35 Burst results for "MD"
Who Is Dr. Robert Malone, Inventor of mRNA Vaccines?
"And he is the president of the international alliance of physicians and scientists, doctor Malone, welcome to the Charlie Kirk show. Thank you. Thanks a lot for the opportunity to be here and talk to you and your audience. So let's get on it. So I'm an admirer and fan of yours. I first was made aware of you and your work when you join Brett Weinstein on his podcast all the way back in April or May or June if I remember correctly. In the back in the 20th century. It feels like yeah, that was a different world. And I was very interested in that conversation and I've watched hours of your footage since because it seemed that you were confirming some of the suspicion that I had and skepticism in my head towards the current rollout and the vaccine that we are now being in some ways forced to take. Please establish your background in vaccine technology, the original inventor of MR MN RNA and DNA vaccines and talk about why and how you got concerned about this. And we'll go from there. Let's see. So briefly, the bona fides. Let's see, you see Davis, biochemistry, bachelors and science. You see San Diego and the salk institute masters in biology, MD from northwestern university in Chicago. Fellowships, research fellowships at UC Davis and a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School for global clinical scholars research training that was just a few years ago to kind of tighten up all of my credentials having to do with clinical research regulatory affairs and all that stuff also completed a internship medical internship at UC Davis. I'm a licensed physician in the state of Maryland. I did invent the core platform technology that gave rise to these vaccines. I did not invent these vaccines. And I'm a little aggravated at what's been done with these vaccines as what's happened to the technology. But I had a extensive academic career top pathology at UC Davis and new Maryland Baltimore and also was an associate professor at the uniformed services university of the health sciences. You could look up all the papers and the many patents through if you look on Google scholar is a site so you can just Google scholar and I'm having trouble with that just like you were with the mRNA. With my name on it. And you'll see the over hundred papers and 12,600 plus academic citations for the work blah,
Darnold, defense lead Panthers past Texans; McCaffrey hurt
"Sam Darnold threw for three hundred and four yards and ran for two touchdowns and the Carolina Panthers improved to three you know for the first time in six years with a twenty forty nine win over the Houston Texans Darnold completed twenty three of thirty four passes and did not commit a turnover he says he expected his team's quick start we had a great training camp hard training camp down there in the heat and yeah I cannot show what kind of team we were when we you know practice against Baltimore MD so I mean we we always knew what kind of team we had it was just about going out there on game day and executing Carolina won despite losing all pro running back Christian McCaffrey in the second quarter with a strained hamstring without him DJ Moore caught eight passes for a hundred and twenty six yards Adams pulling Houston
Even CNN's Jake Tapper Is Calling Out Anthony Fauci These Days
"Ouchi is so discredited at this point. Even jake tapper calls them out over the weekend on cnn. Jake tapper is trying to get foul ci to his belief that boosters are needed for everyone now and who knows about boosters. i read an article about antibodies. And how the rich are supposedly running around getting antibody tests all the time to try to stay on top of that issue and it is. It is a kind of a reasonable question. Where are your antibody. What's your antibodies level. After a vaccine after the shot. And i know there's different types. The one is the mr a or the md anna supposedly part of the virus. So if i got the johnson. Johnson vaccine in march will my blood tests show antibodies. Now i don't know and this article said that people that have access to you know concierge medicine doctors. They're running off getting antibodies tests. What does that tell you somebody. I know that had that had coverted. I've shared this with you lot. It's anecdotal but it's true doesn't have any antibodies. According to her blood test
Action First, Learn Later
"Action i learned later means that you take action from a trusted source. Then you come back later to learn more about the strategies and the logic behind the action. This is going to help. You refine the knowledge that you gained and the lessons that you learned while taking that action now. This idea came to me while i was reading a new book by steven are gunnery. Md and the book is called the energy paradox. The intro in the first chapter they were twenty three pages long and by the end of chapter one i realized he was going to give a ton of scientific reasons rationale dive into the literature behind his program that he created right now. The explanation of his energy paradox eating program that starting on page one sixty seven. I just finished as twenty three. I was going to have to read one hundred and forty four more pages before i get to the actual program right. I did not want to wait that long. Because i mean if you're anything like me oftentimes Fiction books i love. I get i dive into the story. Loved the characters. I love the plot. I just read read read. I can read one hundred pages in a day of great fiction book easily but nonfiction sometimes can be a slog. And if it's full of like medical jargon and scientific discoveries and and whatever else he talks about in those first pages man it might take me. I don't know one hundred forty four more days ten pages day fourteen more days before i actually get to the program. Screw that right. So i skipped a page one sixty seven and i started the program on day one when i picked up the book. And let me tell you. I could not be happier with the process right taking action. I it got me eating healthier right away. The whole ideas like why wait right. I trusted that. The author dr steven our country. Md that the program that he wrote would not hurt me and if he put anything in the program that seemed dangerous. I could totally just skip it right so nothing ended up being dangerous but just ahead of time if you're taking action and something seems funky and uninteresting. Maybe you're just like it won't help then. Just don't do it. I can you could easily choose to not do something. But for me. And this book taking action before learning about the benefits was total no-brainer.
Youtuber Shoe On Head's Claim of 7-Year-Old Selling Lemonade for Brain Surgery Bogus
"I guess there was some demonstration in new york city about health gap. And you know at anti a radio one of the signs patients not prophets right because it's a charity right. Health health can be run as a charity and she is holding in her post on instagram. A placard taken from and newspaper and it's a headline so i stopped to read it. I want to talk about it. Why because it's a beautiful case study of useful idiocy and propaganda headline that she photocopied. Oh somebody gave to her on the on the placard girl seven cells limousine to pay for brain surgery. Wow shocking right. A girl seven years old cells lemonade and the lemonade stand to pay for her brain surgery. How outrageous and underneath she scribbled or somebody skill on the plant gone on the headline. This underlying should never underline happened in the richest on the line country on earth on the line. I wonder why she underlined earth. You creationist. i don't think so. This should never happen in the richest country on your i. Did i agree with you. Shoot if i may. I agree with you. Seven-year-old girl shouldn't have to sell lemonade for her brain surgery. The trouble is issue. It never happened. Yeah because i was so incensed by the story thinking yeah. I'm an american. This is wrong. You know what i did. I was actually driving home from waiting. I mentioned earlier. My wife was driving. So i i was in the passenger seat and i use this thing called the interwebs yes. I'm older than you. But i do know how to do this. Which is surprising. Because you're on youtube. Your bidding younger than me so i thought maybe you had done this yourself and the third the third story i looked at when i put in seven year old girl brain surgery. Lemonade ended. I wasn't complicated. The third story i looked at was from web. Md and it was a lengthy story from this. You know serious website on medical issues that broke down who it was what was wrong with her which hospital where she was at and eliminate story. And what did. I find in paragraph seven or eight which i sent to shoe. Just you know being decent citizen. Her parents insurance cover the costs of the brain surgery. She sold some lemonade to do one. Pay for ancillary things to have frames. Be able to fly to her clinic. It's an otter complete gas lighting. Lie it is the worst propaganda using the sickness of. Hfs for your political ends. Shame on us shoe
Healing Hormone Imbalance (Without Hormone Replacement) With Dr. Deb Matthew
"After matthew. I'm excited to have you on this day. In if you put it was a little bit of background about you are and what got you doing the work. You're doing sure thanks for having me. It's great to be here when i first graduated from medical school. I actually trained as a pediatrician. And i was perfectly happy thinking that i knew everything you know. They taught me everything. I needed a medical school in my own personal life. I didn't feel good. I was exhausted like the most important task of my day was to find a way to have a nap nan. I was irritable. I was flying off the handle at my kids. My poor is the one that bore the brunt of my wicked witch of the west impersonation. He just really honestly didn't know what to do with me. Half the time. And i knew that something was wrong like i knew that how i felt wasn't normal but nothing in my medical training helped me to really understand what was wrong with me. I wasn't depressed but yet something was wrong. And as my husband came across a book that was written by suzanne somers and it was called the sexy years and when he kind of flipped through that book he saw all kinds of things that reminded him of me and he brought the book home and my first reaction was like. You've got to be kidding me. Suzanne somers like christy snow thigh master. But i knew that we had a problem. It was affecting our marriage. It was affecting my kids. It was affecting my job at work and so i read the book and i gotta tell you that book has completely changed my entire life because when i read the stories of the women in the book who were just like me and how much better. They felt when they got their hormones back in balanced. It really allowed me to open my mind and allowed me to find that there were places that i could go to learn this whole new approach to health and wellness that i didn't even know existed and so as a result i was able to get my energy back. Mccain's got their mom back. My husband got his wife back. I got my life back. But i could not go back to what i was doing before just spending my whole day. Writing prescriptions because most of the time those prescriptions are of just putting a band aid on your symptoms. They're not really getting to the root cause of the problem and making people well.
Beating Your Diagnosis With Nutrition
"I am a believer that the body has the ability to be healthy if we provided the nutrients that it needs to be healthy. Think about your car. Your car requires gasoline where most cars require gasoline to run. And if you put water or pop into your car instead of gasoline you're going to have some pretty serious symptoms that develop as in. Your car is not going to run or bodies the same way. Our body was created to eat nutrient dense foods. There are foods that are created for us and if we eat those foods we're going to be healthy and if we're feeding our body other things and buy things i mean. Chemicals that are body isn't created wasn't created to consume. We're going to develop symptoms now. I recognize that with your car. This symptoms going to typically be pretty dramatic and pretty immediate. And i know with our bodies sometimes. Those symptoms need don't develop until years down the road. It's recognizing though that it's equally as destructive to our body as it is to our car to put something in it that it wasn't created to be consuming to begin with there is the dr terry walls. She is an md and she wrote a book called the walls protocol w. h. l. s. And she was diagnosed with an us and she approached her us utilizing the western medicine approach to treating it and she ended up in a wheelchair and this was somebody who was very active and she participated in competitive sports and she decided she was going to look to nutrition. She wanted to look to a more holistic approach in treating her. Ms and she states that her today is in remission and she was actually in a wheelchair when she was utilized in the western medicine approach and she is now back in her participating and competing in in the sporting events that she had been involved in
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"There is still something impulsive about making sure that you have a grounding in tools and methods rather than just topics if that makes sense and increasingly having grounding in the ability to program and right good computer code and due dates analysis and all. Those things needs to come along somewhere and once. That's in place. That i think the world is your royster. Innocence so computational skills seem. Did you say that you when you went to your post doc. Was that one of the skills that you acquired on your post. Doc the computational skills yes or i already lent program i already felt fluent in matlab and from my phd. So a lot of brain imaging analysis is done using those programming languages and the same with writing code to do experiments more generally says to present stimuli on screens and that kind of thing. Everything is effectively controlled by the computer. And so you need to know how to program it to do research area. Why didn't know that point. I didn't have a good sense of. Is how to build computational models so rather than just using computer code or rather than using programming to analyze my data why was interested in his building models of how the mind works how aspects of the mind works in the language of computer code. I said that's what. I went to do my post doc. In in new york with nathaniel door. Who's an expert on computational models of behavior and i lived there really was. I think it was an exciting time because at that time. There wasn't any computational perspectives on mexico missions so the increasingly popular to apply computational purchase to to learning and decision making. That's been going on for quite a long time. But the wasn't really any wondering computational modeling of south alanna so mexico addition and so on during my post doc was trying to take a step in that direction and we. We built a model that we call the second older model which the describes how confidence might be formed in different tasks. And it could stop to explain. Why for instance. You could damage some pasta system and cause impairments math while leaving performance intact and so it was quite an abstract model. It wasn't a model of how the brain works. Just a a model of how confidence ratings are generated. But it was my first foray into using those modelling techniques and is now something that is a strand of work in my lab. So we've built on those initial models. Try and think in computational terms what is it about system that allows it to domestic omission too have a notion of awareness of performance. And so i think that's can be quite powerful because you can have a theory that somewhat vague and verbal what when you actually rice it down in lines and computer code or in in equations. You can then start to ask. Does that have equations actually map onto what we see in the data and if it doesn't you can then go back and change them and it's right in that way so those models can help you design experiments and basically detest the models and innovate and that way absolutely say that's really i think the why find the most useful aspects of computational modeling. Is that people say all models are wrong so may useful and i think that's good to keep in mind that no one's suggesting that the models we've down models we published are actually how things work just that active getting it down on paper rice down the model both as a paper as an academic paper but also in computer code. And be able to simulate it then you can start curtain predictions for what the data should like or what some features the data should let like if not true and the simplest example. That's coming to my mind. I wanna make sure we're explicit. This for listeners would be the basic claim that the performance is decoupled from the meta cognition. Yes so that claim can be nicely tested because what we can then go and do is measure both your performance on a simple task and also your medication announce ask so how close to your confidence. Trucks your performance. And if you have a computational model that says the confidence is being formed as part and parcel of the performance process so you might have a system. That's both governing performance. I'm not task and producing the confidence estimate. Then that model should say if you knock out of the system you will get both deficits in performance and medical mission. And that's what in our paper from my time. In new york we call the first order model so everything is part of the same system whereas second of the model predicts that there's the possibility of dissociation so you could have one power system is this generating performance on a particular task and another part of the system that is monitoring and the confidence of first order system and say that second order architecture predicts that you could damage the confidence forming part of the system. If you like and yet leave performance in one way we've been studying as as well as looking at patients with brain damage also just looking individual differences and we do see that when we match performance across different individuals we can see fluctuations in confidence that explained by changes in performance for instance across different. Those kind of associations lend support to second order accounts. Another example would be when you use the trans cranial stimulation to knock out the berry. Isolated to do meta cognition and see that it doesn't affect the actual performance. Yeah he's actually so there's been studies. Applying trans cranial magnetic stimulation to temporarily inactivate reaches the prefrontal sex and that can reveal changes in mexico ignition while keeping performance in tax one other aspects of the production of our second model is that you can think of this second order. Computation of confidence as receiving lots of different inputs. Not just from say the perceptual system but also from the marta system and so long says the notion of a higher monitor and one of the use of tear mass. That we've been pursuing is if we put people in a situation where the having to make a perceptual difference. What do they see on a screen and then rate that confidence what we found is that if we subtly inject him as pulses to the motor system. Tim as the most cortex. While making those responses that tim asking affects how confident they feel in the decisions without changing anything about that performance. And so that's consistent with this idea of a kind of higher order or second order monitoring system that is listening to different signals from say the social.
How To Get Your Health Back On Track with Dr. Elizabeth Boham
"Today we're gonna talk about malnutrition which you might think is a problem for the developing world but it turns out that almost every american is malnourished. One way or the other. And we're gonna talk about why we're talking about how to diagnose it and what to do about it. And why is such a big factor in so many underlying health conditions and often missed by traditional medicine. We're gonna take a functional medicine perspective on this today. In our special episode of doctors pharmacy called housecall and again. I welcome back dr liz with boheme my colleague and friend on the medical director kilter wellness center starting physician in ardiden md. I physiology cheese. Incredible a team member in our team and faculty of the institute Medicine and does so much to banfield of nutrition science and functional medicine around the world. So welcome back. Liz thank you mark. It's great to be with you okay. So we think of malnutrition. We went to medical school. We learned all about it right. We learn about kwashiorkor and marasmus and zero valmy and ricketts barre barre pellagra and all these frigging diseases. That we don't really see in the west that are really increasingly rare because of improved access to food nutrition. And so we kinda have pretty much. Got that as our understanding of malnutrition and we were told. Basically food provides all the nutrients you need. You don't need vitamins and supplements makes expensive urine and we should just not follow on that track and study after study comes out showing how this interventional trial with omega three or four later this that doesn't work And and so the consumers wondering what's going on because it's clear that are is depleted and that people are eating a lot of crap and that thought a poor nutrition going on but but is there really a pandemic of malnutrition which can show up in someone who's thin or someone who was extremely overweight so Talk about what the state of our nutrition. Malnutrition is in america today and why we should all be concerned about being malnourished and what that means for our rural health you know so win were malnourished means. Were not getting the proper nutrients that we need for our body to function properly. And there's so many that's like our vitamins minerals fighter nutrients even our protein are healthy fats. And you're absolutely right. We see of under nutrition. Malnutrition in people who are underweight but also in people who are overweight and that's called obesity malnutrition and unfortunately it's more and more prevalent not just in the united states but worldwide
The Mind-Blowing Science of Starving Cancer With Food
"When it comes to nutrition science and trying to figure out what foods are best for you or what foods could potentially harm you one example where there tends to be a lot of confusion as if today you go on web md and you look up cancer and you look up articles that are on there that you know does sugar fuel cancer and there's well meaning articles from very respectable individuals that are out there to say there's no evidence that's out there that sugar encourages cancer. And yes. there may not be these big double blind placebo controlled trials which have their own challenges. They're difficult to fund. who's gonna go and pursue them. How are we going to make sure that we have the resources to explore it. But this highlights so sort of the fact that there still may be a lot of evidence showing that for example in the case of cancer. That sugar could be very problematic. You may not have that full trial. So this is where a little bit of nutrition. Science becomes partly an art of piecing the story together. And saying what's the best evidence that we have so talk about sugar and cancer for a moment if you could yeah great great topic and you know by the way you know. Cancer like sharks. When they're on the cover of a magazine it sells. They fly off the shelves because people are interested in this topic and and just like sharks. There's a lot of fear and and and in reaction to the topic of cancer. And i think this is also true even in a medical community so First of all let me kinda. Give my response to what we do. Now about the evidence of sugar in cancer because I do cancer research. I've been involved with cancer Been involved with helping to develop over a dozen cancer drugs that are. Fda approved in part of my street cred drew. When i speak about food as medicine that i've actually helped to develop medicines. I'm one of the guys who actually. I'm not just sort of like waving leaf. Kale saying never mind all the prescription stuff. Like i'm actually helping to develop those things so for me. It's really food is really an additional tool in the toolbox but we can understand nutrition with the same rigor with the same standards of evidence that we apply for drugs.
The Future of Ecstasy Plus Therapy for PTSD
"We have staff writer and editor kelly cervix. She's here to talk about the future of md m a this is a controlled. Substance sometimes called ecstasy or molly that has had some success in clinical trials for ptsd alongside talk therapy. Okay kelly how you doing. I'm doing okay. How are you sarah. Good i'm good. Let's start with the recent clinical trial results of md m. a. and therapy that was tested on. Ptsd patients. how did that go. How did that work. So there were ninety people in this study who were revised to get kind of a unique course of psychotherapy. They had a series of preparatory sessions with a trained therapist and then they got three eight hour long experimental sessions where they got either. Md ama or a placebo and then they got this series of sort of integration sessions to process that experience and the results were that two months after the last experimental session the difference between the drug and the placebo groups was pretty clear. Sixty seven percent of the participants who got md may no longer met the diagnostic criteria for ptsd at that point compared with thirty two percent of those who got placebo so this is sort of the the biggest and most thorough study of its kind to really find potential benefits of this drug in ptsd. What are the effects of this drug and people. I think maybe from popular culture people might think of it as something you take in a nightclub. Yeah this has definitely a reputation of a club drug that. I think that these investigators are really trying to overcome and may have a lot of complicated mechanisms and we don't understand all of them but it's thought that many of its effects come from its ability to increase certain neuro transmitters in the brain including dopamine and serotonin and so people sometimes described euphoric experience. Sometimes a sense of openness and sort of a heightened ability for empathy and you can imagine that something that in the case of ptsd therapists might aimed to exploit if a trauma survivors facing intrusive flashbacks in israeli avoiding these disturbing memories of something that happened to them. This drug might give them sort of less. Fearful less judgmental state in which to reflect on and process. What happened to them. That's the
Dan Austin, MD Lake District Farmers
"Donald stein managing director of district farmers. Thank you so much for joining me on the podcast day. Hugely appreciate you sparing the time to chat. I just asked dan. Because unfortunately despite the fact that i love the late district not face to face but where in the world are you. This morning i am on the only island this morning by the each on fairly ironic because other agents Rarely get song. We do have some nice job today. So it's beautiful. So why is that is that is that is on the coast. Is it or yes. I live in borrowing furnace case. Shipbuilding town a systems etc. Our animals assaults trout lake district so bart alec cetera. I am but i am a barrel boy on bread and only is alive in just a filing furnace. Mazen are well. I'm by the beach as well as that. I was going to be deeply envious imagined you identify sat on the top of the stonewall fouls or you know smoking a pipe looking out over the lakes but you know we're we're coastal brothers. So that's That's better on monday. So william i wanna be up there right. You represent some incredible foams in an genuinely you know. I think i think the lake district must be one of the most beautiful places on the planet let alone in england. I adore it but for those who have not heard of late district farmers. Can you just explain to people about. Yeah do as a business. I i mean basically. We represented founding cooperative. And i don't say the found his shop window for really found producing a brilliant Just create excellent products.
Using Peptide Therapy to Reverse Autoimmune Disease With Dr. Amber
"If you could just briefly introduce us to who you are really what got you doing the work you're doing in the world absolutely. Yeah so Thank you for inter. thank you for having me. It's fun to be here So essentially my journey started When i was premed to what i thought would be. Md school and really wanted to was really passionate about nutrition and women's towels and struggled with health issues eczema and you know some definite Emmy indus regulation. A kid didn't really know what was going on at that point in time did know what to do about. It grew up on a standard american diet and sada about a lot of information as i got into high school college about nutrition about a Detox and some of the fundamental pillars botanical medicine all of these herbs things that we can use from the earth really can change in support physiology in so as premed Go the md route job. Shattered a couple of practitioners really just kind of witness system. That was set up and You know i hesitated. That planet time is really disorienting for me because you know the doctors that i had worked with during that period of time they were. They had big hearts. They were incredible individuals but they were stuck in this kind of system of medicine. These fifteen minute appointments were. They had to be in out with patients. And we'd have somebody come in on six medications and walk up the room on a seven in. It was just a really brief visit. I felt like i didn't have time to do the work that really wanted to do. With patients and And so i thought my plan and you know switch to my major for a quarter and was just like. I don't know if i wanna do this. And and then found out about naturopathic medicine which re-routed the course of my life really became passionate about it
How Is Celiac Disease Diagnosed?
"Silly disease can't be self diagnosed. And the only way it can be diagnosed with a blood test to see if you have the genetic marker for steel eac along with a blood test for i g antibodies. What's known as a a as an awesome while. You're eating gluten so you need to see if you have those antibodies while you're eating gluten because that tells you whether your body is in fact reacting to gluten and the technical name for this task for anyone who's gonna take this to the doctor and ask about it. Technical name is the serum anti tissue trans glue. Tammy's i g antibodies test or anti t t g. I g a test is quite a mouthful but you can ask your medical doctor about getting it and generally providers with an md or the only ones who can administer this test working with a provider who doesn't have an md. Usually they cannot prescribe tasks like this or right for tests. Like this. And i would really recommend working with an md instead of an alternative medicine practitioner. In your workup for silly disease. Anyway because there's a lot of misinformation and false diagnoses out there about gluten related disorders that are floating around in the integrative and alternative medicine world which is really. Rife with what i call the wellness diet that sneaky modern guise of diet culture that pretends to be all about health and wellness but his actually just another form of deprivation and dietary perfectionism
COVID-19 Vaccine: Questions Answered With Dr. Johnson Fatokun, MD
"In today's episode. What talking to bob hawke topic the nineteen vaccine and addressing some of the concerns and worries a face around getting the vaccine and a lot of be concerned about getting the vaccine. And i just a good idea talk about it with medical practitioner would need to the as a medical doctor. Dr johnson photographer who is experience family. Physician practices here not berta so welcomed up. Johnston gets a happy ear only program. Thank you so. We've reached up the johnson today in his office in actually in limit. So how are you doing for staff about. The johnson are crazy busy. Yeah times and very odd certain tumbles love just so. There's a lot of backup false when it comes to these vaccine when it comes to the arrows reside surrounded. He has to put measures in place to mitchell. Everybody is safe. Count your office yasu safety. Those who can't calm you have to do provide catholic though. Sometimes you see some collision myself book late. Making phone calls to crash lot. Mitchell vision gets cab when you do give the house up gracie chugging discounts. So what do you. So i wanna ask you like the like you said. These are very uncertain times challenging times. What are you doing for self care as doctor like. What are you doing to stay motivated. You know into so many things. Well i'm me. Tried to go for walks. I make sure each row physically. No pounding gavin every day. Well it's good food and then rest will any to work. I take any date. It never ends now. Vision context you because of the accents so detects you to call you so you have to find out so downturns and which works and they'll which entity i don't sit in the quiet through soochow everything away
The COVID Vaccine With Dr. Alex Greninger
"I have the privilege of hosting dr grandeur. He is the assistant director of the uw. Medicine clinical virology lab and the uw assistant professor of laboratory medicine. Doctor grandeur focuses on genomic and proteome characterization of a variety of human viruses and bacteria with a focus on respiratory viruses and human herpes viruses. He has discovered a number of new human animal viruses. His basic science lab at south lake union uses genetically informed approaches to understand human infectious diseases. Dr greenwich you're got his. Md and phd from uc. San francisco is master and scientists immunology from stanford and his masters in philosophy in epidemiology from cambridge in england he has many clinical interests in facilitating clinical trial testing for respiratory viruses and human herpes viruses and because of his expertise. I'm just thrilled and excited to have a conversation about the corona virus. The vaccine and a lot of questions that. Maybe you're thinking about that just going to be very interesting today. So thank you so much for joining me today. Alex thanks for having me. It's good to be here And so before we get started and kind of diving deep into the work that you do in research talk to us a little bit about what inspires your work and yet i got interested in going to medical school early early on Had a pediatrician. That i really liked and sort of do my career day in high school with Not kind of random way but it was a great entry to realize you could be a physician and deal with a lot of science and then from there just not able to make a ton of decisions so doing the mvp hd route and. I think i got really excited about. I think what's really. I was inspired. You know some of the work is initially. It was enviro discovery. This idea that there are lots of viruses out there to be found in people that could be the causes of diseases and then you would be able to cure them right and that sort of as more is that you know hypothesis only almost not turn out not to be true. There are a ton of other viruses that we've known about for quite a long time where the same thing is true. We can cure or we can prevent them with vaccines. And it's just about executing that vision over and over and over
Rideshare: Revolutionizing Health Transportation With Josh Komenda, CEO of Veyo
"Today i have the privilege of hosting the fantastic josh commander. He's a co founder and ceo and president of ao. He's just doing an phenomenal job. At the company it's a full-service non emergency medical transportation brokerage designed specifically for healthcare vail uses technology to better manage and emt which is the the non emergency medical transportation and emt benefits for medicaid and medicare programs state governments and managed care organizations today. We're going to be covering this in doing some good learning with josh so suggests such a pleasure to have you here on the podcast with us today. Thank you so much. Beat your soul. Appreciate it absolutely josh. Before we get into baeau near company. Talk to us a little bit about why you're inspired to work. In healthcare. i started. I can walk with cla. Health really healthcare family. My my dad was a family. Physicians now retired out a registered nurse. And that was older brother going into medicine while but definitely was part of it was kind of part of my family's culture going up and you know really part of our core values in to the people that i respect the most roller my parents. My dad's asser never ending cluster desired. Really improve the human condition and show compassion. I personally was drawn to. The clinical aspects of health care is always been more of attack nerd and i love technology and inventing things. When i was a kid ended up going into computer engineering studying software design but always wanted to figure out how to prevent things to make the world a better place and as it happens by career really took me in this direction to really build a better any md at her a healthcare logistics system to really improve the healthcare system or work to improve a part of the healthcare system. Statically and so. I'm just thrilled that this company point my career in thinking about how we make the healthcare system work smarter proved human condition. improve lives. proud comes on. I think also systemically. I'm just excited Run this collision course of healthcare costs in our country. And i think more. I've learned about it and studied it and i think really the only way out of it has to make our system work more efficiently work smarter and i think this is one area in will be called population health or social determinants. That that really inspires me to make the system work better for
"md" Discussed on The Adoption Connection | a podcast by and for adoptive moms
"You know the older generation. Okay now would the. Md are in general. Like when we're talking that our population which is primarily adoptive families. So we've got children coming with early. Adversity we've got parents parenting under great stress Would this be a stand alone. Therapy or as md are something that is used in conjunction with other therapies believe with always used in conjunction with other therapy because even if a client.
"md" Discussed on The Adoption Connection | a podcast by and for adoptive moms
"You know the older generation. Okay now would the. Md are in general. Like when we're talking that our population which is primarily adoptive families. So we've got children coming with early. Adversity we've got parents parenting under great stress Would this be a standalone therapy. Or as md are something that is used in conjunction with other therapies. I believe it's always used in conjunction with other therapy because even if a client.
DDR5 Finally Arrives
"Standard was settled on years ago and some smaller manufacturers have released early products here and there but everyone was waiting for this to make official. Samsung has announced five hundred and twelve gigabyte. Ddr five memory chips still in the verification stage that deliver over twice the performance of ddr four at up to seven thousand two hundred mbps for advanced workloads. We are now officially in the ddr. Five era quoting hardware as we inch closer to intel's alder lake and md's zen architectures late this year and or early next year. Barring any delays memory makers started announcing advances in ddr five memory which will deliver a big increase in bandwidth. We've even seen some ddr. Five module launches samsung however has managed to separate itself from the pack on announcing. What it says is the industry's first. Five hundred twelve gigabyte memory module based on high k metal gate or hk mg process technology according to samsung. It's five twelve gigabyte. Ddr five memory module delivers more than twice the performance of ddr. Four add up to seven thousand two hundred megabits per second this. The company says will be beneficial for the most extreme compute hungry and high bandwidth workloads the five twelve gb capacity comes by way of stacking eight layers of sixteen gigabit d-ram chips. There's no mention of costs though. Samsung says it is currently sampling. it's five twelve. Gb modules to customers for testing and verification and
The Single Fastest Way to Grow Your Email Marketing List with Adam Robinson
"What is the single fast way to grow your email marketing. Less breaking down force get emails. I can promise you is the single fastest way to grow your email marketing list. And here's what it does. So we've all set up pop up forms on our website. Some of us have gone even more sophisticated than that and done correggio stations with options and stuff like that no matter what. If you have the best pop up in the world you're going to capture three four maybe five percent of your anonymous website visitors in convert them to people who are on your email list and from that point you can indoctrinate them in one them up and you know the success from that point is in your hands. I have a method in. It's through a technology called identity resolution that there's this really elite group of enterprise marketers. That's aware of this. And what i wanted to do was basically give it to the world. what identity re resolution can do is. We can identify up to thirty five percent of your anonymous traffic. That's more than one out of three of the visitors that come to your website and we can pass you their email address their first and last name even their postal record so that you can legally in the united states market to them which is just phenomenally powerful considering that before this you were converting probably ninety percent less of those people and for the kicker it's around ten percent of the cost of actually acquiring an update on facebook so let's talk specifics because fire nation. Okay that's sounds good. How does this sounds like matching. Sounds like black magic but how specifically does actually work like walk us through this process will tell you exactly how it works so. There's no reason that you should know. This didn't find out until i became totally obsessed with the idea that this was possible. Which i learned through i own an email marketing company like convert kidder weber. Whatever and i heard of this. And i was just like this. Can't be real. How does this work. It's probably the same thing. You're thinking right now so turns out that there is something going on in the advertising network called d. de identifying of people right and basically what that does is it. It is a way to with no personally identifiable information. Follow us all around the internet so that we can then be grouped into audiences in sold to advertisers so that advertising can be shown to us by interest so as a sort of did that will make sense first of all like. There's this stuff happening on the background. And one of the ways it's done is it will take an email address on my email addresses. Adam at getty meals dot com. It'll convert it into this language called. Md five right in the thing about md. Five is that when you go from adam at getty meals dot com to the md five encrypted version of it you can never unencrypted as a human being right but what's interesting about md. Five is adam at getty meals dot com encrypts. The same way every single time right. So i'm going back to how this actually works. I just wanted to give a quick lecture on on that. I so there's two parts of this one is the identity part and we're part of a cookie pool. What cookie pool is is a bunch of email marketing companies. Like the one that i own robe league convert kit. Whoever in order to enhance their revenues we sell click in open data to these vendors. And what they'll do with. It is when i get an email newsletter from. Let's say mailchimp. If i open it or click on it. It knows my email address in it puts a cookie in my browser with that email address encrypted in it right without even knowing and this is compliant with all the privacy policies. This is like how the internet works right. So i very innocently. Look at this pair of shoes. In a newsletter i click on it and i now have a cookie in my browser that has this identifier it. Now what we do is we just wait for that cookie to come around to our customers website. In when we see that cookie we see that. Md five email address. Right so it's it's encrypted and we don't know what it is looking at it with the naked eye. The beautiful thing about md five is if on the other side of it. You had a database of every single email in the usa. You can convert all those two md fives and then just do a look up in unscrambling.
"md" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM
"In 2020 So you don't have to take your rmd this year. That's important. So if you don't want your required minimum distribution, you don't have to take it. Don't forget that if you are of the right age, your rmd rate. I'm sorry. Age has been increased. If you have never taken in our MD Then it's now a 72. You can wait till 72. If you've already taken in our MD, then you have to keep taking them. And out to the old 17.5 rule, which is one of the dumbest rules I've ever seen in my life. I was probably a logic behind you somewhere, but I've never found it. All right. So let's see things you could do with your 401 K. Ah, Participants can withdraw up to $100,000 for Corona virus expenses income tax due on the account withdrawal can be paid over three years. That's not bad. Savers have three years to put the funds back into the retirement account. Okay? Not bad, either. I'm just giving you the highlights here. There's a lot more to it. Retirees can delay taking minimum distributions. We talked about that, for a one K loan limits increased to 100% of your vested account balance of $200,000. So If you want to borrow from your 401 k. You can borrow up to 100,000. 2019 R R I R A contribution deadline has been extended to July 15th. So not only do you get until the 15th to file your tax return, but you have until the 15th To make 2019 contributions to your IRA, Not a bad gig, either. So if you and this is actually a good idea if you wanted to open up the personal pension plan to 7.2% You could not only transfer Money from an IRA into the personal pension plan. But if it's within your means you can make that contribution was July 15,000 hit us yet. You can make that contribution for 2019 now. And at that to your personal pension plan, so not a not a bad idea. All right, so anyway, the 7.2%.
"md" Discussed on The Rich Roll Podcast
"Up people? How you guys doing what's happening? My name is ritual. Twenty twenty is definitely happening and I am still your podcast host. Welcome so my good friend. Dr Neil Bernard. MD is on the pod today dropping in for his third appearance check episodes to forty two and two ninety-six six if you miss them. The first time around and today's discussion is focused specifically on the perils of unbalanced hormones hormones on human health but first Australia. This is my first on my appearance since I got back from a month down under her and as you might have heard me mention in my recent podcast with Julie I think it's fair to say I was in desperate need of an an extended break. I hadn't taken any legitimate true time off in honestly seven years so I made a commitment last year around this this time to carve out the entire month of December so I worked my butt off the entire year and basically ended up doubling my workload in October and in November two bank a ton of episodes so I could take the entire month of December off and keep the show rolling in my absence and I- -CCOMPLISH that it was an incredible credible gift. I realize I'm very blessed to be able to have been able to have this opportunity an entire month in Australia. No work no email email. I wouldn't say it was a one hundred percent digital detox. Those who follow me on social media that I did post here and there only one I I felt like it but otherwise and thanks to my amazing team who handled getting the show up on time in my absence without any hiccups whatsoever however I was really able to for the very first time in a very long time as far as I could remember to to let it all go and it was absolutely glorious three weeks and Sydney. I was staying right and Bondi beach which was just perfectly suited to everything that I wanted to do swimming every day at the beach which I also spent a week up in Byron Bay with my family which I gotta say is probably my new favorite place in the world. I never been there before. It was just phenomenal and I returned with a certain clarity. I'm refreshed renewed Energetic and and really enthusiastic nick for the year ahead and I have to say though that I decided last year that I wanted to go to Australia not knowing what would be occurring in this beautiful country and the whole experience was tempered. I should add due to the horrendous fires that are debilitating Australia something. Like two hundred fires fires have been blazing for over four months at this point and area twice. The size of Belgium has been devastated. I think it's the worst brushfires that have ever been recorded. And I think it's fair to say perhaps the most apocalyptic human created climate crisis of our time over five hundred million animals dead some some are citing perhaps a billion they're horrible images of Koalas and Kangaroos. That have been sacrificed. In this. If you're looking at the news or on social media untold thousands of people displaced human lives. Lost countless firefighters and rescue workers lives have been imperilled and there's no end currently incite although oh I do believe there was a bit of rain the other day. So that's great from what I understand. The smoke plume is wider than the size of Europe. I just saw the other day that some of the smoke from the fires has reached Chile. Which is unbelievable? And I didn't actually witness any fires firsthand. Most of my time was spent event in Sydney But I did experience Air Quality in Sydney that that was a times just basically unbelievable. Like you couldn't go outside. I was in the city and you could barely see across the harbour. You could barely see the bridge. It was just unbelievable I mean the devastation is unimaginable. It's horrendous Brandis. My heart breaks for everybody. WHO's been impacted by this assist? It's hard to wrap your head around it and it is not normal. I posted about this on instagram. The other day but just to reiterate. I think that this kind of Dystopia can leave one feeling helpless Because I think governments and policy have failed us. We're seeing this firsthand and it is indeed time to demand change and my hope is that this event will finally galvanize the social and political will that's required required to snap collective denial and face the uncomfortable truth of our ways and hopefully set emotion the global policy changes and seismic innovation from the private. It's sector that. I think we required for a sustainable world for ourselves and future generations. But here's the thing. All of that said Ed change still starts at home and we can't just resort.
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Patient H M can teach us about memory and how it works works. This was a fascinating book and a fascinating interview. Donald MCI did his first experiments with the famous patient. agem back in nineteen sixty seven when he was a Grad student and he made a startling discovery he discovered that h him had some remarkable language anguish deficits my first reaction to reading. This was that it implies. That hippocampus is more important language than is commonly assumed. But if you've never heard about these results you are not alone. I you have to put these early experiments into the context of their time a time when the brain was seen as extremely extremely modular and the assumption was made that the hippocampus was solely involved in memory. The possibility that it did other things was not even considered considered secondly there was already a widespread assumption that ATM was a pure Amnesiac with totally normal language. which skills so? When MCI made his unexpected discovery he was essentially told to ignore the evidence and move on? This sort of story appears over over and over in the history of science and it is a reminder that the real practice of science is a very human endeavor during the interview MCI share a few highlights of how he finally uncovered the apparent role the hippocampus with regards to language as well as why people thought. ATM's language skills were normal most of his deficits involved novel situations and seldom used words so it was not a parent Keren in day to day conversation where he could get by with cliches. We actually see the same thing with dementia patients who can mask their hurt deficits in a similar way McCoy spent most of his career studying. How language skills change in people as they age he found that people will actually tend to forget words that they don't use frequently but that the hippocampus seems to allow them to repair their memories? This conclusion is supported by the fact that HMO demonstrated the same source of changes at a much earlier age MCI has also developed an alternative theory of learning learning that he calls the integrated learning theory. The basic idea is that all memories are formed by repetition but the hippocampus speeds up the process. An interesting piece of evidence comes from a variation of the famous mirror. Drawing experiment this experiment was generally generally assumed to prove that procedural memory does not involve the hippocampus in the famous version H. M. was able to learn to trace a star are in a mirror. He had no memory of learning to do so one element that is typically ignored is that it took him three days to learn what a normal person can master in about an hour. This inspired MCI to modify the experiment. He had normal people. Learn to draw mirror drawings lanes of squares. The advantage of this simpler shape was that they were able to explicitly describe the rules involved. What he found was that people who did figure out the rules were able to master the task more rapidly but interestingly their awareness of the rules faded as the task was mastered? Unfortunately Mikhail was never allowed to try this modified version with a gem. Another aspect of experiment. Was that when people started out using their dominant imminent hand and then they change over to their non dominant hand there was a residual training effect. This goes against the idea of so called muscle. o'memory Sakai's theory. Is that early. On higher order thinking is involved in forming a procedural memory but that wants a skill is learned. It becomes unconscious in the sense that we don't remember the rules. We fall while we were mastering the task to me. This makes sense intuitively. I just think about learning how to ride a bike or play a sport studying language in people as they aid is a great way to study. Memory because word use is more similar between people compared to say their episodic memory or memory for facts. There's also lots of data about how frequently various yes. Words are used thus MCI was able to observe that it is the rarely used words that are forgotten however if one has a unhealthy hippocampus. The memory of a rarely used word can be repaired or rebuilt. He emphasized that this is a valuable asset that we should should cherish of course review the evidence that exercise is also essential to a healthy hippocampus. MCI called exercise a sort of miracle remembering was written in a very personal unacademic style. MCI approached the mystery of ATM's language anguish deficits like a detective and explains how he unravelled the evidence over a period of about twenty five years but his book also is jargon free with frequent interludes intended to encourage the reader to apply what is learned to maintaining their own brain hills. I guarantee that no matter how mini books you might have read about. HMO's this one will surprise you in episode one fifty eight talk with philosopher Patricia Churchill about her latest book conscience the origins of moral intuition. This was Dr Church. Lynn's third appearance on brain science so for the sake of new listeners. We started out by talking a little bit about her classic book. Neuro philosophy when it was published in nineteen eighty eighty six Churchillian propose something that was considered quite radical at the time the idea that neuroscience should inform the study of the mind. There's there's an entire sub discipline of philosophy called philosophy of mind. Most of its practitioners continued to believe that the best way to understand and the mind is via reason introspection. I was actually surprised when Dr Churchill told me that this is still the dominant viewpoint especially among English speaking philosophers. She mentioned Daniel Dan it as typical view that the mind is the software and the brain is the hardware hardware as I was preparing for this episode. I realized that that actually might be an important clue because when we use a piece of software on our computer hardware doesn't concern us but is this really a sensible way to think about the mind. Proponents of embodied audio cognition argue that the mind is deeply embedded both in the body and in the world we've talked about the embodied cognition approach for several years ears. But I'm planning to return to embodied cognition in twenty twenty however I have to say that I agree with Dr Church when she said quote whatever the self is is something that is a construct of the brain and quote before now. Let's return to our review of Dr Jefferson's interview. She shared that her. Passion is discovering discovering how discoveries in assigns impact the big philosophical questions over the last decade. or so she's been particularly fascinated by the nature of morality. She reflected that the two traditional sources of morality have been seemed to be either religion and or human human reason but she finds both of these to be inadequate as far back as aristotle. There have been people who searched for what we would now call an Evelyn explanation when we talk back in two thousand twelve got to Churchill and introduced us to the idea that moralities origins may lie in our social nature. Her interest in this approach was sparked by the famous experiment comparing the prairie and Montaigne voles. I still remember her talk about this. In her plenary session at the annual meeting of the Society for neuroscience back in two thousand eight Andrew chronologies named Larry Yung discovered that the difference between the monogamous approvals and the promiscuous Montaigne bowls came down to the receptor Gordon City of a particular neurotransmitter that is similar to oxytocin in her new book. Church learn explores the question. Why are most mantles social to things that mammals apart? They are warm blooded and their brain has a CORTEX. The layer structure of the CORTEX is considered an important advance. Even though it appears that birds can be very intelligent out. cortex being warm-blooded allowed early mammals to ford tonight. This was critical in the early days when they were very small and the dinosaurs ruled the earth but warm blooded. Animals need consume ten in times as many calories which means that they can't go days and days without eating like reptiles can one way to get more. Calories is to be smarter harder but this led to be more immature churchmen argues that taking here of the young. Is the origin social behavior. One final thought. What is that while science can answer questions such as how our brain works or maybe even how we became moral creatures it cannot tell tell us what is right or what is wrong? However as Dr Tursun pointed out science can help us to determine the potential consequences of our choices voices in episode one fifty nine? I talked with Kevin Mitchell about his book in nate. How the wiring of our our brains shapes who are the key idea here is that much of our behaviour is innate but this is only partially due you too genetics? There's a golf between discoveries in developmental neurobiology that focuses on exploring the development of nervous systems. An animals like flies and mice and the discoveries of those working in psychiatric genetics. oftentimes the two feels Dell's do not talk to each other but one important discovery is that many of the genes that appear to be important in psychiatric illness are actually important. For Development Development the genome contains instructions about how to build a brain. But it's more like a recipe than a blueprint because not brains are identical in a coal. Not even those of modern Lazaga twins or identical twins even though they have virtually identical genomes. So why is this. True due to reasons are random events during development and spontaneous mutations so it was previously assumed that anything anything that was not genetic was environmental but the evidence does not support this assumption in fact when it comes to behavioral traits the impact impact of environment is surprisingly weak. Even more strange is that it seems to diminish with age. For example I q seems to be somewhat affected by environment and children but the effect disappears in adulthood. Another potential confounder is the fact that personality traits traits interact with an environment parents. React differently to children with different personalities and people make choices based on their personality. We talked about the role of plasticity. plasticity is something of a two edged sword. One Point Mitchell emphasized was that despite being largely innate. Eight intelligence is increased by education. We can all learn new things and expand our behavioral horizons but the darker. The reality is that the more we choose environments that fit our particular temperaments the more ingrained. Our behavior tends to become the idea that in maintenace goes beyond. Genetics is simple but subtle. I certainly can't do justice to it in this very brief review so I want to mention that innate how the warring of our brains shapes who we are by Kevin Mitchell is a highly readable book appropriate Britt for readers of all backgrounds. It's also available on audible for those of you. Who prefer that Ormat so before we move onto the last four episodes of two thousand nineteen? I WANNA share a few file reflections. On the first seven months of the year we started the year with John Dowling and something think of a general overview since his book understanding the brain is designed for is intended for general audience. Dr Dallying and I both agree that having a basic understanding of neuroscience is becom- becoming increasingly essential whatever field old one enters next. We talked about the psychology of successful aging with Alan Castell. No matter what your age you can benefit from former membrane these two keys to success positive attitude and moderate exercise like walking then..
"md" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"MD here you're always Kimberly Bermel but not eat and co host eating euchre and Jeff flagstaff thank you so much for tuning in American medicine today I am Kimberly banality alongside the thing you happy to be here Jeffrey is playing hooky this week and along side this is world renowned orthopedic surgeon Dr Alfred but nothing. we have an exciting show lined up you'll hear a story of recovery that we're going to discuss illegal alien violence and then now social assess pool but first for decades experts believe that we're at the mercy of her jeans and that natural damage to our genes makes us becomes sick can grow old but what is aging is really just a treatable disease joining us right now is Dr David Sinclair professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School one of times most influential people and all three of the new book lifespan the revolutionary science of why we age and why we don't have to I am intrigued thank you for joining us doctor Sinclair I can we can have me out yes yeah we actually had you on lie wanna say late last year almost a year ago now and your I believe your book can come out yeah and it was fascinating and you sort of give us a tease of of what you have coming up and I know that many of the recent breakthroughs in aging research of actually come from your lab so tell us what you've discovered and what these vitality genes are all about. right well we've somehow medical school we have about forty people working hard to figure out the first step why we age on the second step which is why we don't have to age the way we do now so let me tell you about what people will find it in the book we're looking for for so why we age and in the book I talk about a theory that can explain many if not all of the last hundred years of observations about aging we know that if we we don't exercise we know that if we eat a bad diet we are always full we don't which contain hunger we know that those things don we too a long healthy life now what we discovered is that there are genetic pathways that are underneath all of this you know cells everyone of souls has these longevity came in by living a lifestyle and in some cases supplements and and in two cases trucks that are already on the market we can activate those pathways and give us a much healthier life for a bigger slice into our eighties and beyond leasing so are you referring to what's known as telomeres are telling Marie this when you're talking about horrible stories okay getting field on the doorway from anti oxidants in the nineteen nineties and discovered that there are genes that protect the body and then in terms of why we age we declared in maybe ten years ago that there are about nine hallmarks of eighty nine main course aging one of which is killing me shortening which got a lot of attention about twenty years ago and we go with a clear victory which found all nine because of aging but actually what I'm saying in my book and in papers that we're about to publish scientifically is that those hallmarks including chill initialing they don't explain why they occur in the first place we don't yet have a theory although I'm just about to put one out in the book that what's happening to the body to make all this happen are actually what are called epigenetic changes and epigenetic changes to the complex word. for the systems in the body that we need to change in the right way and so I what I'm saying is that always bad stuff including children shortening is at its core a loss of cells ability to reaching at the right time and that leads to all the diseases that we can call in old age so how can we treat the disease of aging so that we can stay young in useful and vigorous vibrant live a long time yes right there are a few ways and and actually I wrote a book because I have a lot of things to tell people about what can be done in their daily lives and what I do as well so folks get to part three of my book you'll see that there's a lot more than I can talk about here but essentially what I'm saying that if the doctor certainly to keep the body in a slightly stressed state now I'm not talking about emotional stress I'm talking about making the body feel like there's some adversity so that's why high intensity training so be out of breasts while running or walking fast for ten minutes is good the party gets nervous that there's adversity being hungry skipping a male sometimes two a day is what I do that hunger put the body in a state of the state address city and other things I talk about which is hot and cold temperatures you can close off too and other things as well what you should eight and when you shave those all activate what I call the survival circuit that keeps the body reading the gene the right way the way that also did when we were young that's one way what I talk about though is a breakthrough in my life that with just reporting to the scientific world that we figured out that the clock in the body that takes away and we can actually now reach in and we program the body said not just feel younger that literally be younger and we don't work of course in my snoring humans yet because it's very early so what we discovered is that aging is not a one way street it's actually reversible and that opens up all sorts of possible. it is for the near future so why don't you give us an exclusive here I get the you you keep touching on the fact that you have something to announce one once you do that for us I know I know you're not going to. well I could talk to put it because it's actually available online if you were to do a search for my name Sinclair and we programming and aging you would find out work already is available and so what's what the paper shows is that using currently a method called gene with programming the gene therapy currently we can we program possible now sizzle body or damaged part of the mouse's body to repair itself as though it was very young. for example if in my leg if we take an old mouse that's over a year of age and accounts see very well we all experienced this over the age of fifty we can provide a set of genes to themselves that we program the retina of the eye so that the eyes not just feeling better it's literally gone back about eight months in time and so that the mouse can now see like it was young again and that we think just the beginning of the going to bring the car around various parts of the body so that the heel and function like they get when we were young and that's long lasting that's not short term good question we don't know it's really early days we we think it'll be long lasting because it reaching very deep into this at the genome and altering it what's called DNA methylation which is essentially the real inner workings of the H. clock. we think that these should actually be a permanent H. reset and we don't know either how many times you can reset the right now or other parts of the body we don't know if it's a one time shot or you could reset a hundred times that's what's so exciting about this break how do you see this part is fascinating. so how far do you think you are from human trials for for for the molecule that mimics exercise and and fasting we have clinical trials on going across the road here however and those are those are going very well these are called in eighty degrees to which I talk a lot about in the book. but the future is that we're we're going to be trying gene therapy for patients with glaucoma and if that works in about two and a half three years from now then now we hope it'll be used more widely I remember reading that it was announced by the scientific community they were saying that the first person that's going to live to a hundred and fifty years of age is already alive there could be a baby out there right now do you do you agree with that sentiment well the point I make in my book is nothing is inevitable and everything is possible I think it's feasible that we could bring the average age of death up to eighty five ninety maybe even a hundred with the technologies that we have but it's very hard to know in a hundred years from now when when kids were born today will possibly still be alive what will they have maybe they could pop a pill and reprogram their entire body to go back twenty years or more so I think it's possible we could live far beyond what we can imagine today I don't think I need to put a number on it I think it's already exciting enough hi fi meat science Dr David Sinclair professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School one of times most influential people and author of the new book lifespan the revolutionary signs of why we age and why we don't thank you so much for being on the program thanks for having me. see when we got to that part I captivated and in our times. he just got in the mail make sure you stay tuned coming up after the break a story of.
"md" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"Our M D R MD, according to the IRS stands for required minimum distribution. Now. According to me, it stands for reckless miserable and devastating. And why is that? Well, I'll tell you. I've been at this now for a little bit more than thirty years. I have many many clients that are in their mid seventies early eighties mid eighties. And every every year, they say the same thing, they say, oh for crying out loud. My taxes went up again because I have to take out my. Required. Distributions you know, for many of my clients that are in their late seventies or eighties. A Roth was never an option for them. Now, a Roth you don't have required distributions because the money comes out tax free. So really what I'm saying? Here is you need to develop a tax reduction strategy prior to getting into retirement now on the show today. We're talking about financial moves for every decade. We talked about the fifties. What you should do when you're in your fifties or sixties now we're talking about your seventies. And by chance if you just joined us, we're talking about required minimum distribution, and I refer to it as reckless miserable and devastating because systematically, your taxes will go up year after year after year after year, and unless you do something about it now unless you put together a tax reduction strategy, if you're the type of investor who never really understood the difference. Between a stock or a bond, or if you're the type of investor who just checks their investment statement. So maybe once or twice a month. Or maybe you're the exact other type, you know, you're hardcore you're a true investor. You check your investment portfolio every single morning with that first Cup of coffee. I'll tell you it to us. It doesn't matter. What type you are? I truly believe.
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Of their review. We'll have a choice of this month's book or an Amazon gift card. Everyone else who sends me a screen shot will go into a drawing that will be held at the end of each month. Right before new episode is released if your name isn't drawn you'll remain eligible for future joins with your help. I hope we can double the audience by the end of the year of. Course as we move forward into two thousand nineteen your financial support of brain size remains critical. You can learn how to support my work by going to brain science podcasts dot com for slash donations. Finally, I wanna remind you that brain science is now available in Pandora. You can subscribe they are just like you do in apple podcast, Google podcasts Spotify, or whatever your favorite podcasting app is if you use an app where you can't find brain science, please let me know. So I can fix that. Thanks again for listening, please visit brain science podcasts. Tom, and I look forward to talking with you again next month. Brain science is copyright two thousand nineteen to Virginia Campbell MD, you can copy this episode to share it with others, but for any other uses or derivatives, please contact me at brain science podcasts at g mail dot com. The new theme music for the brain sons podcast is mine. Fire by Tony could trot. You you can find his work at syncopation now dot com.
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"And she then said she had a puzzle for all students who were in the room, and she gave them each twelve stores in the baseball and the build a structure that would support the baseball. Well, you know, not one kid could do it. And I thought, wow, that's the kind of thing we were doing all the time when we were growing up, and I guess I'm just showing my age building things taking things apart putting them back together. Again, seeing what worked and what didn't work in other words using hand. So where I I've seen it with my with our students is I find so many of them can't grow anything, especially in the freshman seminar that we've read about what neurons looks like an essay. To one of the students Karami new rod, and they immediately say I can't draw I'm sort of taken aback, and I come to realize that they don't spend time doing that kind of activity, and I think that is a bit of a problem I used to love to draw. And of course, reading is another issue. Yeah. I had some wonderful guests on about reading. So we can leave that for another day. I really appreciate you talking with me. I hope it it useful. I had fun doing it. Thank you very much protecting me. And I hope you liked it. I appreciated having Dr John Dow on to talk about his new book understanding, the brain. I wanted to focus on vision because it gives us an opportunity to sort of look at all the levels that he talked about neurobiology systems biology, and even cognitive neuroscience understanding, the brain is really aimed at a non specialist audience. It's intended to update his book from the nineties called creating mind as Dr daily noted how the brain works is of interest to people working in a wide range of fields including philosophy linguistics and computer science, it's really difficult to do Justice to this kind of book in a podcast interview. Which is why wanted to focus a bit on vision. But we did hit a few other highlights when I asked her to Dowling how neurons differ from. Some other cells in the body. He pointed out two things the fact that neurons can't reproduce. And the fact that they rely on oxygen because unlike many other cells in the body, they are not capable of anaerobic metabolism. These two facts have many implications, especially in clinical settings. But I was surprised that he didn't mention their ability to communicate via action potentials when a brought this up he emphasized, the chemical processes that are involved, and that it is important to remember that the brain is something of a hybrid using both electrical and chemical signaling. That's one way that it differs from a manmade digital, computer. Some of you may remember that our computers were once popular for doing things like simulating rocket launches. That's why I made the comment that it's almost like the brain is a hybrid, computer. I appreciated that. Dr Dali also helped clarify some terminology. He pointed out that neurotransmitters act directly on the channels that are in the cell wall of the post NAFTA neuron while neuro modulators interact with enzymes inside the cell to do a wide variety of things, including changing genetic expression as Dowling pointed out neuro modulators changed the biochemistry of the cell. We spent the last half of the interview talking a little bit more about vision starting with the fact that the retina in the back of the is actually part of the brain..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"That is an example of plasticity example of neuro modulation if you will still operating in the brain the question was what about improvement of cross dies and visual deprivation, and what have you? Well, it's beginning to appear that with certain. Tipu Latian what you can do is yet the brain to respond by going new processes forming new synapses and so on and so forth. Even in the adult in some of the best experiment done on this. We're done on the somatic sensory cortex. That's in the parietal lobe where they're separate regions devoted to intervention from the five digits, we have in our hands. So for example, this was done by fellow by name of Missouri. Nick, Mike is their neck at UCSF where if he cut the nerve from one digit of a monkey and then recorded from the areas that cars sponsored to each of the five digits of the monkey what initially when you try to record from the cells in which the input the sensory input has been deprived. You get no responses. But then if you wait for a Cup. Of weeks or longer than what you find is that the sales in this area begin to respond, and they're responding to the Jason fingers, which again indicate in the adult brain that you can get processed growth new synapse growth, and so on and so forth, and one of the most interesting recent observations in support of this is come from brain imaging. Studies of violin players as you. Well know, you hold the violin and your left hand, and you have forefingers that are used the finger violin the right hand is used the whole of bow. And no motor specialty is required except for the index finger and the thumb to hold the bow. If you now look at the amount of cortex devoted to the fingers from the nut fingering hand, the amount of cortex that you see devoted to those fingers greater than on the other side. Where you have the fingers involved. Just in holding the bow very dramatic. You see the changes best than younger people, but even in adolescents and young adults you see different. So there again, you're seeing that there's plasticity well beyond the very early ages of an animal or human life. We used to call that we call it the critical period. Now, we call it the most sensitive period. So I always like to close by asking my guests for advice for students advice for students. Well, you know. I could give so much. It would last for the next hour and perhaps. And of course, my day was a little different from today. I think I mentioned very early on as I always enjoyed building things working with my hand taking things apart team if I could put it back together again, and I think that led me into science. That's why so much enjoy being in the laboratory when you do an experiment you designed an experiment, and you get it to work, and then even more. So when you can confirm that experiment, you now know something no one else in the world probably knows nothing. That's more satisfying than that in my view too. Many of our youngsters my children and grandchildren included spending too much time looking at cell phones and computers these days and are missing out and the joy of building things and make things on their own. And so, but that includes. Not only building things and making things and so on taking things apart, but activities in general, I think sports are so important. So that you're doing things and and coordination and all that I think that that's really important is it harder to teach students to be competent in the lab than it used to be or is the changing skills sort of make it hard to tell. I'm not so sure about that. But I can tell you about something else that relates to this. And that is that one of my grandchildren was applying to go to the school, and my wife, and I went with her and her parents to the school, which is having an open house, and when they enter we started the introductions, they talked about this new program stem programs science technology, engineering mathematics that was something brand new, and they were all. All excited about it. Whereas the granddaughter and my wife went off to another class and humanities I decided to go to the stem class. Well, I we walked in. And the teacher was terrific..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Then fact, it was thought for a long time that wants the brain was completely formed by age twenty. It was hard wired. You couldn't really modify it. Well, that's changing let me give you a couple of samples where that is changing. But let's go back to the visual system. This is too. And we working again what they asked was the following question. It's a nature nurture question suppose, supposedly take a newborn cat or monkey visually. Inexperienced. What did the cells? Look like are they fairly adult like or they totally dependent just on the environment that they're now win the answer. Is that they're remarkably adult like in the newborn visually? Inexperienced cat monkey. So for example, if you record from area, the one you find simple so complex so specialized complex so that cetera et cetera. And here's the big. But if now in that young animal, you alter the visual environment, you can substantially alter the properties of the neurons, and that we shown best by studying ocular dominance where in the visually. Experienced animal you found the ball, you know, most of the cells in the cortex were getting input from both eyes. Although some on either end we're getting it from one I but the great bulk of cells got input from both is not supposed to what you do. Is. You prevent sharp images from falling on one. I one I only you come back to two three months later you record from the cortex. And what you find it there, virtually no binocular, so almost all the cells getting their input from the open. I that we've getting normal visual stimulation. If you look at the anatomy, what you find is that the open I has taken over much of the close by area in the cortex showing that there's a norm as plasticity, you see the all also the same thing, and humans if for example, you have crossed is. What the brain does is it nor the information from the is it's crossed. So that the individual the child ignored the information coming from the cross die. And so it only uses the good I and again from animal experiments is evident that the good is taking over quarter territory from the cross. How do you treat it? Well, a trick the ophthalmologist long used with to straighten the is. But then to patch the good I forcing the child to use the deprived. I and that works surprisingly. Well, but that was thought all to stop at about age eight ten something like that. But now we've come to realize that indeed. There still remain someplace ity, even in the adult, right? We've known of course, I like to say at my age that of course, we can all remember things even when we're in our seventies and eighties..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Five for an eight two major pathways of information flow one which goes Doris Lii in the cortex cords into the parietal lobe which tells people about where things are in space. So it tells you where things are in space so that you can grab it appropriately. Or what have you that's called the wear pathway where things then another pathway of information flow, primarily for in the heads eventually in the brain into various nuclei, which seemed to be involved in providing information about color and form and one of the more interesting areas is well down the so called what pathway and what are the call the inferior temporal cortex? Which seems to be specialized for recognizing faces. It's been known in the clinic that people have have lesions in those areas cannot recognize people they know very well, even their spouses they'll into the room they'll see that. It's a person they don't know who it is. But it's the person begins to talk. They recognize the voice, so it's clearly a visual effect. And there's been a lot of excitement recently about face recognition and face sell because it's turning out that there may be as many as six different groups or they're called patches of face cells and the various patches are interested in some aspect of face. How far the either apart how high the fall had is and so on and so forth until the guesses that those patches than feed into sell that allow you to recognize specific people. So what do you think the most important lesson? In that vision tells us about how the brain works. I think I've described that. And that is indeed what seems to happen in the visual system. And I think it holds also for other systems as well, though, we know more about the visual system than any other century system. But, but you take an image that falls on the retina, and then you begin to analyze it right there on the outer retina that image that you see depends on the surrounding image in a way color anyway. Right. That's holds for as even hold for context in the sense that if you have to pictures, and you put somebody in an inappropriate place, they look very different than they do when they're an appropriate place. The visual system seems to take pieces of the visual image and break down into component parts, again, whether it's light or dark and whether. Around telling you, then lines movement color so on and so forth. We're beginning. It separates that. I in two different aspects of the south is the allergy then into separate cells and so on and so forth. And that leads us to one of the biggest questions the binding problem. The binding problem you've got it right there. How does it all come back together? Again, we really don't have a clue. Though it does. But how that happens? We do not know. Yeah. The binding problem remains one of the major problems that are facing us. How does it all come together? Now when I say other systems seem to have similar aspects to the visuals system. So for example, of course, we have censoring so all over our body that respond to touch or pressure or what have you? And when they've looked for example, in the visual cortex at what we call these so Mattis sensory so that respond to touch what you find is that does this mall area on the digit or on the arm or wherever that respond to the touch of that area very much like the bipolar cells in the retina, but and this is what similarity is striking is what you do find is that very often these touch. So they have small receptive field on say a digit in which if you stimulate by touching the center of the receptive field, you get exhibition. If what you do is now touch at the same time the surrounding region, you wouldn't hit the central region. So you have a center surround organization of the receptive field very much like what we find in the visual system. And then there are other cells that respond better to movement along the skin and some cells that respond even better when the movement is in one direction so again moving sensitivity, which we see the internet movement sensitivities Pacific direction, which we see in the cortex at least in in the.
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"But the complex require the bar to be moving and moving at right angles to the RN tation of the bar, then we get the more calm. Inflec- cells, we call him specialize complex, so and I'm blessing over lots and lots of detail, but we get the specialized complex, which then have requirement for movement only in it's the civic direction. What we call directionally selective? So so that we see a hierarchy of so when we get to the one spreading out from the input layers from lateral genetic Hewlett nucleus in both upward and downward direction. So we go from centers around so that come in. So that have receptive field or accent than have receptive feel centers, surround them to neurons which have the orientations, but. Requirement the simple cells, and then we go from there to the complex so that have requirement or anticipation of bar or edge has to be moving to even more complex. So where the bar has to be moving. But only in a specific direction are all those still in the one. Or are you talking about other areas? I'm talking only about the one right now only about the one. And it's in the one that we also see for the first time information from the two is coming together. Both and I obviously the information between the do I get separate, but it's also kept separate in the lateral genetic Hewlett nucleus. And then the information from the two is is combined an area the one, but we find an area of anyone. So that respond primarily just one I or the other other cells that respond. Equally to both is the bulk of the cells will respond better to one item in the other. We call that ocular dominance. Now, what is important about information coming from both is well, this is the basis for seeing things in depth, and you choir both is to do that. So for example, if you simply oppose your two index fingers close one eye separate the fingers, keep your head steady. Now, try to oppose the two fingers more often than not you'll miss very significantly doing that. Whereas you have both eyes open. You can do it easily. That's depth perception all of that going on right in area v one. So we have a hierarchy of cells. What we do. Also is we have hierarchy in terms of ocular dominance how equally. Cell is driven by both is and so on and so forth. And so what we have in the courts exit been modules. They're called, hyper Collins in which we have all the machinery necessary to analyze a bit of visual space. So we find that needs module all across the visual cortex telling us, then about what is going on in particular part of visual space, you with me still, okay because it's getting complicated. But it's all there in area the one so one of the great features of and this was a wonderful work carried out by two physicians initially at Johns Hopkins University and then at Harvard Medical School, Torsten weasel and David Hubel. And for this word big won the Nobel prize in the early eighties. It was spectacular work. And it really showed for the first time. How we begin to Anna? Allies sensory information coming in and the general principle is that you begin to take pieces if you will of the visual image and co those pieces in various neurons sort of an distraction process, if you will at least, that's the way I think of it in the further along the visual system, you go..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Well, what we know for example, his of life that you perceive doesn't depend necessarily exactly on how many photons how bright a light falling on the photoreceptors. But what the intensity of light is relative to the surround. We've all seen the classic pictures of circle. Of a certain intensity surrounded by white light. The same circle surrounded by black light. They look quite different the ones rounded by dark looks much lighter than the same circle same intensity circles rounded by like. So we see that already in the outer retina, that's the kind of processing that's going on we took over the spatial process. But we also see the beginning of color processing in the outer retina where the central region of the receptive field response to light of one color, surround light of another color. What does that mean? Well, what it means again, something that we've all experienced, and that is the colors look, very different depending on the surrounding color. No one picks out so material for draperies or for material to cover a couch with that bringing swatch of that material home to see what it looks like the environment because you know, many different colors. And it's the prising how different color can look depending on the surrounding color. Yeah. I got my house painted a few months ago. And it's amazing. How it looks like the rooms are different colors, even though it's all the same color just because of the light right exactly that because of the surrounding area. So we have that in the outer retina what's going on is spatial analysis and the beginnings of color analysis in the inner retina what we find is many of this are movement sensitive. So that the information coming into the inner retina is then analyzed in terms of its dynamics, it's temporal properties. If you will. So basically, then we have the outer retina interested in spatial and color properties of an image. The inner retina involved much more in the temporal properties of of the image. And then we have an. Number of different types of third order ganglion. So which transmit these initial analyses to the rest of the brain. So the retina is indeed a true peace of the brain again, as I mentioned earlier pushed out into the I during development, so then after the ganglion cells talk to bagel onto the rest of the brain now for conscious vision what we're aware of the most part, the ganglion cells go onto the lateral genetic Hewlett nucleus in the mid brain that structure called phthalates. What happens there that all sensory information except for smell before it's transmitted to the cortex? What's critical about the cortex is information getting the cortex for the most part? We're very much aware of where conscious of again the thousand serves as a gating mechanism. It can increase the amount of sensory information gone. To take your part of the brain or decrease it. So it plays sort of gating from Sion. That's not all that. Well, understood even at this point in time. So where the information goes, then is to the cortex visual information goes to the back of the brain acceptable cortex, the very back of the brain to an area of call area of the one where we find and the image is analyzed in different ways. So for example, whereas in the retina, you can get a ganglion cell to be the vigorously activated by a spot of light. Especially at the spot of light is in the center of the receptive. Feel when you get to area the one what you find is that beyond the few cells right around where the input is to the visual cortex in the lateral. Your naked nucleus, the cells respond much better to a bar. Of light rather than a spot of light. And so we find so that have a requirement orientation area, the one we talk about those simple sell. Those are the first cells we see in the visual cortex. And since it's the cell has to have a specific orientation. It means that for any region than in the court picks will find something like eighteen to twenty cells that have different orientation specificities now from the simple cells, which we find clustered mainly around the input layer of the cortex. We find more complex though, which are called complex, so and these are cells that again have requirement for orientational usually of a bar or it can be an edge of light..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"Generate your neurons from pre existing neurons of differentiated. It means that there are few if any stem cells in the brain stem cell, of course, ourselves that can differentiate into any kind of cell and if president the brain presumably could provide new neurons or other types of cells essential in the brain. But that doesn't seem to happen. There are two places in the brain at least most animals where there are a few stem cells. One is in the factory part of the brain that doesn't seem to exist in human and the other is in hippocampus of the brain which is involved in the storage of long term memories that consolidation of memories if you will. But they're even some question as to whether and older human beings, though stems though, still are there. So it very much up in the air. But the bottom line is for. The most part once we have all of our neurons than again that had been pretty much completed by the time, you're born. Although there the development of individual cells there after you're stuck with that number of cells. So what about the electrical activity of neurons, if someone asked me that question that would have probably been the first thing, I would have said was different compared to other types of cells. Certainly, you know, neurons hairy information electrically they make connections with one another mainly chemically. Of course that communication first of all being able to generate electrical potentials to excite neurons and then for those excited neurons to carry electrical signals long distances. So for example, neurons in your spinal cord that interview the toes of your. Your feet could be as long as a meter. That's an enormous distance to go relative to the size, for example of a motor neuron, which is only about a hundred micrometres in diameter. So if you took a neuron, and you made it say six inches across and then you drew its acts on of a motor on enervating the toes of your feet, you'd have to draw an axe on which is the process along which the electrical activity propagates have to make it a mile long. That's pretty amazing. It is. It's really amazing. So that's the way you excite nor on electrically you do it. And then you propagate information along the acts on and that's very efficient. I haven't talked much about neuronal structure. But of course. When you see Iran. It looks like a star with many processes coming off. And those are the drive on which the input to the cell is made the so called inputs in absence come in mainly on the then, right? Most vertebrate neuron then have one accent. And it's act where the acts on comes off the cell body that the electrical signals that are propagated down the acts on are generated. And then when they get to the end of the acts on to what we call the axe on terminals where information is passed on to other cells or to affect your organs. I e a muscle fiber, the electrical potential, then causes the synapse to release a chemical that then diffuses across a very small gap to interact with pro teams the adjacent cell. Or muscle fiber. Or what have you? So the brain is really a hybrid of chemical and electrical processes that dry. We go from input onto a neuron is chemical that excites. The cell where synapses made onto the dendritic tree. It causes a small change in the membrane voltage because the membrane potential and nuts in apps is are activated that change in membrane voltage will cause than that neuron to fire action potentials, those of the electrical activity that is propagated along the acts on that goes to the end of the acts on activating the synapse to release a chemical to go across. But we call fanatics left or gap to activate the next. So but not only activation. This. Also innovation so to activate itsel what you need to do is change the membrane potential which normally negative make it a little more positive. So that what happens then at what we call an excited. Tori, synapse is that we let I end that are positively charged into the cell as the membrane voltage. Then goes from say, minus seventy the normal resting potential up to minus fifty five then you fire one of these or you generate one of these action potential propagates without detriment all the way down the accident..
"md" Discussed on Brain Science with Ginger Campbell, MD: Neuroscience for Everyone
"I have used the book and one other faculty member has already who. Early copies in freshman seminars. Here at Harvard and be seminars are designed not for students going on in science. But for students who as high school students enjoyed sighing are interested in the brain and have that level of science expertise. And so that was the intended audience for the book because I've been doing this show for twelve years now, I don't do general neuro science books very much anymore. But it's good to have one every now, and then especially for the sake of new listeners who are just getting started and want a book that can give them a great overview of the field, which I think your book does one of the questions that you brought out or ideas that you brought out Esa. Do what the difference between neurons and other cell types that is to say neurons ourselves. But. How are they different from other cells very to interesting differences for the most part we find that. There are in neurons all of the biochemical mechanisms that we find in all cells, but there are two facets of brain cells that differ, somewhat first of all brain cells have an absolute requirement for oxygen. What that means is that oxygen to the cells decreases, the cells quickly die within five minutes of losing oxygen to a neuron it will begin to die. That's very different from other cells in the body. So for example, a muscle cell when you run a hundred yards your muscles probably run out of oxygen after you've only run about thirty yards. You that provide the energy for those muscle cells by breaking down blue. Yukos to swallow molecule, but in that crunch..