21 Burst results for "Maddie Safai"

How A 100-Year-Old Treatment Could Help Save Us From Superbugs

Short Wave

03:44 min | 6 months ago

How A 100-Year-Old Treatment Could Help Save Us From Superbugs

"In twenty fifteen. Stephanie strategy and her husband tom paterson. Both scientists were travelling in egypt. They sell the pyramids the nile and then as she tells it in this text talk after dinner one night. Tom became violently ill. He vomited all night long. And i thought oh gee he's just got food poisoning and i pulled out a couple of antibiotic pills that we take with us on our trips and i gave it to them with some water. Nothing happened the next day. Tom kept vomiting. Stephanie called doctor he thought yes food poisoning and set up an iv drip for more antibiotics. But tom only got worse at a local clinic. He was diagnosed with pancreatitis. Inflammation of the pancreas and medevac to a hospital in frankfurt and there. He was diagnosed with something even worse. A superbug a bacteria by the name of oscillator b-actor bowman scary name scarier bacteria it tops. The world health organization's list of most dangerous superbugs bacteria that are very hard to treat often resistant to many antibiotics. Now we'll never really know for sure where time got his superbug infection. But we do know that. It was an egyptian stream. And we know that. By the time he was medevac. Thome to san diego that it was resistant to every antibiotic. Tom was in a coma. His organs were shutting down. He was on three different drugs to keep his heart. Beating and the doctors told me that tom was going to die. But seventy refused to give up. She turned to the scientific community for help. I'm maddie safai today. on shortwave. What stephanie found and how it saved her husband's life. It's a century-old treatment. That could be a new tool in our war against super bucks for months stephanie's husband. Tom would remain hospitalized fighting for his life and losing. Yeah i was just really scared out of my mind. But i knew that if i just sat back and waited then he was going to die and i needed to know that i'd done. Every last thing that i could do that i would leave no stone unturned so i hit the internet and i did with anybody else would do in my shoes. Google it well. Luckily you know there's google for scientists and that's called pubmed and it's this wonderful search engine where you can put in any words and a scientific paper will pop up and you know i punched in words like multi drug resistance and the name of his superbug which is assassinated b-actor mania and popular within an hour. I found a paper that mentioned something called page therapy. So tell me a little bit about fish there. Well fay jr are short for bacteria phages and that's derived from the greek word meaning bacteria eater and they are viruses that have naturally evolved to attack bacteria there's ten million trillion trillion pages on the planet. It's all a matter of finding the ones that will kill the bacteria that you want to get rid of. Okay real quick phase one. oh one i like. Stephanie said bacteria phases the viruses that infect bacteria are everywhere pretty much anywhere you find. Bacteria you'll find a phase we're talking and artika deep-sea ocean vents your. But i swear that'll make sense later. Second facials don't actually eat bacteria in this case the fees injects its own dna into the bacterial cell. Then the virus forces the bacteria to make more and more copies of itself feeling up the cell with viruses eventually the bacteria bus open releasing all those new viruses. Go off and kill other cells. It's ruthless

Tom Paterson Tom Kept Stephanie TOM Maddie Safai Pancreatitis Pancreas Thome Frankfurt World Health Organization Egypt Coma Fay Jr San Diego Google
Gender Discrimination and Harassment at Sea

Short Wave

09:51 min | 8 months ago

Gender Discrimination and Harassment at Sea

"Now if the mosaic expedition sounds familiar to you, it might be because back in December we aired two episodes on the research being done. But today we're turning away from the research and focusing on Chelsea's reporting. The Mosaic Expedition Gender Discrimination and harassment and how they're an all too common reality for many field scientists. I'm Maddie Safai and this a shortwave from NPR. So on October eighth a few weeks. Into the mission a meeting was called and it was led by this communications manager, with Awa, the German institute kind of spearheading the mission like who was there and what was that meeting about. Right. So that meeting was held by Katharina Vice Tweeter who was a Manager and she held that meeting with all of the journalists who were on board the ship at that time, and so at that point, there were four of us all women, and so we all sat down and she kind of told us. I want to just clarify. The rules of the new dress code that was announced yesterday at the General Meeting, and then she went on to tell us you know this is a safety issue and there are a lot of men on board this ship and some of them are going to be on this ship for months at a time, and this is a safety issue something that needs to be taken seriously and so. I should say she did not come out and say we are concerned that. Men On this shipper going to harass you or assault you if you dress a certain way so but it was heavily implied by this. Multiple Times telling us there are many men on board the ship and you need to not wear tight fitting clothing or revealing clothing. Yeah. Yeah I mean, what did you take from that? Like when you walked away from that meeting what did you take from them? Well what we took from. It was that there was a risk of harassment or something worse. You know if we didn't dress more modestly on board the ship. And, we really were alarmed by this because we started wondering. If. There had been some incidents that had prompted the change in the rules and what was this bit about a safety issue was there some threat to the safety of the women on board and what? Exactly? was that threat and so we were you know, of course irritated. By by implication that we should have to change the way we dress because there are a lot of men on board the ship, but we were also alarmed. Yeah I, mean when you wrote about the dress code meeting, you noted that it came after some problems with harassment that had already sort of percolated on the ship. That's correct. Although at the time we actually were not aware of that. So as I reported the story that that came out in my reporting later, there had been a an incident in which some women on board the ship reported to the cruise leader that that they had been harassed by men on board the ship, and then you know there was a meeting, it was brought to the captain and the men were prohibited from further contact with those participants and and it was never made widely known. Anybody else on board that ship that there had been an incident like this And so nobody knew about this at the time, the dress code was announced. So you know we all Kinda had this suspicion about a safety. What exactly does that mean? was there some incident but I did not find out that any incident had occurred until much later. And this wasn't the only incident of gender-based discrimination while you were aboard. Right you wrote that the dress code kind of became a symbol of these inequities, but there was other stuff going on to. That's correct. So there was the harassment incident that occurred shortly before the dress code was enacted, and then later on, there was an incident in which. A group of Were kind of called together. Asked to volunteer basically to participate in a work assignment and the work incitement involved a helicopter ride over to. The Polar Stern, which was the main research vessel participating the expedition and. Helping to unload a bunch of boxes and supplies and that sort of thing and so. The group volunteered for this work assignment, originally consisted of both men and women and then later on the cruise leader removed the to women participants from that assignment and replace them with men and I'm told that this event also sparked a lot of resentment among the women who were familiar with the incident, and so you know I asked crews leader later about this incident and he said that he did this to comply with a German law that dictates How much men are allowed to lift on work assignments versus women are allowed to lift on work assignments but it was a little odd because he sent me the law and I looked at over and the way he described the work assignment and the amount of weight that was going to be distributed among the people participating those weights should have actually exceeded the weight limits for both men and women. So I could not get really a clear justification on why only women were removed from that work assignment and again people who are involved with that situation or who were familiar with that situation we're upset by that as well. Yeah. I mean, Chelsea, this isn't just the mosaic right in your reporting. You discussed a twenty eighteen study by the National Science Foundation about the prevalence of sexual harassment and you noted according to the study the. Two biggest predictors are settings where they're more men than women and I'm quoting environments that suggest a tolerance for bad behaviour I mean is this the situation that you saw when you were reporting on the Mosaic Mission? Right? So I spoke with various experts on a gender and policy in field science and in polar science and they all kind of pointed to leadership on these expeditions. That's really a primary factor in kind of environment. Is it going to be you know for the women participating in these expeditions and so it's really important from what I've been told by these experts to have a leadership that is prepared to deal with issues of sexual harassment or discrimination. If they should come up leadership that's trained to deal with these kinds of issues that's train to prevent these kinds of issues from coming up in the first place. Leadership, that sets very clear rules and boundaries at the start of an expedition for what will be tolerated and what will not be tolerated and I think that really does speak to what went wrong on academic fed off. You know there was a dress code that was enacted midway through the cruise. It was a surprise to everybody it was communicated in a really kind of vague and distressing an alarming way. Harassment incident that arose that was kind of it'd be swept under the rug a little bit at the time may or may not have influenced the dress code. So. Yes. I think this really all speaks to kind of a lack of preparation to prevent these kinds of issues arising in the first place and from dealing with them in the proper ways when they do arise. Yeah. Yeah and you know Chelsea I'm wondering what is the response to your piece? Ben So far since you wrote. The response to the peace has been mainly very positive so far. So I've heard from a lot of scientists researchers both in polar science and in other fields. Who have been very supportive and who have said you know this is an issue that happens all the time that's very common but that needs to be talked about more and so you know it's very important to kind of bring these issues into the light and. It has been. It's it's not been great to hear that there are so many other people who have had similar experiences. You know that's that's disappointing and distressing to hear but you know. But a lot of people have said you know this, this is very common and it's good that we're starting to talk about this more do. Yeah. I mean you mentioned Chelsea some moments of solidarity from the participants aboard the most recent being this unified statement responding to your article signed by the large majority of Grad, students on board. Did this. You know inspire any hope for you about the future of the this type of field research. It did absolutely, it did that statement basically said that it was disappointing to see rules and policies on board. The ship that might imply that women should have to change the way they dress to manage the behavior of men or policies that might limit women's involvement in fieldwork, and so you know the students know in their statement that they were. You know grateful for. The opportunity to go on the expedition into work with leading polar scientists in the field. But this was something that that was not acceptable to them and you know it wasn't courage to read that statement and to just kind of see the interest in the concern about these kinds of issues from you know what's going to be the next generation of polar scientists and I do think that this is something that will hopefully Garner a little bit more attention inspire some change in the future.

Harassment Chelsea Mosaic Expedition Gender Discr Katharina Vice Tweeter Maddie Safai Communications Manager NPR Multiple Times National Science Foundation Assault AWA Garner German Institute BEN
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

03:35 min | 11 months ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Oh! I thought well. Here's a way that may week to. Sterilize truer. So I wrote a letter. KNIPLING got some colleagues and fellow scientists on board. It took months of experiments zapping these little dudes to figure out the sweet spot. Where are sterile without affecting their normal sexual behavior? And competitiveness. If. You're curious. It's about five and a half days after the larva turns into a PUPA. So this is when the adult flies. Testes developing, so if you bombard them with radiation exact time, they'll make it so that they can't produce any eggs or sperm, but they can still fly around and look relatively normal to the wild grooms. knipling his colleagues figured this out the US spent decades scaling up program that all, but eliminated the screw worm in parts of the South and West where it had been a huge problem for decades. You know starts coming Florida, I think. Louisiana and Texas, and Arizona and California and it works, but it you know as we know, it's a long border between Mexico and the US. Continuously producing enough flies to control the population over such a wide area was almost impossible, so then this idea is hatched to let's move the border further south unless live a part where there's less land to cover, so this is I. The nineteen Seventies. The screw barrier had moved to Mexico and by the Nineteen eighties to cooperation and coordination between the US, Panama and countries in between it was moved even farther south to where it is now the fact that it has existed effectively there for almost fifty years Sarah says is the result of a whole lot of trust and cooperation between the US and a bunch of different countries in Central America. It's the kind of thing where if you had one country not agree like. How would it have worked trade? Really was a case where you need to get everyone in this entire area. Such Central America on board. So yeah. It took one guy with a passion for ZAP and worm testes to come up with an idea that to this day saves. Farmers over an estimated billion dollars per year and keeps countless wild animals and domestic pets safe. But it took a way bigger effort to make that idea into a reality. And here is a lesson Sarah says we can apply to what's happening right now. This is a year ago I was Garin everyone who worked on the program like you think this program could exist today. Could it start today from scratching uniformly? People were like no. How how would you get these countries to agree on this? Containing is one thing. Keeping it contained, is another thing entirely. Sarah Zang wrote about screw worms for the Atlantic, a linked to her article where you can read more about the massive operation to contain them is in episode notes. This episode was produced by Brent Bachman fact checked by burly McCoy and edited by. I'm Maddie Safai. For listening to shortwave. From NPR..

Sarah Zang US KNIPLING Mexico Maddie Safai Brent Bachman Atlantic America Central America ZAP Garin NPR Louisiana Florida McCoy Panama California Arizona Texas
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

10:27 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Okay Richard, so there are about forty seven different things we could talk about to unpack the story of how we got here in where we're going, but we chose a few of the big ones to focus on in this episode, so testing was a mess at the beginning. It seemed to get better for a little bit, and now it seems like it's a mess again, so what happened? Well it is complicated. Let's take you back to the beginning of the epidemic when the decided to develop its own test for the corona virus, which is standard practice for them, but honestly they bungled it, and instead of reaching for tests developed in Germany and distributed widely by the World Health Organization the CDC fix this quickly, and they kept trying, but really that turned out to be a big mistake, and it cost us a lot of time. I think the CDC didn't really realize the scope of this epidemic early on federal health officials should have done what South Korea did for instance what they did overseas immediately spur commercial companies to produce large quantities of tests. The US eventually got to that point, but you know it was really late, and now, of course we are in better shape. The US is averaging something like six hundred thousand tests a day or sometimes even more than that, but. It's still far short of the amount of tests that experts say we should be doing. Yeah, and let me ask you about that. Because I've seen estimates that we need to be doing like double or triple, the amount of tests to really control the virus right and you know the number of tests you need to do is really relative to the number of infected people, so we have so many infected people, and that number is growing. We really need to be doing a lot more testing. For example scientists at the World Health Organization uses a rule of thumb that you should have enough tests that your when you get the results back only about five percent or coming back positive. That, means that most of the people are negative, which is what you'd hope what you'd expect right now. Unfortunately, we have states like Texas and Florida in Arizona where the number of percent positive is like seventeen, eighteen or even twenty five percent, and you know the percent positive rates keep going up, which means it's definitely not true as the president has frequently claimed at the cases are only writing, because we're testing more. No seeing more positive cases as we see more tests so okay. Let's talk about the case numbers of it back in April we were at about you know thirty thousand cases per day and now we're. Sixty thousand new cases a day, which is objectively worse and to put that in perspective, sixty thousand people wouldn't even fit in dodger stadium, which is the biggest baseball stadium in this country, so we're talking about you know. Give you a visual image of what we're talking about it right right and you know. Some of that is driven by big outbreaks in places like California, Texas and Florida. Let's talk a little. Little bit more about why cases are up in those places. Yeah, it's complicated series of reasons, but <hes> some of it is that we're what we were talking about a little bit earlier. Some of these were in states like Texas and Arizona that were determined to open really early, and we're a lot of people including politicians thought you know starting. Their economies was more important than being really cautious about the virus. Could also be other stuff at play here because you know it is summer, and those are places that very hot, so more people are spending more time in air conditioning that is to say indoors and one thing we know about this virus is spread more likely indoors among people who are stuck together for at least fifteen minutes or longer in an indoor space. Yeah, honestly like this idea of being indoors is something I've been thinking about. Because I'm looking ahead right and we're looking at the fall in the winter when you're going to have the exact same thing happening all over the country like more people forced indoors. That correlates with of course, the beginning of seasonal flu, circulating some people in the hospital. That kind of stuff right it's going to. We're going GONNA have both epidemics happening at once. It's going to be a real mess. Okay, let's talk a little bit about mortality or people dying from the disease, so the president and others have pointed out in the last few weeks that the numbers of people dying per day are down from early on in the pandemic, and that is true back in mid April. There were days where we had well over two thousand people dying each day, and in the last week or so the US is seeing more like hundred people dying every day on average, although that number seems to be rising again. Let's talk about a few reasons why that could be why we're seeing fewer deaths now than earlier right well, certainly, one of the biggest reasons is not the biggest reason that the death rates are so low now compared to the spring when New York City got clobbered as you recall is nowadays the viruses infecting mainly younger people, and they just frankly less likely to die in Arizona for instance of these days, half the cases are in people aged twenty to forty four years old and only. Only eleven percent of cases and people over sixty five, and of course people over sixty five, or really at the highest risk of death, and you know that that shift younger age groups is both good and bad. The good part diseases hitting a population that can more easily survive, though we should say some people do die should bad part is that the spread is accelerating and putting vulnerable people at higher risk, because now the virus is traveling far and wide and putting more older people and. And people with underlying health conditions in harm's way right and you know one thing to note though is that especially in the younger demographic? This is where we see a lot of the huge racial disparities up, basically which young people are surviving and dying a paper out of Harvard June showed that in this twenty five to thirty four age group, the mortality rate for black people was seven times more than for white people really matters. Who are the those young people are right? It absolutely does. Does the overall risk of death is very very low in this age group, but it does absolutely hit some people harder than others, particularly because more people of color are at risk for contracting the disease because of their jobs, they have to be out and about and also underlying health conditions may also be playing a role here. Yeah, so it appears more young people are getting sick. Fewer of them ultimately die, but to be clear. Young people do get very sick and die from the virus. So that's one reason we're seeing fewer deaths right now. Compared to the beginning of the pandemic as far as why the numbers of deaths don't seem to be matching up with the increase, in cases, yet is partially due to the fact that deaths are what we call a lagging indicator Derek Thompson at the Atlantic wrote a really nice piece on. This will make sure to put in. The episode notes for Richard Let's talk about that a little bit right. Yeah, it's a very plainly put. There's a gap in time between the day someone test positive until the day the either recover or unfortunately die, and then of course. Course there's another lag in which that death is reported health officials. So what you're seeing now. It really in-depth really reflects people who got sick. You know two or three weeks ago or even longer than that, so that's one reason why deaths have not followed in lockstep with a big spike in cases. Yeah, and then there's also this thing called lead time bias right right, and that's basically a phenomenon where data can make it seem like something new is happening, but actually just about how you're collecting. The data <hes> with the increases in testing. We've seen in these past few months. We may simply be detecting more this. This virus earlier in people than we did before, people may have been really sick and not get tested to the hospital now people are driving up in their cars right and doing okay, and so there earlier on in the course of disease, but that doesn't really change the percentage of cases that wind up being fatal. It will just take longer than it did early on in the epidemic for those fatalities to show up and of course Richard there a ton of complications that we didn't have time to get into more hospital capacity ventilators, so what sheep the hospitals in actually plays a role in who survives and who? Who doesn't and then you know even though there isn't a cure, of course, doctors have had more time to learn how to treat this disease, so we don't have a lot of data on this yet. In the United States, but it seems like perhaps more people are surviving this disease than right in the beginning right, I think that is clearly the case and you know as long as hospitals aren't totally overwhelmed with patients. They can make use of what they've learned so far to improve treatments. I'll give you just one example steroids which are used to reduce inflammation. Turn out to be quite useful in many instances. So Richard I'm curious like overall how you're feeling looking at where we are compared to. Let's say April, there are ways in which I feel like are a lot more prepared like we understand the virus. A little better were obviously farther along on a vaccine and some potential treatments, but we still don't have adequate testing. Cases are at an all time high. We're heading into the fall, which means we're GONNA, have this consolidation of cold and flu and corona season, plus the schools potentially opening up your really cheering me up here. But maybe the most concerning fig just to keep you just to keep you down. Richard is that I? Just don't feel like we are a country with like one central goal to fight this thing together. Yeah well I think. I would agree with that first off a corona virus vaccine is not going to help much at least not in this coming flu season. Even if one is amazingly enough approved by the end of the year, we'll take really a long time to vaccinate enough people to make a big difference. What really could help would be a good flu vaccine. I think only about half of Americans typically get the flu shot every year and public health officials say if they can dramatically increase that it would really help a lot against this sort of one two punch that we're going to have to be confronting. But you're right about the country, not working well together on this starting with leadership both at the federal level, and also tim states, but also including people who are ignoring all the guidance that's going all the good advice from scientists and people are hesitant to get vaccines because of misinformation. As for testing you know by the fall. There will be some help. I expect doctors offices should have a supply of Rapid Kobe tests. They're like rapid strep test, or whatever the aren't super accurate, but they can help relieve some of the testing bottleneck and sort of looking down the line a little bit farther. Scientists are also working on next generation of tests that you might even be able to do. Do at home and you know those might be ready sometime. Next year next year seems pretty discouraging, doesn't it? It's pretty far off, but you know I'm pretty well resigned to the fact that we're going to be in this for the long haul. covid nineteen is going to be with us for years so even technology that seems far off right now. We'll still be needed

Arizona NPR Richard Harris US flu Maddie Safai Phoenix Kate Mattie Liu Geigo
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

04:11 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Okay, We saw that you're going to be at this conference. the National Society of Black Engineers Conference. We would love to interview there and I thought it was fake I what? Okay wait. Until I had the phone call and like yes, so you interview times going to be at you know one PM in. The next week I had an offer, so Asia starts job at NASA and like you said earlier, it's a little overwhelming, a little confusing her first team. Just a few people of Color, she feels out of place, but tries to fit in. To lower my accent like I. Try to a more intelligent or what people may think are more intelligent. Words just using the jargon that they use so I have to switch my whole vocabulary to be able to connect with the different group on top of doing my job right right, and that takes us another like that's a cost right. Yes, for show. You have to become a master co switcher now only trying to do my. My work and learn all the things that I don't know, but also trying to relate in and be palatable I would say, but I've gotten to a point where I am bold about it I tried to let my culture show through different adjust subtle things like I'll wear a huge chain work our like a shirt with to pock on it or just little subtle things like that to let you guys know that I'm here, I'm present. and there's nothing you can do. So you I like the so you said in the beginning. It was kind of tough to fit in it now. So what about out you feel like? You're more comfortable there or you with a group that you feel more comfortable with with the quality group. I definitely feel a lot more comfortable. They have shown a lot more trust in me I'm out there on the field learning things day by day and becoming a better quality engineer by the second say so I'm I'm super excited with this new team that I've been working with. And I feel proud to say you know I work at NASA GPO now. What do you think specifically changed that made? You feel more comfortable at NASA I first off say time, and then also leadership totally matters just a constant communication them checking in with you this she. If you need anything they are. Allow me to ask the questions that I need. Need to ask I'm not scared to ask the question and be thought of as Os. Maybe she shouldn't be doing that job they are they just tell me the answer like thanks for asking. Thanks for catching that I'm glad you know you feel comfortable to let me know that you didn't know that and didn't make a decision without us. you know just? Willing to help is is innocent. Amazing feeling that they're want me to succeed. They see my success their success, so it's a definite team environment that I didn't have it I, yeah, what advice would you give for other young folks of color that are excited about math and science? I I've listened to my music so that you can. Have Fun and learn it to don't be afraid to ask questions in the classroom if you. Have a question. There's somebody probably next to you or behind you. That had that same question, so don't be afraid to ask questions what I did when I was in the classroom is the first day I was see who's like the most eager to raise their hand. Let me sit next to them and try to absorb all that I can eventually become friends. Eventually we studied together of that was that was a huge strategy of my and I I would say that those are the the key things. All Right! Asia Williams NASA engineer. Thanks for talking us, why don't you play your way out? Okay? We saw awry. Parentheses bonds multiply and divide in. Add subtract now. Let me, let me run bit okay. We saw this episode was produced by Brit Hanson and edited by. I'm Maddie Safai thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR. It back. Yeah, let's. All right, thank you days. This is really fun I. Really appreciate it..

NASA engineer National Society of Black Engi Asia Brit Hanson Maddie Safai NPR
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:14 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Much diversity in our diet and food would be a lot more expensive because there would be a massive drop in supply. Gotcha, so okay, what kind of solutions or things you know that we can do as a society would have the most impact in helping the Honeybee. Wonderful that Anyone can do. leave those dandelions alone. Don't mow the lawn in a way that is getting rid of all of the the difference Dandelions and things that we typically considered to be weeds, the wildflowers that spring up in your lawn. Bees love them. Leave them alone nowhere. We killer on those. And if you really want to be a huge help, plant tons of flowers and your front and backyard make a be sanctuary out of your living space. If more people did that, the issues that the bees deal with in terms of poor nutrition would be mitigated in a number of different ways, because bees are capable of self medicating if they can get a lot of resin and different kinds of nectar and pollen from flowers, able to medicate themselves, but they can't do that when they only have the offerings of that one plant. Okay Sammy I appreciate you and I appreciate the bees hall. That, warms my heart to hear I think. B.'s actually really love being appreciated. Well. Don't we? All I'm going to go home and not kill any dandelions implant some flowers. My Work here is done. Sammy Ramsey Aka Dr. Bucks and Tamala just with the US Department of Agriculture. Today's episode was produced by Emily. Von Woo Woo. Hoo also check the fax and Brit Hanson. It was edited by Veit Lay. I'm Maddie Safai we're back with more shortwave from NPR tomorrow. These, days Chelsea handler tries to keep her and her friends white privilege in check. He starts like really getting weepy and I. was like what what are you doing right? You just said you wreck white for Jillian you. Crying. Comedian Chelsea handler on white privilege and a new book listen to. It's been a minute from NPR..

Sammy Ramsey Chelsea handler Von Woo Woo NPR bees hall Veit Lay Chelsea US Department of Agriculture Maddie Safai Jillian Brit Hanson Hoo Tamala B. Dr. Bucks
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

04:39 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"And this fly. Less movement becomes kind of a reality immediately. Tell me a little bit about that on your end. Yes well, it's really complicated. This is not a climate win and we aren't happy about this at all. The world that we want to build is not rife with inequities that are killing people. It's not plunging the world into global recession for possibly years. There's really so little here. That's analysis that I think it's important to state that straight up right, of course of course, but I do WanNa talk a little bit about how the virtual meeting hood for science is going right now. I mean I have to imagine you've had some frustrating experiences. Yes, I mean you know it happened so quickly, and I think right now is much as people face technical glitches, and they're all kinds of issues related to time zones. You know concurrent versus not concurrent sessions of international meetings and whatnot driving many of us crazy right now and so I think when we look back on this period we can take some lessons in that even is bad as it was, there was still value there and there there's immense value in doing this even better, and it's worth the investment. Yeah, but you know Kim I'm putting myself at a scientific conference right now and I'm trying to think about the things you know that. That will work really well remotely like I think talks could still work really well, but then there are those conference moments where you get introduced to somebody by somebody else like you meet, somebody wouldn't have met. Otherwise I feel like that would be tough to replicate you know like wh. What about you? What do you think is a thing that's going to be hard to replace in a remote setting well I think I. Think what's hard to replace remotely are those happenstance occurrences. And I think those are extremely valuable and very very difficult to reproduce, but not impossible and the other thing I wanted to stress now is that. The world that we build for the future. May Not look as different from the world that we had before in the high carbon before times because we're not talking about never traveling or never coming together. We're actually maybe just talking about not flying. As, one of the things that I think is immensely exciting to think about developing regional hubs for large. National Level Conferences where people could get their in less than a day's drive or by train of course, and then we all have a conference with much lower carbon footprint, and enjoying many of the benefits of in person interactions without having to gather twenty five thousand people from around the globe for five days in San Francisco. So I'm curious. Are you thinking about like okay? There are times that it's okay to fly like politicians and government officials flying to make you know to work on these international agreements that you know, help us fight climate, change or you thinking like generally speaking. We can do this remotely. I mean I'm not an absolutist almost on anything, not absolutist about flying, not for myself. It's certainly not for anybody else in that. I think really important about lifting each other up in supporting each other for the decisions that each one of us makes. I think it's great to set some intention. To be strategic to write your own playbook for when you fly when you don't fly. In I write, my own playbook is well. My husband's from Italy. We have family over there. Can I sign myself up for a future where my kids never see their grandparents? No, I'm not signing onto that future. In so everybody will have their own balance of professional and personal flight. Choices that are there's to me and nobody else should be judging them for that. All Right Kim Cobb I appreciate you, thanks for thanks for coming on the show. Share Bay so much for having me. This episode was produced by Yowei Shah fact checked by Rebecca Ramirez and edited by Jeff Brumfield. I'm Maddie Safai thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR..

Kim Cobb Maddie Safai Share Bay San Francisco Yowei Shah NPR Italy Jeff Brumfield Rebecca Ramirez
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:11 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Can start every weekday morning with us like a little science vitamin that you swallow with your ears. Well I don't know just go ahead and follow or subscribe you're listening to shortwave from NPR. Maddie Safai here today with your way. Shah a reporter from invisibility. Npr's sister pod about human behavior Heo way. Hey mattie what do you got okay so you know how wanted the big problems right now? Seems to be like all the misinformation flying around some public health officials are calling an info dimmer journalists find themselves debunking wild claim of false tweets. Right and it's like especially tricky right now because there's so much we don't know yet yet. Which makes it easier for misinformation to flourish. Unfortunately and I've been thinking about one particular drama and all this like what do you do when it's somebody you love. Who's spreading the misinformation? Right Right which is why I was so excited to come across this guy. In London named Kush not cut and his misinformation problem. It starts back in March in the form of a WHATSAPP message from his dad. Who Lives back in Kenya? Natural Remedy for coronavirus like boiling lemons and orange and black pepper. For some reason. It was just really odd and cush. He just ignores the message. Brushes it off but a few days later. His Dad sends another message about a false coronavirus remedy. In this time Kush decides to say something on the phone when they're catching up like this is nonsense at nyu saying this crap. Okay fine. I'll stop. That was easy. Well not so fast because a few days later the very same cycle happens again. Can you just stop forty me this crap? You'd be like Yep I just thought you'd find it interesting over and over. Rinse and repeat dot. There's no source. I us any three. This know he's come on Dodd. Seriously.

Kush NPR Maddie Safai Shah mattie reporter Kenya nyu London Dodd
How to Correct Misinformation, According to Science.

Short Wave

01:55 min | 1 year ago

How to Correct Misinformation, According to Science.

"Maddie Safai here today with your way. Shah a reporter from invisibility. Npr's sister pod about human behavior Heo way. Hey mattie what do you got okay so you know how wanted the big problems right now? Seems to be like all the misinformation flying around some public health officials are calling an info dimmer journalists find themselves debunking wild claim of false tweets. Right and it's like especially tricky right now because there's so much we don't know yet yet. Which makes it easier for misinformation to flourish. Unfortunately and I've been thinking about one particular drama and all this like what do you do when it's somebody you love. Who's spreading the misinformation? Right Right which is why I was so excited to come across this guy. In London named Kush not cut and his misinformation problem. It starts back in March in the form of a WHATSAPP message from his dad. Who Lives back in Kenya? Natural Remedy for coronavirus like boiling lemons and orange and black pepper. For some reason. It was just really odd and cush. He just ignores the message. Brushes it off but a few days later. His Dad sends another message about a false coronavirus remedy. In this time Kush decides to say something on the phone when they're catching up like this is nonsense at nyu saying this crap. Okay fine. I'll stop. That was easy. Well not so fast because a few days later the very same cycle happens again. Can you just stop forty me this crap? You'd be like Yep I just thought you'd find it interesting over and over. Rinse and repeat dot. There's no source. I us any three. This know he's come on Dodd. Seriously okay cool.

Kush Maddie Safai Shah Mattie Reporter Kenya NYU London Dodd
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:51 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"The thing that is incorrect. That has been circulating. Exactly all right last tip. Liz neely easiest to remember. Be honest and transparent. I think this idea of honesty and transparency has value in multiple ways. I'm asking everyone to acknowledge and accept the boundaries of their own expertise and to know where your knowledge and spew. Because you don't want to fall subject to the idea that you latch onto one particular piece of advice and then just keep saying it over and over and over again because in a fast moving emergency situation like this where we see advice changing. We've watched that unfold over the question of whether or not we should wear masks. And so I think that explaining how you've reached a conclusion and why allows you more easily to change directions. If and when that expert advice tells us all right. The situation has shifted. So if you're taking these types out into the world there's an idea called the Stockdale Paradox. That you say could be useful. This one was really meaningful to me. it's the question of. How do we look at all of this complex research some of which is really grim without losing heart So the stockdale paradox comes from the story of how Vice Admiral James Stockdale survived almost eight years of captivity and torture as a prisoner of war and he said that he never gave up hope and belief in the end of the story but that he knew who didn't survive and he said it was the people who would come in and say. We're going to be out here by Christmas. Christmas would come and go. They'd say we're going to be out of here by Easter. He's recovering go and eventually they would give up. They die of a broken heart is what he said. Until the stockdale paradox for me it's about maintaining an unwavering hope and belief in the end of the story that we will come through this that it may not be soon right but we will look at the truth. We will look at the science. We will follow the advice from the experts. We will do our best as individuals in every way that we can help and collectively we will go on Liz neely. She's the executive director of the story. Collider an organization dedicated to telling true personal stories about science. Learn more about them at the link in our episode notes this one was produced by Pratt. Bachman edited by Viet. Lay and fact checked by Emily von. I'm Maddie Safai. Thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR..

Stockdale Paradox Liz neely Admiral James Stockdale Maddie Safai executive director NPR Pratt Emily Bachman Viet
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

10:00 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Okay Kwong so. I want to start with a brief history of the wiffle ball because where I grew up in Ohio. Our favorite sport projectile is that little NERF football that you throw and it screams as it goes through the air. You know what? I'm talking about sure. We'll in Connecticut. My Dad and I played this great game where I'd pitch him a wiffle ball and the goal the only goal was to hit it over the house and send me chasing after it got screwed in this game corn but that sounds right so who came up with these so the story goes that in the summer of Nineteen fifty three David End. Mullany was watching his son. Pitch a perforated plastic golf ball in place of regular baseball because they were nervous about breaking the windows. I mean been there go on and his son's arm. It started aching from practicing. Some of those trick pitches you see in baseball sliders and curve balls and coming out of the postwar plastics. Boom out of work himself. David mullany wanted to come up with a lightweight. Give to baseball. That would protect his son's arm. Apparently he was a Semipro pitcher so he sends what to do honestly. What a good dad rice. So he got plastic parts used package perfume bottles of all things cut holes in it and play tested different versions with his son and they agreed. That the ball with eight oblong holes on one side. That are kind of rectangle shaped but with a rounded edge worked the best and the wiffle ball was born and its design has not changed since one thousand nine hundred eighty three. Gotcha okay. So how exactly does the ball curve? Well if you look at the instructions inside the box okay. You'd see that it all depends on how you throw it and which way the holes are facing when you do up. Shoot deliver sidearm with a wiffle holes on the for a major league. Draft Fitch sidearm with holes on the bottom. It's that simple. What is this? This is from nineteen sixty wiffle ball commercial with Yankees pitcher. Whitey Ford showing off the different pitches because what's remarkable about the wiffle ball from a physics standpoint is that the holes are on one side right and so if you throw that properly you're GONNA get this asymmetry in how the air flows around the ball and that is going to result in the ball having a force on it makes it go a different direction. A symmetry that's what makes the wiffle ball so dynamic and a person who isn't super strong able to throw tough pitches into curve. The Ball Jen's favorite is when you point the holes directly at the batter and try to release it with as little spin as possible because the holes do disrupt the airflow around the ball and because the wiffle ball is so very light that an extremely unstable trajectory. And so. That's how you throw a knuckleball with a wiffle ball it just baubles and dances all over the place in a much less predictable. Way than the other trick pitches wild okay so football's curve all kinds of ways but like how because you mentioned earlier you know the company said we don't even know why this works but it's great marketing honestly so this has been the topic of intense debate on wiffle ball chat rooms online. The question being. How do they impact the ball's trajectory? This is clearly what the Internet is for. Yes to air the topics of our day. So the thing is. There's this whole hot rod culture of modifying wiffle balls where people scuff or scratch up the plastic or knife the mall modifying the size and shape of the holes yet. There's to`real videos like these where we see kyle. Scholtz founding member of Major League wiffle ball PLOP wiffle ball smooth side down on his driveway. Make sure to get resume. Major League wiffle ball leak Safai. You've no or you're just going to gloss over that. Have no idea play the tape. I make sure to get every single part of the ball. This does better control The ball move more predictable as opposed to our on scuffed. And that's what we really want for our pitchers in this league. Honestly if you ain't cheating you ain't trying but it's not cheating. It's part of wiffle ball culture. No one had really scientifically researched. How the holes and any subsequent modifications affects the ball until Jen. Stir out Rosman came along. It was a whole new mystery for me to unravel and explore. So in the early `oughts she and her students began running experiments using the wind tunnel on the Lafayette College campus. They skewered wiffle balls to hold them in place at different angles and manipulated air speed and spin rate to measure the subsequent forces on the ball. I am so jealous of this class. I had zero wind tunnels in my education right and the research paper. That earned jen this reputation. As a foremost scientists have wiffle ball. Aerodynamics came out in two thousand seven in the American Journal of Physics so like sixty years after the wiffle ball was made yes. It took a while buts. Jen Zeroed in on what was happening in the air that went through the holes and got trapped inside the ball which she and her co author. Andrew row found a way to measure and so we put something called a hot wire and a monitor inside the ball as well. So it's in the wind tunnel our measuring. What's happening over it on it and inside of it? Yeah yeah sure no fix stuff way to stick with it suffices okay so this error inside the ball created what she called a trapped vortex effect. Yup I'm familiar Basically Air recirculating and creating vortices that act on the ball from the inside and her research. It not only showed that these were sees exists but how their effect on the ball was driven by one the speed at which the ball was thrown into the orientation of the ball when it was pitched. And so you could see that as the speed of the ball changed. The the sort of battle between outside effects and inside affects was was shifting. A battle like between the air moving outside the ball and inside the ball. Exactly I'm nail in this and with computer modeling Jenin. Andrew showed in detail how that battle plays out and whether external or internal airflow has a greater effect on the ultimate trajectory of the ball. Okay give me like an example shirt. Well if you throw the ball at a certain angle and at a fast enough speed that internal airflow can actually cause the ball to curve away from the starting position of the holes resulting in youth throwing a sinker. Oh like that annoying pitch where the ball drops like right before it gets to you. And it's tough to hit yes. Scuffing changes the flight paths. Wiffle balls entirely people who do that are basically amateur. Physicists experimenting with airflow okay so basically the speed and the angle of the throw determine how the battle of the air inside and outside the ball plays out and scarfing it up. Plays a role too. Yes and JEN by the way she loves the DIY CULTURE OF SOUP INC. Wiffle for years players have sent her there. Scuffed up whistled balls the first one. She remembers very clearly. It came wrapped in like lunch bag paper and hand labeled on it was professor. Rosman and inside. There was just a note with this ball and very small little scrap of paper. The note said see if you can figure this one out. I feel like that's a weird science ransom note. You know what I mean. Sure your mind goes to really weird places. But yes she'll run. These donated wiffle balls through her wind tunnel and she and her students. They're actually now putting together a kind of atlas of scuffing and knifing patterns and their corresponding aerodynamic performance for her the wiffle ball. It's the perfect way to blend formal education with some fun experimentation. Sometimes science gets taught as if it's like this monolithic body of knowledge that was inscribed in stone. And we forget to tell the stories of no people made this knowledge and they did so by stumbling around and trying things and having the wrong idea and learning reading that Over and over again and the more human you can make it the more. It's possible for for any student. I think to see themselves as potentially a doer of science. Kwong you really taught me some new things today which to be fair is very easy when it comes to physics. But here's the thing. We're all social distancing right now so you and I were not wiffle ball and anytime soon. Now it's probably best to play sports with people in your household right who you are already sheltering at home with. I would check your local and state regulations to about park access. And if you have a backyard. Obviously that's your kingdom. You can do whatever you want there and if you do WanNa toss the ball around. Npr sports correspondent. Tom Goldman suggests you wash your hands before and after you play and Polish that wiffle ball or whatever sport projectile you're using with an antibacterial wipe back getting outside in a safe way having fun. It's a really good thing to do at a time like this all right emily. Thank you for this little moment of wiffle ball joy anytime. Mattie anytime this episode was honestly produced somehow by Rebecca Ramirez edited by the way in fact by Emily von. I'm Maddie Safai asked and I'm Emily. Quam we'll see you back tomorrow with more shortwave from NPR..

Jen baseball David mullany Kwong football Major League emily Andrew row American Journal of Physics Whitey Ford Ohio Connecticut David End Yankees NPR Lafayette College Maddie Safai Fitch
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

11:40 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"This episode will break down with the early science suggests about why this virus has spread so much faster than similar viruses. Like SARS where it came from an if it'll slow down here in the US as the weather gets warmer. I'm Maddie Safai. And this is shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR as we at the top of all of our corona virus episodes. We are learning a lot about this virus. Really fast the information in this episode is what we have learned as of our recording on Monday march twenty third and what we know will probably change a group okay. So the corona virus that's causing this pandemic is part of a larger group. Or family of Corona viruses. So some causes the common cold. There are famous ones like murderers and SARS but only this one has caused a pandemic. So let's talk about why that might be so if you look at the structure of the virus we see certain clues about why it's behaving in such an extreme way. So all corona viruses. This one is basically a bowl with some spikes sticking out of it. Those spikes or what? The virus uses to launch an infection. They bind to a protein called ace to which sits on the surface of ourselves. And this binding like a key fitting into a lock is the first stage of any infection. Now if we compare the shape of the spike protein on this new corona virus to that of say the original source. Fire some two thousand three. We see it sticks to the ace to protein much more tightly much more strongly and that is likely to influence the course of infections in very broad terms the stronger the stick the lesser virus. You probably need to actually start an infection. And that's really important because if you if it doesn't take as much virus to start an infection it's easier to transmit the virus from person to person. It's what we call an infectious dose. That's right so basically. This virus is stickier than the virus that caused SARS. That's right this virus is better at recognizing an latching onto human cells. Yeah we think in your piece you suggested that some of the virologist that study these families of viruses have started calling the SARS virus SARS classic. Which is it's kind of delightful in a way. It is a moment of light light comic relief in the middle of this horrific catastrophe. I think that because this new virus has been cold saws covy too and the original virus. The sauce from two thousand three is technically cold saws. Covy it's very difficult to talk about the two of them without getting confused and without muddling which solid you're talking about so yeah villages have found all kinds of hilariously colloquial work arounds calling the the first virus original saws are saws classic as if it was some kind of Soda Saws Right. And as we know the sodas get worse and worse as more of them get produced is how I feel so many levels. Okay so those spikes that the viruses used to attach to ourselves. Those spikes have to be activated and that activation happens more readily in this corona virus then the classic SARS or starts classic virus. It seems that way so The spike consists of two halls. Which must first be split apart for the virus to begin infecting a cell and that split happens with some difficulty with SARS classic but it seems to occur more readily with this new virus Because of the two halls can be separated by an enzyme called fewer in which is quite widespread in the human body right so much like an avocado that spike protein is really only ready to do its job. What's it's split in half and this corona virus can make use of protein in our body that is you know our bodies already naturally producing yes and make that cut for correct and thanks for ruining Avocados for me. Okay so basically that split seems to be happening easier in this corona virus then in the SARS coronavirus and that split is really important to activating the infection process correct. You also wrote about how this plays into a potential reason why the virus can spread between people before symptoms. Show Up. Talk to me about that. Right so in most respiratory viruses. You get infections in the. Upper Airways in which case symptoms of mild about the virus spreads more easily or you get infections in the Lower Airways in which case symptoms are more severe like pneumonia but the virus is harder to transmit. It seems that the new corona virus can infect both sites so perhaps it infects the Upper Airways causing mild symptoms and spreading easily before moving down into the lower airways and causing some of the more severe illnesses. We've seen in the worst covert nineteen cases. And maybe the reason it can do all those things is that it relies on this fear an enzyme which is found in lots of different tissue now. Of course. This is still conjecture. It's kind of if you look at it. It's a plausible story. It it makes sense checks out but it could also be completely wrong. Yeah this is actually kind of you know newer data. That's kind of interesting because I think initially we thought you know the majority of that infection is in the lower respiratory system right. That's very similar to SARS or the classic stars and now we're starting to get maybe some data that shows that that upper respiratory tract can be infected too. But like you said this is this is pretty preliminary stuff right. I keep reminding myself. This is a bias that no one knew about So we're really racing to understand it Even while we're also trying to control it absolutely absolutely. So let's talk about the animal origins of this virus. What we know now is potentially that the closest wild relative of this virus is found in bats. Is that right? Yeah that's right so there are millions perhaps billions of corona viruses out there another animals and all the ones that scientists have found so far. The one that most closely resembles ause covy to is one that is found in Bat. So it's likely that the virus originated in some kind of bat and eventually hopped into humans either directly or via andover intermediate species right and so that jump from an animal to us. There's there's a difference in what happened with this virus we think versus what happened with the original SARS virus. Is that correct. That's right yeah. One of virus enters new host. There's often a brief period of Acclamation a little span of time when it's mutating a baton and finding ways of better existing within that new type of body and that's what we saw with SARS classic. It took a little while before the virus became very good at infecting humans and doesn't seem to be the case with this new corona virus. It seems to have been a really good human pathogen right off the bat. Yeah so to speak. Yeah so basically SARS had to take another step before it was good and infecting us and regardless of where this virus came from as soon as it got into us it seems to be just kind of great at infecting human. It just seems like it was good to go from the off okay. So let's talk a little bit about you know the seasonality potentially of this virus. So what did the experts that you talk to say about? Whether or not. This outbreak will let up soon with the change of the seasons. So it's really hard to say and there are actually several papers out there now that seemed to come to differing conclusions about the seasonally questions. In general krona viruses do tend to infect people in the winter and they disappear in the summer because it's hotter and more humid. Now it's possible that this new corona virus will also behave in the same way and a lot of the people. I spoke to felt that sees a malady. Was Likely the problem is that the virus is now spreading through a global population of people who had no pre existing immunity to it. And it's just moving really easily from one person to another -nother the speed at which it's moving might be a little slower come The spring or summer but not enough to curtail the spread of the pandemic on its own One epidemiologist explained to me like this. It's as if the world is just full of tender and you've got this gigantic wildfire that's blazing through and hoping that seasonally will help is a bit like hoping that light rain is going to douse it. It might make it a little weaker but that fire still going to blaze so one thing that I found really interesting in your article was state of Corona Virus Research in general and and how that plays into how prepared we are right now like this is a big group of viruses that cause a decent bit of disease throughout the world but one researcher. You talked to said that until recently not that many people were studying krona viruses right so a very small group of people may be You know several dozens of researchers have focused corona viruses for a few decades now but it really has been a very very niche field even even among Varela jurists when SARS classic first emerged Corona Virus. Researchers were really shocked that the things that they were studying was suddenly of public health importance and they are even more flabbergasted Augusta now and so because of that because even after SARS there wasn't a huge uptake in how many people were studying this. We don't necessarily have surveillance networks in place for corona virus. Like we do for the flu right. A lot of our preparedness measures in general have been focused on flu as the most likely next pandemic and for good reason because flu actually is the most lightly next pandemic. It just so happened at this time. It was a corona virus. And we don't have surveillance corona viruses We know actually surprisingly little about corona virus biology and all of those deficiencies have contributed to this dire situation that we're facing when we don't know enough but was forced to act as quickly as possible. Okay Mr Young. Thank you for coming by and talking about the signs of the virus with us. Thanks Muddy at young we have linked to his piece in the Atlantic in the notes of this episode which was produced by Brent Bachman fact check by Emily von and edited by via lay back. Tomorrow with more shortwave from NPR..

SARS Corona Virus Research infection NPR pandemic US flu Maddie Safai Upper Airways upper respiratory tract ause covy pneumonia Mr Young Augusta Atlantic Varela researcher Brent Bachman Emily
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:12 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"We'll be back with more corona virus coverage tomorrow. Okay let's have fun. You're listening to shortwave from. Npr MADDIE SAFAI here with NPR CORRESPONDENT. Stein. How's IT GOING ROB? It's going great. Mattie how you doing amazing because if you're here we're talking about Crisper crisper time with rounds cruise for any better than that you are always bringing us these amazing crisper exclusives. Manny. Where can I say? Christopher's my thing you know even thinking a naming our next dog crisper but we hold on a second. I just remembered our kid wants a cat. So crisper the cat. That's got a good name. It's got a good ring to it. Make our tell me why Chris so awesome. It's really cool because crisper. Is this really powerful? Gene editing technique that allows doctors to make really precise changes in our genetic code. And so it's got incredible potential for treating lots of diseases right. It is actually not an exaggeration to say that crisper could revolutionize medicine in future in today. You have brought us another crisper milestone yet. Mattie get this for the first time scientists have used crisper to try to editor Jean while the DNA is still inside the body which is wild because until now offer crisper treatments for things like cancer or sickle cell disease. Doctors had to remove the cells. They wanted to change. The patient's bodies edit them in the lab and then put them back in right for this time. Hopefully the editing will take place inside the I of a patient who is almost completely blind due to a genetic disease. Called Lieber Congenital Amoroso's the experimental treatment was done by doctors at the Casey Institute in Portland. Oregon. The hope is that the crisper will edit or fix the mutated gene that causes the disease and potentially restore the patients so today on the show a new Christopher treatment that happens within the body if it works it could open up new avenues of treatment for diseases that were previously off limits to Crisper..

Mattie Npr Christopher MADDIE SAFAI Manny Stein Casey Institute Portland Oregon Lieber Chris cancer Amoroso editor Jean
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:57 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"All right Kwan. Today we are talking about the metric system. Honestly once you're in a committed relationship with the metric system like I was in Grad school all other systems. Just don't do it for you. Well the metric system. It's fitting for this podcast. Because it's used broadly across math and science to make sure measurements are precise and accurate. Two of our favorite things. You wouldn't want to dose the wrong amount of medicine for instance or Pipette the wrong amount of liquid into petri dish precision the precision. You can have with the metric system. And because the metric system structures units around successive powers of ten conversion is as easy as moving a decimal point. Right so one. Thousand milliliters is one leader. And One thousand grams is one kilogram the powers of ten are marked by prefixes. Desi Senti Mili and so on you basically just have to learn one system of conversions with base ten or you can use what we use in the US memorized forty five different ways to measure liquids without a straightforward conversion between them gallons courts ounces. Who has this kind of time like it or not Maddie Safai? That's the common system of measurement in the United States the American household uses what's called the US customary system and for that we have early settlers with roots in the British Empire to thank the gallon the foot the yard the pound the nonsense. Is there anything dumber than a gallon? So why would the United States resist a system of measurement used by the vast majority of the world yes so in the United States Liberia and Myanmar? The metric system is not the main system of measurement and our relationship to the metric system in the. Us is complicated. So the metric system gained its footing during the French Revolution. Thomas Jefferson looked into it but congress ultimately rejected adopting metric as the system of the US and there have been government led attempts to fully medicate the US. Ever since most recently in the nineteen seventies from from new around fans. Out with the pound and then with kilogram out with in with meters out with court and the court in with the leader. How I actually didn't know that. We almost went metric a few times. So this is an educational video called a metric. America created around the time president Gerald Ford signed the Metric Conversion. Act In one thousand nine hundred ninety five which sought to increase the use of the metric system in the US by appointing a seventeen member metric border to guide the country's transition. And you start to see. Psa's like this. From the then called. Office of education victim learn the metric system based on ten. You get started today. More accurate universal..

United States Desi Senti Mili Kwan Grad school Maddie Safai Gerald Ford congress Thomas Jefferson Myanmar America president Liberia
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

09:42 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"So today we're focusing on how doctors who talk about the benefits of vaccines are targeted and harassed online now. Obviously not everyone. In the Anti vaccine community participates in this kind of intimidation but in this episode. We're talking about those who choose to do so those who go after people like Dr Baldwin. She's a pediatrician. Who like other doctors talks about what science has proved about childhood vaccines time and time again that they are safe and effective so back to her video. Well so I think what really made it. Different was not necessarily that it was going viral on tick tock as often happens things got really bad when twitter got involved but it was the fact that I tweeted it and then the tweet went viral so when the tweet was going viral in response to the twitter traffic from her original talk post. Nicole posted on facebook morning again emphasizing. What is known from scientific studies on literally thousands upon thousands of children that there is no link between vaccines and autism? You know they were trickling in just negative things people calling me bad names or telling me. I didn't know what I was talking about. Or you know putting false information about vaccines. Nicole knew the best she could do was delete comments in ban users from her facebook page. But IT'S FAST. As she could ban some users new ones would show up in bigger numbers at all hours of the day from different states in the US from New Zealand from the UK. Everyone was attacking from every time zone and it was happening. Twenty four seven. Some of the Tamer comments will share when you lie for a living. This puts you below a prostitute. Come near me or my child with a needle and I will put it in your jugular. They also went to my online reviews. So Google and Yelp and then they also started calling my practice Calling my practice calling me pedophile saying horrible things and then we actually got a caller that threatened to come and shut down my practice. There's a term for this kind of mass online harassment. It's called Dachshund so it's using harassment to sort of silence other voices from the conversation reneged. Arresthe who you heard a little bit earlier. In the research manager at the Stanford Internet Observatory. She studies how Misinformation Spreads Online. We spoke about how dachshund works and her own experience with it is to try to make it feel like A really it feels like you're under attack particularly for people. Who are you know? Have a professional relationship or a professional career where their reputation is important. They're very concerned that their friends are seeing this. Their colleagues clients So it's to create an environment in which they think twice before doing it again and you've experienced some of this harassment yourself. I have to imagine I've well in two thousand fifteen. I wrote an article about the dynamics of Anti Vaccine. Twitter particularly in a very specific context actually is in the context of SP two seventy seven. Which was a bill under consideration? California at the time to eliminate vaccine doubts and I wrote a little bit about the tactics and the dynamics The way in which out of state activists were harassing California State. Legislators on twitter and things like that I got dachshund harassed and you know my address was posted. Pictures of my children were posted and again the goal was really to intimidate. So it's IT'S A it's A. It's a deeply unsettling experienced all of a sudden. Have what feels like the entire Internet yelling at you and imagine that was how it was for Dr Baldwin as well how these communities get built and mobilize is something we could spend hours on spooling. Suffice it to say they are really savvy when it comes to their social media use. According to Rene one of the most effective things the anti vaccine community does is make. Their groups seem larger than they actually are. This played out in recent years also in California when anti vaccine proponents from outside the state began calling lawmakers to oppose the bill renate mentioned and so the legislative offices started asking for addresses and Zip codes and then you actually saw on the facebook groups. people kind of like trading. You know well you can go to red fin or truly can get vacant address. There is insane ways to again. Create the perception. That some activists in Texas was a Californian Rene has also reported on anti vaccine groups buying ads online targeting pregnant women coopting hashtags from public health campaigns to get in front of more people that kind of anti vaccine messaging has been shown to get a foothold in certain small communities there are certain pockets of under vaccinated communities and that allows these diseases to take hold and when that happens there are epidemics Because what happens is there are some people in the community who can't get vaccinated There are elderly people who may be the protection of the vaccine has worn off There are people for whom vaccination just doesn't work. It's you know. Small percentage of people But they exist and so the issue became. What happens as these pockets as these clusters Continue to grow. That happened in Minnesota around two thousand eight after anti vaccine groups targeted. A small Somali community immunization rates eventually dropped from above ninety percent to under forty five and resulted in a measles outbreak affecting more than seventy children. So what do you do as a physician when a parent has concerns about vaccines? Well Dr Baldwin says in her experience not many do for the most part and I think the other thing that everyone maybe doesn't realize is that the large majority of people are pro vaccine and actually don't have a ton of questions so in fact it's important to mention that in the United States National Childhood vaccine rates have been and remain high today that said if a parent comes into her practice apprehensive about vaccines. She tries to keep an open dialogue so I talked to them. I ask them you know. Hey what questions you have about this. What have you heard about this on the Internet? That is you know making you fearful and then I kind of educate them on. Okay this is what the sciences this is. What the data is. This is what we're preventing and then we talk about it and if they choose to not get it that day they choose to not get it that day. I'm not going to you know. Force that on them but we have a conversation and you know that's that's what I'm there for. Simply listening in an open way to concerns can be powerful standing up to harassment and misinformation. Like the kind she got after posting her tick Tock. Video is powerful to. Did you ever consider taking it down? No so I think that for me. That is part of what the Anti Vaccine Community wants I think that's part of the reason. This strategy They continue to play it out because you know they continue to attack attack attack. They want someone to take their posts down because then that it almost seems like they've won in a way you know and I was not going to give into that bullying or that fear Yeah just not my personality. You know ironically. Dr Baldwin is an example of Duna. Right after doing it right. Exactly Right Rene Dirigiste at Stanford again a lot of times I think there was particularly among folks like the leaders of the CDC and World Health Organization a belief that what happens on social is kind of of the people but not of academia or or not yet scientifically vetted and so it. Was You know well? Those people are talking about some things and they're wrong about some things but we're not going to engage because that'll just call more attention to it and so in a way they were having a completely different conversation they would maybe put out an automated tweet. About how the measles vaccine was safe but they weren't in any way engaging with people who were on the fence They weren't engaging with people who had questions and so the people who were responding to those questions who were engaging with the fence sitters was anti vaccine side but it's not just the aggressive nature of the Anti Vaccine Movement that helps misinformation take hold in a whole host of ways. It's the Internet itself. The viral nature of the content the weights disseminated how rapidly it's disseminated the fact that popularity and engagement is what drives what goes Kinda farthest and fastest. This is the way that the social infrastructure is designed. That's what we'll cover tomorrow on the show. You can see Dr Baldwin's original tick tock video and a link to some of Rene Interesting Research on vaccine misinformation in the episode notes. This episode was produced by Brent Bachman edited by Andrea Kissing and fact checked by Rebecca Ramirez. I'm Maddie Safai. Thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR..

Dr Baldwin harassment twitter facebook California Nicole autism Rene Stanford Internet Observatory Rene Interesting Research research manager Minnesota US Google Texas Maddie Safai Rene Dirigiste NPR
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

02:47 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"You're listening to shortwave from NPR. Seattle Calgary or Juno. You might have felt it October. Twenty Eighth Two thousand twelve seven point eight magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Canada near the archipelago of Haida Guay earthquakes. Earthquakes aren't unusual in that area. Because there's a big fault line nearby but it turned out buried in the data associated with this earthquake. was something unusual joie. We were not particularly looking for something but we were Trying to look for earthquake Evolution processes when you in fan is a professor officer at Florida State University. I am has Malla Gist. Or you can say a geophysicist in a more general term and so a couple years back when he he was looking at the data from the two thousand twelve earthquake off the coast of Canada he noticed spent before that big earthquake struck. There were records of what looked. I like smaller earthquakes nearby just migrating from north to south and by noticing that I saw I found a precursor to the earthquake creek and that was quite exciting to me and that would have been pretty cool on its own a previously unknown precursor to a big seven point eight earthquake but just to make sure it was a real thing when you looked at some data from two years before and the year after so not only to Intel thousand ten thousand thirteen. Tom And what we started to find is that such activities would would happen but only happen during wintertime. uh-huh so those smaller earthquakes in the ocean weren't a precursor to the big earthquake all because they happen before it and after it to now. You don't have to be a seismologist to know that earthquakes don't exactly know when it's wintertime. That's right that's right. Yeah earthquakes aren't seasonal right. They kind of just happen when they happen by. The weather is no sure is so that was Eureka. The Eureka moments saying while the nationality of this sussman activity obviously is quite important. What when you in some of his colleagues would later confirmed? Is that storms out in the ocean. We're causing what they say is a seismic phenomenon that they never knew about before instead of finding earthquakes. We found storm cracks storm. Quakes this episode. How they happen and what they could teach us? I'm Maddie Safai. In this shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR.

Earthquakes Malla Gist NPR Canada Maddie Safai Seattle Florida State University geophysicist Juno Calgary Intel sussman Tom earthquake. professor officer
Discovering 'Stormquakes'

Short Wave

02:43 min | 1 year ago

Discovering 'Stormquakes'

"Seattle Calgary or Juno. You might have felt it October. Twenty Eighth Two thousand twelve seven point eight magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Canada near the archipelago of Haida Guay earthquakes. Earthquakes aren't unusual in that area. Because there's a big fault line nearby but it turned out buried in the data associated with this earthquake. was something unusual joie. We were not particularly looking for something but we were Trying to look for earthquake Evolution processes when you in fan is a professor officer at Florida State University. I am has Malla Gist. Or you can say a geophysicist in a more general term and so a couple years back when he he was looking at the data from the two thousand twelve earthquake off the coast of Canada he noticed spent before that big earthquake struck. There were records of what looked. I like smaller earthquakes nearby just migrating from north to south and by noticing that I saw I found a precursor to the earthquake creek and that was quite exciting to me and that would have been pretty cool on its own a previously unknown precursor to a big seven point eight earthquake but just to make sure it was a real thing when you looked at some data from two years before and the year after so not only to Intel thousand ten thousand thirteen. Tom And what we started to find is that such activities would would happen but only happen during wintertime. uh-huh so those smaller earthquakes in the ocean weren't a precursor to the big earthquake all because they happen before it and after it to now. You don't have to be a seismologist to know that earthquakes don't exactly know when it's wintertime. That's right that's right. Yeah earthquakes aren't seasonal right. They kind of just happen when they happen by. The weather is no sure is so that was Eureka. The Eureka moments saying while the nationality of this sussman activity obviously is quite important. What when you in some of his colleagues would later confirmed? Is that storms out in the ocean. We're causing what they say is a seismic phenomenon that they never knew about before instead of finding earthquakes. We found storm cracks storm. Quakes this episode. How they happen and what they could teach us? I'm Maddie Safai. In this shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR VR.

Earthquakes Malla Gist Canada Seattle Maddie Safai Florida State University Geophysicist Juno Calgary Intel Sussman NPR TOM Earthquake. Professor Officer
"maddie safai" Discussed on How I Built This

How I Built This

07:40 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on How I Built This

"Factory operation and so this was a little bit scary because it's sort of looked like a massive dorm room. You know it was. It wasn't the most put together. Place this is. This is not an actual tool dorm room right like you you had by this rented out office space. Yeah Yeah We. We're growing quickly. And so we you know we tried to clean this space up and and put on some semi respectable business attire. Yeah so the guy's going through and we're showing him. Here's how format the hard drives. And here's how we you know. Insure the quality controls. And we're sure we can meet your demand for this order for one hundred fifty units and he says what are those and I said. Well those are the computers that we have to format hard drives and by this time we'd actually been assembling our our own. Computers Format hard drives became too expensive to buy am from other people and he said well. Why don't you sell those us and I was like? Oh that's a great idea. I should've thought we were so busy. Making these hard disk drive kits that we. Dan Really thought to make our own computers when we come back in just a moment how that idea launched Michael Down a path that would make del one of the biggest computer companies in the world. Stay with us on Guy Rosner listening to how I built this from. NPR Hey everyone just just a quick thanks to two of our sponsors who help make this podcast possible I to squarespace the website builder dedicated to providing customers with easy to use professionally designed designed templates. Join the millions of graphic designers architects lawyers and other professionals using squarespace to promote their business visit squarespace dot com slash. NPR for Free Fourteen Day trial. And when you're ready to launch us the offer code. NPR to save ten percent off your first purchase of a website or domain. Thanks also to First Republic Bank whose first and only business is client service. They work with you to create customized financial solutions. That support your the unique needs and goals reach out today and you'll be connected with a dedicated banker who will always be your first point of contact with the bank because they understand your total financial picture. They can recommend the services and products. That are right for you or your business to learn more visit first republic dot COM Maddie Safai. Here host of shortwave daily science podcasts from NPR. Listen for new discoveries everyday mysteries and the science behind the headlines All in about ten minutes every weekday. It's a great addition to your daily listening whether you're a science nerd or you know just a little science curious. Subscribed grabbed two shortwave from NPR. Hey welcome back to how I built this from NPR. I'm Guy Roz so normally at this point in the show we start to talk about the slow and steady growth of business and the early struggles goals and all the hard work that went into getting enough ground but in the mid nineteen hundred s pretty soon after Michael hired his first engineers to start making taking the first dell computers from scratch. They were selling so many computers so fast that they started to compete with the biggest name in computing thing. IBM IBM at the time. Had A six megahertz to eighty six computer that they sold for three thousand nine hundred ninety five dollars. Yeah so we introduced a twelve megahertz to eighty six base computer and we sold it for one thousand nine hundred ninety five dollars so our computer was twice as fast and was half price. How how are you able to do that? What we still made a decent margin Selling them and I think one is. We had some clever engineers and we had this great supply chain that we created traded. And so when we would sell let's say two hundred computers in a day You know we would give that signal back to our suppliers who would every day or every few hours deliver parts to our factory. Yeah and then we would you. You know ship those computers out to the customer so we add a unbelievably efficient supply chain. We created out of necessity because we had no capital that also meant that we had the freshest parts at the best cost and as the cost of materials were coming down. We benefited from that. And we could get get the latest technology to the customer faster than anybody else and you didn't. You were direct to consumer company. You didn't retail shops. We're not selling Dell computers. Peter's right you have to call Dell or fact style and order computer at the time that's right except Most of our business wasn't to consumer to business. It was two businesses. But that's what you said is actually a common misperception. A lot of people thought only consumers by from Dell. That's actually not what was happening. We were. You're selling to all sorts of companies and governments and small and medium-sized businesses. And that was most of our business even from the beginning and at that point like the late eighties. What did you have in mind for the future like? What was your ambitions for the company? Well we we had some pretty big aspirations. The first one was we said we want to expand globally. It was pretty clear to us that. If you were only successful the United States that would be good enough. The second was that we had to go after selling to you big companies. Because if you didn't sell to the really big companies and the biggest governments in the world well you weren't going to be irrelevant company out. And then the third one was we said. We had to differentiate on the basis of service and we created this thing called On site service and today would be a very common thing but back then you know if your computer broke you had to put it in the trunk of your car. Hard to get back to the computer store and then they would take it and then they ship it off somewhere you'd wait weeks and weeks and supposedly get it back so we came up with this program where he calls on the phone says before the Internet. And if you had a problem we'd help you resolve on the phone and if we weren't able to resolve phone we'd send a technician with parts to your location to fix your computer on site and we did that all across the United States and we thought the minute we announced his our sales will double because it was like so much better than what we were doing before for and they didn't double instantly but after about three months a double so well I wanna I wanna put this into perspective because you know we we think about about like really young entrepreneurs.

NPR Dell Michael United States First Republic Bank Guy Rosner Guy Roz Maddie Safai technician IBM Dan Peter
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

08:54 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"SO smells considered to be the strongest sense tied to memory. And that's because signals from all your other other senses. I have to make it stop in the part of your brain called the foulness which then send signals to other parts of your brain like a little relay system but not smell. Smells bypass the relay center in pretty much directly reached the parts of your brain responsible for emotion and memory so smell smell is sent on those pathways before you really have time to think about it. So you're GONNA be emotionally reacting to smell which will then potentially voca memory if you have some kind of stored memory associated with that smell or related smell right so because we just kind of goes directly into that like emotional memory center yet triggers yet triggers the emotions and it triggers the memory. And that's before you actually have time to think about it whereas most of the other senses get processed in the frontal lobe. So you're thinking about them you know after they've already been sense but you don't know that will smell is different. You sense it and then you think about it. So is part of the reason why it's so strongly tied to memory is is because it's also hitting that emotional center because I know like things that are very emotional. We tend to member like to to remember a little bit more. Definitely yeah and I think that one the things that I find really interesting when I teach science smell classes when I tried to make these connections across different parts of the brain and emotional responses to smells these perceptual sexual pathways. And so on is that stress can operate to enhance your memory of a smell so when you experience stress anxiety or or fear you are activating stress response in the body and one of the things that happens is an increase in cortisol which is a hormone associated with stress. It's a steroid and cortisol increases your sense of smell. It makes it more sensitive data. Okay so when we're talking about smell and memory at this time of year it's kind of hard not to think about all the sense that we associate with the holidays but in fact like our factory system is also working harder her at this time of year right like in the winter time yes so volatile oils which are airborne odorants are more active. When it's hot and humid so that means that during hot humid weather? You're getting a lot of information from the environment and the olfactory system has to slow down because it's getting too much. It's overwhelming to. They're kind of like more smells in the air in the summer. Is that right. Yeah yes we've got information overload and we've got to figure out what's important in the winter. There's not that many because it's not hot. It's not humid so there's not as many airborne chemicals for us to bind in our noses. It's called factory adaptation when receive too much of a signal Your factor receptor after shutdown. And they don't transmit anything anymore like when you go into room and you're like the smell is like this really smells like onions. And then you stay in that room for a while and you're like I don't smell onions anymore. Yeah and you think the odor's faded or if you go away on vacation and you come back to your house. Suddenly you smell your house and then after a while you don't smell your house right right. That's the classic examples so it's the same thing if there's an absence since Otar. We become more sensitive. Because we're trying to pick up these environmental cues. That might be useful right. I didn't realize that like our sense of smell could ramp up. I CAN'T I. Kind of intuitively notice is that I stopped smelling things once. I'm in the room with them for a little bit. But that's kind of awesome. Yeah and so. If the odor is faint are all factory system becomes sensitive and it tries to gather up as much as it can so it's not the same as something like vision or hearing which is fixed they functioned the wave function all the time. You can't upscale you're hearing win the volumes to low uh-huh so in this affair family and my family. The holidays are all about eating as much as physically possible to the point of discomfort and is it true that we smell differently. We're like Hungary versus when we're full. Yeah there's some really interesting evolutionary information on that So you know and also people who are working in obesity researcher interested interested in the sense of smell and how it stimulates appetite or decreases appetite and most of this research suggests that food smells become less appetizing. Ising when you're full we're so divorced from listening to our biological signals when it comes to food consumption. You know even if that's actually true people say it's less appealing. That doesn't mean to actually stop eating. I was GONNA say that's probably the best but now I'm like I don't know that I listen to those signals. You know is there are more mashed potatoes here here. Yeah and it was good and you want to keep eating it because it makes you happy right right okay so I read that. Mammals can kind of smell while they're chewing and eating like it's a continual process. Can you talk to me a little bit about that. Yeah so we think about smelling is when we inhale. That's one type of smelling but we also have a second type of smelling smelling. When we're chewing an era gets pushed up into the nose then back down into the mouth and that's a secondary sense of smell which is one of the reasons why we think think of things that we like tasting good but in fact they smell good or in fact the combination of taste and smell which flavor and? That's one of the reasons why a a lot of professional wine tasters actually choose the wine they can get that retro nasal all faction and fully experience the flavor sensation which is smell and taste together. Right right okay. So rapid fire. Tell me some of your favorite facts about the sense of smell. So one of the fun facts that I think is really need about the sense of smell. Is that our our noses have to nostrils that are separated and one is working at a time alternate. Yeah so it's kind of funny when you have a cold. Sometimes you're stuffed on one side and your sense of smell seems to be coming and going and that's why because when it's on the clog side you can't smell anything and when it's on the good side you can mind blown next fact please Factories are located throughout our bodies and they serve different functions. And we haven't been able to figure out what all of these functions are but it could be that The sense of smell is used. In guiding the sperm to the a what there's factory receptors located in the prostate. And when this maybe they have a function protecting against cancer there's receptors in our kidneys. They're all over the place there in our skin. We don't really you know what a lot of them are doing in those places yet. I what a day okay. So what is like one of the biggest myths that you consistently hear about smell all of that we only can smell ten thousand smells. We got more than that. Yeah we can smell an infinite number of voters and no one really has quantified it. That ten thousand smells was debunked in avery. Gilbert's book what the nose knows and he finally tracked down the origin of it. Some engineer was trying to calculate it came up with this figure and then it just gets recited it over and over and over again so basically. We're not giving our noses enough credit as what you're telling no we're not and that's the other myth that our senses smell is not important that as soon as we stood upright and remove yourselves from on the ground smelling was no longer important. That's not really true either And a lot of people also say that you know when vision came along in primate. Certainly that smell became less important. Just because you stand upright doesn't mean you're not still in a smell scape you just in a different small skate sure. And it's not as if our sense of smell diminish just because we relied on vision more right and in fact there's been studies showing that people who are blind. Don't have a better sense of smell. There's just probably more aware of it. They remember it more because it's important to them. Yeah I've definitely heard that two. Yeah there've been a couple of studies in the last two last two years one just came out about two months ago so the evidence does show that your senses. Don't work harder and better you. Just I use them better. I think interesting interesting. Okay so oh I know you have got another fun fact. He has so females. Have the same roughly size scale to body Olfactory bulbs as males. Okay but we have like two or three times the number of neurons. That men have. That's that that tracks keep going and so that means that we're you know more sensitive to smells. Wow Yeah there's a lot of weird stuff going on when it comes to Sex differences in our ability. Elodie to smell with females being the more interesting of the sexes. I find that to be the case. Just generally speaking no you yes I do okay care. Hoover associate professor professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Alaska. Fairbanks smell you later later. I've been waiting to do it all day. All right to thanks again to Cara Hoover before we go. We want to remind you that if you're enjoying the show one way to support it and keep it coming to you. Each day is to go to donate NPR dot org slash short and support your local public radio station again donate dot NPR. Ktar dot org slash short. I'm Maddie Safai. We're back next week. Thanks for listening to shortwave from NPR.

cortisol NPR Hungary Cara Hoover Maddie Safai Fairbanks Hoover avery Gilbert Elodie Department of Anthropology University of Alaska
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

07:14 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Okay now. Let's go back to nine hundred ninety six. That's when Congress passed something called the dickey amendment that said the CDC could not do what basically the CDC is not allowed to spend any of the money given to it by Congress for quote advocating or promoting gun control. And if they do the fear is this could jeopardize their future funding. I mean obviously. There's a lot of gun politics that we don't have time to get into here. That leads the dickey amendment right but the bottom line mine is I've been told by people who've worked inside the CDC that the nineteen ninety-six law has affected the way the agency talks about guns suicide. It death by self directed violence with an intent to die for instance if you go to the CDC's website and look at their materials on suicide prevention. You can watch a whole little video about suicide and it never mentions guns. People may be at risk for suicide if they have a family history of suicide previous suicide attempts social isolation nation economic hardship or history of mental health problems or alcohol and substance abuse. Yeah well that's everything but guns so I feel so there's a fact she about preventing suicide. It doesn't mention guns. I'm the term that they use over and over again is lethal. Means Lethal. Means or quote lethal thule methods and when I filed my request. I got some documents back. That sort of suggested why that generic term was preferred. There were some text messages pitches going back and forth between CDC workers and one of them said that basically talking about restricting access to firearms would quote raise red flag. Wow the the F. word they called it the F.. Word Firearms yes. They are literally editing themselves internally before they're putting this out and acknowledging like ooh that's a red flag we can't say that I mean if you ask the CDC directly. I did ask to interview someone at the CDC and my request was denied. I mean the C.. Spokesperson says they do their best to give the public. You know the most sort of accurate up-to-date scientific you know evidentiary protect their health. But I talked to someone who used to work at the. CDC named Linda goodest and she was director of the Agencies National Center for Injury Prevention and control. And she told me of course people they're censor themselves no they're not supposed to use the word gun or it could get congress's attention and potentially get the agency's funding in jeopardy being there at CDC. There were staff who would say you couldn't even I'd say the word gun and they would tell other people are even New People. Sometimes you can't say the word gun here so when they do talk about the F.. Word or guns whatever you WANNA call them. What does the CDC kind of recommend in association with guns? What do they? What do they actually say about guns? They talk about safe storage. So that basically means you know locking locking up your guns and ammunition so that people suicidal people can't get their hands on it and there's some evidence that this is effective if you have an adolescent who's suicidal living in the home home right but the problem is most suicides with guns happen when the owner of the gun turns it on himself or herself okay and so the owner of the gun. Yeah they they have the keys and unlock the gun. And so I mean. I spoke with one researcher. WHO said he's not aware of any research showing that locking up a gun prevents adult suicide? So what does the research about two aside. Tell us like if you can't use one thing you turn to another thing like if you can't use a gun you turn to something else. That's what people say. They say. Well suicide is a mental health problem. Not a gun problem and that if people can't access guns they'll use another method. What research shows is that if a method that people apple were wanting to us is not available? They typically don't switch to another so one example would be in the United Kingdom where the people used to commit suicide by Using gas ovens for example once that gas became detoxified. The rates of suicide dropped dramatically. Same thing in some countries where common form of suicide. It was pesticide ingestion when those pesticides were banned suicide rates dropped dramatically and by dramatic decreases. I mean like thirty fifty percent percent. Wow Okay so what's the practical effect of the CDC kind of tiptoeing around using the word guns. We'll ask. Linda degutis this and she says that you're trying to address something without sort of talking about one of the major factors. If you say lethal means she said people may not even understand that term because right because if you're not saying like firearms are the number one cause of suicide or the number one US then it's like Oh like firearms and medications you. You know what I mean. When they just lump them together lethal means? I wouldn't be thinking like one of these is much more prevalent the other. We'll firearms or about half right and the other half is like everything everything else right so I mean certainly. They're not the only means of suicide but the thing is they are so lethal. I mean guns are designed to be lethal and so unfortunately if someone chooses to use a gun to attempt suicide more likely than not they die all right so this is obviously a pretty complicated situation. gun safety messages matter most of the people that own guns so the CDC needs to reach gun owners but in a way. That doesn't is late them right. I mean that's a challenge. No matter what you oh you have to find a way to seriously talk about the dangers posed by guns that we know about from suicide research while not turning off the audience that most needs is to hear them namely the gun owners and that is a real tricky task and then for the CDC layered on top of that they have the dickey amendment which just makes them uncomfortable uncomfortable talking about guns in general and so when you put all this together in the realm of suicide prevention in this country particularly were suicide side has a very large link to guns it just makes for a very complicated and difficult situation in terms of bringing those numbers of suicides down okay last question now if the CDC could talk more freely about guns and suicide what might they say well. For example there guide to suicide prevention for states and end communities might have included like discussion of the research on things like red flag laws to take guns away from people who are going through crisis or Maybe the effective active waiting periods or licensing requirements. Or maybe People would get the idea that if a loved one is experiencing a mental health crisis. Isis or going through a really difficult economic times or something that might make them seem more trouble than usual. Maybe it's a good idea to like. Hold their gun for them to offer to get get the gun just like out of the House for Awhile all right. Thank you for coming by and bringing us this important story. Thank you before we go. We we want to say that suicide is preventable. If you are in a crisis or know somebody who is please call the suicide prevention lifeline. Call one eight hundred two seven three eight two you five or text. Eight to five five to seven four one seven for one. This episode was produced by Brennan Bachman and edited by Viet Lay. I'm Maddie Safai. And thanks. For listening to shortwave from N._P._R...

CDC Congress social isolation apple Agencies National Center for I United Kingdom Maddie Safai US Brennan Bachman Linda degutis Viet Lay Linda goodest Isis
"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

Short Wave

07:04 min | 1 year ago

"maddie safai" Discussed on Short Wave

"Okay John Scientists have been looking at this connection between sleep and Alzheimer's for a while and a lot of these studies started in mice right so several several years ago I stopped by this lab where they're doing research on mouse brains and I met up with a scientist named Jeffrey I live is a brain scientist the University of Washington now but then he was studying mouse brains at Oregon Health and Science University warning. Sign here because there's a very powerful laser in here that can actually Actually blinds you. If you if you look into it. John does not always make you want to look at it a little like out of the side of your eye. Yeah it's like the solar eclipse. Just can't help help yourself. I'm glad you didn't though anyway. The laser we're talking about made it possible for Jeff in his colleagues to study the brains of living mice using this state of the art microscope. So there's Black curtain surround this microscope because our microscope is very very sensitive. And it's and it's almost literally counting. Every single photon. That comes up out of the mouse's brain. Wow so what are they using this fancy microscope to look at exactly will understand that you kind of need to understand what happens in the brains of mice when they go to sleep all right mouse brain science. Here we go right wind Miceli or When people sleep when you sleep the brain cells shrink so it's easier for this fluid to flow through the entire brain? So what happens is during sleep. The flu that's normally on the outside of the brain which is called cerebral spinal fluid. It's a clean clear fluid. It actually begins to recirculated back. Into and through the brain along the outsides of blood vessels so it uses the blood vessels wrestles as sort of a scaffold allowing the that. CSF to exchange with the fluid between the brain cells and that exchange between the CSF and brain fluid washes out all these toxins that build up during waking hours. I've heard some scientists compare it to like how a dishwasher works so getting rid of the dirty stuff. That's accumulated on the plates the Bulls and the silverware. It's not a bad comparison because that fluid can get going pretty fast and by the way the team that discovered it named it something they call it the lymphatic addict system sure love it okay John. What kind of toxins are we actually talking about okay? So brain cells all cells produce waste that they need to get rid of stuff like carbon dioxide ammonia and the cells kind of excrete this stuff and it would build up in the spaces between cells if there weren't some kind of system that took it away so the scientists discovered the system. Actually think these wastes are the reason that we can't think straight because we didn't get enough sleep that explains my brain since the launch of this podcast John O.. Oh End Animals and people eventually die without sleep good to know so at this point. You may be a highly functional Zombie but wait. There's more by not sleeping. You also may be raising your risk for Alzheimer's and the reason for that is that one of the waste. Products builds up in the brain is something called Beta amyloid Beta amyloid. Yeah you've probably probably heard about the plaques and tangles that are associated with Alzheimer's Disease Will Beta amyloid is the plaque. It forms these sticky clumps in the brains of people who either have Alzheimer's timers or are likely to develop it and the idea. Is that Beta. AMYLOID is part of a process that ultimately kills brain cells so it was kind of alarming back in two thousand nine. When scientists started finding evidence that a lack of sleep might actually be speeding up the development of these Beta amyloid plaques so basically scientists found evidence evidence of a strong connection between sleep like a lack of? It can make your brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's right at least in mice which really don't get Alzheimer's without some some genetic tinkering so we have to find a way to see the same sort of function but in a way that is going to is going to be reasonably none of and safe for humans so scientists figured out how to test for it and humans and most recently scientists figured out a way to study it in real time my name is Laurie Lewis. I'm an assistant professor of Biomedical Engineering at Boston. University and Laura and a team of researchers found a way to watch the glymph addict system at work was in about about a dozen sleeping people. The whole thing was written up in the journal Science and what they did was how people fall asleep inside an MRI scanner so in this cramped for Moise to not an easy place in that and then while these people were asleep they used all this cutting edge technology to monitor things like brainwaves and blood flow and guess sweat. Mattie Fae saw the same thing that happened in mice that lack of sleep can make people more vulnerable to Alzheimer's exactly and they also use this really clever technique to to watch the flow of this liquid that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and they found something that they hadn't really known before. What did they find out John? I'm going to let Laura describe it and that's when we discovered that during sleep there. Are these really large slow. Waves occur maybe once every twenty seconds of washing into the brain so the fluid isn't just flowing going steadily it's kind of oscillating like a washing machine and these researchers were watching this happen in a human brain and then they saw something else this other discovery before each way the fluid we would actually see a wave of electrical activity in the neurons. This electrical always happens. I and the way of always seems to a follow seconds later so were the electrical waves triggering. The washing cycle that flushed out. These toxins would that is the current hypothesis. Those electrical waves are called slow slow waves and they show up when a person enters a state known as deep sleep so you know everybody talks about rem sleep rapid by movement. This is a different state. And it's one one where a lot of brain system seem to be shut down and people are a lot less likely to dream so the deep sleep thing is key here less. Somebody gets the fewer slow waves is an fewer this low waves the fewer toxins flush out of the brain. That's what it looks like. And of course one of those toxins is Beta amyloid that plaque. We were talking about that's linked to Alzheimer's timers and it looks like there's this kind of vicious cycle. You don't get enough sleep so more Beta amyloid buildup in your brain and when you build up Beta amyloid it disrupts the sleep. Okay so should an occasionally sleep-deprived podcast hosts or other people be worried about Alzheimer's if they're not getting enough sleep is not quite that simple. There are a lot of things not just leap. That almost certainly contribute to the likelihood that somebody might get Alzheimer's you have genetic factors or something called Aibo Louis Four and three and two which determine risk there's also Conditions like diabetes. Blood sugar in the brain is a factor and then of course their cell metabolism the how of functional all the cells are in your brain. All those things are factors so it's not just sleep alone. We know that getting sleep and getting the right kind of sleep is important for brain health for all sorts. It's of reasons and this is really just one more all right John Hamilton. Good sleeping to you sir. Thanks for coming by. You're welcome. Today's episode was produced by Breath Hanson and edited by Veit Lay. I'm Maddie Safai. 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Alzheimer John Scientists Alzheimer's Disease Oregon Health and Science Univ Laura Beta flu John O John Hamilton University of Washington Jeffrey I Jeff Maddie Safai Bulls