w, you can find me on instagram where I am at Ben Bullen. Who knows maybe I'll try this mashed potato fudge recipe. I found post results you. See next time folks. For more podcasts from iheartradio visit, the iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows stuck inside Siesta. Key is the getaway you need right now tonight on MTV getaway to the sun, the Surf Anna sabotage. This season Juliet may be moving onto richer men, but she still caught up in the big drama, and when she exposes Alex's darkest secret Oh baby things are gonna get wild because NCIS too key. Everyone lies in the sun. Don't miss the ESTA key returns tonight at Eight, seven central only on MTV. Never has the world of Golf, more fascinating or more in flux. Thanks to a suddenly newfound appreciation for a sport that millions love, and even more millions of miss watching my new podcast. The shack show hosted by me. Geoff Shackelford will be that. Say space to discuss matters both. 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GAME 7 BABY!
"Foot odor thrown off your game stick to a winning game plan with odor eaters featuring three advanced odor and wetness fighters. The lineup provides long-lasting odor control plus more to keep your feet on their game odor eaters. Powder provides outstanding moisture control cleaner drying sprays, the MVP and preventing athlete's foot while insoles were continuously to manage wetness while adding layer of comfort pick up today at Walmart target CBS dollar general or other fine retailers. Odor eaters destroy foot odor with the best in odor defense. I speak for the kids who don't have the same voice that I do i. think biggest thing is through education because you're not born racist born racism is taught. You know if you can educate yourself on different things and have the proper education where you live matter how much money you have I think the biggest thing that that's one thing I feel I can help propel us to a better world and I feel like we can talk about. The voting and police before we can do now but education in our future with the kids. I. Think that's one thing that can really help you know like I said propeller to where we need to be as a country. Mitchell continuing to be such a leading voice on social justice issues taking on that burden even though he is still a few days. Of his twenty fourth birthday. Welcome to the jump I'm Rachel Nichols today joined by our Front Office Insider Alhassan and our senior writer host of the low post podcast. Welcome to Zach Lowe as well. Coming up Mitchell Angel- Murray have each scored at least fifty points twice in their series with game seven tonight on ABC. Is it fair to expect anything close to that kind of output? that. I though. So ever since this rockets thunder series locked a first round matchup Chris Paul has objected to portraying it as some sort of Vince mission, which is smart. I mean why add an additional emotional element to a match up that was already going to be hard enough but whether Chris himself wants to acknowledge this is an opportunity for payback. The facts are the facts the rockets treated him last summer because they thought Russell Westbrook would be better for them and they believe that so strongly, they were willing to pay a great place to make the swap sending not just cpt thunder but also to future. First round picks and to pick swaps. That is a huge bet on Westbrook over Paul and at least so far in this series that bet is not paying off in the rockets favor Russ didn't even play in the first four games due to a quad injury and Walt better hardly his fault it's relevant since one of the knocks on Chris in Houston was that he was too injury prone fast forward to game five Russ was back but clearly rusty chip again, just seven points and then last night in game six. Yeah. Wasn't great in the game's final six minutes Westbrook air balled a jumper. Then he missed a layup. Even, more costly he kept coughing up the ball Ross would end night with seven turnovers two of which came down the stretch. There was this one with the score tied and just one twenty, three on the clock, and then this Houston down to just twelve point nine seconds remaining the rockets had the ball the chance to either send the game to overtime when it outright except instead of making sure James Harden had a chance to shoot rust dropped the basket met a bunch of traffic and through a wild pass to. Robert Covington that he really had no chance of catching Dennis Schroder well, he appeared to be amused that one. Now I WANNA note Ross was not the only one who faltered late for Houston James Harden five turnovers himself in this game despite thirty two points on the night he was passive at game's end only shooting twice in the final four minutes and that's counting a last second desperation heave still it's hard not to focus on Russ since the guy treated away to get him was once again just so damn exceptional in. The Clutch Chris Paul scored eight of Okay sees final twelve points including bees back to back on Covington when okay see was down six. Now on his way back up the court Chris actually slapped Covington on the but which was amazing. Then with thirteen seconds left Chris hit the to go ahead free throws finishing off a masterpiece of a night that also included zero turnovers despite playing forty minutes. Now, the Internet, of course went nuts Lebron James put some respect on his name and more CJ mccollum chimed in so did. John Iran's now Chris himself was more circumspect after the game he talked about the thunder who after having to pack their suitcases pre-game for possible travel out of the bubble could now go back to the hotel and unpack for a few more days. He talked about a game seven and how exciting it was no matter who the opponent is. But even if this is in fact, not revenge for CPI it certainly is indication dictation because we're lose the series he made it clear quote upgrading from Chris Paul that is tough bed. So I mean it's official. We have another game seven complete the sentence for me the thunder win game seven if. Win Game. Seven. If say this Alexander and Danilo Golan Ari show up and have good. Games. As they did in game six or Formosa Game Six hundred say you look down the stretch all those shots that Chris Paul head they were tough shots tough shots because the rockets defense was locked and loaded awaiting and it really wasn't a whole high respect factor for the other offense of players on the floor. So I think one of the things that they need to have better spacing. Is For that is so that Chris Paul can add the room drive and not fear being collapsed upon or have to hit these crazy unbelievable three pointers to be a hero. I saw this thunder win game seven of a it's close. Apparently, they're just unbeatable and close games as long as the point God is on the floor. BE THEY KEEP Houston off the line for a team with James Harden on is to have a free throw late rate that would've been last than the regular season that is phenomenal fallaway despite the thunder and see I'll give you another name to watch if Eric Gordon can't find his game. The jumper is totally broken the turnovers throwing the ball. Over the court if he can't find his game and it's close the thunder, a real shot and Houston trouble in Houston losers this game make no mistake was Rachel and its organizational disaster and Eric Gordon Certainly, not favorite I'm rockets twitter right now and guys as I mentioned at the top of the show it was rough down the stretch and game six for both had superstars. So who's act? Did you say disappointed you more late in that game last night was it Russ or was it James Harden? James Harden because at least Russell Westbrook tried to do stuff. Now, that's not really fair to James. Hardie because he made great also plays including that save late in the game but there was a woman with about a minute twenty left before. One of those rust turnovers were Robert Covington had the ball on the left wing and James Harden was up top with Shakeel Zander on and Robert Covington looked james like, Hey, man, can you maybe like? Flash a little bit because I don't really WANNA be dribbling out here and James like I'm not gonNA. Do Anything you've got to pass the ball somebody up your James Horrid. You think you should win the MVP every single year you have justification for that go get the ball act like you want the ball. Now you have to take every shot, but you can't just be a bystander for the last three or four minutes of the game. Yeah I'm I'm going to disagree on the seats Russ. Russ first of all. The last five minutes of the game with just poor decision making poor execution. It's kind of the polar opposite will Chris. Paul was doing when you look at the shot selection when you look at the turnovers that he had down the stretch, this is kind of the story of Russell Westbrook in the playoffs. He's a God that if things are are wide open game, he's great but we'll get to taking care of the ball on a position by possession basis not as good the. Other thing that Ross does and we don't talk about enough his lack of shooting makes it so hard for James Harden out there he's throughout the court there because he'd be watch on all those possessions were James had to take a step back James's driving or whatever their sagging Russ. Completely they have no respect going under on the screens and by the way, this is why before the series started I had thunder and six, and then when I heard Russel's hurt I was like. It's going to help the rockets because he's not GonNa, be out there. It's GonNa mess up the spacing a mean come on. I do think though. I know you are, and your point certainly speaks to again when I was saying at the top of the show and Zach says organizational failure you knew about Russia shooting when you got him, you knew you did I mean this is the most analytics oriented front office. They knew L. The information before they made this trade, and by the way this is not a referendum per se on the trade because if James Harden didn't want to play with Chris Paul Anymore, that is an additional factor that number that number can account for. So I am not necessarily saying Oh man, the front office they really Screwed up here. I am just saying this is where this possibly went wrong for Houston and we will find out over the next couple of days. But if organizationally you fill, you had to make the trade because of what James Harden did or didn't want or what he was comfortable playing with man you gave up for lot for a guy who his counterpart that you traded away is just shining in this series. All right guys coming up. We're GONNA talk a little bit about Unison Takubo. He said after last night's game that he didn't ask to switch on Jimmy Butler and would just continue to. His coaches game plan should he invest to switch on Jimmy? He's the defensive player of the year stick around more for that first though here's the latest edition of the jump at the Sufa. Ni today starring Jimmy Butler Maestro. This. So. The Joan is brought to you by. Hi Nick. Enjoy. responsibly. Goodyear knows why we all love football. It's the sound of the Buzzer, the roar of the crowd, the Swish of the net it's the spin on the ball as it's released the squeaking sneakers before an inbound pass. The time out that gives us perspective on the moment we in Love Basketball because we love movement, and now that it's back, we're asking you the fans what moves you goodyear more driven. And Action. It's a maker, Miss? League. I. Don't know what the I know. What am I making mission to make? Jimmy Jimmy Jimmy. Let's check out. Today's Speaker Miss. Michelob ultra make swim class earlier in the year we showed you tackle fall learning how to swim and well, he is continuing the education in the bubble. Here's Jalen Brown and ended KANTER helping him out Zach we'll he one day be Taco the torpedo. This is great teamwork teamwork as never tool old to learn stuff you're never too old swimming twelve or letter bike I. Love the team chemistry. Great Teamwork. Good at Taco. A hell of a workout for jalen Brown and in attender. Bell Producers Steve said this morning. Why does it need to learn to swim? He just stands anywhere he wants in the ocean. There you go. Make contributions twenty-three-year-old Bam on bio dropping an easy twelve seventeen in six and to yesterday's when Zach. How much better can he get that stat line just keeps going That's the scary thing. You know those two little mid-range Jumpers Bam hidden a fourth quarter. Imagine that becomes more automatic suffer him. Then he can pump fake drive game opens up a little bit Bam's a long way to go Venezia's before his healing and that is scary. That's Exactly why go with? The jumps all the come on man. You gotTa have something that we got to be able to say he's let him do that I. Mean Everyone keeps saying, oh, he's like this player he's like that player but I feel like every we compare him to he has the potential distance style to be a little bit better than right Right. Well, that's what everyone says. He's like Draymond, but he's he's physically he's got a little bit more physicality than dream on. All right. Miss Posterity. We've got another shot below the belt last night that is the third one this series. You can see the pain on Russell Westbrook space. Nobody wants that nobody mean over under five grand shots and game. have it. All right to happen. I. Wanted To say Five House Guan. Because I think all movies because. When you play, it just happens to be in the area but like we've got a lot of little players in the league, we haven't had this many quad shots. Anyone. Player just get it out of the game man. Under, under let's have a nice clean game seven or let's go the other way and go straight ric flair upper. Four which five zero nice clean game. I'm saying I expected to be scrappy make family business families are in the bubble guys looking Fred Vanfleet Ming his kid does this was so sweet this get you yesterday on social media you have no heart and later we see honest partner and his newborn I mean this is good news in two thousand twenty we needed this they got to be courtside looking little baby. He is so cute shot to Mariah. By the way I heard some illegal longtime ago you know. For pregnant and I'm really interested in this because if you remember the boy etiquette, he was struggling kid comes out of the Momma over of a sudden he hits every shot so. The same thing happened this year. Hey. I'm not in the bubble I'm not in the bubble never been in the bubble don't. All accounts by all accounts a little touch of home. Michael Long Way for these guys. Yeah. No. It's here for a business trip. Well, he's he's got a new baby newish baby. So I. There's a little bit different they are, and by the way you set out Mariah which is certainly true genesis partner but shut out to all of the wives girlfriends family members who had to go through quarantine. You were talking about having to go through quarantine where you're staying in the same hotel room cannot leave with young children, and if anybody has spent time around young children, you know that is the compliment that is greater than what any of these guys are doing on the court just saying. All right we John. We'll stay with the bucks heat as game. One of that series definitely did not disappoint guys Jimmy. Butler. Went off for a playoff career-high. Forty points including fifteen in the fourth quarter Butler said of his late-game mindset quote I told my teammates. I probably wasn't gonNA pass the ball I made a couple of shots and they said that's fine with me Butler even his former teammate Joel embiid tweeting about him posting a cryptic if I'm not sure how cryptic that is we all know what the end of that sentence. Followed by Jimmy Butler to good I'm sure sixers fans won't be worried about that at all guys after the game defensive player of the year unison, Scoop. Bo. was asked about taking on the defensive assignment of Jimmy. Butler and here's what he said. Has Detained. Jimmy. Late. to garden. Yeah No. More. Would, Jackson. Is that something to do forward now do whatever course do. So, that's interesting Zach what do you make of the response there? Well look I feel like I'm living groundhog day. Didn't we have this exact same conversation last year? Why can collide Leonard Guardian is Ambi the number one for the raptors, but you can't do the same thing for the bucks. It just sort of strange to me I get a great help defender you want them around the basket, but Jimmy Butler is eating your lunch or dinner your breakfast. For one possession for two physicians take that crazy wingspan Jimmy Butler, and see how those little seventeen footer is feel for. Now I don't understand why it doesn't happen I. Don't understand why apparently can't play more than thirty five, thirty, six minutes in a playoff game until their backs are literally against the wall I just don't get it I'm Kinda tired of having this conversation to be honest. Rachel we played a bunch of clips of Jimmy driving and Jimmy Duncan Jimmy, doing all these things. How many of those things did he do over double team? Did he do any other than one on one? This league it's is so incredibly difficult to guard superstars one on one and make no mistake. Yes. You Dan Lebatardshow Jimmy Butler is superstar you one on one. This is going to happen time and time again you got George Hills Georgia's a good defensive player he's also six three. Just. Mismatches for the Guy Austrade drives. He's not seeing any help there, and which is the really weird thing which is Milwaukee is. All year long we don't give up the paint. We'll give as many threes we want, but they walked into that game and they're scared of the Miami, three point shooting to the point where they let Jimmy Butler run Haywire one on one all the way to the pain will be interesting to see what adjustments they make. For Game Two coach was asked about this today and he said that certainly he said it is a consideration and discussion about whether Yannis would guard. Jimmy Butler. Now, guys, we know the but has been criticized in the past for not making adjustments during playoff series so we'll have to see. What he decides to do their I this matchup I think is going to be good I. Mean I can see this going seven games for sure. Definitely GONNA be Spicy. So I'm excited about this one. Here's what the jump recommends for today excited about this to our own. Zach Lowe anyone know that guy he penned the for ESPN DOT COM looking ahead to game seven between the jazz and the nuggets is it fair to expect the scoring binge from joe-marie Donovan Mitchell into new tonight we will discuss that right after the break do your reading during the commercial and then comeback with us we'll be here a few minutes. The great thing about facts they're proven. Like the fact that crude oil contains impurities. Base oil made from natural gas is ninety nine point five percent free of impurities. In Pennzoil is the first synthetic motor oil made from natural gas not crude oil. It gives you unbeatable engine protect. The proof is in the pennzoil. Based on sequence where test using SAS five W. Thirty ask for at your local automotive retailer. Murray. His credit. SNICK. Start to feel like heavyweight by Mitchell's got fifty to. Be the. Denver Nuggets. Game Seven, hundred fifty. Now give them credit. We have one more game. Value. Five Four. We've all summer fighting for. What a performance and we're going to see it again, game seven. Oh Man. This is GonNa be good coming up later. Today, we'll have two more NBA playoff matchups for you. First game to Celtics. Raptors five thirty eastern on ESPN then? Over. ABC Game Seven between Jamal Murray and the nuggets and Donovan Mitchell and the jazz our coverage tip with NBA countdown at five o'clock Eastern. Welcome back right here to the jump I'm Rachel Nichols still here with me now Hossan Zach Lowe the nuggets This series has been insane guys highlighted by the scoring prowess joe-marie, Donovan Mitchell, both players recorded mlk to pull fifty point games in the series matching the number of players with multiple fifty point games in a series in all oppo season history entering twenty twenty, all postseason history Maria Mitchell can become the first player with three fifty point games in a single postseason tonight. So Zach after everything they've done this series is it fair to expect another epic duel tonight or are we gonna get that game seven everyone's exhausted? Is it fair to expect them to score a hundred points combined on like infinity shooting rates might my head says no, but my heart says, please let's feel more time probably not probably not but I will say this if they start hot if either of them starts at I, expect to see a little more pressure a couple of traps here near and I expect both defenses tried say boy if you're still on fire, we're taking body your hands. So I, think the scoring totals will come down but then again i. Wouldn't score fifty again. So who the hell knows, right? You Know Zach. It's. It's funny because I was thinking to myself. We have six games of this and they still haven't Frat anybody who tried to get the ball hand you're going to start now and game seven no we're going to have another door shoot it out disco Vietnam Dude maybe. These guys are so much fun and also just knowing that they're going to be going at each other like this in the West for years it just adds another layer to this. As you watch this tonight, it is winner go home for both teams. They both have to have all their stuff packed before they go to the arena. This is amazing. And one team is going to have to leave the bubble and the other team is going to get to stay probably transfer to a different hotel. So it's winner go home tonight, Amine who you got in this game. This I mean this is as much of a coin flip as you can get I, think I'm GonNa go with the Denver Nuggets still for this reason I think both of those guys Mitchell, and Murray are going to give us a show. So it's GONNA come down to WHO's the other guy who's going to step up on one hand in Denver I've got an all star NBA Center who actually played really well in game six we just don't remember the moment was out of his mind right on the other hand in Utah. I got a bunch of guys who are okay guys but not on that Calvin. DENVER. I'm with me and this is a complete flip I have no idea. But I'LL CONTRAST IS I trust Utah's defense and overall shooting a little bit more than Denver. But I trust Denver's death more than Utah's and Denver has a second star Nicole Yoga you can go off for thirty thirty five. So it is a coin flip I'm leaning a little bit Utah think they're little embarrassed by what's happened the last couple of games and they'll come out and play better defensive game continue to hit threes I don't feel great about it but you're forcing that you're forced to me. Zach I am Zach Lowe, and this is another fascinating example in the bubble where home court advantage would have made a big difference in the way guys talked about this last game rate would have been in Denver at altitude in front of the nuggets home fans, they're not gonNa have any of that tonight. So I do wonder if that's going to give the jazz a little bit more of a fighting chance who do you think the clippers are going to be sitting there watching TV tonight who do think they wanNA face in the next round because they're the next team up for whichever team wins the series what do you think I mean? ooh, that's a good question. I another. Baby they'd, rather pays Denver. You think so. How come? Yeah. Because it came defend because they don't defend right because at least you is a potential to defend Denver's except look we're not gonNA defend once last year it was all right now we're going back to let anybody do whatever they want the clippers. In much more of a slugfest if you'RE GONNA GET UTAH. I think the clippers are going to be big favorites. So matter who gets through and if I were them I, think my root for the jazz only because they're getting pretty thin there are down to seven guys and even that's kind of a stretch. They might be a little tired Denver's getting Gary Harris back did become in with them. They have to score and I think I might prefer Utah but I don't think the clippers are. Are are that were either way? Take their rooting for a seven overtime game, right? Yes. And you know I'm sure Leonard will be tweeting through the whole game like he always does expressing to us exactly what he's thinking in every moment. So we have that looking forward to us to all right coming up Michael Wilbon and j a down day or join me. We're going to discuss the life and legacy of a man that the three of us knew so well impacted us to such a degree. I'm not even sure one segments going to be enough, but we're going to try legacy of coach, John Thompson up next on the Michael Wilbon and Jay Don, day Hey. It's your homie. Sorry. It's your home i. know you don't like it when I call myself L. me. So I have some favors to ask you could you get rid of a few chairs in the living room? My floorboards are tired and other easy thing we save money. If you bundled your home and car insurance with Geico on more thing I know you love lavender scented candles but could be try to he should vanilla I think it would fit my vibe better. For Bundling made easy go to GEICO DOT COM today. All really hard right now, he was one of time. Nobody likes. John Thompson, he brought change to college basketball empowered a lot of African American coaches and kids to come in and be the best you can be. They talk about Mount Rushmore coaches and Thomson is on guy you have the especially. For. ME. Other young black African American guys. You know he he's one of the guys who pave the way for so many of us. Wrong. Wars more. Than mental to me, you were the teacher. Figure just me for so many of us got a chance to play. What he did off the court for not just this community for the African American community and for Georgetown is remarkable. The love the man who's you remember John for a lot of things. Great basketball. Great. Greek versus all did of standing up and talking about issues that need to be talked to him. Welcome back to the jump I grew up in the Washington DC area, it's a place where you would routinely see presidential motorcades driving down the street on your way to get ice cream. You could get pretty casual about a lot of very famous and important people but there was one guy who remained a god to all of us no matter who you were and that man was John Thompson to say he was a giant doing a disservice to his stature to say he was a hall of, fame, basketball coach is a. Disservice to his impact, which went way beyond the court and to say that there was sadness when his family announced yesterday, he had passed age seventy eight. Yeah. That does not nearly cover it. Where do you start with John Thompson? Well, you could talk about the way he took a sleepy average basketball program made it into a national powerhouse how he helped develop Patrick Ewing the anchor for the Hoyas Nineteen eighty-four championship team that title Made Thompson the first black head coach to win a men's D. One basketball championship it was A. Moment for young coaches all over the country. But it was his emphasis on education that really resonated. Seventy eight of the players he coached went all four years at Georgetown seventy. Six of those seventy, eight, ninety, seven percent of them went onto graduate Thompson cared about his players and wasn't afraid to take a stand and their defense like in January of one, thousand, nine, hundred, nine, Thompson walked off the court before a game against Boston. College. This was in protest of an NCWA vote to deny athletic scholarships to freshmen who didn't qualify academically it was estimated that about ninety percent of the six hundred. Students who would have been affected each year would be black, which one would not stand for the data day. He told The Washington Post. Quote. This is my way of bringing attention to a rule. A lot of people weren't even aware of I did it to bring attention to the issue in hopes of getting the double to take another look what they've done and if they feel unjust change the wall again, not afraid to take action to force change. This is why his former players loved him so much here's our Sohn on Thompson at his hall of Fame Induction Speech in Two Thousand Sixteen Only thing. Will Save in my life. Give me A. Opportunity. Incident happened in high school. No other teams. No, other. Schools. Or. Recruit me anymore mom, when did Georgetown? EMBIID now. You give me a chance. And he did. Wow other former players weighing in on losing Thompson yesterday Patrick. Ewing, who is, of course, the current head coach, the Hoyas saying quote Georgetown University the sport of basketball, and the world has lost someone who I consider it to be a father figure confidante and role. Model. Another Hall of Famer coach by Thomson Alonzo Mourning said quote, the world has lost a revolutionary icon, any leader today I have lost a father figure, lifelong coach, and one of my greatest mentors coach Thompson saved my life. This time, I would like to welcome to people who knew John Thompson well, my friends former Washington Post colleagues longtime columnist. Now Director of sports journalism at the prestigious school of journalism at Northwestern University, Jadon Day, and of course, the Co host of PTI be legend Michael Wilpon guys. Thank you so much for being here. We were all texting yesterday just about big John, and we'll can you start with the legacy of John Thompson? Ritual was interesting now watching all the coverage watching. Clinton just had leading in our segment. Alan Iverson is so much of it and the stories unbelievable Alan Iverson and that story are still compelling and most of all people say under forty five years old it's memorable. But that was the end of the John Thompson time at Georgetown or close to he retired in one, thousand, nine, hundred, nine, Iverson was there ninety, five and ninety six? That's the back end. For those of US old enough who were here in the nineteen eighty s covering Georgetown and around a lot, there's so much more Patrick Ewing isn't even the beginning you know sleepy floyd and and a whole slew of players John dern Craig Shelton John Thompson Taken Georgetown to the to the elite eight before Patrick Ewing got there, and then Patrick Ewing comes into vaults them into the national spotlight in the context of the biggies but John's legacy to me deals with education and sports as much as anything you talked about the protests and walking out of that game which I attended. Low many years ago it was about. Education and what it is that kids need remember I know you and Jay both know this he had that deflated basketball in office athlete of basketball was there because it was reminder that it's not always gonNA bounce that you're going to have to do something else and John Hated the phrase fall back on education, which is why I came to hate it so much. You. Don't fall back on education. You use it every day and to hear John Thompson was so demanding I mean he could be warm and fuzzy when he wanted to which was sort of rarely because he needed to cry I, needed to instigate and he needed to force and Cajole, and sometimes you say John did he say shut up don't don't want people on that is we don't need that we're trying to get through something here, j. j. nosy stories, and so his legacy to me is all these things it's from before Patrick through Patrick through Alan Iverson was national. It was the Jewish sound close on the streets in cities where they didn't even know what Georgetown aware it was, and so all of these things John, Thompson brought to the table giant look I never played John, Thompson played, college basketball but John Thompson coach the hell out of me for forty years I texted that to Patrick Ewing this morning and Patrick laughed at texted me back and he knew what I was talking about because if you were around him to seriousness the gravity of the conversations, the depth, the intellect of the man, all of these things are his legacy and. Rage I mean thirty percent of it may be basketball. So much of it doesn't relate necessarily directly to basketball even though that's the arena and that's the context. It's amazing when you say he coached you even though he didn't actually coach you Jay I know you feel the same way one of the things you said to me yesterday was everything I do I feel like is John Thompson going to approve of this or not. Is that a big part of how you're going to remember him. Absolutely the legacy to me is that not only was he the first African American coach to win tournament but he used that status and he used the job security that that provided to lead the way and to speak up for other black coaches in particular who didn't have that power who maybe were on a shakier status he would tell them and Mike, and I read these meetings, all the black coaches and black sports writers against the final four and. The other coaches I'll take the lead on this. I'll take the hits he had the competency had the strong relationship with his superiors at Georgetown that he knew nothing was going to happen to him. He could walk off court to draw attention no matter and he wasn't gonNA lose his job. So it's not just that he had the pulpit he use it to help others and yes, he taught me Rachel just as much as you talk Rachel a lot of them perceptions and the notion of equality come from him. Absolutely I can hear his voice as we're sitting here talking about him, you wanted his approval. So badly I know I did and when he would bestow it it. Would mean the absolute world and we looking right now at NBA players this incredible movement that they have been such a big part of woman. How is that something that John Thompson was really one of the great forefathers of of pointing out not just inequality right in front of people's faces. But what got you there especially with the educational differences that were offered to African Americans that he saw coming into his program versus some of the white kids that he saw coming in and what opportunities they had in elementary school junior high and high school that weren't being offered to a lot of his other players. We'll shortcomings did that's what would big John was always trying to highlight. Like I'm not worried, we're not dealing with test scores. Now Present Day why are these scores where they are and what do they denote what what, how do we know what they mean does it mean that the kids once they're allowed to have the the means to play catch up and do does it mean they shouldn't be in this university in this situation and a four year situation being able to play what is it that made those scores where they are and how do we change that? Again. I cannot stress Enough Rachel and you guys know. But I don't know how much listeners do they see a basketball coach but those guys Alonzo Mourning is one of the most eloquent people when it comes to speaking to this to the result of that education for years by the way and there were no one in. Alan Iverson went for two years in the world was changing then and John Understood that but Patrick, ewing to Kim Tumble the chemical tumbles funded created hospitals. This is outside of basketball. This'll John. was looking at the inequities how do we change this and how do I protect mine in the process of this being changed? How how do we not abandon them while the world is playing catch up and it wasn't just basketball it was like I said all of us you know John Jason John John Take the hit John Thompson literally would say. You you younger guys who might've black coaches shut up. This was a great phrase. He said he would have. He'd say how Black Argue How black can you afford to be right now and obviously it didn't mean how black you were. It was how secure are you? You know what? It came that way to even writers writing Collins, writing pieces John was say you're going to write that how are you sure that your your news organizations, GonNa, let you be that black this week and so that of reminding people that that did that there was more than obligation that if you. Were going to answer this you better be rooted deeply enough and firmly enough that you could go out there and swinging that bat and make it work Jay. You teach college age students every day. Now, what do you want the kids in your classes and frankly a lot of the NBA players are those same ages right twenty, twenty, one, twenty, two, twenty, three, four years old what do you want them to remember and know about John Thompson He taught me in that. We can continue that legacy through his word. So one of the ways that he defined inequality was he said we want the right to fail. We don't want to the right to succeed and want the right to fail you. He shouldn't have had to have been a national championship winning coach to have his voice carry as much. Weight as it did, there were several white coaches whose words we took seriously who had nowhere near the accomplishments of him. That's talked about the right to fail I realize one of the reasons he was so effective getting his matches across was because he didn't whine about the inequalities that he faced. He would always say I find it amusing when he said. Just. Just with Michael Jordan said. It wasn't really fine. We Don Thompson said Amuse admit that he didn't find it humorous. Not Admit that he was pointing something out such as for example, there was some talk that he might go to the NBA in the mid nineties and the word was that Oh he wants general manager powers and he wants final say in personnel decisions he's a control freak you would point out. This they called me a control freak but then meanwhile, what happened John, Calipari Larry Brown. These college coaches went to the NBA and why did they have? They had personnel say unlike John Thompson John was considered a control freak other coaches were not and he would just point that out and just leave it at that. Leave it for you to fill in the rest of the sentence. Point out too that while John Thompson always fought so hard for people who look like him it wasn't only for people who look like him. If he thought that you were someone who is a minority in your field if he thought you were someone who is fighting for a fair chance he will go out of his way to be in your corner that was something with me when I started in the Washington, market the. Of course the great. Christine. Brennan. But there weren't that many other women who were around at these sporting events and very early on he found me and very early on he would have these talks with me and say you belong here. and. I can't tell you what that means when you look around room and you don't look like everyone else and you think, Oh, do I really am I really supposed to be here and I know. That way to Richard. Just added a point about John being different being way ahead. So Laurie Michael a name known only here in Washington and you and you guys cover the team. John Thompson had a head trainer who was a young woman on his bench forty years ago. His academic advisor she wasn't advisors the academic dictator Mary Fenland with him fifty years ago back to when he was in high school. So John was. This wasn't no sort of movement. The Johnson I need to hire a woman. He's there was somebody he saw that he knew he was great. She was getting hired and it didn't matter what anybody at Georgetown thought or the Big East or the NC Double A. or the Washington Post the new. York's anywhere else. This is what John was a forty years ago, and now it's interesting when we talk about women being on the bench, you know NBA situations for yes. Now it's coaching it's moved along again one more time forty years ago or real close to it. Absolutely. You know we have a little group. Of People here at ESPN either grew up or worked in the Washington area for longtime you guys. Of course, we know Scott Van Pelt our friend. Sean trae who works as a talent producer I know everybody was so hit by this if you're from that part of the country and all through the basketball world, we celebrate the life of John Thompson Wilpon Dante. Thank you guys both so much for being with me here. Today we're GONNA stop talking about him right now but I swear we will remember him always is never going to go away that voice that voice is with us he was seventy eight years. Old You forget about that Rachel don't forget it. I can hear it right now everyone at the jump to send our condolences to the Thompson family. We're GONNA miss you a lot coach we really are. and. Now another edition of obvious news from GEICO. A study says that soft talkers do not make great radio personalities. We asked local Librarian Steve Sage about this, and here's what he said. I don't buy. The Harry captivating, right he also an obvious news geico makes it easy to save money and easy to manage policy with the GEICO APP. So switching is a really smart decision. How to Steve Feel? About this love the GEIKO APP I use it all the time all these news from guy calm. The GEM is brought to you by. Hina. Enjoy Heineken responsibly. Tomorrow. We've got two more NBA. Playoff matchups for you on ESPN deport this and the African have game two of the Heat Bucks Eastern Conference semifinals sets at six thirty eastern than it's game seven between the rockets and thunder coverage tips with NBA countdown at six o'clock eastern welcome back to the jump. I'm here with Zach, Lowe Alhassan, guys, Celtics Raptors. Game to tip off on ESPN in about ninety minutes. So let's chat about it. Boston never trailed once in their way to an eighteen point win on Sunday, the raptors ten of forty from deep have now lost four out of five to the Celtics including the regular season Zach. Are you giving the raptors a pass at all for the game? One Blow? A pass pass. The Orlando. Magic from last season in the first round. Did you get a pass for this look this game exposed some of the issues that people worried about with the raptors could they score in the half court because Boston has the best transition defense in the league they are going to take away a lot of Toronto's fast-break points. And Ten of forty from three that's going to change Toronto's GonNa make shot game was actually much closer than the score indicated but no, they don't get a pass. They gotta come out this really good Boston teams even without Hayworth. Come out really well and game to. You, I'm going to give him a pass rates get on the Adam silver. I'm going to The Hague game one that one doesn't count, and now we're just playing the best six series. Passes. It's the playoffs they all. Could be valid but guess what they're not going back on that result now I think about Zach. Orlando and game one of the last series. These exist go ahead. But that was Orlando they don't count. No it's a reality like would accent is the raptors struggles score and a half court and we saw that now part of that is they missed shots that they normally make part of that is. The Pascal Calcio Siaka not in great pool because he was an early foul trouble, I expect to see a different result today. Do you guys expect the size issue to come back to haunt Boston at all in this series equity thing? Sizes shoot. No I think it's more likely I think they're depth issue those those brad water makers semioli grant Williams with a grant Williams have played really well, those that are soaking up to Gordon. Hayward. Minutes those are the minutes. Toronto has to win with the bench that was really good at least eight or nine for the regular season. Game they got twenty seconds. Starting, me means that the bench is a little bit weaker than it should be. So yeah, Toronto is going to beat them. It's going to because their bench is better. Got It. All right. Well, thank you guys. We'll see all your predictions. Come true. We'll be back tomorrow on the jump see. GEICO knows there are many reasons why you ride from the thrill of the revving engine and pure adrenaline of flying down the highway to the confidence of knowing that Geico always has your back with twenty four, seven access to claim service. But Ari Snyder has one reason in particular that I had extremely large upper arms they won't even fit into most shirts thankfully, biking really embraced his vest culture I feel accepted. Geigo. Motorcycle fifteen minutes could save you fifteen percent or more.
The Critic: Part 3 - Rushing Wings Of Love
"You listen to the show. You know that I've been talking a lot about raining and Stephanie's online purchases especially for bucks especially for bucks and if you don't listen to the show all that often we are weekday clip notes episodes literally while I'm summarizing book my wife will be sitting across the table from me purchasing said book in the middle of the show. Most of the time yet. Okay. That's become a problem. I've been put on a leash. Yes. But maybe not so much anymore because of honey, the browser extension that saves you money. So if you don't all about honey. Literally that's all a browser extension that saves you money. Go onto your browser on your computer, download the extension for free. Make an account again for free and you're off to the races. Honey will search thousands of websites for the best coupon codes for you to save money when you shop online from your computer. And we now are in a contest called sponsor me honey per sponsorship from honey. It's the browser extension not only saves you money, but it gives back to your independent podcasts. So I can go book shopping again. Shopping again To an extent. I haven't bought any new book since. October sixth. Okay. So she's got some catching up to do and hopefully maybe honey can save some money. When you do that I, see I, see my bank account just shrinking by the. guys go to join honey dot com download the free browser extension so you can start saving money today. Off. Right. Yawning. Yawning because you're call yawning dire both. Had to cut our. Trick or treating short tonight people fucking assholes for a second. No. Sure because it won't be a second. Music no play. Okay so We all know what this Kovic that people either believe it's real or they don't or you're going to adhere to the Halloween suggestion guidelines or you're not. At least be a decent human being. That's that's all anyone can ask for right right right. So my ten year old daughter. Following my rules. That were set forth from guidelines. For Halloween. Wearing a mask wearing gloves. With her costume. I told her if the porteous. Wait your turn until the porches not crowded to go up to get your candy. So were sitting in the van watching her go up waiting. Adults and kids. Just go in front of her like invisible. And it pissed me off. Yes, it did. So instead of trick or treating 'cause we sure she went till like four houses while by the time we got that she was secretary of getting out of the van anyway. So she done yet while she went to to house it was it was the first house that she went to that I got pissed off at. And the Second House I was. I. Was Livid. I was already calling my son's who went off on their own. Say nope. Go Hall. I'm going to the store and buying candy you guys come watch hallway movies and I'll give you a bunch of candy. Yes and I made a pumpkin fluff thing and it was dullish dominated grandparents. It was. It was all right. It wasn't trick or treating it wasn't great. But. At least it wasn't dealing with rude people. Yeah. Because I would have got older we go to a few houses that didn't have anybody on the other side of town. So hopefully, this comes out on Monday colleen for you guys already over but hopefully, everybody else. Had A enjoyable Halloween as much as possible. And on that note lock over the Fuck Fuck I'm given I'm Stephanie Thank everybody who had listened to all our all the horror episode it. We got a lot of lesson we looked at we got a lot alike. Quadruple almost what we normally get. So it was that was A. At the great surprise, we enjoy doing it never buddy who commented on it. So that was a really good episode. So if you get a chance, it's our bonus episode from the thirtieth you go back and listen to it. dowse thing. And this is the last of our bram stoker series our Halloween series. How it's coming up after Halloween but now who cares? Solely never ends. In, a perfect world, Halloween would never end but. At some point, the black and Orange Jessica put away and. No they don't get put away they just lightened to. Pastel. Colors for Christmas. Okay. Pass though black. Gray. No, it's more of like a matte black. Okay. It's not or they make shiny they add gloss to it to make shiny. Matte black is more for Halloween. Yeah okay. All right well, anyway. Now when we last left Brom ideology that he was back to meet somebody a new friend. that would be a part as a an important part of his life and. Bram Stoker and Thomas Henry Hall Caine met for the first time at the glittering premiere of hamlet at the lyceum December thirtieth eighteen seventy eight cain ambitious twenty six year old journalists and budding novelist from Liverpool who had been one of Henry Irving's most voelkel public supporters in the provinces had re received a note earlier that day from stage manager Henry loveday quote. Delighted to see you tonight see Mr Bram Stoker. He has a seat in the box for you come round later. Though urban assault of course, he was a supporter of Irving. So yes, he's going to get. He's going to get seats he's getting get special treatment. Now Irving's courtesy to Liverpool theater critic was both gracious and strategic like stoker. CAIN had provided irving with invaluable press age injury in the guise of the theaters criticisms on the pages of the Liverpool town crier and might well be very useful. Again, there were so many parallels between stoker and Kane that a surprising they didn't meet much earlier Dublin and Liverpool were sister cities. On opposite sides of the Irish sea and between them was the Isle of Man Canes Ancestry Home where he spent large stretches of his boyhood for both young man and an early interest in folk and fairy lore led to a bottomless appetite for books and a special fascination for the theater. In the eighteen seventies, they saw all the same touring productions at roughly the same. Because of their geographical proximity, a theatres company stopping Dublin was. Usually followed by one in Liverpool or vice versa. They were both admirers of Henry, Irving Weltman, Swinburne Rosetti, and Edward Dowden Stoker's mentor and Canes correspondent. Stoker. was born sick Kane grew up thinking he was sick hypochondria and vague nervous complaints dogged him all his life sometimes prompting him to seek out dubious cures where stoker's major interest in fairy tales rose from exposure Christmas Pantomime Cain attributed his own baptism and folklore to his manx grandmother Manx is what you call somebody from the Isle of. Man, quote she believed in every kind of supernatural influence I think for now feeding the fire with the crackling Gorse while she told me Wondrous Tales, she claimed you've seen ferries with their own good is a girl and told how in the light of the moon she was beset by a quote multitude of little men tiny little fellows, velvet coats, and cockpits and pointed shoes who ran after her swarmed over her a clambered up her streaming hair. It's funny. The ten year old daughter what as a ferry tonight and I said, Nah, I think you're you're more of a Pixie just like no 'cause pixies are mean and I said yeah you're more of A. Grandmother who gave him the Manx nickname homey beg meaning little. Tommy. I don't know how the tooth suites. By they have their own little language on the isle, of Man, for all the similarities between stoker and gain. There was one major difference with must've been all the more exaggerated his cane ascending the dozen carpeted brass railed steps that led to the lyceum may lobby an architectural feature that always reminded audiences at least on a subliminal level that they were meant to have an elevated experience. There was nothing subliminal about stoker's in posing presence. He was big bearded bear of a man over six feet. Tall cane was nervous slight diminutive five feet three inches tall. You could just see them standing next to each other. Yeah. Wow. I'm taller than him. their little. Their first encounter must've at the theater must have been like a scene between a giant and a dwarf in one of the Pantomime Jack in the stock I think of twins hall. Arnold. Danny Devito. CAIN was very been. So a thin jagged. So Arnold Schwarzenegger and Tom Cruise. Or Dustin Hoffman. For Repairman who would be remembered legendarily as closest friends and competence Qena. Stoker seem to have remained only acquaintances during the eighteen eighties rahm and Florence were nearly canes neighbors when they moved to Chelsea at ten Cheyenne, Watt came lived with the declining Dante Gabriel Rosetti serving as secretary companion and drug dispensing nurse a chronic INSOMNIAC Rosetti was hopelessly addicted to quarrel hydrate. Until the death of the painter in eighteen eighty two shortly before the Stoker's relocates number twenty, six km provided. Brahm. was some secondhand intimacy to one of the most ghoulish episodes an art history Rosetti had founded the pre raphaelite brotherhood and his mistress. Elizabeth Sydell was one of the movement's more important models helping to define the Victorian mind how exactly many. Maidens out to look. In. Eighteen sixty two not long after she finally married Rosetti. So Dell died of laudanum overdose. She was buried in Highgate cemetery with a notebook of her husband's unpublished poetry with a Strand of what William Michael Rosetti described as her lavish heavy wealth of coppery golden hair. Wrapped around it before the cop was closed seven and a half years later, Rosetti one of the poems back. Though friends oversaw the exhumation by torchlight and his legend tells it sells corpse was like that of an uncorrupted saint and her beautiful hair had continued to grow. Filling the casket interesting. The fact that the notebook was drill through with wormholes argues against the flawless tatum preservation. One explanation that she had been essentially pickled buy laudanum use was scientifically absurd and likelihood. The story was told to Rosetti to assuage the guilt of a grave router. So. More than likely just the story. On his door because your hair isn't going to continue growing because it's got nothing to feed off of right because your body is literally decayed moment you start if they would have radically sealed the casket or something. So nothing to get sterilized her put her in there hermetically sealed nothing's getting into nothing's getting out then maybe you would open it up and she would looked fairly pristine but there'd be an wormholes board and do it in the fact that it's in the eighteen sixties probably didn't happen. Yeah. 'cause they didn't use the type of caskets they have today. That didn't have the same process of. Now if the body was beautiful, it could be perhaps a sign of approval from the beyond stoker would echo the incident in two pieces of Fiction, a Dracula Lucy Western A- with her sunny ripples of hair is interred in a cemetery very much like highgate and when the vampire hunters opens her coffin, her feature still have the blush of life and stoker short story the secret of the growing gold written circa eighteen, ninety seven will be published until nineteen fourteen, a murdered woman shorn golden hair continues to grow pushing up through fireplace stones beneath which it lies buried causing the killer husband to die of fright in. The vengeful on dead propensity of blonde female hair were also prominent and Magyar folktales. Stoker Constrain consulted while Researching Dracula and appeared in Irish legends as well. So it's kind of a an ongoing thing this. Hair. Of the dead presenting itself I still played I bonds I. still think it coming up through the through the fireplace and the husband dying from price. Pretty fucking awesome. That's where Paul got his idea for tell tale heart. Poe wrote that was writing before. This this is the end of the nineteenth century. The kettle. On. Top of everything else Brown had going on. He was also decided to become Canes Advisor Editor and agent his training as a barrister may have come in handy finally. CAIN would put a dedication to Brahmin his 1893 novel. Cotton Davies. Honeymoon in addition to aiding Cain browns returned to work on his own languishing projects and began new ones his first full length novel. The snake's pass his only novel set in Ireland appeared as a serial in eighteen, eighty nine and as a buck in eighteen ninety. Now. There are many stories about how Bram Stoker came to write dracula but only some of them are true. Now according to a son stoker always claim the inspiration for the book came from a nightmare induced by too generous helping of dressed crab at supper. A Tall Tale the writer enjoy dishing out one asked but no one took seriously it may sound too much like Ebony ebeneezer scrooge famously dismissing Marley's ghost as an undigested been beef, a blotted mustard or cream cheese. Hasn't stopped the midnight snack of dress crab from being served up as a matter of fact by. Countless people on countless occasions. While the nightmare aspect may well have some validity stoker's notes at least suggest that the story might have had its genesis in a disturbing vision. Some Dracula creation myths are easy to believe because they contain partial truths although they quickly begin to enable improbabilities and impossibilities. For example, it is an undisputed fact that stoker spent at least seven years working on Dracula from conception to publication but this leads to a number of unsupported assumptions. First, that was his masterwork largely because he spent seven years on it. And that the book is deservedly. Renowned for endless for the endless care stoker took in its crafting. Secondly, that work span of seven years indicates Abdulle facto unusually painstaking authoritative research which uncovered among other things. The grizzly true story of a bloodthirsty fifteenth century. Was Lot Shin? Warlord. Vlad the IMPALER, we've all her story who was also known. As Dracula. That you heard the story that Vlad, the IMPALER IS ACTUALLY DRACULA okay. The name was not well known outside of Romania, but stoker would make it world famous as the historical source and embodiment of the Vampire myth. In reality, lads connection to Stoker's character was more to us than inspirational and the others research was surprisingly thin over time and especially with the release of Francis Ford. Coppola's misleading titled Film Bram Stoker's Dracula Nineteen ninety-two Latte story is now universally misunderstood as stoker's central source but honestly, the reason Dracula took seven years to write was that stoker had great difficulty writing it especially cutting through the overload of his a Matt, his own imaginative clutter. He just couldn't sit his ass down. And write the fucking I couldn't focus. It had nothing to do with the amount of research he was putting into it had everything to do with the fact that he just had too much going on his head and too much shit to do I understand. All too well, anybody WHO's trying to write like their first paper and they have a whole life to live around writing the book understands that. If you're not getting paid to just sit at home and write a book than you probably understand exactly what we're talking about. Yup I don't think I'll ever get my first book done when you have nothing to do when all the kids are moved out and you just relax. Then maybe you're got I tapped in. The process was twisted arduous and constantly interrupted. He stopped to write other books. He questioned himself he censored himself. He had sat can even third thoughts about almost everything and the end he wondered if the book would even be remembered. Part from his long standing interest in the occult. The best reason we can figure for stoger's apparent sudden interest in writing an out and out supernatural novel at the end of the eighteen eighties was working association with Hall. CAINE. Since they admit had many discussions about legends of the Living Death Demonic love and life unnaturally Poe prolonged as possible stage vehicles. For Henry, irving it is not surprising that stoker began mulling over a similar. Theme Kane may have even suggested a modern day vampire adventure as something with a good chance for commercial success. Traditional Gothic novels were always set in the past or at least stripped of their trappings of modern modern entity. But what if the present was pitted against the pass? No on an attempted such thing and there was a good chance, it might catch the public's fancy. There weren't many vampire stories around then awardees tail the vampire. Wherein a vampire sets up shop London Society Barney Vampire the rambling penny dreadful serial serial in which key Scenes Dracula of obvious origins, Carmella of course, and sometimes overlooked. But nonetheless, strong inspiration of the German short story, the mysterious stranger nineteen, forty, four by Karl von Volkmann. Round the time he began making notes for the yet untitled van der Story Stoker had finished and was in the process of building the snakes half a straightforward romantic melodrama well paced and still entertainingly readable. The villain is Black Murdoch a gumby man or shady money lender who wants to foreclose on a certain property because he knows something it's cash-strapped owner does not the land situated on the past of the see through which Saint Patrick Drove Ireland's snakes. Bring up Saint Patrick's again. Contains. A hidden treasure. The property is also surrounded by dangerous all engulfing pete bog, which catches up with Murdoch when he ignores its perils. In his greedy quest for gold. You not. Begun. An. I could say that I'm over fifty percent, IRA? The cataclysm strongly recalls the climax, pose the fall of the House of usher which dunker admired and always thought might be an excellent basis for an opera. By a great. The image of domicile being engulfed in geological turmoil was one. He would revisit more than once in his writing although worked for Irving and CAIN was already threatening to swallow stoker him himself in London on Saturday March eighth eighteen ninety, he found time to write the first of only two dated notes for the new novels plot. A CERTAIN COUNT DASH DASH in Styria who wishes to buy property in England has written the President of the Incorporated Law Society who refers the matter to the solicitor Abraham Aronson who in turn selects an unnamed but trustworthy young lawyer Almost. Every culture has some variation of the myth of the hungry dead and the rules by which these creatures are created and kill. They're so varied and diverse. No work of fiction could utilize them all and remain coherent or plausible even taking into account a heavy dose suspended belief is only so many things that can be pushed into one monster story until you go. Okay come. Right. yeah yeah. Stoker wisely steered clear of some of the more ludicrous beliefs, for instance. And I did not realize this one that vampire seemingly driven by obsessive compulsive disorder as much as by bloodlust could be stopped by strewing poppy seeds in their path, which they would be compelled to individually counts a Labor's process. Sure to last until dawn. Did you know that on no I did not. I. It seems if that's the case vampires really wouldn't be much of a problem just always make sure you have a handful of seeds and just throw them on the ground in front of them and run off. It's monk the. Monk was Vampire Tony Shalhoub? Yeah Mr Bean to Mr Bean wasn't obsessive compulsive odd. Yeah. But he would still count each piracy baby. In order to at least a degree ably, believability stoker judicially adapted the basis of vampirism as set forth in the accounts of Eastern. European vampire panics by the French biblical scholar Dome Augusta Clement in a debt in Oh fuck French there Sir Tation Sur Les Operations. This. S Rita's. Et Sur Les, Vampires? Okay that sounded more. Spanish than French. That's because of me. I listened to it on Google translate and it sounded nothing like what I just said I bet but in sound nothing like what it was spelled out either because that's French. Seventy forties translated as the phantom world in eighteen, fifty, eighteen, fifty all that the phantom world. Here he found the time honored method vampires disposal actually used on suspicious corpses a sharp stake through the heart decapitation and cremation variant methods included the removal of the heart rather than staking. These were all physical measures taken against the physical threat for the most part stoker intended his vampires to be re animated corpses not as tradition held the bodies astro product projections of its ghostly double. which in its nocturnal wanderings collected blood that was somehow de- materialized and physically reconstituted in the gray bound corpse. So he got rid of that. Because that makes no sense. How's IT Go- SPO- sly of heard of vampires like doing an astral projections of you could see them but they're not really there. They could talk to you but they're not really there but and he still keep kind of keep that in But he gets rid of the. Can do the your mind or early eighteen, Eighty, eight edition of the encyclopedia. Britannica presents this view but stoker went his own way. He retained Vampires Power of D. Mightier dematerialization but never raise the problem of blood transport. He just didn't. He didn't even bother with it. Which probably best he gave Dracula the ability to shape shift into a bat or bat like bird a trait not found in folktales and the additional ability to assume the formidable wolf something he found in Sabin Barron Gold's the of where wolves eighteen sixty five bearing described the Serbian. Rox Lock. A Vampire Wolf Hybrid, and related the Greek belief that where wolves became vampires after death. Which I had never heard. An underworld type shit stoker was sufficiently impressed by some of bearing goals, descriptions of Werewolf traits that he incorporated them almost verbatim into his description of Dracula bearing gold. For instance, said that where wolves hands are broad fingers short in there always some hairs on the hollow, the Hand Dracula hands or rather coarse broad with squat fingers strange to say, there were hairs in the center of the poems that is because he masturbated too much. Never heard. I've heard it i. that's an old wives tale bearing gold also gave Stalker. Has described it for anybody doesn't l? Back in the day, they used to tell you if you jerked off too much. You'd grow hair on your bombs. So there you go. Barron gold also gave stoker his description of where wolf eyebrows meeting above the nose and sharp white teeth protruding over the lips a blurred boundary between human and animal forms was especially resident for late Victorian readers still reeling from Darwin's unsettling theories. Yes. Yes. Well you know you see the old things the old. Bela Lugosi Dracula has the UNI brow the browse connect. Yeah. So that's where it came from Italians were. Perfect for playing. Dracula go. So since many film adaptations, of Dracula, have depicted the vampire being incinerated by sunlight readers often surprise that and stoker's novel. The count walks the streets of London by day unscathed although his powers are diminished in the light. So the whole can't walk in the daylight. Did IT COME FROM DRACULA. That was a new word thing that seventy s made know I it's a it's a TV movie troch. They added that in there because it they could special effects were finally coming to a point where they could do weird things and They can make it look like he was burning up or whatever yeah and I'm not talking ill on or speaking ill of the Italians I love the Italians, my my Stepdad, my father. My Dad Father is a my dad fees yet they're Italian and my younger brother his it's his dad but my dad to He's shut. It's his his my dad's do, but he says his biological father not mine but he's my dad. anyway, my brother has a union broke. My Dad has a universal. So I thought prominent on Your Dad I. Don't see really the universe so much while you're you can see it pretty well when you look at your brother Yeah. Yeah. On some of my cousins and uncles do. It's it's pretty Italian thing. I love Italian. I'm not Italian really at all but. In folklore, the vampire like other evil spirits retreats into hiding by day but never destroyed by the sun. This particular vulnerability made its first appearance in the classic Nosferatu in Nineteen Twenty, two stalker discovered the curious word nosferatu and Emily Gerard's eighteen eighty, five essay transylvanian superstitions which first appeared in the middle of the nineteenth century. Remember the nineteenth century we talked about. that. He didn't get that Oscar. Wilde beat him to yes. Yeah. And it was later included in her book, the Land Beyond The forest the title refers to Transylvania's literal meaning across the forest. Although she claimed the word hat as a Romanian term for Vampire Nosrat to appears in no Romanian dictionaries or any dictionary in any language. So she made it up. Congratulations on creating a brand new word language. You are welcomed into likes of Shakespeare and what was that writer that came up with Blink Blake that the rapper that came up going you have created your own. Idea so congratulations. For most of August eighteen ninety Brom Florence and Noah and no they -cation in a picturesque fishing village of what be North Yorkshire Very. English. I think just thinking of Cronk because blame was already a word. And it was little John that did cronk. Okay. If you say so I don't care I, think I think I'm right on I. Don't know rapper vacation may not be the best word to ever describe Bronze Brahms time away from the lyceum for as usual he was still preoccupied with work is writing and he spent uncounted hours taking notes from books at local museums and subscription library it is not inconceivable that Whitby was chosen for. The holiday because Brom had already cited it, it might make ideal location in his novel the English port of entry for his still unnamed vampire menace not far from the Guest House with the storefront studio of a local photographer Frank Sutcliffe who salt prints and postcards of Whitby and scenery his Sepia tone views on the Abbey and the adjacent church and cemetery overlooking the sea were especially striking. But the sutcliffe photo that commanded stoker's attention depicted the dramatically beached wreck of the Russian sooner Dimitri run ashore on whippy on October? Twenty, fourth eighteen, eighty, five, his curiosity piqued stoker sought out and had a conversation with the Coastguard Boatman William Pethick who gave him details on various wrecks including the Dmitri and seemed to have just transcribed a complete account of the incident from official records and given it to stoker the idea of Count Dracula arriving via a debilitated wreck instead of merely by C. had never occurred to him before it did now, he only sightly Disgu- is the name for his fictional best vessel as the demeanor. So we changed it. Let. Let me just throw a little Greek mythology in there. I. Don't know if that's what he was going for or if he just wanted to change the name a little bit because he didn't want to use the same name Atri meter. And addition to location whitby afforded stalker some of his most profitable research. It was his only known visit to the town and he made the most of it at Whitby Museum. He found a glossary of Whitby localisms, a good number of which found their way into his finished book. I museum building also held the Whitby subscription library where he requested in eighteen twenty volume of William Wilkinson an account of the principalities of Wash Ella and Moldova with various political observations related to them. That's the whole day. Again. We've covered as before. They did not name books way back in the day or your people I mean. So many people have like four or five names how Mary's did we talk about in the Mary wollstonecraft. No I meant. Kane he has four. Yes. Well they want because they they give you a first name and then usually you get like your father's middle name, and then you get your mother's maiden name and then you get your father's last night. That's a lot of the Times. How wet? But naming kids then. Changed at least for for us I don't know. You know overseas and still has a very strict way of how they name. Children you actually have to go through A. Like. A council in order to name your kids because they wanna keep the language pure. Yeah I know in Mexico, they have very long means to multiple names because you have to have your mother and or father side of the family. Long name. Things are just difficult. Now, in this book, Stoker encountered the name. Dracula the name given to the Joaquin warlord Lad tabbies fourteen thirty one through fourteen, seventy, six legendary for protecting the region from tiny. Asian and the bulk hero in Rome in Romania to this day stoker paraphrase Wilkinson in his notes an added. Emphatic. Capitalisation Dracula. All caps you I'm put my hands up see me put. My. HANDS UP DRACULA. In Washington language means. Del. AM. While John's. While while options while am I, I've been watching since I guess is powis pronounced. Relations. Maybe. We're accustomed to give a surname to any person who rendered himself conspicuous by courage cruel action or Cunning Wilkinson aired slightly dracula in Romanian means son of the devil or son of the Dragon. Lad's father was called Drexel, which means both devil and Dragon. So cool is the Devil Dracula the summit. Oh, yeah. Drako is dragon and Latin. WHO'LL? Die Impress you know because you know Latin. Somewhat I I know a little something. There is no evidence. Stoker was aware of the warlords reputation as wide the impaler it is nothing but a gruesome coincidence that stakes are also used to kill vampires and there is no documentation that stoker ever came across a German pamphlet describing La dining beneath his writhing victims and dripping his dipping his bread in their blood it is A. Okay. So so vlad the impaler, you still take these super along steaks. Liu them up real good. Sit Somebody on him stand up, and then they would slowly slide down them. Folk Tale it now that's true. But the folk tale as he's the set up his dining table underneath any one of these people. Probably one that was still alive. So they can shock and he would let the blood drip onto his food as he ate, you dunk his bread and that was one of his favorite things to do problem is lot of shit got mixed in with that blood. Oh. Yeah again. Just a folk tale as he would have been sick a lot with E. coli and well I mean he might have been he only live like. Or some odd years. So it's a possibility but I mean, how could he impale all those people I, well, no sick his army. Okay, he was the leader of the army and he had them do. Thousands of up Turks. Up on the state. So, but it's just a folk tale maybe happened maybe not. But since one steaks and blood were highly suggestive vampires. and Tuesday gastric modern scholars have repeatedly asserted that stoker was far more knowledgeable about Vlad than he actually was even maintaining that historical Dracula was the primary inspiration for the fictional one. This is patently untrue stoker's note show that the book had taken considerable shape in his mind before he struck out his first idea for his monstrous Bellon's name professor helsing. Enumerating historical documents. Note that in one manuscript, this very dracula is spoken of as them peer. which we all understand too well. Now, this is stoker's invention. There have been found no manuscripts or historical books in any language using the German word for vampire in connection with. So. You believe what you want. True. This Vlad. The impaler really HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH DRACULA THEY'RE. Not. They they they don't crossover. So sorry to Piss on your wees. Notes pissed on my cheerios. No. Not, if you're an athlete. Are you an athlete I used to be it is doesn't. To, understand how stoker even found time to write dracula in addition to urban 's Irving's London season and provisional tours and a command performance of Beckett. For Queen. Victoria at Windsor Castle there were two more lyceum tours in America one night in eighteen, ninety three and into ninety four and another eighteen, ninety, five and ninety six. Beyond theater commitments was his continued involvement in how Canes Literary Affairs Including Preparing for publication writing introductions for reprints of Kane's books. These. Were part of an ambitious enterprise. Had It by the publisher William Heinemann called the English Library which invited established writers in England and America to distribute their work in continental Europe and I go to the gym all the time. Fuck you make you an athlete. No. I'm massively I exercise my brain not in a long time. You've avid yes I do I have to help the kids with their homework? Come on so Come. Stalker was a partner in the imprint along with publisher Walcott balanced her and journalists wwl Courtney English library authors included Richard Kipling. Arthur CONAN DOYLE J M Berry and at Stoker's purcell invitation a man, we know all too well, Mark Twain. I know all them authors. Yes, and who later became a friend one he lived with his family in London remember talking about Mark Twain moved to London with his family for a while. there's a lot again, I really would love to Redo our. Mark Twain series because there's a Lotta Shit that I wasn't doing the research the way that I really should have been doing the research I would love to do it again but him and Bram Stoker quaint became quite good friends. And I would love to Go back over all that you know I love how Honestly. You've just been randomly picking out authors. And they've all tied in, it's it's a thing it the authors it seems like it's A. It's a crowd that runs together and no matter who you talk about you're going to end up talking about another author and it's usually one important enough for us to cover the I've been I I. I said the same thing every time I cover an author. One that we already covered. Are One that we're getting ready to cover is coming up fucking. Boroughs the bane of my existence. Uncovering now has William S burroughs in the fucking book that I'm reading yet after burroughs, you never would hear about Barrosa. Every book I've been this is literally the first one. Since I've done boroughs where his name was brought it was even in the one about Walston craft and Mary Shelley for Fuck Sake. Are you kidding me? Anyway. A letter written by HP lovecraft in nineteen thirty to claim that quote. Stoker was very inept writer when not helped out by revise irs I know Old Lady. Almost had the job of revising Dracula back in the early eighteen ninety s she saw the original manuscript and says it was fearful mess finally someone else stoker thought her price for the work was too high whipped it into such shape as it now possesses. Explosive. Implications were not well received by stoker. Does and later the letter has routinely been dismissed as one of lovecraft strange imaginings. The Writers and securities have been exhaustively documented. We talked about HP lovecraft where we talked about robbery our and we will do lovecraft at some point just depends on what I feel like getting into all his racist bullshit get. It will I have the book we will cover him at some point is GonNa be. was born he's rockin racing. He said a lot of horrible shit and wrote a lotto horrible shit in these amazing things that he wrote and he died but. Eventually, we will cover him because. I mean commodities, HP, lovecraft. And, show his mazing. We need to finish it but yes, Lacrosse country has been pretty fucking great. Now however, lovecraft told variants of the same story on at least three other occasions as early as nineteen twenty in a letter to writer Frank Bell Bell Nap long he named the would be booked doctor as edith miniter quote, Miniature Saw Dracula Matters Manuscript about thirty years ago it was incredibly Slovenly. She considered the job a revision, but chain charge too much for stoker. A letter to Donald Juan dre a 1927 offered more information and gave another decidedly negative appraisal of stoker as a writer. A writer quote have you read anything of Stoker's aside from Dracula Stoker was absolutely devoid of a sense of form and could not write a coherent tale to save his life everything of his wet through the hands of a re- writer and it's curious to know that. One of our circle and amateur journalist an old lady named Miss, miniature, had a chance to revise Dracula manuscript, which was a fiendish mess before publication but turned it down because stoker refused to pay her the price which the difficulty of the work impelled her to charge. Stoker had a brilliant fantastic mind but was unable to shape the images he created. So just throwing shade all over the fucking place I don't know what his deal was with the stoker but. It was not a fan I. Guess. Sounds like a Dick Z's thing if stoker offered Miss Miniature Job Revising Dracula how and when did he meet her when Henry Henry Irving's eighteen ninety three to nineteen to eighteen ninety four American tour reached Boston in January. Miniature had just joined the editorial staff of the Boston home. Journal. A lively literary weekly. The lyceum was traveling with nine productions that season the merchant of Venice. Livia Nance Oldfield the Bells Beckett Louis, eleven, Charles the first the Lions Mall and Henry the eighth. When would he have time to seek out somebody to Redo his work? He was he cut mailed. Or sent an Assistant I. Guess It's possible but I don't. He didn't really have an assistant. He was everybody's assistant that his wife and child travel with him at the time No, you'd be gone for months at a time. I mean he had a few hours to himself where he didn't have to do anything I'm sure. Yet. It's just it. Allah is to think that he had all this time to go find somebody and negotiate price to. You Know Rewrite Pretty Much Dracula for him, and there were telegraphs and. Stuff Yup I would have had to have met her. To The probably mailed her a transcript and if it's true. That's the bank is if it's true. For Stoker the winner of eighteen, ninety four was not a happy season aside from his personal but very public slap in the face from the New York Times criticizing his defense of Irving. The vampire novel was tied in knots. I didn't really get into the whole. The New York Times criticized urban quite a bit. He stood up defensive of him and the New York Times said, if we wanted to know what you think, we would ask you sit down and shut the fuck up and and you know, Victorian Tarbes they pretty much. Just bitch slap stoker what he stood up urban. So he's not having the mess time. Sticking up for hack. He doesn't see him as a hack. He sees him as the best thing since well, then didn't have sliced bread yet slice breads the best thing since irving as marcy concern. So. He's he loves this man. He loves what he does on stage. You love somebody defend them even if they're right and they. Pretty much put him in his place. Now. The vampire novel is tied in knots. He would. He would have to untangle himself and his summer holiday would be devoted to yet another book. The waiters Mao set in Cruden Bay. Scotland which he had visited for the first time the previous year is the story of a woman who was in love with a man whose jobs to stop smuggling by poor fishermen like her father as a fallback he dusted off short historical novel seven Golden. Buttons which he had finished in eighteen ninety one but never submitted for editorial consideration after returning to London he offered it to the Bristol Publishing House J W Arrowsmith not that aerosmith. I don't think he has any daughters that are in his music videos. But it was rejected. As for the vampire book, it is not known whether e this edith miniature gave him any kind of detailed critique. But from his notes, we can summarize the manuscript was a now lost first draft titled Either the Dead Undid or the dead. The first use of the hyphenated term. It and both sides UN hyphenated dead. They didn't use the hyphen before that he started it. So if you ever see Annette with Hyphen Ram Stoker was the first one to write it that way. Go. Because the LISETTE trends on dead and UN dead are two different things the your Unedu- just alive. If you're Unidad that means you're dead and now not dead again. So there. And eighteen ninety. Eight thousand ninety five was a rather busy year for stoker announcement was made of Henry Irving's impending knighthood the first four. English. Actor Irving had been considered for the honor a decade earlier but contrary to Stoker's later account the prime minister had qualms about Irving's adulterous relationship with Ellen Terry did you see the picture of young Terry that I put up online? She was very beautiful when she was younger she not guess is see her pictures when she's older not so much. Some people do not h grace shooting not age gracefully things on her that were that that you wouldn't think would get larger got larger and it was really shaped her weirdly face. Wise it was. Not Flattering. But yes, he's the first actor to be knighted. So you call them hack all you want but that's a pretty big accomplishment I mean. Now, in Stoker's telling Irving, refused the offer as being extravagant and premature in any event the new prime. Minister Lord. Rosebery. Hardly regarded the and Terry liaison as a controversy ROB's brother thornely stoker by then the president of the Royal College of Surgeons and Dublin was. Knighted in eighteen, ninety, five for his distinguished contributions to medicine. So he's got to people in his life now or nights you're a glorified assistant. How much that's like and Lord Rose Roseberry the new prime minister he had his whole other Affair controversy going on so that and it was much why didn't get much worse than? Irving and Terry getting into it. So he's like at that that big a deal. Yeah. Okay. I'll do it is way worse. Each thorough. Yeah. It's not okay to cheat. No, it's not. In Irving's case, they weren't together by paper they were married, but they had nothing to do with one another. So I could see why the pretty much separated just never going to get divorced Ellen Terry they were separated her husband. So I guess it's a little different I mean there's some leeway there but Yep. Now Stoker acknowledge the honor and the dedication of the soldier of Shasta a romance novel he released the same year. Throughout the summer preparations were being completed for another North American tour with ousts. Montreal. Opening in September and still there was the damned unfinished book. Bram decided to make a few changes to the book after the trial and conviction of his acquaintance friend and sometimes rival Oscar Wilde We will cover Oscar Wilde and the future, and you will find out all about his trial and fall from grace But all you really need to know as something came out that. Weren't okay back then and a lot of. A lot of what they base that on was the portrait of Dorian Gray. And Yeah. Things Great Frost around for a very long time. Dracula's in social club counter was completely scrubbed his dinner party invitation torn up and the character began to take a snarling step back into the shadows. The author of this Book Makes Many Parallels Between Dracula and wild and wilds influence on the writing I. Don't know if I exactly by it but by the end of the day the drama wildlife and his novel, the Portrait Dorian Gray did raise the browse of the English sensors which meant Brom had to take extra care to distance himself from the family he had often seen as his surrogates. He Does Dracula was going to be a controversial book to begin with. With everything that was in it in a sex, the lust, the blood, the Gore Orchard Dorian Gray comes out has a lot of the same things in it people are shocked by it. So now Brown got be like. Maybe I should calm it down a little bit because I don't want to go to prison. Which is what happens to Oscar Wilde. Ruin oiler alert. If you don't know what happens to Oscar Wilde, but you don't know that you probably aren't listed there. There was there was also. Wasn't there homosexuality Dorian Gray and and in Oscar Wilde's life also. So Dan ran parallel to that but there was also a not homosexuality in Dracula a hints to man on man type love. In, that and Dracula having three wives in his in his castle and it was all very risque and taboo for the time not so much now. But for the time it was and that really it it scared him enough to hold back. So what you're getting Dracula, the blood, the Gore, the sex and everything is a pull back version for what he originally wanted. Remember the duelists. Two boys killing toddlers and killing the parents with the toddlers and winning award winning awards. Yes. So we know how fucked up his head can get. Now. The novel was taking its toll both financially and personally. No recall him being very testy during the completion of the novel withdrawing both Florence, and himself said that Brown would seek complete isolation while writing and would take long beach walks alone and sit for hours on the rocks offshore and be inclined to be short tempered if an. But. Finally 1896 Rahm delivered the final professionally typed and hand emended manuscript called the UN dead to Archibald Constable, and company. He never received an advance for the book only a guaranteed I run of at least three thousand copies and pame a payment of one shilling for each copy soul. I. Don't know exactly how much is schilling worth but one showing very. Dickens. No one knows when the title was changed or who suggested it. The final title was assigned by the end of the previous summer at the very latest far earlier than is usually assumed that the bookseller ad for new vote new books in September Eleventh Eighteen Ninety six issue of the Cape of Good Hope Cape Illustrated magazine includes. Dracula by Bram Stoker. So. There's a question of when exactly the name was changed wasn't at the last minute or was it months before he actually turned in? I don't know it's not that big of a deal but. On May Eighteenth Eighteen Ninety seven the week before Dracula appeared in the bookstalls stoker hell the stage reading of the book for dramatic copyright purposes as Lyceum. The ethical pro piracy was a thorn in the side of many nineteenth century writers most famously Charles Dickens and Mark Twain, and although there's no evidence that copyright readings actually prevented on authorized stage adaptation, there were nonetheless a common practice the if you write a book. And you go put up and you go have them, read it on stage in you sell tickets and you have the place cards and the poachers and everything made you can prove when you first had this book out when you first had people reading it. So if somebody else puts up the exact same thing a year later, you can prove a look. We had people there. They bought tickets they were there they saw. That was the copyright protection that they had. I guess that makes sense I mean it's it's proof. Yes. Programs were printed place guards posted and a token admission was charged to make the and a commercial endeavor. The Stoker's Cook Maria Mitchell was the only known paying customer. So basically, he paid for him pretty much. Fifteen actors from the supporting ranks Lyceum company participated in the reading and Ellen Terry's daughter Edith Craig took the role of Mina Dracula as played by a now obscure actor named T.. Arthur. Jones. Although Stoker really did believe Dracula had theatrical possibilities that the shortcomings of the peace were clear enough to Henry Irving asked by stoker what he thought of the effort. Irving reportedly had one word reply. Dreadful. You fucking dead. Man. He could not have been unhappy with the refers reviews though he might have been surprised given the doubt expressed by hall Caine that he had written anything memorable although a great number of sources have described the overall critical response to. Dracula. As mixed outright pans of the book were exceedingly rare and the overwhelming majority of notices were enthusiastically supportive but. Now the pro- problem of publishing in America, which would be a considerable cost to bomb the copyright registration made by S S McClure and Stoker's name on March tenth eighteen ninety nine was not for the Doubleday and McClure book, but rather for a newspaper serialisation. Deposit copies of which were received in parts between March and April tenth. Twenty seven publication days excluding Sundays corresponding precisely to the twenty seven chapters of the novel. But what about stoker's considerable expense in securing the American copyright? It seems that McClure arranged the Book Publication Only After Dracula had proven. It's viability in regional papers and stoker was expected to assume a portion of the financial risk for typesetting. Syndication was profitable because the book only needed to be set in a hard type. Once daily newspapers that accepted syndicated material utilize columns of a standard with and were accustomed to receiving lightweight easily shipped paper mashame molds known as Stereo types into which they poured their own hot metal to produce printing plates. Stoker must have truly run out of publisher options when he accepted McClure's deal from the very beginning, he had worn hall Caine of the financial disadvantage of accepting syndication offers tied to book publication. But now he found himself in the position of signing exactly such a contract or not be published in the United States at all. because. That's that he had to. Do a book you got one things got to be poured your one set of plates prince out the book and that's it. It just prints out that book. In syndication accept paper machine for the the. Steal N. make plates, but they have to do that each. For each paper. Which means they have to pay for all. So He's losing money. Yeah. Seven MONTHS AFTER THE PUBLICATION OF DRACULA A stealthy shadow began its slow encircling of the lyceum family. The novel that would come to be regarded as stoker's masterpiece, the climax of his literary energies whether or not he regarded as such was also tale of. Enter Vision Decay, and death with grim irony. Dracula coincided with the arrival of an increasingly dark and tumultuous period in the history, as well as for Irving and stoker personally, and everyone else who had been involved in the grand and glamorous project of reclaiming the lost dignity of the British theatre. Going to get a little little weird by the end of eighteen, Ninety, seven, the actor William Terrace remember we talked about him with the whole hypnotism game that he liked to play one of Irving's favorites and player who eventually had assumed the mantle of Faust against his Meta Mephistopheles was a start as own right had moved on to be a leading man in the main draw at the Adelphi theatre on. The Strand. A true matinee idol for known to fans as breezy bill the handsome actor appeal to audiences of all ages. Stoker's son Null knoll bound fondly recalled terraces swashbuckling presence and Adolfo MELODRAMAS. But on Thursday December sixteenth, all that would end with a ghastly melodramatic flourish. He would be murdered by stage extra will entering the theater through the actors entrance one evening stabbed twice in the back and once fatally. In the heart. Coincidence. Probably He died in the arms of his mistress. Jessie millward. It goes on a lot longer than Abbott I broke it down to a little bit but it's much longer than that. Almost exactly eight weeks after the attack on Tariffs. Another omen this one threatening the lies eum basic ability to perform maddest manifested like a bad dream quote at ten minutes past five in the morning of Friday eighteenth. February eighteen, Ninety eight I was awakened by continuous knock and a door somewhere near my house. Chelsea. I soon discovered it was my own house always a night person and never an early riser stoker quote what downstairs and opened the door when a muffled up cabdriver gave me a letter it was from the police station of Bow Street telling me the lyceum storage bare lane southwark was on fire. The, four wheeler was waiting and I was soon on the way there as fast as a horse could go. You remember when I talked about how Henry Irving woodlouse photographs, and that might that would end up playing a role and people forgetting completely about him When he arrived and storage facility a huge converted vault under the arches of the railway overpass not far from the original location of Shakespeare's globe. Theatre firefighters had given up trying to control the fire and could do nothing except supervised the burn out the fire was so fierce that it actually burned the building of the railway archers three bricks deep and turned the coping stones to powder. In all two thousand pieces of scenery and bulk properties were destroyed the painted drops and flats from forty two productions were lost including all of Irving's major successes faust the Bells Macbeth hamlet along with the rest of the lyceum Shakespearean settings not to mention the exquisite and completely irreplaceable production of the King Arthur and the Cup designed by Sir Edward Burne Jones. The scenery had been ensured for six thousand pounds. A fraction of his original unappreciated value up thirty thousand pounds. Because, everyone involved perceived a very low fire risk in the end, the brick stone and slate of the great room proved indeed fireproof but acres of paint covered canvas did not. Irving's longtime refusal to have his actual productions. Photograph would bring the full achievement of his finish work to a living memory alone. That's why you don't really know who Henry Irving is because everything that paintings and drawings everything that he had in their. Mark to the ground. Poor guy. Charlotte Stoker had returned to Dublin his mother remember returned to Dublin mid eighteen eighties after about a dozen years abroad in France Switzerland and. A decade of independence from her sons and their families and apparently agreed with her, and she chose to live alone a modest brick house on seventy two wrath Gar road south of the city centre. In Wrath, garlic saying wrath are. She had no daily obligations to anyone. But herself her daughters were married and her grown son's beyond the tight control she had exerted when they were young. She had done her best but she always thought Brom could have done better. Charlotte. Never had a good thing to say about Henry. Ring Much Lesser Son's career in the theatre P- she may have is located herself stoker's dedication to her and his night eighteen, ninety, five novel the. Mo- read rather glumly. To my mother in her loneliness. But finally with Dracula, her son had produced something that resonated with her own passion for the Gothic novel of Her girlhood, and it may have partially close an emotional chasm it seemed to have cheered her quotes. My. Dear it is splendid. A thousand miles beyond anything you've written before and I feel certain it will place you very high in the writers of the day. Book since, Mrs Shelley's Frankenstein or indeed any other at all has come near yours in originality or tear. Poe is nowhere I have read much but I have never read a book like it all in. It's terrible excitement it should make a widespread reputation and much money of. You. Finally, had his mother's approval it's can make me cry. But. A later letter reflected returns Darker Moods, quotes I have not been well at all lately. Time tells very severely upon me and even drops in my eyes begin to lose their effect. I only hope God will be good enough to take me home before I get quite blind situated as I am is terrible look forward for me but I can't complain I've had a happy and healthy life and must take the bad as well as the good. If I had lost my sight in the early part of my life, one needed me to be useful. How much worse would it have been Charlotte died in Dublin on March Fifteenth Nineteen, O. One. Three months short of her eighty third birthday. So he got his mother's approval just before she had died, which is great and you've got to really admire somebody said she's had a happy and healthy life for someone who battled through two separate cholera epidemics cut off some dudes hand with an axe. Almost got burnt to death that their wagon trying to get the fuck. Outta town. Had A kid who couldn't walk for seven years? I mean Looking on the bright side, I suppose. For someone who's got thick you know she's sure is optimistic. Let. Me Gothic. Ben Is Different Than Gothic. Now I suppose but. Gothic then is true Gothic yeah. Brom received the news while on Provisional Tour with Lyceum Company the cause of death as heart failure following influenza with only Charlotte's illiterate made in attendance at her wrath Gar home but others have made the extraordinary suggestion that her suffering was ended by a mercy killing. Possibly, a morphine overdose administered by one of her sons. Whatever the immediate cause of. More than likely. Whatever the immediate cause of Charlotte's death, the loss of sight and a woman who above all prize reading and literacy at her tire life would have made her final illness a cruel personal hell. She was buried in a family plot at Mount Jerome. Cemetery also the Resting Place of Dublin Luminaries Sir William Wilde and J. Sheridan lay new. When her son Thornley along with his wife Emily joined her the headstone was erected commemorating Abraham Stoker as well though his ashes remained permanently interred in. If Brom did not witness his mother's last as the same cannot be said of his ringside seat to the sorry spectacle of Irving's declining health a creeping process spread over several years rumors about the actors weakening stamina and pending retirement began not long after the scenery fire. Did he die of a broken heart? Stoker was forced to refute them in the press. The first tank in irving state in irving stage armor came on the opening night of the eighteen, ninety, six revival of Richard. The third when following the performance, he stumbled at home and tore ligaments in his knee ouch. Two years later, a graver health challenge made a most unwelcome and Prince according to Terry quote when we are on tour, he caught a chill inflammation of the lungs bronchitis and pneumonia followed his heart was affected. He was never really well again, the Syria seriousness of his in eighteen ninety eight was never really known he nearly died after. The. Inflammation. Terry describe was pleurisy in glass in, which is pretty much plus in your lungs. Yeah. In Glass Gal halfway through performance of Madame Sans San Gene in which irving played Napoleon with oversized furniture and tended to reduce the actors considerable stature to Napoleonic proportions. Kinda like calculators. Now. What's that one they have the giant Chair, the giant SOFA so the people look like they're miniature I can't remember the name of it. Not The stage play Oh i. something like that irving summoned stoker to his dressing room quote. I think there must be something wrong with me every breath I take like a sword staff email may have well been exaggerating since he went on with the performance but the pain was real and stoker headed doctor waiting after the curtain call four decades before penicillin the complication of pneumonia was extremely dangerous. Irving is still. Extremely dangerous. Irving. Remaining Glasgow for seven weeks under the care of tuner says while the tour continued without him at his insistence stoker monitored his employer anxiously quote at first. Of course, he got worse and worse weaker and suffered more pain. He had never in his life been anything. But lean and now as he lost flesh, the outline of his features group painfully keen the cheek and Chin and lips which she had kept clean shaven all his. came out stubbly with white hair at the time his hair was iron gray but no more. Nicotine Ninety seven when the novel was published Irving already slowing down with an understudy instead of Irving tour attendance plummeted but seventy loyal people were dependent on Irving's payroll and couldn't survive without the promise provision engagements. The ten weeks of the tour cost irving a very considerable sum of money. The cost of recreating sets per for performances in London and the road was another unplanned and ongoing expense new flats and drops. Now cost three times their original price the license finances were severely strained and even with irving performing the first night no longer had the social cachet of earlier decades at the turn of the century, the theatrical conditions which prevailed while urban concord and finally dominated the London stage had gone forever. Freelance writing was now a necessity for stoker and not a choice from the time. Henry. Irving began to falter ominously he carved out more and more time for fiction after Dracula he worked reworked his early rejected novel called seven Golden Buttons as Miss Betty, and sold it to publisher see author Pearson Limited. With. Which issued the book in Eighteen Ninety Eight Dracula's occurring initial sales may have prompted Pierced Pearson to take to take a chance based on Brown's name recognition but any reader approaching it on that basis would be sorely disappointed. Miss Betty was not dracula despite the fact that stoker gave both novels a full copyright reading lyceum stage Miss. Betty remains one of his weakest. Interestingly, enough, it's also the only book he ever dedicated to his wife. Fun. I mean it's not his fault that it did do great. It's just he didn't write a very good book. And that's he probably knew that any dedicated. I M. Between the last two, American tours stoker published the mystery of the sea one, thousand, nine, hundred to played unabashedly to the escape mystics expectations of the youthful male audience as the New York. Tribune noted, the story is not saturated with the weird horror that held US and Dracula. But it has enough of the supernatural for do Glamour and Thrill One perilous episode succeeds another ancient documents SEGER passages rising tides play significant parts. The lovely girl is always brave and sweet the splendid hero as always full of resource also and the fashions on the future radio show the mystery of the sea came with its own early version of a decoder ring. Set several pages in the back of the book dedicated to the encryption tales of the bilateral cipher. So it's a little orphan any. From Christmas Star. Drink your Oldie. They do not sponsor us. Dracula had been in print for over five years. So he and his publisher decided to take a chance on another story of the walking dead this time a resurrection Egyptian mummy in the Jewel of seven stars in Nineteen Oh three. Egypt O Mania was a public preoccupation at the time. So it seemed the perfect time. Stoker may well have discussed Egyptian mummies with his friend Mark Twain who on top of what he actually knew about the subject was happy to share his invented information as well in. This one, the innocence abroad. Eighteen UH sixty nine twain put forth a satirical idea that mummies were so plentiful in Egypt that an immensely practical use had been found for them in the country's ever expanding British built system of railroads the train's fuel. Twain reported quote. Is composed of mummies three thousand years old purchased by the ton or by the graveyard for that purpose, and sometimes one here's the profane engineer call out. Haddish -Ly Damn these BS they don't burn with a set pass out tig. Twain. Added with wink that quote. I. Only tell it as I got it. I'm willing to believe it I. believe anything. I. Love Toyin. it's great. Nonetheless, that is still easy to find a number of sources where the joke is repeated. As fact, if Victorian mummies didn't actually stoke steam engines, they did fuel the public interest and the jewels of seven stop the jewel of seven stars. The Reader magazine assured his followers that quote the book is not a shilling shocker. It is a dollar and a half Egypt egyptological nightmare and three hundred eleven pages, of Gooseflesh, and cold chills a much darker book than mystery with enough imagine appeal to eventually inspire five screen at adaptations. Jewel has proved stoker's most favourable work of FICTION AFTER DRACULA. The mummy story pretty much I guess. Pretty much. Did he walked like Egyptian and talk like Egyptian. Is Talking about song. I know. And you ruined. Ever, since the eighteen ninety eight illness irving had suffered from a worsening case of what his doctors considered clergyman's sore throat common enough common among actors and public speakers and coughing up increasing amounts of what appeared to be Flim. How he managed to suppress the reflex during performance is mystery must have been a supreme exercise of Willpower, Les Month by month and year by year the coughing and phlegm increased. Cell for the last three years he used some five hundred pocket handkerchiefs each week. Yuck. Yet. Chronic bronchitis is. In Christ pneumonia. while. Remember he had pleurisy. Yeah. With the passing lungs. Yeah. He should have gotten shut drained. No. It was not until February nineteen o five when after a hard night's work, he fell fainting in a hallway of a hotel of the warble Wolverhampton that the true cause of his weakness was diagnosed. For more than six years ever since his attack of pleurisy and pneumonia irving had been coughing up us from an unhealed long. Not Happen to Islam, he had pleurisy a sticky said unhealed at. Yeah. It never healed from the pleurisy or the MONJA. He constant for six years. He had been coughing up the remnants of that because it never healed up. Right? Yeah without antibiotics the only prescription was rest sometimes out sometimes it didn't the actor simply could not stop performing. Stoker's subservient devotion to an actor and failing health may have pushed Florence Stoker to the end of her rope. She had withstood a quarter century of marriage to a man who has spent literally years away from home on tours to the provinces and America. And for all practical purpose, will purposes lived at the LYCEUM. When he was home, the end of Irving's rain would also be the end of the family's precarious over leveraged position in London Society Irving have no successor. Bribes employment would end. He had no other real ambitions besides his writing and the unpredictable income that came with it. How could he provide after all that preparation? Why hasn't he become a practising barrister? She had always been told that her extraordinary beauty destined her to sort of in the theater. She might have been another Lilly lanktree they might have made her secure but dull marriage, dull motherhood and irving's unforgivable indifference to her potential had killed that dream. She had been cheated and clawing bitterness would persist to the end of her life Florence Thought of Oscar Wilde Bram was earnest and kind but truly he was never meant for greatness. What would a life with Oscar have been? Oscar needed a lioness for a wife she and Oscar had recognized fire in each other his Catholic poetry scandalized her family and Dublin but she liked it and he knew she liked it. At Heart. They were both secret transgressors who better than she therefore to have kept his most dangerous impulses in check a religious crisis overtook. Florence. But today there is no one alive. The Stoker family who knows the details in their private Dublin moments wild may have well told her something of his own spiritual struggles. No. Almost certainly not the terrifying medical problem that precipitated has pilgrimage to bother Sebastian Boden at the prompt and oriented when he went for his syphilis cure. But it does not seem to be a coincidence of Florence knew exactly where to find the priest who almost succeeded in converting her one time sooner to Catholicism and in Nineteen Oh four she herself was welcomed into the Church of Rome. So the boy who grew up. In a house the hated Catholics was now married. To a converted Catholic. All because she was pissing. He has spent most of his maritime with Henry Irving, and she missed out on the life she could had with Oscar Wilde which Oscar Wilde does get married and have kid and does it turn to out too great for her either so she probably did miss out on a whole lot. Yeah. I mean just be happy with your life and stop being so petty fuck. October thirteenth Friday nineteen o five. Friday thirteenth. After going against doctor's orders and acting, and Tennyson Beckett Irving again. Rob Stop by Irving's dressing room to congratulate him on the performance and show encouragement that his condition would improve irving stood up shook brahms hand for a good night irving to carriage a carriage back to his hotel. He got out of the Carriage Sir through the outer hall the hotel he seemed uncertain of his steps and stumbled slightly when he got to the inner hall, he sat down on a bench for what he thought would be just an instant. After a moment he slumped forward slid off the bench to the floor. By the time the doctor doctorate arrived serving was too far gone to be saved. They say he died of overworking. Those most likely a heart attack. He died. On Friday the thirteenth. That is creepy. For our Holloway series, he died Friday, the thirteenth and. Often. Not Tober from the thirteenth yes. That that's fucking awesome. They fought to get him buried at the Westminster Abbey and was finally granted after much drama. I'M NOT GONNA get into all of it because it's pages and pages the drama of them trying to him buried in Westminster Abbey, and this is a story about stoker not. Actors just weren't married at Westminster Abbey just didn't happen Irving's estrange wife and children had no love lost for irving or stoker so much. And this? This really fucking pisses me off. They refused to let stoker be a Paul. Bear. That after all, he deb your key. Wipe this man's ass for a quarter of a century. And he could be appalled there. They said he was a servant and beneath Henry and only peers could carry a body to the grave. Yes. No love loss for Irving's Irving's family. Is there fucking horrible to? Cad You picked the wrong celebrity to. Fall in love dude. The loss of the theater income pushed ochre immediately into a necessary whirlwind of literary production using the meticulous diaries. Yet can twenty seven years in Irving's employ knoll stoker recalled that they fill the room he said about the huge project of personal reminiscence of Henry in nineteen o six, a two volume biography as memoir says, the lengthy work was published within a year of Irving's death. It is virtually certain. He had begun the book while the actor was still alive and perhaps even years earlier. The month following. Irving's death was announced to the press that the actor had designated his son as his sons as official biographers since Lawrence and HP were hardly stoker's favorite people. He may have been especially motivated to beat them to the punch in the end. The sons never did right their book personal represent reminiscence was politely received in Britain and America with one recurring critical caveat. The New York Times London Book correspondent wired quote almost everyone criticises here because though it is called a book about Irving, it is really a book about Stoker and Irving. It should have been personal reminiscence my time with irving yeah. There is something naively appealing in the way Mr Stoker seems to suppose the public will be equally interested in himself and the great actor. Mid List authors such as stoker usually received no publishers advanced, but their books at least begin to earn money without delay upon publication. Stoker's novel the man in nineteen o five had been published shortly before death and so provided at least a small income stream at the time his salary evaporated. Reads Day read today almost exclusively by Stoker's scholars the man is a provocative romance about gender ambiguity ambiguities with a few gothic flourishes. Stephen Norman is a woman named and raised as a boy to satisfy her dying mother's wish for a son. At first her unusual degree of self assertiveness at the age of eleven gets her into trouble when she disobeys authority and goes exploring a crypt unaware that it contains a coffin of the mother she never knew. She faints dead away at the discovery but is rescued by the Orphan Boy Herald and Wolf who her father has taken and to raise as own, and who will eventually become her major love interest she clings to herald as she relives the horror. In early nineteen, six bribes supper what he described as a stroke which left him unconscious for twenty four hours in the account approved by his son. It was the beginning of a painful illness that dragged on for weeks. Robbing his robust frame of much of its boundless vitality and leaving his is impaired. The incident was the beginning of a six year downhill slide June nineteen o seven, the Grand Magazine published in the Valley of the shadow anonymous story that has been attributed to stoker. The strange narrative recounts a medical crisis that may well be autobiographical giving the startling development in Stoker's health just the year before. The story opens up with the narrator being taken by structure into a hospital, not knowing where or who he is or why an ambulance has deposited him and a place where there are faces in the curtains. His mood swings between ecstasy and despair moving changing religious messages appear around the rooms corners. His bed has the power to pass through walls and enter into neighbouring houses. He begs worse for a pen and paper quote to right not only this particular tale but a complete account of my visions of course, I was not permitted and now alas, it has gone to join that great company of magnificent seemingly but elusive ideas one has to in dreams. He refuses medicine, which he believes is whiskey quote. Surely you know I'm a Muslim and forbidden to drink spirits. When? The nurse persist he dashes the glass to the floor. He tries to flee as overpower rather than take alcohol. He Realistically Feigns Death when they give him an injection, he believes that his whiskey being pumped forcibly into his veins, the story echoes, his earlier fairy tale, the castle, the king from under the sunset. It's a weird. As fuck a weird dairy 'cause you're fucking weird dairy. Stoker continued to Work Hall Canes Literary Agent as well as the editor of Nineteen O eight autobiography my story, he wrote the romantic novel Lady Athlon. And published a story collection snowbound a record of a theatrical touring party, and it would be his only book other than personal reminiscence devoted to the theater. He was however started to get cynical especially towards his beloved. Christmas pantomime 's he wrote a star. Trap. As great a story darkly at going an episode from the primrose path an actor playing columbine is unparalleled for skill and shooting up through the stage like an aerobatics cannonball. Delighting both children and adults a star trap and a kind of vertical catapult that hurled performers up through a trap door made triangle or sections resembling the points of a star. These would fell safely shut as the actor reaches airborne apex above the stage. So pop up. Traffic go back, down he land back down. There is fine. Then a star trap stoker wrote. Quote something was wrong. The trap didn't work smooth. and. Open at once as the HARLEQUINS head touched it. There was a shock and tearing sound and pieces of the star seemed toward about and some of them were thrown about the stage. Sophie shot up and the door didn't open and he broke his fucking neck pretty much. I think. It is funding. The. Colorful costumed and spangled figures shoots into the air. But limply and topples on its side as it falls onto the boards. The audience shrieks the actors. Fatal mistake had been making love to the wife of the company's Master Carpenter. As she takes drinking tea. Spin it out. If it was anything else our spit it out but I'm not wasting my team and not getting all over the equipment place. To the master carpenter who sealed the hinged wooden panels of the trap door just enough to create the catastrophic barrier for the actors head rocketed upward by the following of a heavy counterweight under the stage breaking the clowns neck. Revenge. I'll up near the end of his life against his previous liberalism and demanded censorship in new art. He said it must be continuous and rigid. There must be no beginnings of evil no flaws in the mason work of the damn. So he kinda turns into An. Conservative curmudgeon. Yeah And nineteen o nine, he wrote his second to last novel. The Lady of the shroud like Dracula unfolds through journals and letters primarily those of Rupert. Set leaguer the heir to a fortune in the Balkans who much resides in his family's castle for a year as a condition of his uncle's well since the inheritance is worth more than a million pounds rupert as highly motivated. But once ensconced in the mountains, he begins to have nightly visitations from a strange figure. In nineteen ten bromhead had another medical set-back which has been described as a stroke. He went to the restorative cottages of deal. You're the coast to regain his health. We aren't sure how much time he spent there, but we know that when he left, he still cannot stand for more than a few seconds at a time. So it's getting. It's getting pretty bad. Stoker's next to last book. The nonfiction famous impostors was commissioned and published simultaneously in London by Civic and Jackson and New York by Sturgis and Walton. As a work for hire he wrote it for a flat fee and received no royalties needed money badly, and in the short run, it made sense to accept the flat fee up front even though a royalty arrangement could possibly earn more money over time stoker maintained he had significant input into the chapter topics. So it should be no surprise that a significant part of the book was devoted to dubiously dead figures like Kagley Stroh and the wandering. Jew. Both reported to have cheated death and lived for centuries, and in the busily boy, there was a persistent conspiracy theory that Queen Elizabeth the I was actually a man, the real princess having died in the early age with only a male substitute quickly available to fool Elizabeth's visiting father the enormously vital King Henry the eighth it caused quite an uproar. Brown had trouble finishing the book as his body and mind were quickly beginning to fail him That is a book that. Really, cause some. Some trouble because a lot of people took it for facts. It was clearly fiction. On March Ninth Nine hundred eleven he began to write his final novel. He had in mind a story that would somehow involve a great onslaught of birds. His original title was rushing. But the IT sounds very Danielle. Steele. Rushing wings. Of Love. His Man John Rated. The wrenching wings of love. Have you read Danielle Steele No. But I have a sister-in-law who's who's read. A lot of those types of books is never added in. But the story he wrote as if taking it down by dictation began to drift the birds remained as a secondary element. But at some time during the novels composition, he went back to the first page, crossed out the title and replace it with the new one the layer of the white worm because the novel contains some of the sickest and most wildly. Aged unhinged imagery in all stoker's works. Many commentators have concluded that the author must have been sick while writing it and did it was he was very ill the pages of the Occult Review Brown credited the Stories Genesis two para fairy tales drawn from English folklore, the worm, well of Lampton Castle and the lately the lately worm of spindle son Hugh, the layer of the white warm received the most mixed reviews in Brahms career. So you're either. In what you loved it because of how disgusting it was or you hate it probably because of how disgusting? On April Twentieth Nineteen Twelve Brown past at his house in the company of his wife Son and position four days he was cremated at Golden Green the same places idol Henry Irving. was before being buried how Cain wrote his obituary for the Daily Telegraph entitled Bram Stoker The story of a great friendship and his death. Brown's estate was valued at four, thousand, six, hundred, sixty, four pounds the equivalent of over half a million. American dollars today. The year following her husband's death Florence sold at auction the bulk of his books, papers and personal effects. The auction drew attention as far away as America as of now, there have been over seven hundred citations of films, television programmes, comic books, and Electronic Games attributed. To Dracula. At the end of the day Bram Stoker wrote dracula not to be genre defining masterpiece, which it is and not to be a bestseller which it was but because. He wanted to make money. He loved to right and tell stories. Yes. But when it's all said and done, he had no higher eighteen but to write a book that would sell. In. The final analysis. The most frightening thing about Dracula is the strong possibility that it meant far less to Bram stoker than it has come to mean to us. and. That is the story a brow stoger. Oh. Such a great story well, goes on more in the book, but which I will get to goes more onto the book about what happened after he died she sold a bunch of his shit tiny gloated about how she finally got rid of the Horrible Library Lebron's stoker out of her house 'cause she was really pretty. Resentful by now and ready to be done with it she does sell the Dracula's sequel. Dracula's guest. Movies are made and all that stuff I'm getting into it because it's not really about Brom it's now you know not her but yet jen petty bench She. You could see it from both and she wanted to life. She wanted husband she wanted a fan. You know she she wanted to live but her husband just kinda he got married and they say, okay, you you're GONNA go over here and do this I'm going to go with this guy at lived my life with him. So she kinda got only got married for the status. And that's probably the only reason she got married to but. Still you're you're in marriage as a partnership. I. Understand this is the late eighteen hundreds but still. She's at home with the kid all the time almost dies on a boat. You know and she's raising this kid pretty much by herself. She's throwing her whole life away while you're off. With this guy who is probably the one you're really in love with. Its I, see it for both sides by who you. Go ahead. I. Always say by okay. About the book. Let me just say about this book if you want to know about rob's dog or you're not going to hear a bunch of ghost stories that were at the Lai see. What I wanted to read, but I didn't have time to read a whole another book to get the ghost stories about the lyceum Lebron's docker was there. They're not going to get a whole bunch of those, but you are going to get a substantial amount of information about Bram Stoker. So if you'RE WANNA learn about Bram stoker I would definitely say go get this book. If, you are also wanting to learn about Oscar Wilde has. The history of Ireland and the history of half the people who I barely mentioned in this book a long Soliloquy on Jack The ripper, and all the people he may have been a person that hall k knew who might have been Jack, the ripper and his entire life then yes, you will definitely learn about that also in this book. An entire chapter devoted to Oscar Wilde, which really has nothing to do with Bram Stoker. Yes they were friends. Yes. Robert. Go over to Oscar's house and have dinner every once in a while they were friendly. He saw hit Oscars parents as surrogates I get it. I don't need to know every little thing that happened in Oscar. Wilde's life to learn about Bram. Stoker is an interesting. Sure. Do I need it in a biography about Bram? Stoker Fuck? You. Sat there with me while I was reading holiday times I will come up. I don't need to dead he wind alive cook got rather annoying because I was running out of time and I really needed to learn everything about Brown so I could get it written because we really cutting close and I and it was just a bunch of stuff about. Like I. Don't need to know about Oscar Wilde I get it. This parallels I understand that it's weird but. At I would've. Taken the reviews on good raids and Google Amazon into consideration. there are a lot of God. You'll learn a lot about bram stoker's long as you also want to learn a lot about Oscar Wilde I should have listened to them. Read. The reviews. Take them into consideration. When you buy a book with that said, you will learn plenty about Bram stoker in this book and. academically, at stop like that, if you want know the lore of the ghost stories, then I would go look to another book because those just really aren't. In here but. It's decent read. Anyway. All right we're run along. Stephanie Social on the twitter and Instagram we are at Open A. I N G book and I am at C. J. Bat young GM sex on twitter young ETA am. On instagram you go to Goodridge Goodridge, dot com slash open an effing buck all the books that we talked about all the books that we have on our clip notes episodes of the books that were researching beyond their will go get them all on their eventually email us. Open Book G mail. Dot Com. Come back for our clip notes episode be released. Wednesday night Thursday sometime around there whenever we can finally, you know sit down and get it recorded. and. Then next Monday. We start a whole new series with the first with a an an author I am. Excited to talk about. We haven't done anybody fucking just crazy since. The. Stalker was interesting Douglas Adams was funny and interesting. Walston craft was was was interesting. Haley was a little aggravating times but also interesting BC. Andrews. Was Fun. But none of them were really crazy. No crazy stories at your that leave your job, the floor. On next week series that all changes. Yeah, and if I don't have you laughing your ass off through half of the at least the first episode I am either. Reading it wrong or there's something wrong with you because it is amazing. That's all. I'm going to say about it. I am super excited though. Okay. Yeah. I burp in. All I can smell his hotdogs. Look at. go to our patriot, Patriot dot com slash open nothing book all your donations go to make this show as good as we could possibly make it again. I like to thank everybody for listening to the all the horror episode. If you haven't, let's do it yet at his bonus episode that should be between. This episode and our last week day cliff notes goalless do it. It's all about Well, you find out what he when you war booty sponge, BOOT award booty. So all of those episodes you can find them at all the Hor- eighteen dot website, dot com slash bent Hashtag, all the horror on twitter they they. I don't they should still have some. Shirts and merchandise on go to the website and see and all the proceeds go to scares the care the helping families in need rate review, US wherever you listen. Go to your local library look bookstore help out independent author if you can really the best way to help them out right now, go to my wife's at see page se dot com slash shops, slash Stephanie Young Art, and by some of her amazing smelling soaps. Yeah. For for this Kobe's season wash your hands with. Yeah. I mean I still there nobody bought me Halloween ones but I have some Thanksgiving Simpson thanksgiving Beth on. So. Plenty of soapstone that was go check them out. See what she's got. TA, hope everybody had a happy Halloween. Following. And I. think that's it. I think so too. All right. Well, guys take care of yourself. Take care of one another. We've been talking again yourself favorite. Open A fucking book right? We'll see.