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Chicago 8 - I, Pigasus | 1
Wednesday. August twenty eighth nineteen sixty eight Rennie Davis can't believe he sweating already. It's barely noon way, more humid than yesterday. We use his way through the crowd gathered in grant park Chicago's front lawn. There's gotta be well over ten thousand people here, maybe even fifteen thousand he was actually hoping from war, but well good enough. The people are ready to hear him. And he's a great talker. He's wholesome Hance American as apple pie resembles Clark Kent glasses and all the number one organizer for the national mobilization committee to end the war in Vietnam. Nobody calls it that though, they call it mode, and this is mobile anti-war rally, Rennie spots of friend. He's pleased to see he has a working radio. Rennie cops everywhere man were totally surrounded. What's the plan? I talked over with Dellinger we have to March the amphitheater will March the ampitheatre let me see the radio Rennie tunes, the FM. Dial two local news. There's a slight echo one reporter many radios in the crowd are tuned the same broadcast, but those of you just joining us breaking news from the democratic national convention in Chicago delegates have defeated the proposed. Vietnam, war peace plank. Dmc is happening. Just down the road from this route Rennie had been hoping they'd keep the plank in the platform, commit to ending the war. But now he can feel anger. Moving crowd. Assure Klis teenage guy climbs in nearby flagpole to snatch down the stars and stripes. Police Yankee moth wrestling to the ground cuffing. They dragged him away his gene smeared with grass stains his face streaked with mud. Reni watches the crowd response date. Take aim at the country's hurling tomatoes lunch, bags eggs clumps of dirt. Reni knows he must act he rushes to the band shell Mike watches as a wave of blue uniforms closing on the crowd like an angry seat. He needs to get control your thoughts things. People move back. Yeah. You you and you keep on guys away from those cops. I don't want to. But it's too late. The battle of Michigan avenue has begun. The Blue Wave approaches the band shell before Rennie can run the copter on top of. Davis. The cops club finds the back of Davis head he falls to his knees. He's crawling scratching the police. Rush sticks in hand. Don't let bench. Bench with his last strength, Rennie lawns and throws himself over. Jesus. He catches his breath. He's wearing a red tie. But it's weird. It wasn't read when he bought it. And this is how Rennie Davis discovers that. He is so CT in his own blood. He decides now would be good time to lie down guy approaches asks if he's all right ready murmurs back on intelligible. What what did you say? Reni hears the screams. The shouts the chance. The chaos. He knows local and national news cameras are capturing all of it. He didn't want it to go down like this. But maybe it's important people see that they see what happens when protesters gathered in peace to protest their government through the pain. Rennie manages, a smile, I said the whole world. Watching. Here on legal wars. We give you a behind the scenes look at some of the most infamous and compelling court cases in America. And there's always so much more going on under the surface than meets the eye. I wanna tell you about a new podcast. It's pulling back the curtain on something a little different than the stories. We cover here. It's from Toyota. See Toyota isn't just a car company and the new podcast Toyota. Untold isn't just about cars. It's about helping people move physically socially and emotionally. It's about overcoming challenges and making dreams come true. It's about finding solutions, and it's about sustainability triumph facing fears celebrating life and rethinking what's possible in Toyota, untold, you'll hear compelling behind the scene stories like why? And how a Toyota tundra was used to go a space shuttle through the streets of LA and how robotics. Other advanced technologies and mobility services are being researched and developed to address challenges for the elderly, disabled and even Olympic and Paralympic athletes from advanced technology to the Olympics space. Shuttles to natural disasters. Discover how Toyota is rethinking mobility in the brand new podcast Toyota untold you can find Toyota untold right now on apple podcasts. Spotify an anywhere else. You listen to podcasts. From wondering I'm hill Harper, and this is legal wars on that scorching day in late August of nineteen sixty eight as the hours tick by Rennie Davis took stock of his wounds well aware that many like minded individuals at this moment were in the same. Sorry state more than ten thousand antiwar demonstrators more than ten thousand cops all in pitched battle that would last long into the night. The violence was volcanic eruption of hostility between the counterculture and the old guard the police were the front lines. But the protesters real enemies never showed their faces those delegates voting for more war down the road at the democratic national convention. Towards the end of the sixties history began to hurdle forward at breakneck speed so fast that people could actually feel it happening like a fun house ride careening through the dark you'd wake up retrieve your morning paper. Then brace yourself assassination riot scandal serial killers, the civil rights progress was tremendous. So was a lot of the music, but to a lot of people culture didn't feel like a celebration it felt like a war. And of course, there was a war that haunted terrified and beguiled the nation. The. What happened to Rennie Davis day? The DNC voted down. The peace plank set off a chain of events that many people would come to feel encapsulated the country's many conflicts. This is the first in a three part series on the EPA courtroom. Clash that followed the DNC. It's official name is United States of America plaintiff versus David t Dellinger at all. But most people remembered as the trial of the Chicago eight this is episode one the whole world is watching. On its face the trial sit out to answer a simple question. Everyone agreed that there was political violence on a mass scale in Chicago, it encircled, the democratic national convention nine hundred sixty eight it bloodied. Rennie Davis and thousands of others. So who's responsible? But of course, it was a bigger question. One that got at the heart of the sixties political and cultural wars with the eight men initially indicted leaders of criminal conspiracy to incite chaos. A were they counterculture revolutionaries unjustly persecuted by the man and the trial? Oh, boy, the trial. It was one of the most outrageous the recorded history of American law, a defendant facing ten years blew kisses at the jury there were insults to the judge in Yiddish insults to the judge in English costumes one witness took the stand and sang a song. Another recited a poem that was more than one brawl. This is what happened when the federal government put America's most prominent antiwar and free love activists on trial. And those activists used the court to put the government on trial as well. The stakes the very future of protest and politics in United States. The whole world was watching and no one was going to play by the woods. Tom Hayden is looking for any they'd spent the morning at mode H Q helping to plan the days rally, then the day turned into the battle of Michigan avenue and now Rennie's nowhere to be found. Hayden's twenty-eight-year-old strategic genius who gets to the point fast and has no problem telling others what to do. He's an activist. He helped found SDS students for a democratic society and has spent months coordinating activities for the mold in Chicago. He's a thinker. He drafted the famous port Huron statement, which are ticketed the goals of the new left, and he's a fighter one time a white mob beat him up. He did civil rights work in Mississippi. He thought he was prepared for grandpa today. And I've never seen anything this vicious those cops are after women and babies, they got Billy clubs for Christ's sake. And he can tell when things are getting worse. Desperate squinting against the stinging. Clouds of tear-gas, Tom runs and rapidly overturned park benches as he goes piling them up to slow the advance the house, Dr Tom you don't hear here. I think it's raining. Tom sees a mo- medically moment. He leaves the benches and sprints over to his friend who's in bad shape. Rennie's head split open. He's a bloody mess founded like this. We got an ambulance on the way ready, Renae. It's Tom did you hear that? We got an ambulance coming. Nice. They were. It. We're actually trying to kill me. They're coming for all of us today. They're not even trying to hide it at your ride running. I'll catch up with you. I can't Tom helps bandage Rennie's head then gets loaded on a stretcher and lifted into the back of Nambi as the ambulance disappears into the distance Tom reflects on the past eight months of nineteen sixty eight an election year a challenging year. Dom was just a kid back then but he'd say it's been the most trying year for America since the end of World War Two. No one liked. How president Johnson was handling Vietnam. The war was increasingly brutal. More and more men. Dead criticism was especially sharp from the Democrats his own party. So not long ago Johnson had made a decision. He announced it in a televised address accordingly. I shall not see. And I will not accept the nomination of my party for another term as your president. That was March thirty first nineteen sixty eight less than a week after that. Dr Martin Luther King junior was assassinated. Tom Hayden remembers a conversation. He'd had with Dr king in nineteen sixty the leader looked at him and said gently ultimately you have to take a stand with your life. Almost two months to the day after king's death, Robert Kennedy was gunned down. Tom considered Bobby Kennedy, a personal friend and the most promising politician in America, the only man who could perhaps guide the country back to the optimism of the early sixties. He been one of several Democrats hoping to replace Johnson in the White House. Now, he was gone. After Kennedy's death. The Dem's turned Hubert Humphrey and upbeat progressive. Politician out of Minnesota Humphry has a lot going for him. He's a staunch supporter of racial equality with the record approve it, lots of people like him. But Tom knows better Humphries no hawk and he is skeptical of the war, but he also isn't ready to pull out just yet will probably be the democratic nominee. But he's not good enough for Tom because he's Johnson's vice president and that makes him the establishment because Vietnam is hanging over everything. And Tom Hayden is getting increasingly sick of the establishment in the park today. The establishment cross the line hours later, Tom addresses, fellow demonstrators running has been taken to the hospital, and we have to avenge him this city and the military machine and aims at us won't allow. Us to protest in an organized fashion. So we must move out of the park in groups throughout the city and turn this overheated military machine against itself lettuce and make sure that if our blood flows it flows all over the city, and they guess us. They gas themselves as well. See when the streets. See you in the streets that last line reminds Tom of something he read on a Yippie poster Yippee stands for youth international party, the decision to come to Chicago had been made three months earlier in New York City. Picture the scene in New York's Lower East Side, even at this late hour traffic is that gone grand street in a dingy flat thick with pot smoke. No furniture, except for a moth, easy chair and flea bitten couch. The idealistic young activists don't care. A man I think it's kicked you any more on this night. They're planning a trip and not the acid kind though they often do that to ABBIE Hoffman is sitting on the floor at thirty one years old. He's already a household name around the country, his long curly mane bounces back and forth like gestures cap when he talks he's the kind of guy that thinks three quips ahead and always seems to be smiling. Even when he isn't counterculture kids the world over approve their parents, mostly don't still clear-headed even after drag off the nearest join Abby lays out, the agenda the way, I should man. We gotta go to Chicago. That's where it's at the Democrats are doing their national convention there in August. They don't care how long the war goes their convention is just going to be a convention of death. So we should have our own. Convention Reiger Jair is Jerry Rubin. He co founded the bees with Abby he's a bit of a household name to dropped out of cow later made a bid for mayor of Berkeley lost. But got over twenty percent of the vote like, ABBIE. Jerry's got a gift for attracting media attention by offering surreal weird and wacky. Theatrics. That the cameras can't resist for example, that time he Abby thirteen POWs dump three hundred one dollar bills on the heads of the traders of the new York Stock Exchange, making international headlines men in three piece suits knocked each other over diving to recover the money as the Bill sledded all over like something out of a game show that was fun. But Jerry knows it was just practice. Now. It's time for the peace to use their trademark absurdity to take on the. But that's it Abby we won't call it. A convention will call it of festival. A festival of life. We'll get a bunch of permits. Take over a park demonstrations all over the place. Workshops, exhibits, concerts, speeches thousands of kids will show up. We're the youth international party, which should even have our own candidate those convention hall squares. They nominate president and he eats people. Right. Yeah. Yeah. More kids to Vietnam. Gobble, gobble. Right. So I say we nominated president and let the people eat him. It'll be our pig versus their pig. Wanna by pig? I wanna buy a pig. The bees are outrageous, but they're also focused and over the next few months, they solidified their plans to protest the DNC with a pig day and night, they organize they print leaflets posters and buttons in the tens of thousands, the yippies promised music light theatre magic hopscotch. Hookah dolphins leprechaun's the politics of ecstasy and more one poster sums it all up. This will be the first coming together of all people involved in the youth revolution. It should be a beautiful week. This is the first day in the rest of your life. And then the fateful words Z when Chicago Yiping. The call has gone out to the world. The sixties protest movement has never gone this big before tactics designed to reach an unprecedented generation of enthusiastic radicals. And they're going to need all the help. They can get because waiting in. Chicago is a formidable adversary mayor, Richard J Daley we respect the constitutional, right and the Uman rights of everyone. But no one will take the lawn there on the end, it'd be law and order to the lawn. Americ- dailies background is working class Irish. And he's no nonsense. He's not a small, man. And he's physically intimidating when he needs to be he has zero tolerance for disorder of any kind for any reason. He's made that much clear this year in response to black unrest in the city following the assassination of doctor king daily gave his cops free rein shoot richer, Lenny arsonist, or anyone where the mall of cocktail in hand in Chicago. Daily may be a democrat, but he's far from progressive. And the last thing he's going to allow on his watch is for protesters to interfere with his party's national convention. During a staff meeting in July nineteen sixty eight with a month ago until the start of the convention daily sits at the head of the conference table flanked by his staff. An aide brings him up to date on the latest next mayor Daley. We have a permit requests from the national mobilization committee to end the war in Vietnam. They want to organize a March the week of the convention a March absolutely not what else the youth international party would like a permit. Allowing them to spend the night in city parks. Now daily can't stop these people from arriving, but he doesn't have to help them one bit. He declines almost every demonstration permit application, and he's ready to go further if he has to. Permit. Be Dan, ABBIE. Hoffman touches down in the windy city. Not long after in early August, nineteen sixty eight three weeks until the start of the convention. He walks off the plane in his t shirt and cowboy boots with thirty seven bucks in his pocket and little else. But it change of clothes. He hops in a cab and directs the driver to take him downtown to Dearborn street. This is mobile headquarters a boxy grey office space where the phones ring constantly and there aren't enough. Wastebaskets balled up papers of various shapes and sizes litter the floor, the national mobilization committee to end the war in Vietnam is the country's foremost coalition of antiwar activists. They're working with the wild but affected hippies abbey's going to help Dave Dellinger with some pre-convention community organizing as he waits for Abby to arrive. Dave goes over plans for a soon to be printed flyer, but star notes to the officers with this our arguments, Chicago is not with you. We have come to confront the rich men of power who let America into a war. She voted against the men who have brought our country to the point where the police can no longer serve and protect the people only themselves. Dave Dellinger is a career pacifist conscientious objector and one of Mobile's leaders alongside Rennie Davis. He refused to fight in World War Two and did time in jail for it. But he didn't care. He'd been an ambulance driver in the Spanish civil war and seen enough. Senseless loss of life to keep him from picking up another gun under any circumstances ever. Again, fun fact about Dave one of his great uncles was Benjamin Franklin. Compared to someone like ABBIE Hoffman. Dave is not your typical radical. He's fifty two for one thing and buttoned up for another one journalist described him as looking like an off-duty scoutmaster and he's apparent though, not your stereotypical conservative nineteen sixty day. No, not at all. He's always encouraged his kids to stand up for what's right? And to do it publicly. It's never been a problem until now, but before Abby arrives Dave needs to make an extremely urgent call to his twenty two year old son Ray. Hello rage dead. So I talked to your mother about your offer. I appreciate it. But it's not a good idea. Why not will for one? It's not safe. We applied for permits to hold marches and rallies. The yippies want to set up camp in Lincoln park, Chicago's denying the permits or just not giving us any answer at all. They're stalling. They wanna be able to say we demonstrated without the necessary permits so they have the excuse to crackdown when we do show up things could get violent. I don't want you there, and there's going to protect you. When that happened. I can take care of myself dead. You're about to turn fifty four fifty three. Well, either way you're an old, man. I'm coming to Chicago. And I'm gonna be by your side in case something happens. After Dave hangs up. He reflects if Ray wants to demonstrate against the war in accordance with his own beliefs. That's his call scared father, or no, there's no way Dave can take this opportunity from his son, and he'll hardly be alone. Ray del injure is just one of many young people bound for Chicago the week of the convention in the coming days, thousands begin together. As the convention approaches. They're in the streets in Lincoln park there on national TV people start to pay attention hippies. Yippies students teachers druggies draft dodgers. Pacifists housewives Rockstars and the just plain curious here from all over the country to demand social reform at home and peace abroad. Mayor Daley is paying attention to he cancels all days off for his police department. Institutes a mandatory twelve hour shift for every office. He calls in fifteen thousand Illinois national guard troops there on combat alert daily. Make sure the police superintendent knows what to do gym. I wanna ten pm curfew strictly enforced, especially in the parks. Got it's now August twenty third nineteen sixty eight three days until the convention begins on the city's south side in the international amphitheatre. On hosted street five miles away at the Chicago Civic Center. The yippies unveil their candidate, the youth international party's presidential hopeful has been christened pig asus. Abbie Hoffman bottom a few days ago from dumbfounded Illinois farmer pig. Asus arrives at the rally in a station wagon under the care of seven yippies. Honestly, Jerry Rubin. A little annoyed by pig. Asus. He doesn't think he looks mean enough and tells Abby so it looked so Wimpy. But Jerry is a team player. It's fine. If they can't have pigs in the White House. They can have him for breakfast. I pig asus. Hereby announce my candidacy for the presidency of the United States of America, Jerry is reading the pigs acceptance speech when the cops arrive to hand, the swine, Jerry Rubin is also rested. The first of several that day. That night the cops catch pig. Assists wife piggy wig after the letter loosened Lincoln park, she's reunited with her husband a local shelter. Protesters gathered outside crying free, the pigs free the pig eventually the animals, go back to their farm. The pig. Asus. Farce is the quintessential UP stunt, pure political theater. A good laugh, but no one's laughing on Monday, August twenty sixth day, one of the DNC. Tom Hayden gets his close to the convention as the roadblocks will allow he watches national guardsmen load up. Their m one rifles gas canisters and shotguns, Rennie Davis observes that two thousand feet of barbed wire around the international amphitheatre back in Lincoln park about a thousand demonstrators mostly in the early twenties. Nervously wonder if they'll be able to sleep in peace that night. Inside the amphitheater the convention highlights deep divisions. Among Democrats a lot of people want the party to nominate Senator Eugene McCarthy who's taken an antiwar position. He stands in contrast to Hubert Humphrey who remember won't distance himself from Johnson's Vietnam policies to call it tents is an under state some states delegates fight amongst themselves who will officially get to represent the home state. And I mean, literally fight reporting for CBS a thirty six year old, Dan rather gets caught in the middle and takes punch to the gut on live TV. Stomach during that what happened is it's mayhem. That evening two thousand protestors violate mayor Daley's curfew and refuse to leave Lincoln park, the largest public park in Chicago. The police arrive and set off the first bath they beat an arrest demonstrators until dome the next day. Black Panther co founder Bobby Seale arrives from Oakland to make a speech filling in for fellow panther elders. Cleaver dropped out last minute. Agree with the political decisions that the made a. That would ever paper disagree with those political decision the racist to go than to say that the people accept political decision. But where your allusion to let them know that we build the political visit that maintains the question of our people. The fiercely eloquent seal is leather clad and laser focused. He isn't interested in protesting, the Democrats, and he doesn't give a damn about pig asus. But he and many other Panthers. Think it's a good idea to encourage young white people to rebel to fulfil their potential as true revolutionaries. Maybe then they can be allies and aid in the black struggle against oppression. Through convergence occurring in Chicago as political racial and social radicals intersect and clash with the thirties for the right to influence America's future the day after that. Battle michigan. Rennie. Davis barely escapes with his life. After getting helped to the ambulance by Tom. Hayden twice. The cops. Come for Dave Dellenbaugh, head with nightsticks and twice Ray Dellinger poses dad out of harm's way. In the Nick of time. Meanwhile, Jerry Rubin wearing a plastic band old year. And love beads is chased through the park by the 'cause he manages to lose them and takes his aggression out on an empty squad. Car throwing paint on it. Unbelievably ABBIE Hoffman misses the battle. He stuck in court arrested hours before after getting caught sitting in a cafe with the word fuck written on his forehead. Yes. That was illegal in court, Abby so furious to be sidelined from the streets. He rips up his arrest papers in front of the judge. Bobby Seale misses the mayhem to he's already on a plane back to Oakland all day. Mayor Daley gets continuous updates from convention police headquarters centered at the amphitheater. The command center contains electric maps overseeing the entire city radio in video links to various security units and hotlines to the Pentagon and White House daily paces in rage his hatred for the protesters in media boiling over now. The saying I called Abraham Ribicoff Jew motherfucker on the convention floor. Faker? I call. Him a faker the demonstrators were right? The whole world was watching because there were cameras everywhere in that park. The events of the twenty eighth broadcast violence into suburban homes and the nation's family sitting down before the evening news are shocked to their course. Now, they're moving in the culture movie, and I are really building these Kirk is grabbing them sticks flailing people laying on the ground could see them people. Just building them. There are the cuts just landed in files. Piles of bodies on the street. Still question value hear this creams. There's a guy that just ranked along the street Natal care. I don't think that don't think don't know. Whether it's a live. Oh, jeez. Look. He's five of them are built him over one thousand people both protesters and police require medical attention. Then on Thursday, August twenty ninth the convention concludes and the dust settles the park is empty. The barbed wire comes down the streets are host battered protesters troops and democratic delegates all go home and as predicted Hubert Humphrey's, the party's presidential nominee, fellow Americans. My fellow Democrats. I proudly accept the nomination of our party. As for the demonstrators that have been the end of the story in the days after the convention mayor Daley's office puts out a statement, accusing them of being hostile outside. Agitators intent on violence, president Johnson's attorney general Ramsey Clark. Takes a look at what happened, but finds no reason to bring any charges it looks like what happened at the convention will stay at the convention. 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But in addition to losing the presidency they've lost the support of the southern states and public confidence in their ability to manage the war on December. First nineteen sixty eight the national commission on the causes and prevention of violence releases. What becomes known as the Walker report? President Johnson formed the commission earlier that year as he struggled to process the back tobacco SAS nations of king and Kennedy tasked with analyzing assassination, protest, violence, firearms and law enforcement, the committee naturally turned its attention to the chaos at the DNC. It's chair Milton. Eisenhower appointed Chicago lawyer Daniel walk to oversee a team of two hundred operatives after reviewing more than twenty thousand pages of statements for more than three thousand I witnesses. They summed up the violence. With two words police riot. But Richard Nixon has other ideas. And when he's sworn in on January twentieth. Nineteen sixty nine he gets to work Americans. The honorable chief Justice will administer the oath of office to the president of the United States of our chief Justice. Nixon's victory. Means Ramsey Clark is out to be replaced by a new attorney general Nixon's close personal friend, John Mitchell, both agree with mayor Daley that someone needs to be held responsible for what happened that summer, and they have an idea of who should be. On a brisk day in early March, nineteen sixty nine the MVP and formidable prosecutor US attorney Thomas foreign heads for mayor Daley's fifth-floor office in Chicago city hall. The two are political allies foreign has made his name putting the scum of the city's underworld behind bars. And the mayor is grateful top Lisa now for antiques seat opposite daily who reclines behind imposing enormous oaken disc before the mayor is a bust of Lincoln behind him. The American flag top I want you to know we're moving forward, and we'll be your job to bring the outside agitators to Justice four and smooths tying allows himself to smile. His pleasure. Can't be overstated, but he wants to maintain his composure. He knows that if he plays this, right? There may be a Senate seat with his name on it. I won't let you down, sir. On march. Twentieth. Nineteen sixty nine sixteen indictments come down. Half are cops. Foreign does his part to make sure they get off quickly and easily the other half of the indictments quickly labeled the Chicago eight all men and all white except for one. And so they're looking to extradite, you Illinois, I'm already on trough of my life. Now, they want to charge me with this bullshit. I was in Chicago for a day a day. Bobby Seale is sitting in the San Francisco county jail awaiting trial on conspiracy to commit murder. He's innocent. But the authorities of New Haven Connecticut claim he secretly gave the order to take out an informant who infiltrated that cities chapter of the Black Panthers. That's bad enough. But now he can't believe what his lawyer Charles Gary has just told him. Well, you made a speech and your black. They're saying you incited the crowd to violence, plus. Since you don't live in Illinois and fluent from California. They're calling that conspiracy to travel across state lines to encourage a riot wait conspiracy with who. With who? Indeed. Bobby Seale has never met any of the other seven guys under indictment except for Jerry Rubin and Reuben is practically stranger seal had a five minute chat with him in Chicago. But apparently that's more than enough conspiring for the Nixon administration if seal goes down on the Chicago charges he'll sit in a cell for years if he goes down on the New Haven charges. He'll sit in the electric chair. The stakes are highest for seal, but one by one the rest received their indictments Yippee masterminds, ABBIE Hoffman, and Jerry Rubin or the cultural radicals of the group. Dave Dellinger, Tom Hayden Rennie. Davis are the political radicals the final two are Lee whiner and John joins sauce spoken college science instructors with no radical leadership credentials whatsoever. Wine or rocks. Big bushy beard phones has a mustache nevertheless, both weren't Chicago in nineteen sixty eight and involved in the protests, and for the government that's enough wrong place wrong time for the men to be accused of conspiracy. In addition, they're cute of teaching others. How to make incendiary devices though, there's no witnesses to support this other than the recovery. Cops and no physical evidence. Either Wigner and phones are just as mystified as Bobby Seale as to how exactly they wound up roped into this trial, Scott to be home. Abbey Hoffman's upbeat when he steps off the plane in Chicago to stand trial in September nineteen sixty-nine. He's backed by twenty four year. Bs some in baseball jerseys abbey's not from Chicago. But he wants the world to see him as playing for the home team America's home team, you might say and his abbey foots. This is the World Series of injustice. The other seven defendants are on their way. Tom Hayden arrives from Berkeley fully expecting to be sentenced to hard jail time. He's left behind the bay area sunshine, his new girlfriend, and and her baby from a previous marriage who he loves his own son. Unlike Hoffman Hayden lands in Chicago depressed, knowing it may be very long time before he's able to enjoy time with them again. Jerry Rubin arrives in Chicago annoyed. He's here from Santa Rita penitentiary in California where he got arrested for participating in a local demonstration. The marshals there. Tossed him in the back of a van and drove him twenty three hundred miles across the country in chains. Rennie davis. Dave Dellenbaugh land in Chicago. They each separately reflect on the role so play during the trial. Rennie knows the Chicago eight are coming from very different backgrounds varying strategic points view, he can employ his diplomatic skills to help mediate disputes and unite the group Dave Dellinger doesn't wanna be on trial. But he's looking forward to it. He's the oldest defendant by far and an absolute pacifist. He will lobby his fellow defendants to stay true to their principles. No matter what if that means voluntarily going to jail so be. Bobby seals arrival in Chicago comes under much more. Sinister circumstances shut up and get. It was my lawyer said shut up. Back in San Francisco in the dead of night seal in leg irons and costs is loaded into a black sedan by federal agents. What makes this illegal? Well for starters seals lawyer Charles Gary is supposed to lead the defense team, a group of lawyers that includes William consular and Leonard wine glass, but Gary is currently in the hospital for emergency gallbladder surgery. The group filed a motion to the lay the trial for six weeks until he gets better until that motion is decided a separate court has declared that Bobby Seale can't be extradited to Illinois from California. But the government wants the trial to begin scheduled. So Bobby Seale is essentially kidnapped from jail and driven to Chicago in secret. On September ninth. Nineteen sixty-nine the motion to wait until Charles Gary recovers is denied by the trials recently appointed judge we're going to meet him a little later. It's now impossible for Gary to participate any further in the case, the trial starts in two weeks, the defendants call an urgent meeting they decide they don't have much choice. William consular must take over as lead counsel at fifty consular is nearly as controversial as the clients represents. He's brash loud flamboyant passionate. He kind of looks like a mad professor left lab coated home, but isn't particularly concerned about it two years ago while defending the black activist h rap Brown. He cross examined a flight attendant. This is the actual transcript from the cross you say you saw my client board the plane with this gun case in an appeared to contain a rifle. Yes. Would you say the case here today appears to contain a rifle? Yes. Without warning consular throws the gun case the flight attendant it lands a few feet short. The court can see there's actually no gun inside. Things are not always what they see. Something William counselor is brilliant others think he's a troublesome publicity-hound, but it's hard to argue with his credentials. He's represented Dr Martin Luther King junior Stokely Carmichael, and Malcolm X, and Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale are in Cook County jail for the time being and consular is still getting accustomed to the idea of spearheading the defense the defendants who aren't in jail shared cheap communal apartment on Chicago's south side Cutler decides to meet them there for pre-trial meeting knowing it will be hard to replace Charles. Gary Gary was well respected by all. And the only lawyer on the planet that Bobby Seale frosts. This is not a quite route consular has to shout to get control of the room guys. God's listen for a second. That's what I'm saying. The government wants the jury to believe you guys advocated for violence conspired to incite a write in Chicago and deserve to go to prison for it. We know that's ridiculous. But in court, we have to go a step further and make it clear that this is a political trial. We have a right of resistance. That's what I wanna make clear, and I'm gonna make it clear in that courtroom. The whole system is fucked and we're going to bring it down. Okay. Tom. What do you think? I still say the most logical approach is to focus on the jury. The address are great. But we shouldn't get carried away the liberate rational argument that wins over one, maybe even two jers. That's all we need for a hung jury. I like my better. Your idea is unwise, Len you wanna weigh in here. Leonard wine glass is a law professor at Rutgers Tom brought him onto the legal team. He knows every last detail of the case both strategies could be affective either way. I believe the facts alone should be enough to keep you out of jail. But the prosecution won't make it easy. I think we needed to find the court at every turn Dave it's not an either. Or let's go for both strategies in there. Let the world see what the hip these are all about. But let's also remind everyone that this is all a political sham and Nixon just wants to distract everyone from the corrupt an unjust warned Vietnam that was Rennie Davis with the compromise, ABBIE. Hoffman reps up the meeting. We're gonna make that judge. And that court look completely ridiculous. I can't wait. On Friday September twenty sixth nineteen sixty-nine just before ten AM, ABBIE. Hoffman enters the federal building performing a full front flips somersaults, he sticks the land the trial of the decade has begun. On the next episode of legal wars, the insults and the punches start flying. In the meantime subscribe now on apple podcasts. Stitcher NPR Spotify wondering dot com or ever you. Listen to this show, you'll find the link on the episode notes, simply tap or swipe over the cover. He lost. See some offers from our sponsors. Please support our show by supporting that if you like what you're hearing. We'd love you to give us a five star rating and tell your friends house of scribe another way to support us is to answer short survey. Wondering dot com slash serving. I'm your host till Harper. Hannibal dyas wrote this episode our legal consultants, Katie burger, Kramer, and our researchers. Caitlyn cremant Casey minor edited this episode legal wars is produced by seventy jen's George Lambda sound designed by spoke media. Our executive producer Marshall Louis and Hernan Lopez for one.
Aired Last week 45:38
Muses and Stuff EP 97: Helen & Lee Morgan
I y and how studios presents. From Toronto Canada. News is on stuff with your host, gianatti and links. Lauda the rug on roll audio network of. Loser. Culture. Technology. Rock and roll. So grab those dock stage passively, let's get to the show. Links. Hey, Sean, t happy new year happy new year. How you do? I'm good first step Assode of the new year. Yes. How was your holidays? It's been amazing. So we've only got a couple more days left before it's back to work but that demos enjoyable and restful two weeks. I've read almost four books that have been non podcast non news related. Had a cold. But I've just been what was the best thing. The one that I passed on news. Pretty good complicated. Kindness about a Mennonite girl who wants to go to New York and dreams about Lou Reed. So five maybe I liked that one that one. Yeah. And I've just been thinking about all of the amazing things that we did last year and sort of did a breakdown of month by month, which I sent to you. And it's nice to do that in looked into look at the calendar from last year and go, okay. So in January this happened in February. This was they are gonna complement indoor whatever in. So now that I've done all of that for two thousand eighteen I'm looking forward to looking forward and thinking and writing down about okay? So what are some things that I'd like to do or places that I like to go in March and April because? Yeah. March break and I'd like to go somewhere. Warm April is the international doll convention in Las Vegas. And, you know, even if I can't do all of those things I definitely want to put them all on the list anyways. Because you'll be surprised if you do something like that. And then you go back next year, you'll be surprised at how much did get done. It's true. Yeah. Looking back on what we accomplished last year, and the places we got to go and everything it's really really mazing. The see it all written out like that. And every year for probably the past two or three years maybe longer I've been putting LA on my dream list. And. I mean it hasn't happened yet. But it's okay. Because we went to Tennessee. We went to Nashville Memphis. We've done other things and other places is this is the year and our network is on intemperance Cisco, and I can't wait to meet everybody in person and check out the studios that they've been using. And just learn more learn more about editing and producing and then just getting that feel of like being in the same room with the people that we've connected with so much with. But just yeah. Twenty nineteen. It's exciting. Yeah. I mean and on that note for listeners who are either new or first time or a longtime IRS where two Canadian podcasters in Toronto. So it's always a special education really can get to states and. Yeah. Yeah. Explorer? It's it's a bit of a bit of a travel, but of a ways, but it's only do it's exciting, and we can have to so many amazing people on these last couple of years who are based in the states, probably more ribald, probably talked more Americans more Canadians for sure for sure and should be fun to go and just like pick off where we left off and do part twos and things like that. Yeah. So lots of exciting things to look forward to where come in. So you're listening to music and stuff. Yeah. This up Assode is going to be a little different. We've never done a jazz episode before. But let's do a jazz episode. Yeah. His let's start the new year smooth and actually for those who are keeping count. Not that anybody really is. But the last episode that wasn't an interview links presented it as well. Thanks for getting it together. And presenting it I have one on the way one. About halfway done and really excited for it. The only thing is the reason why it's not done already is because in order to read the book, I have to go to the Toronto reference library because you cannot find it unless you wanna pay the big bucks for it. Yeah. Online. I kind of had to do a little bit about for this one as well. I don't know why some of the best books there's like only one copy left at the reference library, and yeah, you can't take it out. So you have to sit there and do the work. So how would we even describe this podcast at this point like two years in you know, we can't we can't we can't just say this is the podcast about groupies, and muses and Rockwall because it is. But it's about all the behind the scenes people. I guess, you know, men and women mostly women. Yeah. But yeah, throwing some sometimes muses and Spiratou means people you don't really hear about. But definitely impacted the life and the work of the ones that you do hear about. The nasdaq. Yeah. So this one. Yeah. The jazz one it's very jazz from beginning to end the story is just the most jazzy story of her. For this episode. I read as many articles as I could find online, and I checked out a book at the reference library called Lee, Morgan, his life music and culture by Tom per shard. But the main source for this was an essay on a woman named Helen by a man named Larry Rennie Thomas, Rene Thomas and a great documentary, which was very much based off of Larry's essay called. I called him Morgan, which is on Netflix. It's on the Canadian epoch's, at least I hope it's on the American as well. That's a good point. Right. Yeah. Different. They are a highly recommend everyone watch that after listening, obviously, there's so much more there and read Larry's essay as well because there's so much more. And in the documentary you hear Helen speak in her own words. And so this is about a woman named Helen name. Larry, it's about woman named Helen. And her jazz boyfriend named Lee. Morgan. Okay. Helen, Annely Morgan. Yes. Larry wrote the essay on Jalan. Okay. So. Yeah. Check out check out the documentary. I called him Morgan, obviously, again, photos, you get to see the people you got to hear their friends speak. It's really good. It's really worth it. So there's going to be a lot of unexpected twists and turns here so prepare yourself like I said, it's just it's jazz from beginning to end right when they get comfortable and gonna have a sip of tea, which is now become our tradition. We sit down have a Cup of tea tell a story. So Helen was born in nineteen twenty six in Brunswick county, North Carolina on a farm near town called shallot shot. Schol lot. I'm not even gonna try to correct. You sounds good to me. She hated being from a small town. She hated working on that farm. She always had those dreams of getting out of there. She was raised around music though. Her mother worked at a place called the barn, which was a legendary jazz club in Wilmington during the forties and the fifties. So she was only thirteen years old when she had her first child and her second at fourteen she admits children were not something she ever wanted. Of course, she's a child herself. So I I can understand that. Her grandparents raised her children because when she was only fifteen Helen started to begin her journey out of that small town by moving to Wilmington to be close to her mother. So what she was seventeen she met a thirty nine year old bootlegger who she ended up marrying a short time after okay, this is not starting off. Great. I it's it's this is a heavy one. But like, very interesting. Okay. And it's still it's like nineteen. Yeah. Like forties. Fifties. Thanks. And you know. In Wilmington, North Carolina. So two years into that marriage. Her bootlegger husband, drowned, I couldn't find out any information on like if that was like a shady thing or or if it was an accident or, but he was originally from New York and his relatives came down to the funeral and they actually invited Helen to come back with them for like a week or two to visit New York City. So Helen goes, and of course, once she was there. She was like, oh my God. This is incredible city. I can't leave here. We're not in North Carolina anymore. Exactly. So in nineteen forty five she fishery moved to New York City good for her. So she found her own apartment on fifty third between eighth and ninth. And she began to find her place in the city Helen had the gift of conversation and was. Easy on the eyes. So she had no trouble. Finding a job. I think she worked as a phone operator for a while. And she was making friends so in no time at all. She had established herself in the neighborhood. She was going up town to the hottest nightclubs hanging out with all the musicians staying out all night being invited to the after hours joints. She was really she was really living it up. So in the documentary. I called him Morgan a friend and neighbor of Helen's named Ron Sinclair. This is what he said about Howland. Helen was a hero in my neighborhood because she came up from the south, and she was a woman that had to struggle because she didn't want to work for anyone. She wanted to be her own person when she walked down the block in the neighborhood, the men and the women paid attention, especially the men because she wore provocative clothes, a lot of those align type dresses and suits, everything fitted her because she was built very nice on Fridays. She would change her outfits and come downstairs. We'll all the guys came off work. They'd be shooting craps, and she'd go across the street and shoot with them Jalan, you Meng, exactly. So basically, she was a bad us, babe. Just trying to have fun and China forge her own place for self in this male dominated world heap her behind that telephone exactly exactly she had a face for. And when speaking about herself at the time. Helen said I will not sit here and tell you that. I was so nice because I was not I was one who would cut you sharp. I had to be and I looked out for me. So shoot s. Yes. So everybody take the spirit of Helen into you. Yes. Moving just a little bit of that. I'm not gonna take crap onto no shit from Nolan. Exactly. So how apartment became a gathering spot and a safe haven for friends and use her door was always open. She was also quite progressive for her time. All were welcome. No matter your gender, your sexual orientation. She she just welcomed everyone. She would say people are people. Good. Good saying sure so good for Helen. She loved to cook as well. And she was known for her delicious meals and was constantly feeding the starving musicians came around looking for some love and some comfort food, and I was like she gotta do just gotta feed the musicians and they'll keep coming back. It's true hotter. Hot first groupie tip of twenty thousand nineteen to feed the musician. So there is only one rule at her home, which apparently was no drug use. Helen, apparently did not stand for that for her liking hell so far. So when Helen was thirty one this is a happy story. When Helen was sorry, not thirty one thirty four. I'm I'm lowering her age because like close to my age. I'm just. Her son, Al one of her kids from when she was younger, actually, moved to New York, and they actually became like super close in he joined her seen, they became friends and everything. So I thought that was really cool. He's also in the documentary. Nice. He was twenty one then so they had like an adult friendship and everything they she didn't really know him much growing up. So I'm gonna talk a little bit. Now about Lee Morgan so Lee was born in Philadelphia on July tenth nineteen thirty eight. And he found his passion around age thirteen when his sister, gifted him. His first trumpet Lee could also play the sex when he was just eighteen he joined dizzy Gillespie's big band, and he stayed with that band for a year and a half, which was when dizzy. Had begun to disband the group for economic reasons. So nine hundred fifty six he began recording for blue note, which was an American jazz label owned by Universal Music. He would eventually record twenty five albums on blue note, he joined and toured with art Blake lease jazz messengers for a few years in the beginning like around nine hundred fifty eight Lee had all his talent and greatness, unfortunately, during this time in the band. He was also introduced a heroin. And soon he was dealing with a full blown addiction. So their stories of him wearing slippers to shows because he'd sold his shoes pay for some dope or he had a scar on his head from when he overdosed once and fell on a radiator and like burned his scalp. All right over. Yeah. So his addiction was like, very real and very problematic. He ended up leaving that group around nineteen sixty one and at that point kind of began to have trouble getting hired. He did record his most popular record the Sidewinder in nineteen sixty three though. But within those few years, he basically went from like super successful to practically homeless all of his money. Just went toward the drugs and his life and his career kind of came to a standstill he would still get jobs here and there from friends who cared about him and wanted to help them out and everything. But he was just unfortunately to reliable at that point to have like a steady job, you know, feel like changes coming changes something's going to happen. He's gonna meet somebody, isn't it. He's going meet someone. So. Yeah. One day, we're on the mid sixties fate brought leave to Helen's apartment. So all fate. Exactly. Helen as she puts it was messing around with a trombone player named Benny green at the time. And it's Benny who brings Lee to Helen's door note say about trombone players, what do they say? Helen says I looked at him. And for some reason, my heart just went out to him. She immediately went into that protector mode. And she knew she had to help Lee. Get back on his feet Lee when he came to replace had no winter coat. It was the middle of winter freezing outside. He had pond it to score some dole. He must've been sexy or something for her to be like, I'll I'll show you some photos. He also no longer had his trumpet because he sold that as well. So. Guess what? How did bottom of new trumpet while close? She took him to the pawn shop and bought back both his coat and his trumpet after that. As she puts it Li hung onto me. Yeah. So I'm going to quote, Bennie Maupin who is a saxophonist. And composer who worked with Lee? He says I thought Helen was super she was his confidante his friend his lover, she was older. And she was definitely unafraid to be with a person who is unstable. I don't know much about her background. But whatever it was gave her a strength. She had a real quiet strength about her and he really trusted her. So Helen was actually thirteen years older than Li. Oh, yeah. Shortly after they met they ended up moving into gather. This was around nineteen sixty seven hundred sixty eight and Helen basically went about rebuilding lease ego. Basically. He had pretty much given up on life and music at that point. But she really encouraged him to clean himself up. It was really the heroin. Just that was holding him back like he had all this talent. And everything in you know, he had a good career up until that point. There is no reason that if he didn't get clean he couldn't just get back contract. Right. So she convinced him to enter a hospital in the Bronx to get on a method dome program, which he did while he was there Koetting clean Helen was working hard to secure him some gigs. She let all the jazz musicians and club owners know like lease getting clean. He's going to be ready to work. So once he got out he easily formed a new group with his old, jazz buddies who are all just incredibly happy and amazed to see this transformation and in no time at all likely had his career back. Thanks to Helen. Helen. Yeah. You had a vision. You did it. She was amazing. I only hope that he rewards you. In ways. Yeah. So worried about her. I'm just about her. And I just hope she's going to be okay. I'm going to quote Jerry Schultz who as the owner of venue called slugs, which Lee played often. He says he had never come to a job without her. We did the contract with her. You know, it was like she was managing him. She carried his trumpet case, she did every thing for him, and he played a lot. So she she was like his manager. She did everything another thing. How it helped Lee with was his image. The started after this point to care about his looks again. And he liked to be dressed really sharply and look the part so Helen took care of his clothes. She would clean them. She had earned them. She China's shoes before every gig. And of course, not really a surprise. She became a muse to him. There's a beautiful song play a little snippet here. It's called Helen's ritual and it's on his nineteen sixty eight album. Caramba nice. Yeah. So lease career had him out on the road. And soon enough thanks to Helen who was booking him shows and Chicago and all along the west coast and even engagements in the Caribbean. She wasn't a goal sheeting all his deals. She arranged all his flights. Transportation accommodations. She did all of this early. So that Lee could just focus on his music quoting Lee himself. He said right now, it's just me and my wife, so a lot of times I'd say at least half the time. I take her with me. She serves as wife cook secretary everything else, you know, besides it's a nice vacation for her as well, though. It doesn't sound like vacation at all because she and technically not actually married, but okay, obviously, they were living as if they were. So yeah, Helen is happy lease happy. They're just living it up. Great at this point living it up heroin, free everything. Megan some everything's pretty good. She's cute. Not sure about him. Yes. There's a quote for forcing pitchers. Yeah. There's a quote from pictures the way that my mom and my family does hitters pitchers pitchers pitchers of beer, you know, like can you print like if you take a photo of somebody? Can you those pictures for me? Sudbury could be could be it's a hell of an accent. Saying I don't want nothing. No, nothing. No, nothing like that. Yeah. All right. The double negatives. Well, there's a quote from Paul west who was the manager of the jazz mobile workshop and in the documentary. I call it Morgan he's in it. And I felt like this really some things up. He said his life was restored by Helen. And it was a joy to watch. He had his own group. He was playing he was producing and he was living, and they all felt that way. I'll they all it mired Helen for bringing Lee back to life Lee was also teaching young aspiring musicians who admired him in these like jazz mobile workshops, so he was giving back to the youth in the jazz community and everything. So everything was Kate Levin it so Lee was at the height of his career now, and they were most definitely part of the jazz elite. Partying entertaining legends in the scene. A good place to be right. Like that's pretty hip, you know, and he'll eat jazz, jazz, ERC city or city. The sixties sounds amazing. Well, Lee was no longer a heroin addict. He was now according to Helen shooting tremendous amounts of cocaine like what is it going to be? Yes, which I guess neither of them saw has an issue as it probably kept him working longer and harder as opposed to Heron which took life away from him. So I may be I mean, obviously, not the right way to think about that. But at the time, it didn't seem severe they didn't know. No better. Exactly. So obviously, though as the years progress things take a turn also I don't think they even mentioned the cocaine in the documentary. I think I got that from other articles and that essay, which I thought was interesting that they sort of block that out. And Helen might have also been indulging at that point as well. It. It's a little bit messy fact wise, I can get why she wouldn't want to be talking about that kind of stuff, but new years progressing, obviously things are going to start to take a turn. Leave began being a naughty. Boy, he started going out not coming home for days at a time. And nobody's surprise. Exactly. So he'd met a woman named Judith Johnson. And he wasn't exactly hiding his infidelity. So, of course, this and the fact that she was much much younger than Helen definitely have an effect on her. She says how says I think part of what might have sorry. I think part of that might have been my fault because I might have started being too possessive or too much like a mother to him classic. Yes. I was much older than Morgan. I thought about it. It was like to me like I made him. You know, I brought you back you belong to me. You're not supposed to go out there and do this. He started seeing a girl, and I understand it. Now, I was on him about using so much cocaine. You're using too much. You're not eating and your nerves. I guess I was beginning to sound like a mother this girl had been after him for a longtime once he got himself straight. She wanted him and they were hanging out. And you know, he had somebody his age to play with. So sadly. Helen win hindsight. Realizes some things. That's not her fault though. I know definitely. Well, I get that. That's mothering a little bit. And she is older. So it has that extra fact. That's also just carrying right? Yeah. You don't want the person you love to be doing tremendous amounts of cocaine every day. Sure. Don't. So since Judith was around Helen Helen sort of started to take a step back. She was still managing Lee though. She was managing all the business side of things and she's making him Coyne. I'm not I don't know. I don't know about that. But they were still technically living together. But Helen started to feel comfortable going out in everything. So she began staying at home. She wasn't going to as many gigs anymore. Only like the more important ones. One of those happen to be TV special. She said naturally, I was there. But that didn't mean nothing because when we left he was going to go to her, and I was going onto, you know, I'm not one of those women that can talk about I'm the main woman, and you've got somebody else out there. I'm not that built that way. That's not me. I'm no, Maine woman. If you're leaving here every night or leaving me here every night by myself while you're out with somebody else. I'm not the main. No. So she's not she's taking it really hard, which understandably she actually tried committing suicide by swallowing poison. Yeah. We was home when it happened. And he took her to the hospital where her stomach was pumped, thankfully. Helen decided I need to get away from this. I I'm going to go to Chicago, visit some friends, but she says Lee begged her not to go and to quote Jalan. She said. I said we can't live like this. It's not me. I didn't go to Chicago. And I told him, you know, Morgan I making the biggest mistake of my life. She would be correct about that. Yes. So nineteen seventy-two rolls in and not much as changed. They were still sort of living together Lee was still seeing Judith and Helen was still managing him. She booked him an entire week of shows at slugs that was going to be in February on a whim. She decided I'm gonna go. I'm gonna go like I manage him. He's my man where he's supposed to be at my man, I'm going to go to one of these final shows. So she had planned to go to slugs and then go to the vanguard later with other friends so on February eighteenth. New York City was experiencing this super insane snowstorm. And Lee had been Judith earlier in the day and Judas live in Manhattan. So she had driven up and had planned to drive home. But they ended up in a bad car. Accident thing the end Judith. Yes. Thanks to the weather. So her car was actually total. But both of them came out of it on harmed. It was very lucky. So Lee was late for the gig. But he managed to get there. And Judith came with him because her car was total. She couldn't go home. But you wasn't supposed to be there. Right. Right. So Judah says she was waiting on a taxi, and she had no intention of even stay. But she was there when Helen arrived. So Helen, obviously uncomfortable in her presence asked their friend a guy named Paul west to ask Lee to get her to leave, obviously. There are different points of view on everything that's going to happen. Now. There's Judith side. There's Helen side. Everyone kind of sees things a little differently been so Helen or Judith says Helen went off on Lee about something and it caused a fight. Helen says Judith walked over to Lee and her and said, I thought you weren't supposed to be with her anymore to which Lee replied, I'm not with this bitch, which is a terrible thing to say about Helen. So either way Helen is hurt kind of acting out. Maybe she hit Louis. I've also read things about Lee hitting her this point as well. Something happened Lee grabbed Helen got her out of the club. He like removed Helen from the club. Helen didn't have her coat or her purse because they were inside. Oh, sorry. She did have her purse. She didn't ever coat. So she turns around. To to try to get back in the club. And. Quoting Helen, she says, I guess he told the bouncer that I couldn't come back in the bouncer said to be miss Morgan hate to tell you. But Lee don't want me to let you in. So how was pissed obviously. And unfortunately at the time Helen happened to have a gun in her purse. Oh, no. So she said, oh, I'm coming in. And I guess the bouncer saw the gun. So he was like, okay. Yeah. You're coming in. That's all right. So she sees she see she says that she sees Lee coming toward her very angry. Right. It's interesting logic. You're outside of the club. And just the two of us in you have a gun. So yes, let's let you into the club. Interesting logic there. I guess he didn't wanna get shot. But let me just start me the perfect because sees me as we're going through the story. I never heard of any of these people before, and that's awesome. Like usually have a vague idea of who you're talking about or like the band in questions. So I'm wondering why are there are so many articles written wiser net flicks special like was it that he was like such a prolific and such a talented musician or such as the story of what happens? To these musicians is wild. It's like a mixture of both with him for sure I think he would have been a legend either way. But what happens definitely made him more. So okay. So Helen goes in the club. She's got this gun in her hand. She sees Lee storming toward her in a rage as she puts it, so she points the gun at him. And she fired. So helen. Yeah. She says I ran over. And I said I was sorry. And he said to me Helen, I know you didn't mean to do this. I'm sorry to I can remember the cops throwing me out. I went into hysterics. And I don't know it seemed to me like everybody must have left. I don't know where the girl went. I guess she means a Judith. The hell out of there juicy says, I think she thought she was next. But she never meant entered my mind, you know, it's a funny thing, she didn't enter my mind when that gun went off it snapped me back into reality to what I had done. I didn't have a coat. I didn't have a bag. I didn't have nothing. I was just sitting there. You know, it seemed like it hadn't registered I said, I couldn't have done this. I couldn't have done this. This must be a dream. And I'll wake up I couldn't be sitting here. And then I just went to jail and sat there so while the police were very quick to arrive on the scene. They actually ended up waiting almost an hour for the ambulance to rive. Thanks to the snowstorm. Right. Yes. So what happened was Lee ended up bleeding out? He probably would not have died, which he did if it weren't for that ambulance taking that long. Whoa. So he was only thirty three. Yeah. And on August twenty ninth in nineteen Seventy-three Helen ended up pleading guilty to second degree manslaughter. And she spent a short time in prison, but she was actually released on probation pretty shortly after so she says I said well, Helen you've got to get yourself together. It's done you done put yourself in it now. So you've got to get yourself together. You've got to get your mind together. You've got to get yourself together mentally to accept what you have done. So when she got out she went back to her roots. She went back to Wilmington North Carolina, and she kinda put herself in this jazz exile, really she ended up staying there for the rest of her life. Obviously a lot of the people in the jazz scene Riveria angry with her three. How many years did she serve in prison? I couldn't find out. Exactly. But I think it was like five tops, probably less. It was like nothing probation. Basically wonder why in like how I don't know interesting. So yeah, the guys in the scene obviously were super upset that they lost leeann everything. But at the same time, it's. The everything that happened. And in the in the documentary, they don't talk about leaving abusive to her at all either. But in articles and in an essay like she talks about that. So there is definitely a lot of. Issues around that. And it was actually. It was actually lead that gave her the gun per protection. So that's another really interesting fact, so I take back what I said earlier, maybe don't be like how in every single way about us like Heli about us like Helen, don't devote your entire self to another or to a man. Yep. That's important. Yes. It is. Yeah. Okay. So she actually became really active in her church. Her son says that taking lease live really affected her greatly. And I hope. Yeah. She really did go out of her way to help others as she had done before. And she she gave back for the rest of her life like as like all she could so one month before she died in March of nineteen ninety six she granted this interview with this jazz disc, jockey and educator named Larry Rennie Thomas and Larry used that interview. You to write a piece called the lady who shot Lee Morgan. And that's again, what I used as like the main part of this episode along with the documentary, I called him Morgan, and you can hear Helen on those tapes that she did with Larry in the documentary. So you can hear Helen talk about this in her own words and everything. And that's where I got a lot of these quotes and everything things for doing all of that. Yeah. What a story. It's it's just like it's just so jazzed beginning, and you know. Just from the drugs to the. Accidental on purpose death. That's what I love about. You is that you can take story. They've never heard of or you know, that I wouldn't necessarily have immediate interest in. And it's fascinating. And it's there we heard. Yeah. It's crazy to that. Most people probably don't know about that unless you're like a jazz aficionado rate. Yeah. Soya she's still alive. No, she passed. Okay. Nineteen eighty six she actually pass like a month or two after she recorded those those. Yeah, it was like she needed to get her story of. Wow. And we're poorly only thirty three. So she was in her forties. Yes. Yeah. I don't know. Like, yeah. That's that's pretty wild. And I don't know. I'd like to cooling says showing the photo. I'll post this photo on the four photo. Yeah. So I'm going to watch this documentary to watch this documentary before I do that. I do have some last things I have to do around the house because as you know, I got everything in order. Yeah. Like seriously got things into order. I know wherever single piece of clothing, I own is because I was not good with that. And we're going to put like, you know, we're going to sort out the different bags and things like that. So definitely one of my not like I'm not going to say resolution, but like an intention for this year is to just keep being tidy clear space clear mind that kind of thing and I'm starting boxing tomorrow. That's exciting yet. I wanna join you. Yeah. Going to do it. Oh into meal prep a little bit more because just with how busy I am the last couple of months before the holiday break there. I was just eating way too much grocery store. Sushi. Well, a new year new beginning. Yeah. And yeah, I hope everyone liked different. Story. It's fun to do the rock and roll stories. I like learning about new John rose, and we did the punk rock one. Last time the cramps, and we got a jazz went in. And let us know give us some feedback. Let us know which would you like best? And yeah, do you like something completely new and different and people that you've never heard of this war? We have a lot of wonderful interviews coming up. Yeah. This year so excited for it. Like some that are going to hopefully be in person with a little bit of traveling. And then I yeah, there's a lot. There's a lot of exciting things. And yeah, I got some other jazz ones in mind for throughout the year. And of course, more punk rock mine's country. Yeah. Next plus exciting. I'm really excited for yours. Actually. It's really funny too light hearted. Yeah. Yeah. After this. We've I wanted. I wanted it to be the first one of the new year because it's so inspiring. But you know, this is a little less inspiring. But very interesting, and yeah, companion piece with the documentaries. So go watch it, and let us know what you think. Yeah. And thanks to everybody for being so interactive in vocal on especially Instagram like the. Birthday photos and the anniversary photos of the Rockstars, and the muses, and you know, people really care and. They care about these people, and we love hearing about it. So thank you for the comments and keep those going and one other perk that we had in the holiday season, we got to meet Bree and Kylie. It was nice some Instagram friends who are Dali's as well. The in the New York group. Yeah. And that was exciting. They came up here and visited and we got to spend some time with them, and we love meeting new dolls and can't wait to meet more throughout the year. Yeah. I'm gonna go do my terro breeding of two thousand and nineteen. So we'll see we'll see what comes up with that. I think I'm heading to New York soon. Actually, I'm so happy for you. It's my happy place. So I was actually having a conversation last night with a couple of friends, and we were talking about how you know links is so New York, I'm so California and being. From canada. We don't really have an equivalent, I suppose, our New York is Toronto. Which is where we are. And I don't want to complain about being here. Like if I'm gonna be anywhere in Canada. This is a this is to be absolutely. If you wanna do or be involved in the things that we like are involved in but there's no California quivalent Canada. And I guess the closest thing could be Victoria. But it's not known for being like. Yeah. And even like with Toronto, I feel like Toronto's them York equivalent to people who haven't been too. Yeah. Like, I used to think that and then I went to New York, and I was like oh my God. This is there's no New York except New York. Yeah. But thank God. It's so close I just bust down usually so yeah. Yeah. Well, I'm looking forward to your. Adventures there, and we've sent our all of the videos that we took from Tennessee off to Abud who's going to put them all together. So you guys can look forward to not just tearing us. But seeing some of the things that we got up. So you know, it's a I kick at the can. And it is what it is. And spy, no means, you know, profession. We're just gonna put it up there. You gotta take risks. And you gotta give it go. And. It was fun. Well, that's the first one twenty nineteen feels good. Yeah. Okay. Thanks links. Of course. And you guys can all head over to rock. No, archaeology dot com. Check out the network pantheon new year new name. And yeah. Other shows there, you're adding more show. Yeah. Goes on. And it's like it's wild to even keep up with the network to just know that all of the amazing things that they're doing. So those guys are crowd at that time is right. Yeah. Okay. All right. Take everybody. We love you. Uses south is produced. Hi, sean. Tell them you and being solar all songs, it'd be found for purchase on itunes Spotify or Google play. Please purchase. He's great and important trials. Please isn't Roth a role archaeology dot com. For more information.
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Chicago 8 - The Hanging Judge | 2
The United States district court for the northern district of Illinois eastern division is housed in the federal building in Chicago's loop. It's plain black steel and glass, stretching thirty stories into the sky on the twenty third floor hundreds of prospective jurors sit in silence as a judge address the room. It's jury selection time for the Chicago eight and things are not going well for the defense. Those accused are charged with conspiring to cross state lines to incite a riot. With teaching the making of incendiary devices with committing acts to impede law enforcement officers in their lawful duties objection is it possible to recite that charges in a less, dramatic fashion. Your honour sounds like Orson Welles reading the declaration of independent overruled. May I proceed Mr. counselor lead defense attorney William consular sits down dejected. Yes. Your honor? Now. Where were we MS Peterson? What is your current marital status? I'm married. Your honor consulate turns to his cO, cancel Leonard wine glass. Now, he's ignoring all our questions on purpose. He is judge Julius Hoffman. He's a seventy four year old Republican any prides himself on quick and efficient jury selection, but consular wants these jurors to answer real questions like do you have any hostile feelings towards persons whose lifestyle differ considerably from your own, do, you know, who Jefferson airplane country, Joe, and the fish, Phil oaks or the fogs are do you consider marijuana habit forming in other words, how likely are you to be biased against the eight counterculture radicals about to go on trial? But the judge is in having it normally for such a high profile case the court would spend several days carefully selecting twelve jurors and twelve. Hornets next your age twenty one year on thank you. That'll be all judge Hoffman gets the job done in one day. You're dismissed. When it's over defense co counsel. Leonard wine glass stares at the jury in disbelief ten women two men mostly middle aged Jesus Christ. Typically, Bill consular has a lot more faith in the system than his clients. Do he voted for democrat Hubert Humphrey, a few months ago in the contentious nineteen sixty eight presidential election when he walks into a courtroom he believes in the blindfolded lady with the scales? But now consular's faith is getting a serious test and the trial hasn't even started. He glances over his clients terms to wine glass, and drops his voice down south. They have a term for judge like this on. What's that? Shipping can be complex with the uncertainty over costs and deciding which carried us, plus tracking your packages things can get confusing. Now, there's a better way to ship send pro online by Pitney Bowes with send pro online. It's easy to save time and money, no matter what you sent from letters and packages to overnights and flats and you'll always get the rate that's best for you was sent pro online. You can easily compare USPS and other shipping options in an all in one online tool print shipping, labels and stamps on your own printer and track all of your shipments. Plus when the US postal rates increase on January twenty seventh you'll still be able to access savings of up to forty percent off USPS priority, mail shipping and five cents off every letter you send just by using central online. Send pro online is only fourteen ninety nine per month. And you can get a. Free thirty day trial when you visit PBA dot com slash legal wars. He'll also receive a free ten pounds scale to help. You weigh your packages and accurately calculate the cost of shipping. That's PB dot com slash legal wars, and you can experience the convenience of send pro online for yourself when you sign up for a thirty day free trial, and thanks to Pitney Bowes and send pro online for sponsoring the show. From wondering, I'm hill Harper, and this is legal wars. This is episode two in our three part series. Revisiting the trial of the Chicago eight the hanging judge. When the trial began in nineteen sixty-nine, it captured the nation's attention, even in the midst of almost unprecedent political turmoil. Things had come to a head in August of nineteen sixty eight when riots consume the city of Chicago during the week of the democratic national convention, thousands gathered to protest US action in Vietnam and the cops crackdown. It was a war in the streets a national scandal. The federal government blame the protesters and brought charges against eight prominent activists and the trial was about more than just who threw the first punch during the trial. The radicals and establishment interrogated each other literally and symbolically on one side, the eight liberal defendants, ABBIE. Hoffman, Jerry Rubin. Bobby seale? Dave Dellinger Rennie Davis. Tom hayden. John Foin and. Lee winer on the other side, the US government judge Julius Hoffman. And the sitting mayor of Chicago, Richard J Daley it was a battle for the soul of American culture and both sides plan to win by any means necessary from the very beginning. Everyone could see that this trial was going to be wild. And what you're about to hear is taken word for word from what was actually said in the courtroom. It was a battle. On the first day of the trial spectators, hoping to glimpse the action lineup around the block starting at the crack of dawn it's early fall, but already freezing Chicago, strong winds blowing off Lake Michigan can chill you to the bone. Local news truce film cameras at the ready huddle in vans ready to jump out when the defendants arrive the police as always are on hand in case. There's trump. One by one the defendants, enter the courtroom and almost immediately. The actress begin the jury will please disregard the kiss blown by defendant hate the defendants are charged with conspiracy to travel interstate with the intent to incite organize promote encourage participate in and carry out a riot. John phones and Lee winer are charged with teaching others how to make incendiary devices and the other six Hoffman. Ruben seal Hayden Dellinger Davis are charged with inciting violence added up each defendant faces ten years behind bars, the prim proper and perpetually outraged assistant US attorney Richard Scholz is here to remind the jury why the government, ladies and gentlemen of the jury will prove in this case the case, which you will witnesses jurors and overall plan of the eight defense. In this case, which was to encourage numerous people to come to the city of Chicago people who planned legitimate protest during the democratic national convention, which was held in Chicago in August of nineteen sixty eight from August twenty sixth through August twenty ninth nineteen sixty eight they plan to bring these people into Chicago to protest legitimately protest as I said, creating a situation in this city where these people would come to Chicago would riot the defendants in perpetrating this offense, they the defendant crossed state lines themselves at defendant. Tom Hayden is a pretty brilliant, man. But even he is having trouble following this meandering opening statement. He looks over at the jury they seem as board as he feels Hayden notices. Several of the jurors looking back in his direction Schultz now naming the defendants says Tom Hayden Hayden. Cheerlead salutes? The jurors with a raised fist judge Hoffman. Immediately cuts the prosecutor off Mr. Marshall, please excuse the jury from the courtroom the jurors leave Hoffman continues and addresses Schultz. Who is the last defence you named Mr. Haden, the one that shook his fist in the direction of the jury that is my customary greeting your honor, it may be your customary greeting. But we do not allow shaking a fists in this courtroom. I made that clear it implied. No disrespect for the jury. It is my customary greeting, regardless of what an implies, sir. There will be no fish shaking. And I cautioned you not to repeat it with Hayden cautioned. And the jury brought back in Schultz continues to state the government's case against the defendants. He outlines a three step plan. These alleged conspirators employed to invite protesters to Chicago with the explicit goal of sparking violent large scale confrontation in some then, ladies and gentlemen. The government will prove that the eight defendants charged here conspired together to use interstate commerce and the facilities of interstate commerce to incite into further a ride in Chicago. It's now defense attorney William counselors, turn to speak, and he has one central point to make he readily agrees that there was a conspiracy. But from his point of view this conspiracy wasn't hatched by his clients sitting in some dark shadowy basement somewhere plotting to ensure the streets of Chicago ran red with blood. No, instead, he points the finger in a different direction, which raises the stakes the real conspiracy was against these defendants, but we are going to show that the real. Conspiracy is not against these defendants as individuals because they are unimportant as individuals. The real attempt was the real attack was on the rights of everybody all of us. American citizens all to protest under the first amendment to the constitution. Consular is pleased with what feels like a solid and well put opening statement. But when he sits back down he can see his clients are furious during a recess they let their lead attorney habit. What the hell you think it that was your opening statement? This was our chance to tell them. Why were really hear what we're really fighting for calmed down abbey? You blew it. Bill. Can't even believe this Tom could you it's not about our right? It's not about the first amendment. We don't care about any of that. What we care about is the soldiers dying in Vietnam. I thought you understood. It's decided Leonard wine glass will make these points when the defendants return to court, but he can't every time he mentions Vietnam. Judge Hoffman tells him not to talk about antiwar positions. Finally, judge Hoffman yells at him. Mr. Weisglass, I think you're persistency and disregarding direction of court and the law in the face of repeated ammunitions is consummated conduct. And I find it on the record. He's accusing wine glass of outright disrespect and refusing to obey the judge's thority. That's going to be a theme throughout the trial. Opening statements complete more or less, the fundamental question is established are these eight men often profane often theatrical always outspoken in their criticism of America. A sinister cabal did they advocate for violence in Chicago. And get exactly what they were hoping for. Or are they well intentioned idealists unjustly facing punishment from a duplicitous federal government trying to squash dissent, just who are the Chicago. Eight. Judge Hoffman has forbidden cameras in the courtroom, so magazines newspapers and TV networks. Send sketch artists to depict the drama as it unfolds on day one cartoonist Jules Pfeiffer captures judge Hoffman resting his head against his right hand in oppose of wearied agitation. Part of what he finds so irritating about these radicals is that they're radical in different ways, the eight have recognized this from the beginning. It's the government that decided to try them as a group forcing them to appear in court together like some sort of protests super team. Is their mutual respect between them. Sure. But Tom thinks Abby and Jerry waste time with their endless clowning, Abby. And Jerry thing. Tom is square up tight? Dave Dellinger believes there's no excuse for violence for any reason ever. Bobby Seale is a Black Panther who believes in the right to armed self-defence whiner and Freund are Spiring professors when abbey Hoffman thinks about at all. He just has to laugh these guys in conspiracy. L they can't even agree on lunch. But judge Hoffman is not laughing. He sees a group of defendants and their lawyers clearly scheming to undermine his court. I wanna make a statement just a minute, sir. Who is your lawyer Bobby Seale directly at the Judge Charles r Gary. As judge Hoffman knows along with everyone else. Charles. Our Gary is not in this courtroom Hoffman asks the jury to leave the courtroom for the third time today. It's only eleven o'clock. Maybe you forgotten so much has happened already. Charles are Gary is Bobby seals lawyer, but he isn't in the courtroom because he's at home in California recovering from gallbladder surgery. Seal tells the judge he doesn't want consular or Leonard wine glass to represent him. He wants Gary Gary asked Hoffman to postpone the trial for six weeks while he regained his health, but the judge refused. William consular gets up and tells judge Hoffman that to make an opening statement on Bobby seals behalf will compromise. His client's position that the trial. Can't go forward until he has the lawyer. He wants judge Hoffman replies. I don't ask you to compromise it, sir. But I will not permit. Him to address the jury with his very competent lawyer seated there if I were to make an opening statement, I would compromise his position that he has not his full council here. Mr Seal, you are not to make an opening statement. I saw order you. You are not permitted to in the circumstances of this case with that judge Hoffman asks the prosecution to call their first witness, Raymond Simon corporation counsel for Chicago in the city's top attorney takes the stand. He's up there because ABBIE Hoffman and Jerry Rubin approached him on August eighth. Nineteen sixty eight requesting permit for protesters to congregate in Lincoln park, the week of the democratic national convention Simon turn them down Rennie Davis and others from the national mobilization committee to end the war in Vietnam sued and Simon met with them. He says to try and find the solution. Prosecutor Thomas foreign address. Simon. What did Mr. Davis say? He said if the city doesn't give us the park, there will be tens of thousands of people without a place to stay, and they will go into the parks and the police will drive them out, and they will run through the streets of the city, and there will be disorder and conflict and problems and the police will fight back, and there will be tear gas and Mace and Billy clubs. Davis didn't get what he wanted his lawsuit against the city of Chicago was dismissed meaning that if he and his protesters wanted to demonstrate in Lincoln park, they'd have to do. So without a permit the world saw what happened next tear gas Mace and Billy clubs. This begs the question was Rennie. Davis clearly leader just being irresponsible when he decided to go ahead with the rally knowing what could happen or as the prosecution is clearly suggesting was violence the goal all along. September thirty day five tensions ratchet up notch prosecuting attorney Thomas foreign addresses the court. I was informed. Just about the time. We were to come to court by the FBI that they had been informed that one of the jurors had received a letter or her family had received a letter that certainly could be of threatening nature. It is dressed to the king family Eighty-one. South Carolina, crystal lake Illinois, six zero zero one four it is written in script. You are being watched the Black Panthers. Bobby Seale quaking with rage whispers to his co defendants. That's a forgery. We never signed anything the Black Panthers. It's always the Black Panther party. Or if we'll be informal. The Black Panther party for self defense. There are actually two letters both sent to Christie king. She's young and through. Her sister has a connection to the peace corps. The defense sees these two points as being in their favor. They could also explain why someone working against them would want to frighten king off the jury. Defense attorney consular like seal knows the letters are bogus and tells the judge so we are at the point your honor where the defendants has seriously made a statement that they believe that the two letters in question were sent in some way by some agent of the government in order to prejudice them further in this trial. That is their position. I think they have publicly stated it and that is the position which they take judge Hoffman scoffs, he sits elevated ten feet above the floor. Behind him hangs, several frame portrait's of the founding fathers Hoffman is certain those great men would be rolling in their graves if they could hear what was just said he squinched down at the defense table. I will let you try to prove that right now that is a very grave charge against an office of the government. Well, we obviously can't prove in your on that don't say it. This is the clients. -sition that is my statement to make a statement like that is irresponsible. It's clear Kristie king is already badly rattled now. She's under judge Hoffman's microscope. He says to the young woman have you seen either of these letters? No, you're on. Well, then you'd better just take this right now and read it Christie does as instructed now knowing how you and your family have been threatened. Do you believe you still be able to remain impartial in this case Kristie king's face Rennes? She looks quickly at Bobby Seale then away quietly. She replies. No miss. King. Your services are no longer required in this trial. You are dismissed. Kings replacement is a woman named cave Richards who just happens to be engaged to mayor Richard Daley's supervisor of personnel. Judge Hoffman does not see a conflict of interest. Over the next month. The prosecution calls witness after witness all of whom testify about their certainty that the defendants intended violence one is Robert Pearson. A police officer who went undercover in order to get dirt on behalf, man. He explains how for his assignment he altered his appearance to come across a little less cop like and more like a radical. I allowed my hair to grow long. I loud myself to go without a shave for proximity four to six weeks. I purchased the tire of motorcycle gang member, which is more of a cycle boots. A black T shirt black Li lies in a black leather vast in a motorcycle helmet Monday. August twenty six nineteen sixty eight. Did you have any occasion on that day to go to Lincoln park? Yes, sir. I did Jordan or -duced me to ABBIE Hoffman. He's at abbey. This is Bob. He will be one of your bodyguards. I said. Hoffman that last night's confrontation was a pretty good one and often said to me that last night they pushed us out of the park. But tonight, we're going to hold the park. He then said that we're going to any used a foul word f up the pigs and the convention. What was the word, please? Will you relate it? Fuck. As the first month wraps up a separate an ongoing issue reasserts itself since the opening statement debacle judge Hoffman and Bobby Seale have barely been able to exchange. Three civil words on Monday, October twenty seventh day thirty four of the trial the situation escalates seal again tells judge Hoffman that he wants his lawyer. What about my constitutional right to defend myself and have my lawyer, your constitutional rights. You are denying that you had been denying them. Every other word you say is denied denied denied denied. And you begin to only in the face of the masses of the people of this country. That is what you begin to represent the corrupt of this rotten government of four hundred years. Ladies and gentlemen, of the jury I regret that I will have to excuse, you hope you don't blame me for anything. And those false lion notes and lead is that was sent that said the Black Panther party threatened. The jury it's a lie. And you know, it's a lie and the government did it to taint the jury against me. Over the next couple days things between Bobby Seale and judge Hoffman. Get even more intense. I am warning you sir that the loss dead. A warning. Why don't you warm me? I've got a right to defend myself. I'm warning you that the court as the right to gag you. I don't wanna do that under the law. You may be gagged and chained to your chair gagged, I'm being railroaded. Alright a court has the right and court has no right whatsoever. The court has no right to stop me. From speaking out in my behalf of my constitutional rights. The court will be in recess until tomorrow morning at ten o'clock. Everyone will please rise not rising. I am not rising until he recognizes my constitutional rights, Mr. Marshall see that he rises Mr Seal and the other one to get all the defendants to rise Mr. Haden. Will you please Ryan's? Let the record show that none of the defendants has risen the court will be in recess. The following day October twenty ninth ABBIE Hoffman makes knobs avation. They're twenty five marshals in here. Now in the all got guns. It's clear that the marshalls are here in force and armed for one purpose to keep Bobby Seale and his supporters in the courtroom in check. It's a startling image in a trial already filled with them. And it's not going to be the craziest thing these people. See? You can't tackle every item on your list of resolutions. But there's one that's pretty easy ring in the new year with a new hair care routine. Madison Reed is hair color reinvented. Gorgeous salon-quality color delivered to your door for less than twenty five dollars. Remember, it's twenty nineteen. Now, you don't have to choose between outdated box color or the time and expensive salon crafted in Italy by master, cholera STS, Madison Reed is professional hair color. You can't easily do at home multi tonal ammonia free with ingredients. You can feel good about find your perfect shade today. Get an expert color consultation or take the color quiz and Madison dash Reebok com. As a listener of legal wars, you can get ten percent off plus free shipping on your first color kit with code legal wars, that's code legal wars for ten percent off plus free shipping on. On your first color kit. It's day. Thirty six of the trial and Bobby Seale judge Julius Hoffman are still arguing the jury is once again asked to leave the courtroom, Mr Seal, I've admonished you previously. I have a right to cross examine the witness. What might happen to you? If you keep on talking. We are going to recess now. Young men if you keep this look old man, if you keep denying me, my constitutional rights, you are being exposed to the public and the world that you do not care about people's constitutional rights to defend themselves. Judge Hoffman reiterates his threat from the previous day. I will tell you that what I indicated yesterday might happen to you happen to me what can happen to me more than what Benjamin Franklin and George Washington did the black people in slavery. What can happen to me more than that? Mr seal. Do you wanna stop or do you want me to direct the Marsh wants to argue the point we will take a recess take the defendant into the room there and deal with him as he? Should be dealt with. I still want to be represented. I want to represent myself the Marshall turns to the nearest defense attorney William consular. Will you instruct the defendants certain that it is the order of the court that they will rise upon the recess. If that is a direction of the court, I certainly will pass it on let the record show. None of the defendants have stood at this recess in response to the marshalls request that direction. He's all six marshals rushing. Bobby seeing the other seven jumped to their feet, and Dave the pacifist tries to get between seal in the marshes. He's thrown to the floor co founder Jerry ruin hills for all the here. They're kicking him in the ball. Marshall punches him in the face, Tom. Hayden. Shouts above the Malay on all he wants to be legally represented, not be a slave. The chaos of the Chicago streets is now in the court. Picks the marshalls drag Bobby into back Bobby seals ankles and risk for putting chains. Get off. The marshalls type thick white cloth around the back of his head and over his mouth. And then this is followed by perhaps the most shocking moment of all. He's brought back in and the judge and Marshall's attempt to resume the trial as if nothing happened Mr. foreign would you like to proceed this is a true turning point? William consular can't contain himself. I wanted to say the records should indicate that Mr Seal is seated on a metal chair each hand is handcuffed to the leg of the chair on both the right and left sides. So he cannot raise his hands. And they've gag is tightly pressed into his mouth and tied at the rear, and that when he attempts to speak, a muffled sound comes out as he has done several times since he has been bound and gagged. Bobby Seale has been muzzled but not silenced. Mr marshall. I don't think you've accomplished your purpose. Judge Hoffman orders yet another reset and the marshalls carry seal out once again still chained to his chair. When he's brought back in there's a plug like device in his mouth same story. The next day seal sits in the courtroom plugged and Enchaine's once again, he struggles against the marshalls and share is kicked. At this point pandemonium breaks out again, marshalls elbow in punch defendants spectators and journalists the court sketch artist gets it all William kuntsler has never witnessed anything like this. And it's making him more radical the second this is no longer afford or your honor. This is a medieval torture chamber. It is a disgrace. They are salting the other defendants also. Yet. Again, the whole world is watching and the viewers at home have seen hand-drawn images of the black man in chains on the front page of the morning papers. This is very bad publicity. Eventually seal is allowed to appear in court without the restraints the increasingly cranky judge peers down at the lead defense attorney Bill h Ray San Mateo county deputy sheriff is on the witness stand mister Kessler. Do you have any cross examination of this witness your honor since this witness only related facts relevant to Mr Seal who has as your honor knows discharged me. I have no questions. I think I have a right to cross examine Mr Seal. I asked you to sit down Bobby Seale is clearly not the kind of guy who sits down when he's told to sit down. He has some questions for the man testifying against him. Have you ever killed a Black Panther party member? Mr Seal, I will have to ask you to sit down. Please. Have you ever been on any rates in the Black Panther party's offices or Black Panther party members homes, Mr Seal, this is the third time? I'm asking you to. Sit down as courteously possible. Judge Hoffman has the jury leave the courtroom you are making it very difficult. For me, Mr Seal, you are making it very difficult for me judge Hoffman. Judge Hoffman seems to be building to something. Len Wein glass knows what's coming next. And isn't surprised when Hoffmann says I find the axe statements and conduct of the defendant, Bobby Seale constituted deliberate and willful attack upon the administration of Justice and attempt to sabotage the functioning of the federal judiciary system and misconduct of so brave character as to make Mirren position of a fine of futile gesture and wholly insignificant punishment judge Hoffman then sentences Bobby Seale to contempt citing some sixteen instances of penalty four years behind bars. But there's more there will be an order to clearing mistrial as to the defendant. Bobby G seal and not as to any other defendants the marshalls return this time to take Bobby Seale back to prison as he is dragged away and spectator, chef free, Bobby Seale. Make sure he's heard wait a minute. I got a right to catch on to pull. Now. I can't stay. I still want an immediate. You can't call it a mistrial. I'll put in jail for four years for nothing. The date is November fifth nineteen sixty nine the Chicago eight are now the Chicago Seven for body seal this part is over but for ABBIE Hoffman, Jerry Rubin. Tom hayden. Dave, Rennie Davis Lee, y and John phone lines. It's just the beginning. On the third and final episode of legal wars. Look at the trial of the Chicago Seven the defendant step up their blatant defined. So the court and call a who's who of legendary sixty celebrities. Philosophers and activists help them do. I hope you enjoyed this episode of legal wars. Subscribe now on apple podcasts. Stitch NPR Spotify wondering dot com or ever you. Listen to this show, you'll find a link on the episode notes, simply tap or swipe over the cover. He'll also see some offers from our sponsors. Please support our show by supporting them. If you like what you're hearing. We'd love you to give us a five star rating and tell your friends how to subscribe another way to support us as to answer a short survey at one hundred dot com slash survey. I'm your host hill. Harper are writers Hannibal D as our Lille consultants. Katie burger Kramer, and our researchers Caitlyn crime Casey minor edited this episode legal wars is produced by Stephanie jen's, George lavender sound designed by spoke media are executive producers are marshal Louis and Hernan Lopez for wondering.