35 Burst results for "Lung Damage"

Air Quality Experts: Wildfire smoke can increase risk for coronavirus

KCBS Radio Weekend News

01:00 min | Last week

Air Quality Experts: Wildfire smoke can increase risk for coronavirus

"Just one crisis after another these days and now the latest to strike maybe making the others worse. Okay, CBS reporter Caveman Cockney explains on unprecedented stretch of bad air from California's fast burning wildfires has health experts worried about potential health impacts on covert 19 patients? Jozias have professor of medicine. John Bombs points to a number of concerning studies that link exposure to find particles. PM 2.5 with increased risk of severe Cove in 19. What's behind that link? Well, for one, it's thought that wildfire smoke damages the lungs, immune response to viruses. Meantime, the smoke also seems to make the lung damage caused by covert 19 even worse, while fire smoke exposure causes airway and lung inflammation. So we think that the wildfire smoke, add fuel to the fire, so to speak. Bombs advice. Stay indoors as much as possible, as long as the pollution remains bad and use an air purifier. If you can keep

John Bombs Caveman Cockney Lung Damage CBS Professor Of Medicine Reporter Cove California Jozias
Smoke Advisory In Effect For Most Of Los Angeles County, Several SoCal Counties

Bloomberg Businessweek

00:22 sec | Last week

Smoke Advisory In Effect For Most Of Los Angeles County, Several SoCal Counties

"A smoke advisory remains in effect today for lung damaging air pollution and most of Los Angeles County and parts of Orange, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. The South Coast Air Quality Management District says that's due to smoke and ash from the 26,000 Acre bobcat fire in the Angeles National Forest about Azusa in the nearly 14,000 Acre Eldorado fire. In the San Bernardino Mountains near your kippah.

San Bernardino Mountains San Bernardino Los Angeles County Angeles National Forest Azusa Riverside
Undocumented People With No Health Insurance Struggle Especially Hard From COVID-19

All Things Considered

03:49 min | 2 weeks ago

Undocumented People With No Health Insurance Struggle Especially Hard From COVID-19

"People who contract code 19 can spend months trying to get better. That struggle is especially hard for one group. That's a high risk of getting the virus undocumented people who don't have health insurance. NPR's Joseph Shapiro has one family's story. Laundries. Father got covert 19 in early August. He came home from a Chicago hospital. So what was that? Like the day he came home? Oh, my God, who are also have beat everybody in the hospital was like he was a But today there was no more hope for him. Where, like All my God, I don't know where leg thing guy. He's still here with us. Her father Jose spent three months in the hospital. Jose he's from Mexico is an undocumented immigrant. That's why we agreed to use just first names. He was in the I C U then in the rehab wing. Now he's home, but with long term maybe lifelong disabilities. Across the country. Latinos are hospitalized for Kobe and almost five times the rates of white people who aren't Latino. It's hard to count how many undocumented immigrants get cove it, but they're at high risk. Often they don't have health insurance. They may live in crowded homes and work in dangerous jobs in nursing homes, food plants or, like Jose in restaurants. And I see you have something on your neck. Were you on a ventilator? Yes, I spoke to Jose on a video call. He's propped up on pillows in bed. He shows the white bandage that covers the spot where a surgeon cut a sweat into his neck. To insert it, too. For the ventilator, only the Honda. Then Jose pulls up his dark blue polo shirt to show the tube to a stomach. Holland removes the phone Cameron to show it. Yes, I'm feeling to have a feeding too. That's how he's still getting fed. He hopes the tube will come out soon in. Maybe this week. Yeah. Let's take it out. Ah, staff at the hospital taught Jose's wife how to use a syringe toe push the nutrients through that feeding tube and howto work a portable ventilator. When he first came home, he still needed that ventilator to breathe. Jose has no health insurance. Some nurses come by and check on him from time to time. Still, the vast majority of Jose's Karen home, including some pretty high level medical care falls to the family. That's appalling toe. I eat Aguila cello. She's a research professor who studies healthcare disparities at Northwestern University's Medical School in Chicago. This require more specialized business, the nurse to come and take care of this gentleman at home rather than two. Let the wife and other members of the family to take care of the care That's not acceptable, for sure, not acceptable. But Bob Shaye, who started a nonprofit devices for the disabled, says it's typical. We see them all week every week now. Where people are getting discharged with scarred lungs damaged heart complete loss of mobility, neurological issues, they're still significantly limited. Then it's just up to the family does somehow figured out from there for Jose Shay's group donated a wheelchair. Ah hospital bed and other medical equipment, things that can cause thousands of dollars, especially if you don't have health insurance. Jose would like to go back to working in a restaurant. But his old job is gone. Maybe no more. And first he's got months and months, maybe longer to recover. There's an advantage to living in his multi generational family. His older Children are working for now they're paying the rent, and they're buying his medicine.

Jose Shay Chicago Hospital Jose NPR Joseph Shapiro Professor Bob Shaye Kobe Cameron Honda Chicago Mexico Northwestern University's Medi
A 28-year-old woman is the first Covid-19 survivor to receive a double-lung transplant in the US

Total Information AM

00:45 sec | Last month

A 28-year-old woman is the first Covid-19 survivor to receive a double-lung transplant in the US

"Health history made in Illinois to Kobe, 19 survivors received double lung transplants, and now they're sharing their stories. There was applause for 62 year old Brian guns and 28 year old mayor of Ramirez at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Both spent weeks in the I. C u on ventilator is after contracting Covad, 19 suffering severe lung damage. They both received double lung transplants. The first such corona virus patients in the U. S. No war. I should go. I definitely have a purpose. And if that purposes just simply telling my story to raise awareness both are recovering

Lung Damage Northwestern Memorial Hospital Covad Kobe Ramirez Illinois Brian Chicago
2 COVID-19 Survivors Receive Double Lung Transplants in Chicago

Seattle's Morning News with Dave Ross

00:45 sec | Last month

2 COVID-19 Survivors Receive Double Lung Transplants in Chicago

"Illinois, where to cope in 19 survivors received double lung transplants. CBS is Wendy Gillette has that story. There was applause for 62 year old Brian Guns and 28 year old mayor Ramirez at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Both spent weeks in the I C U on ventilator is after Contracting Cove in 19 Suffering severe lung damage. They both received double lung transplants. The first such corona virus patients in the U. S has done No more. Nowhere to go. I definitely have a purpose. And if that purposes just simply telling my story to raise awareness, both are recovering well. Wendy Gillette

Wendy Gillette Lung Damage Northwestern Memorial Hospital Contracting Cove Brian Guns CBS Illinois Ramirez Chicago
A COVID patient goes home after a rare double-lung transplant

WBZ Afternoon News

00:42 sec | Last month

A COVID patient goes home after a rare double-lung transplant

"Survivors who received double lung transplants say they have another chance. Now there was applause for 62 year old Brian guns and 28 year old mayor Ramirez at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Both spent weeks in the I. C U on ventilator is after Contracting Cove in 19 suffering severe lung damage. They both received double lung transplants. The first such corona virus patients in the U. S. No more. Nowhere to go. I definitely have a purpose. And if that purposes just simply telling my story to raise awareness, both are recovering well. Wendy

Lung Damage Northwestern Memorial Hospital Contracting Cove Ramirez Wendy Brian Chicago
Nick Cordero, Broadway actor who battled COVID-19, dies at 41

KNX Midday News with Brian Ping

00:58 sec | 2 months ago

Nick Cordero, Broadway actor who battled COVID-19, dies at 41

"Some of the biggest names in entertainment offering condolences this morning for Broadway star Nick Cordero. He's 41 years old. He died in Los Angeles this weekend after a three month battle against Corona virus. Cordero earned a Tony Award nomination for his role in Bullets over Broadway. His co star Zach Braff, says he was incredibly grateful for the actors friendship. Dr. David Barron, telling connects, he hopes something positive can come from something so tragic silver lining. Of course we're going. Those was sad about the loss is to say, all right, we're going to make sure they're less of this happens. And so you're right. Maybe it is a message to people to get more serious about the masks and the social distancing in the hand Washing Cordero's wife offer to frequent updates on social media, describing Cordero's ferocious fight against the Corona virus, the disease that hit him, which led to pull a multiple infection, severe lung damage. And a leg amputation Once again will Nick Cordero has died. He was just 41 years old, passed away this weekend here in Los

Nick Cordero Zach Braff Tony Award Corona Dr. David Barron Los Angeles Lung Damage LOS
Steroid dexamethasone can help save worst-hit patients

Coronavirus 411

00:26 sec | 3 months ago

Steroid dexamethasone can help save worst-hit patients

"Deck him episode was proven in British clinical trials to reduce the risk of death in Covid, nineteen patients with severe lung damage. The steroid is currently on the market and widely available Kiro Beck a German pharmaceutical company, has received the green light to begin human trials for their vaccine candidate. This is the eleventh potential vaccine to enter. Enter clinical trials worldwide earlier this week, the German government purchase twenty three percent of cure eveque,

Kiro Beck Covid Lung Damage
Lung transplant saved life of US coronavirus patient in Chicago, surgeons say

WTOP 24 Hour News

00:29 sec | 3 months ago

Lung transplant saved life of US coronavirus patient in Chicago, surgeons say

"In Chicago have given this new set of longs to a young woman with severe lung damage from corona virus only a few other covert nineteen survivors in China and Europe have gotten lung transplants doctors expect her to fully recover the Chicago patient is in her twenties she was on a ventilator and a heart lung machine for almost two months before the surgery last Friday at northwestern Memorial Hospital it took her body almost that long to clear the virus and be ready for transplant

Chicago Lung Damage China Europe Northwestern Memorial Hospital
Broadway star Nick Cordero wakes up from coma after amputation, coronavirus: report

Midday News

00:46 sec | 4 months ago

Broadway star Nick Cordero wakes up from coma after amputation, coronavirus: report

"But here's some good news about star Nick Cordero who went into the E. R. in March thirtieth with corona virus went on a ventilator almost immediately at his leg amputated because of clotting experience too many strokes septic shock and infection that caused his heart to stop and severe lung damage all that and other issues too but yesterday they Cordero came out of his medically induced coma listen to how his wife Amanda Kludt gave the news on Instagram with their baby in her arms he says Nick is so weak right now that even opening his eyes and closing his eyes takes all of his energy but he is awake and she says he is on the road to

Nick Cordero Lung Damage Amanda Kludt Instagram Coma
Nick Cordero wakes up from coma, wife says

Wayne Cabot and Paul Murnane

00:19 sec | 4 months ago

Nick Cordero wakes up from coma, wife says

"Set but here's some good news about star Nick Cordero who went to the ER on March thirtieth with corona virus and on a ventilator immediately at his leg amputated because of clotting experience too many strokes septic shock that infection that causes heart to stop severe lung damage among other issues well yesterday Nick Cordero came out of his medically

Nick Cordero Lung Damage
Rare form of metal-scarring lung damage from vaping identified by doctors

KCBS 24 Hour News

01:15 min | 10 months ago

Rare form of metal-scarring lung damage from vaping identified by doctors

"Moving on to a story by Kerry who dissect doctors say a rare form of lung cancer typically found in metal workers has been identified in a patient who uses E. cigarettes KCBS is Kerry who recycle ports the toxic metal permanently scarred the patient's long UCSF researchers say the exposure of metal in vaping products is extremely rare but can do serious damage I think the people to still recognize it for what it is it's an extremely rare disease you need to have you know someone is looking at the long that tissue under a microscope that seen it before and I mean I've been in practice doing pathology specializing in line for twenty years and I've only seen three cases Dr Kirk Jones a clinical professor of pathology at UCSF says in this case a woman's lines were permanently scarred from call balls which is a metal found in the liquid of a cannabis vaping products people that are exposed to call balls we know from cobalt workers only a small percentage will actually get cobalt one but you don't know that you have it until several months down the line with you suddenly or short of breath you know sometimes permanent scarring as our patient and unfortunately he says the a permanent scarring can't be cured but some patients seem mild improvement if the exposure to metal dot stops it's hard to reverse this guard carried a sack

Kerry Dr Kirk Jones Clinical Professor Ucsf Cannabis Twenty Years
CDC finds 47 deaths now linked to vaping

Red Eye Radio

00:53 sec | 10 months ago

CDC finds 47 deaths now linked to vaping

"Update there's an urgent health concern in the vaping crisis a new type of severe lung damage is turned up in a young patient in Canada it comes as health officials in the U. S. report twenty three hundred illnesses and nearly fifty deaths linked to vaping CBS news chief medical correspondent Dr John the Polk says the outbreak is not slowing down the CDC numbers painted a grim picture more than a hundred newly reported cases and five more deaths since last week and we're hearing about a new type of lung injury this one in Canada health officials there say a seventeen year old male was hospitalized for forty seven days last spring after admission his condition rapidly declined Dr Karen vase my help treat the patient at London health sciences center in Ontario had he not been put on life support machines he would ask passed away from an illness the likely diagnosis a rare

Lung Damage Canada London Health Sciences Center Ontario CBS Dr John CDC Dr Karen Forty Seven Days Seventeen Year
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

AP News

08:41 min | 11 months ago

"lung damage" Discussed on AP News

"Another 121 cases of vaping related lung damage have been reported in recent weeks by the centers for disease control and prevention which notes that at least that represents a slowdown in the pace of new cases developing most of the people who've gotten sick say they baked products containing T. H. C. health investigators think a thickening agent appears to be a culprit since the outbreak began around March 42 people in the U. S. have died and nearly 2200 illnesses have been reported I'm Jackie Quinn

lung damage Jackie Quinn
Detroit hospital staff performs double lung transplant on patient with vaping injuries

Rush Limbaugh

00:23 sec | 11 months ago

Detroit hospital staff performs double lung transplant on patient with vaping injuries

"Story a Detroit hospital things it's carried out the first of its kind procedure in the U. S. free vaping related injury Henry Ford health system says they performed a double lung transplant on a patient doctor's note that the patients use of the E. cigarettes left him with irreparable lung damage CDC says there are more than two thousand cases of vaping related injuries in the U. S. thirty nine deaths have been

Lung Damage CDC Detroit Henry Ford
Henry Ford says its doctors performed first double-lung transplant in vape-injured patient

News, Traffic and Weather

00:27 sec | 11 months ago

Henry Ford says its doctors performed first double-lung transplant in vape-injured patient

"Levin doctors in Michigan performing what's believed to be the first double lung transplant related to vaping in the US the Henry Ford health system says the patient has severe lung damage from vaping doctors in the man asked the hospital to share a story is a warning they plan to release more details tomorrow there are now more than two thousand vaping related injuries across the country last week the CDC announced they're looking at the chemical compound vitamin a acetate you told your income news as the very strong

Michigan United States Lung Damage CDC Levin Henry Ford
Detroit hospital says its doctors performed first double-lung transplant in vape-injured patient

America's Truckin' Network

00:28 sec | 11 months ago

Detroit hospital says its doctors performed first double-lung transplant in vape-injured patient

"A Detroit hospital thanks see it has carried out a first of its kind procedure you're in the U. S. forty vaping related injury Henry Ford health system says they performed a double long transplant on a male patient this week doctors noting that the patients UCB cigarettes leaving him with massive lung damage the CDC says there are more than two thousand cases of vaping related injuries throughout the

Detroit Lung Damage CDC Henry Ford
U.S. vaping-related deaths climb to 39, illnesses to 2,051

KNX Midday News with Brian Ping

00:32 sec | 11 months ago

U.S. vaping-related deaths climb to 39, illnesses to 2,051

"According to the CDC at least thirty nine deaths have now been linked to vaping with more than two thousand people coming down with vaping related illnesses and listen to this FBI investigators say they're now looking vitamin D. as a possible culprit in the series of illnesses and deaths linked to vaping health officials say state lab tests detected high levels of vitamin E. in cartridges of cannabis vaping products used by those who did suffer serious lung damage but when he is typically safe as a dietary supplement or cream but dating well I guess it's potentially harmful that's what they're

CDC Cannabis Lung Damage FBI
Third Illinois resident dies of vaping-related lung damage

Our American Stories

00:26 sec | 11 months ago

Third Illinois resident dies of vaping-related lung damage

"A third Illinois resident dead after vaping the Illinois department of public health says the victim recently vape that had been hospitalized with a severe lung injury no other information is being released at this time one hundred sixty five people in Illinois with a median age of twenty two have experience among injuries after vaping another forty two possible cases are under investigation in Missouri so far has had one official death links to

Illinois Missouri Illinois Department Of Public Official