1 Episode results for "Lord Of Ludlow"
The Future of Us, with Sir Martin Rees
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And if you ever do get stuck squarespace as twenty four seven award winning customer support is there to help head to square. Space dot com slash star talk for a free trial. And when you're ready to launch use offer code star talk to save ten percent off your first purchase of a website or domain universes filled with secrets mysteries believing this with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers because the very fabric of space in science. Society are converging here. First time. He's. Oh, what are you saying? TV ad breaks to grandma's house. To get loud. Few. Looks good. This is star talk. I'm your host, Neil degrasse, Tyson your personal astrophysicist and tonight. My co host is the inimitable Maeve Higgins. Thank you. Elbow belbow get around the microphone, you don't get like, my germ, elbow only. Only clean. Welcome back. Thank you. I'm. I don't think you've been back since you publish your book may maven America. Now, just I blurred this book to read the blur. I'm gonna read the blurb. Yeah. I I asked you. I said Neil, please read this book, you said most I. Thank you. So here's the blurb until space aliens landed America, Maeve Higgins from Ireland is the next best thing she offers fresh and inciteful perspectives from faraway place on all we take for granted. So good luck on that. Because we all know alliens or green. Yes. Tonight. We are talking about the future of humanity, and aren't many people you want to do that with because most people don't know what the hell they're talking about. But tonight, we got one of the deepest thinkers on this subject. We brought in sir. Martin Reese, a friend and colleague of mine from way back so Martin welcome to start talk a great to be here with you nail. Excellent. Thanks for doing this. You just came out with a book called on the future and this two for one here. When he's in very good company. You can see the other people. Before pay good focal pages. Musk governor Brown governor Brown. My blurred. If I may, okay. From climate change to biotech to artificial intelligence science sits at the center of nearly all decisions that civilization confronts to assure its own survival, Martin Reese as created a primer on these issues, and what we can do about them. So that the next generation will think of us not as reckless custodians of their inheritance. But it's brilliant shepherds of their birthright. Wow. That is great. That makes people actually want to read them. So Martin let me just give people just a little background. I don't know if I told anyone this publicly, but when I was a graduate student at you were eminent now and forever you've been eminent in my field is an astrophysicist at the university of Cambridge in England with the original Cambridge was from. Okay. Bridging. Starter cambridge. And as a graduate student at one of our sort of society conferences, I think I had a poster paper where you you. You're not sort of Farner for long for them to let you give a talk. So you just you put your paper up on a poster, and you wait for people to come by so passive delivery of your of your science, and you came up to my paper, and you looked at it. And you ask me questions about it. And you didn't have to do that. And I felt that my future as a participating scientist was blessed. If you will. And so I just want to thank you. Well, I don't know what you how often you do that. But I just want to thank you because what may be little for. You was big for me at the time. The great. So now, it's it's the other way round. It's great for me. Yeah. But but then of course, you're at Princeton University. This wonderful calls which I didn't attend. But I read the book about you did. Okay. Yes. Post doc at Princeton. Then I've talked there. But so just want to thank you for all the work you've done just and you're like he's like the last gentleman. Oh. Oh. That's really good for science to because they think ethics and morals I needed in science, right? So I'm just saying there aren't they don't make them like him anymore. Do you had a good book for you, the smaller? You'll books are the better they sell your turns out. You don't like to read. I think. Yeah. Yes. Now in the it's tweets. Read, you know, two hundred character, the image of you were you like in a row of graduate students, and then the reasons just start walking by and you're like pick me. The bachelor. I'm sure he's supposed to more graduate students than me on that day. So let me just go down your your four line bio here astronomer Royal this didn't Edmond Halley have this or something. But that's right. Because it was the person who ran the bench observatory, but that became a museum from the nineteen sixties on budge. When of course, we could have telescopes under clear skies. Elsewhere, but they kept the title. I so I have this just as a title, and there's only one astronomer, Royal? Yes. But there are no juices just Honore, and I'd like to say that Jesus so executives I could do them. Plus, you Mr.. Awesome. Somebody else would like the role. Yes. Wow. So strana road. That's so. My day job is a professor at Cambridge professor in Cambridge. So you're previously master of Trinity College director for the institute of strana me at Cambridge University. And you are currently professors that we have similar ranks professor of astronomy. Yes. At university, Cambridge. Yes. Yes. And a member of the UK house with Lewis, I'm bit of a politician to I got the member UK house awards and former president of the Royal Society, which is like you'll National Academy National Academy. Good, okay. Our National Academy is where scientists elect the most eminent among us. So it's a peer voted representation of who in what we are internationally into the government, especially. Okay. So now so previously you were knighted. And that's when you became, sir. Martin REEs, right? Yes. And you actually stand there in front of the Queen. But she holds his sword. Wish. She could tap your shoulder or cut your head off. That she did the full my. Upgrade to the house of long. Okay. Okay. So so once your knighted, then you are, sir. Yes. Yes. Okay. Now in the old days that was became hereditary. Right. Is that not true anymore? That's not true. Baronet registry. Yeah. Okay. Were hereditary and then not anymore. Okay. So earnest, well, in some sense, you have to you. If you look at most of them, they haven't really. Smack so being into hustle is a privilege, but nothing. Oh, interesting. I thought about separating those two, and so don't you have to have some plot of land that you govern? You don't really I mean, you have to designate sort of area, and I picked Ludlow which is the hometown in the west of ignorant. I grew up. Okay. So you Lord of that patch of land. Yeah. But they did recognize me. Can you just knock in tiny? No, no, no. No. No. So when I'm hungry. Do you have to have a name of a place associated with you? For not Susan Ireland's. To see Lord of Ludlow. Yes. Okay. Very cool. I like the liberation there. This is not your. Own nice. Lord of Leto, not a letter. So this is not your first rodeo on the future. You've got our cosmic habitat just six numbers that was one of my favorites. Because people didn't know how dependent so much of our understanding of the universe was and just a few measurements. That we were actively making than still and our final hour. I didn't beat off offering our the sounds that doesn't sound happy. Well, it was entitled in England our final century question, Mark. They took the question Mark off. And you Americans retitled it our final hour because you like instant gratification on the reverse like Fanta fast. Yeah. In fact, a precursor of the present book, and it really addresses, you know, some of the big questions about what's happening this century, and by this century special, even among the forty five million centuries radio suggested, well, let me lead lead off with a question here because why should someone listened to an astrophysicist? Why not a futurist why why is your incite deeper or more accurate than futurist might offer us for in possibly writing the same titled book? Well, I don't recognize futurist as a real profession. Thank you. Taste of this Louis. Addict. I'm not an astrology. I have no crystal ball said we make predictions. Gemini. Gemini, the some predictions, but all I would say to Joel Nicole Nimitz 'can-do. Oh, is it because you have you have knowledge of the laws of physics and how they shape what is possible. And what is not possible? Well, I think so I mean just to take two examples my book, we compact very future. But be predicts is I think you'd agree that by twenty fifty the world, we more crowded nine billion people on the the Woolmer. She ought to emissions. We need you for that though. I mean come on now. Now, we don't know. But but but certainly people haven't listened. So the more people who can repeat these these things and the say. But of course, what become predicts. But your future vista. Anything else is technology that far ahead because the smartphone were to see magic twenty five years ago, complete deception implications of social media and all that. And therefore when we looked to twenty fifty and beyond we've got to keep our minds at least jar to what now seem science fiction, and I discussed things, but except that they are very uncertain. I definitely look to astrophysicist for future guidance. Because if the scope that you have well, we do think in deep time, we think deep backwards and forwards. Special thing is that most people now unless fundamentalists saw in positive slamming world are aware of the full billion years of the past that's leading to our emergence thou- evolution. But I think there's plenty of people here in America who are still. Yes. I mean, even educated people to accept evolution Nolan. They tend to think that we humans are the endpoint the combination. But I think as astronomers we calmed take that view because we know that the future is at least as long the will exist for no six billion years before the sun dies and universe may go on expanding forever. And I like to quote Woody Allen, we said is very long, especially towards the end. So we we should think of ourselves as as a stage and people my book is that we are very important transition stage because two things got to happen. This century one is spreading beyond newest for the first time and the other Habsburg. Colonizing other. Yeah. Yes. The other thing is of course, having the the power to redesign us elves by genetic techniques and cyborg of techniques and interfaces for the phone. The hair transplant. Yeah. That's right. And so this is something which especially century, which makes the future. We'll more unpredictable but more fascinating says this is a crucial century. And of course, those exciting possibilities should be a non mines. But the downside is that because of this powerful technology. There are extra risks which we did have in the past. So here's a question to ask you ever since I read this button, his a famous quote from from Ray Bradbury when asked I'm paraphrasing, quote, what are you? We're going to quote, what are you when I'm paraphrasing? But when asked why do you write such Topi in stories about our future is this what you think will happen to us? And he says, no, I write these stories so that you know to avoid them. And so let me ask you there restorative forces in society that tell me that I think we will never land where this topic storytellers tell us, you know, member in in in soil and green, you know, we're eating I mean, just just pick any any movie any movie where there's a descent of humanity to some rock bottom aren't there forces that will restore it. We'll be hope so end, of course, red bribe's right that if we are aware of the bad things can happen. That's a motivation to try and prevent them. And I think one of the rain. Raines might disagree because the whole time they're telling us about awful things that happened in the past. And we're just like all right. Keep it down. Did happen. Well, th that's right. But I think there's a sense of the concerns which I highlight in my book about the downsides of technology. And we aware of two types of concern. One is the precious. We're putting on the human habitat by the growing population more demanding evanger resources, so we're risking some tipping points that 'cause lots of extinctions and make the possibly our own extinction. And yet, I'm so that's one class, but the other type of threat is because even a few people are now empowered to create by aero by design a consequence that could cascade globally will about cyber attacks could do and that goes to get more serious and also similar concerns about misuse of. Biotech and said, there's a two technologies was getting very powerful. And in fact in Cambridge. We've set up a group to study these issues because even though huge numbers of people are starting small risks, like paying crashes Kosta Janzen food, the radiation doses is not very many people are thinking about these low probability, but catastrophic consequence risks and in our group in Cambridge. We feel that if we can reduce the probability of those by one thousand people in Cape because the stakes are so high. They must be the most fun people at at dinner. Whatever. Chicken is cooked. And they're like, well, I can tell you that something's coming. Good plots to these things. So they they shouldn't mind your liberations. Yeah. And come up with stories for future movies. Yes, we do plan. These scenarios university like Cambridge can convene experts to decide what is complete science fiction, and what is a serious threat and experts in all the different branches of Pugh. Way in. Yes. In my opinion, because the experts of they often wrong, but then more likely to be up to see a threat before the single biggest threat that you think of is what single biggest way in the short term. I Bahri about bio and cyber. Uh-huh. Weed I think they're going to make governance they difficult because the be the tension between privacy, liberty and security. Yes. Because any journal tension actually getting worse because you know, Electra say the global village for that village idiots, and they would have a global range. So we compass. Oh, benign and tolerance voted in the palm. They voted in the local village idiots. Nobody once the wall. Well, I mean, this this is true, obviously by cyber ready, and I think with biotechnology being so likely dispersed, I mean, by hacking, even a student sport. Then we have to worry about this sport. You know, we say we can regulate these things, but regulating these techniques globally is hopeless as regulation, the drug laws globally or the tax laws globally and not even Americans events to do those and your biggest concern fifty hundred years out what I've I've already then about the environmental effects. Okay. And of course, we don't know how powerful computers nee I will be then we've got to cope with that. Okay. Well, we gotta take a break. And when we come back, we will take questions from our fan base that are all directed on this very subject, and maybe you've got the question. Dog going to him. Ran star talk returns bluffed my way. On. This is actually a cosmic query is up to start talk with our special guests surf Lord Martin REEs. Talk about. Writing. Even. Squarespace, squarespace, squarespace squarespace. We can't get enough of squarespace here at star talk radio. That's because they've been supporting us for a very long time. And we love telling people about squarespace because you'll love using them. Turn your dream into a reality. Use squarespace squarespace makes it easier than ever to launch your passion project. It doesn't make a difference. Whether it is starting a new business showcase in work publishing. Content selling products. No matter what it is that you do online squarespace is the tool for you. They have these beautiful templates. 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I just know conditions or exclusions may apply based on a Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and MLS consumer access dot org. Number thirty thirty. Greenspace inside his down to earth. You're listening to start talk. Humanities talking to take humanities with. Because God one dot com. We're back on star talk. Cosmic berries addition on to the future. Prospects for humanity was happens to be the exact title of, sir. Morton rhesus book, a longtime friend and colleague of mine and astrophysics from the university of Cambridge. And I've got with my co host may may you got question got the question questions. Does he have the answers mind out? Okay. Who do we have? Okay. This comes from Facebook at Kato's clover. Asks do you think that one day, we'll have a worldwide United science and or space organization? That's cool. Well, of course, science is global culture protons on proteins in the same everywhere in the world. And so that's why science is valuable for straddling political divides, and devise a faith we it come in common. And of course, sometimes we have to work together because we need big bits of equipment telescopes. Not funny bussing country cetera. Taking turns to use telescopes in some cases. Do do do it is on your flight about it. Over billion the world's biggest tennis cope. And we we worked together to thumb that sort of thing. But I think also the challenges of the application of science for health and energy and all that need to be tackled globally as does climate change. Has there been a problem in the past though with scientists knocked sharing information and the competitive nature and Willamette, I think obviously sometimes it's competition to be first. But I think scientists fumble corporate of the most people they share the culture, and they they realized that this accumulative endeavor everyone adds their brick to a big structure is it what I think the the lesson. There is scientists are human like everybody else. But at the end of the day we. We serve a higher goal. No, no at the end of the day either. I'm right or smarten is wrong. So Martin is right. And I'm wrong or Ribaud throng. Okay. We both know that going into the conversation and for so much dialogue in the world. There's conflict to the point of bloodshed because opposite sides think they are have the absolute truth, but that's partly because science deals with the exit world, whereas sort of ethics and morality and politics things where. Right. And this one is from Facebook to tavist the alley. How do you think generations will judge our actions regarding climate teens? Well, I mean, I the moment I think than have lot to blame us for because we realized that we've inherited a huge amount from earlier centuries, not just cathedrals and all that, but all infrastructure from the NAS NGO to and the main concern is that when we have far more benefits than any previous generation, if we leave a depleted will for the future that would be a terrible legacy, and that's a serious threat. If in fact, we don't address these questions soon, so interesting point because in the United States, one of the great legacies of the country were all the pro the mega projects from the work project administration. The Hoover dam Akwa docks. The roads. There was just a huge movement to build an infrastructure for the country. We only recently here in New York City. We only recently twinned our water pipes from the reservoirs up in the in the mountains and say, oh, why are they breaking they were made hundreds of years. Hundred years old all my gosh. Yes. More generally, even allow cosmic arises in time so much larger planning horizon, it's got to short you. Don't plan ahead even twenty or thirty years. And so again, this is on climate is from Tim show patriot. What kind of pressure on those are the people who actually pay? Right. Influence disaster. You will need to happen before the majority of the world take serious action on climate change and optimistic that human race possesses. Everything we need to find climate change effectively. But I'm pessimistic when I see the current trends, especially in politics. Yes. But mystic to. And I think the problem is the politicians think parochially ensure that whereas climate change has to be thought in terms of beneficient people in a long term and helping people in remote parts of the world. My personal view is that the only effective thing is not have contact his and things, but to accelerate research and development into all kinds of clean energy as win win situation because the countries develop it for have a huge market and countries like India, which need more power will then be able to afford to leapfrog to clean energy and not Bill code five power stations. So I think to promote our in D in energy and things like batteries and stories and all night on. Level closer to the level of research in defense. And in health is the primary mission, they US spend all the money. They spend on defense on RND for clean energy. Wouldn't that be great like billions of dollars? It's trillions. It's it's really. All right. So this storm any questions about space travel. Everybody wants to hear bringing Gabby Metais through Google pass in the near future will space travel be possible for everybody. Well, not everybody but for a lot, but it's interesting I'm old enough to remember the Apollo program. And at that time, I thought that ten years afterwards that before prints on Mars, but of course, because the US government has spent full percent of its federal budget on the Apollo program. And it was no motive was done for superpower, rivalry reasons. Of course, we know what's happening. Now, my personal view is if I was an American I wouldn't support NASA spending any money on manned space spaceflight. That's because I think it should be left to these companies. Okay. It should be left to the private companies like a space x and blue origin. And that's because they can take risks. Trouble with new on musk blur his book. But the trouble is that NASA is risk averse. I mean, these Tuttle failed twice in one hundred thirty five launches each was a national trauma, whereas adventures and test pilots prepared to take high risks in that. So I think the future lies in cut-price high risk ventures bankroller by these private companies, and I hope very much that the will be a community of people like that have gone knowledge by the end of the century. But I disagree with musk and with my late colleague, Stephen hawking in that. I don't think mass immigration is ever going to happen. Every sense. But was nowhere in the solar system is as Clement as the top of Everest all the south pole and dangerous delusion to think we can solve the problems by going. Tomorrow's dealing with climate change is hard. But it's a dull compared to tear forming laws. I agree one hundred percent. And I'm publicly I'm gonna. Opposed to mass migration. But I just I don't mind if we all want to live on Mars, but we need to. I don't think people fully understand what that involves. If you mess up your, you know, your bedroom, then you move, we'll watch what happens. So if we're really going to ship a billion people, tomorrow's you because something bad happened on earth. There's a lot of the argument, especially put forth by your colleague the late. Stephen hawking the argument was and you can see the argument. It makes a good headline. You wanna be a multi planet species in case something really bad happens on one of the planets. So your species prop can still property guy. Get that. But if you want to ship a billion people tomorrow's to protect humans Tara form it in advance to do. So it seems to me whatever takes a tariff or more resources you could tariff on earth back into earth. If you that's all. But but but I think he's right. I mean, I think the will be these crazy pine is on MAs. Yes. I'd rather than coming that the planets that they will modify themselves to adapt by the end of the century. We have genetic modification techniques inside book techniques. So my view is at a post human era pioneered by these people on us because they've got every incentive to adapt themselves to a hostile environment their way from all the regulators. And so th they will evolve into a different species, they quickly biological regulators. So they can actually introduce variation. Yep. For the Martian, baby. That stays they can download their brains into cetera. Cetera. And that means that the species will have its descendants who will be generated by those people in my brain. To replicate. A separate question. Another show. I don't know maybe me, but what like just in silver body form. People address in silver. Okay. What else are you? Fast forward a decade, or if you decades and imagine this permanent Mars colony that we were talking about assuming the NASA were the ones responsible. What changes do you think that that would mean to the role of NASA? Well, we're responsible have to go on. But my my line, which I discussing in in my book on the future is that the role of Nasu we just that of a an airport rather than airline as it were in that they may provide some basic facilities, but it'd be the private companies that's a provide the space craft and take the people prepared to accept high risks. So I think NASA would be phased out, and it'll be public money not spent and private money spent as you may know, the F A has recent legislation. I don't know if it's been fully voted on. But it's been does not much resistance to it where they will. Now be the shepherds of the future space launch sites space ports. And you can propose spaceport. Yes. And may would be responsible for checking the safety of it. Yes. The safety of the down range launches is there Saint here that we're like so this is a first step. Yes. Precisely what did they shouldn't be too stringent because they should remember that some people prepared to go on Monday tickets and people like Steve Fossett, and these guys who go hang gliding in sympathy, they'd take high risks, and they all to allow people like that to risk their own lives. Someone who wanted to go in these one way trips tomorrow. Show. And I said, well, what does your wife think about it? She oh, she encouraged. Have you thought? He's doing a gofundme main then come on. Malls. But on impact. Oh, good. One more quick. Mark fest question from Facebook where he asked we'll companies such as SpaceX eventually make NASA obsolete. Yeah. But let me let me give a counter argument there. I'm to do something. I yes, that's expensive and dangerous. Doesn't really come with a business model? That's very short venture capitalist meeting. What are you doing? Humans on Mars. How much the cost? I don't know trillion dollars dangerous. Yes. When people die probably what's the return on investment, nothing. Yeah. So how do you do that? I I my research of the history of this exercise. Yeah. Says the governments do this first then they find the trade winds and the patents that are candid. And then private enterprise comes up behind that that I'm saying you would never have that band is goal of sending a million people. You would just have a few pioneers who would go. I mean, the point is that space is it's not like climate change governments have to coordinate. It doesn't have to be everyone agree in it can be just one corporation doing it individually. Therefore, there's much greater freedom to feed them and decision. Yes. And a greater capacity for accepting risks good point because the FAA doesn't want people dying note in so that might so that might actually be a delaying force compared to what you're. He wants the wild west. Who smoke around the back of the school? Yeah. Yes. Yes. All right. We gotta take our next break. And when we come back more cosmic queries on the future of humanity with sir. Martin REEs and may Figgins Clinton return. Thanks to two years of research and development and multiple improvements in design, performance and comfort. Bomba's are the most comfortable socks in the history of feet there, certainly the most comfortable socks in the history of my feet with an art support system that provides extra support where you need it most and a cushion foot bit that's reinforced for comfort without added. Bulkiness Bumba feel like a hug around your foot? Not to mention bombers, stay up technology ensures that your socks they in place without leaving the Mark and the super soft cotton material makes you never want to take them off. So whether you're a runner a power Walker or a power lounger. There's a pair of Bomba's that'll add comfort to your life. I've been wearing bombers for years long before I ever talked about them here on star talk. And I have to tell you there. My most favorite socks ever. Go to bombers dot com slash star, talk and use the code star talk for twenty percent off your. Order. That's bombers dot com slash star. Talk code star talk for twenty percent off your first order, believe me your feet will. Thank you. And you will thank me. This is start talking. We're back from final segment cosmic queries that future of humanity. Featuring the recent book by my friend and colleagues or Martin Reese on the future prospects for humanity. So let me just lead off. She's got her list of questions from our people. But I'm just curious is there how important will science? I think I know the answer to this. But I want to hear it from you how important will science literacy be going forward as science becomes so much more centered in decisions we have to make about our own fate. When I think it's crucially important that everyone should have a field facade. And that's why things like your outreach are so important because so many of this have to take on Energie health environments, and you need to have some field facades not to be bamboozled by bad sticks and things like that. And so it's important to everyone. Have feel facades. But also, it's part of our culture, isn't it. And you know, everyone wants to know about place in universe. And of course, nothing fascinates kids more than dinosaurs. And even though they completely irrelevant. So. Nobody educators. These relevant that argument. I said one our asteroids to catch dinosaurs. So we're done here. Dinosaurs in space. Eight year old children, just weeping. So what else you got this our last segment so making good, okay? Are you ready? This is Jim Jake win. He got unto us through Instagram. And he asks what's the next E equals MC squared? Meaning what do you anticipate will next shake the foundations of physics on that level of why factor Rudge of well? Of course, the biggest wow is now coming not from physics. But from biology understanding, the brain and complications and a lot to say physics is easy. Subject styles and atoms are easy to understand and even insect. So big challenges to understand life and the braid. But if you want to ask about physics, then the next big step is to unify the very large in a very small unify what Einstein did with the physics of atoms in the micro was quantum theory. And until we have that revolt understand. Mt. Space in the bedrock sense. And we astronomy. Doc energy, which is a full Layton empty space. Dark. Yeah. That's a big challenge. For physics. Is there some state of the universe that is on the brink of collapse? And we don't know what if you don't know. Like onto your customer. That's a. We could be we could be walking along the. Edge of the cliff is not visible to us until you step there. Everything collapses th that's possible. But another point I which I make in in in my in my book on the future is that the maybe some important aspects of reality, which our brains just con- cope with. I mean, the monkey cont understand quantum theory. And likewise, the maybe deep issues, which is just beyond our brains and have to wait these post humans. They may. The question deeming like right after they pets. Yes. Rescue. Do you mean like we can't understand what's happening in front of our eyes like something like remember when some people saw ships for the first time, they just didn't see them because they didn't know what they were. That's what you mean. And because at relevant to alliens because they may be so different from us. If we wouldn't recognize their manifestations. Oh my God. Okay. So this is about the Hadrian collider. Isn't there? A part of the large Hadron collider that emits a magnetic field stronger than that of earth. Why can't we somehow place something similar on our future? Spaceships that's where Ramon Hamilton to protect us from from solar radiation. Well, maybe we can people talk about talk about that. But you need soco superconductor or you need power to maintain the magnetic field. But certainly radiation damage is an important constraint on manned space, and that's why then his Tito idea of sending people around Mars and back five hundred days and his favorite crew amid lays couple to be cooped up a five hundred days happily and to be enough not to care about radiation does to become sterile at the end. Yeah. Couple. They're happy to sit in silence together for long. Yeah. Volunteer yet. So yes. So this. It's an interesting fact in the point Martin was making was that you you, you know, every pound every kilogram matters that you're setting into space. And so if you're going to have a system that creates a magnetic field around your ship, this the weight of that versus the weight of what might just simply be human. Yes. There's nothing lead. Yeah. That was a good question. Yeah. What else and given this is from few bullet out given the departs because of interaction with the Higgs field is what gave this mass. Is it conceivable that in future when we understand this interaction? More thoroughly we could devise a machine by which we could completely nullify spaceship and its contents interaction with things failed rendering a completely massless and therefore capable of light speed and beyond. That's just. I think. Say that become conceive of. That's a that's a very. But needs a bigger brain. That'd be yesterday. Except. You have to watch out, of course. Because for almost everything that we've discussed there's that off ramp of the weaponization of that new technology, and so you can imagine if you had control over the massive something that became weaponize. Well, I mean, one of the themes of my my book on the future is that the stakes are getting high because every new invention has benefits and the downside, but they getting bigger, but the concept, so I'm knife can can cut your food kill someone. But a knife can't kill people, but people will kill you or your knife kills people, but other kinds of weaponry that equation is different. Yep. And does the risk of as well as design right, right? This one is about communicating I think with with liens Timothy Conan has anybody thought to watch for coded patrons in star light. It could be used as communication as if a very advanced civilization intentionally put large objects into orbit around a local star to create an obvious message. That distant intelligent service would recognize it as a message. I could imagine our civilization attempting something like that in the future if we could. Yeah. Well, of course, there was this optical tabby stop if he before not happening, but he's previously indication read like smoke signals the, but I. My view is that if said he says, she's a tectonic thing said he search for extraterrestrial don't. Yeah. Yeah. If they'd take something it won't be anything like our civilization. It'd be such a machine created by some long dead civilization. And it might be sending out some sort of transmission unlikely. This is a message we could decode so I'm pessimistic about being able to decode a message because if they're in any way smarter than us their simplest thoughts will transcend, our deepest thoughts. They might not be interested sending a message. But if you might find evidence for something which is manifest yard official. Nothing would be of course, big break food. And of course, you were around for the for the discovery of the pulsar correct student, then yes. Cambridge. So Anthony Hewish. Jewish bell and Jocelyn bell. Star that is that is blinking at us radio. Yeah. We don't have that word. Yo who's me? It's not invented yet. Okay. Stars. Just like keeping perfect. I'm like, yeah. It might. And they the the famous L G M. I think was written on the page th that's right, right. It was so different than before. Right. Right. And that would be that's an example of a signal. So we're so our our history field says if you see a signal that is regular and perfect. The is it is it just something. We've yet to discover a nature that has regular perfect. Yeah. Or is it intelligent sending us and the history of this is that it's a new phenomenon in nature. It's not a it's not alliens. Unfortunately, because we all wanna meet the aliens wasn't it kind of you know, when the human spent it sends out the golden record. They had like instructions on the side of how to decode what do you think? What do you think of that? In fact, you were you were also blurred by Andrian who was the creative director of love you the regular. Of the regular golden records Voyager is. So that just I'd be curious. Yes. This is our attempt. People may remember. Yes. Just Google the golden record their pictograms on the side. Yes. Yes. That of course, it's not written in English. But Graham that our attempt to share our scientists. Yeah. With them. Yes. What am I think if it's a good exercise to do that? And I think there's a plan for an to do similar competition to schools to find something similar to design something, and that's a great idea. But I think the chance of picking that up on decoded his fall smaller than the taking sort of radio and TV transmissions from the that are already making. Emitting whole bubble to wherever you are in any direction. You're going to receive this bubble. Whereas you gotta be right in line with. Yes. Some people say we should beam some signal and other people say you shouldn't do that. We should hide I contact. It because I think if they're more advanced than us, they probably know all about us. They probably watch us already bothering with us. Yep. Yep. You wouldn't give your Email address to a stranger who is human in the street, much less. The return address of earth to aliens in the universe. We saw those movies. We know they'll do. They they would know about this already. Okay. I think the the direction zoo for them all about they MO. Well, see us with interest of interest. All right. Keep going. All right. So so this is from Instagram the seabird as an SEA, this is is it more practical to research inter dimensional travel rather than faster than light travel. More practical. Well, I think neither is very practical. Going send things at the speed of light. Of course is okay. If it's information, and of course, one of the ways of of sending information across the galaxy will be descended code for DNA or something like that. That's the speed of light. Because. Yeah. Yes. So I think those probably be on the science fiction fringe, you'll know lunch and never say that because we have no idea what will be done in the future. We've got about two minutes left. And I wanna make sure we have I wanna hear Martin's deepest sorta summit reflections on where we are. We we've been where we're headed. Yes. What can you do for? Well in my book on the future. I emphasize that this century is very special because depending on what actions we take now began either leave a depleted world with mass extinctions and up eating climate or we can figure the transition to spacefaring civilization where human evolution will be succeeded by a post human era, which could spread beyond the solar system. Indeed entire galaxy said the stakes very high and the concern not just about ourselves. I'll children or grandchildren, but about the long term future of humanity and of post human life, but when you think of post human wet can't we just think of better humans. So we have access to the genome now, I get rid of disease live twice as long. Yes. Maybe reduce the chemical inefficiencies in your body. So you can eat as much about that. Already managing to do that like indigenous communities live in harmony with the with the earth. You know, let's one possibility some people might like that some people might know, some people might. Of course, some people might prefer to download themselves into something traumatic, and and be be frozen until that era is you'd rather than just like live in a city like Petra that's made at a sun stone where you get to have running water and juice for life will think many people bought, and and I think they may want to more intelligent because there was this attempt by Shockley set up the sperm Bank forum Nobel prize winners. And if he co invented the transistor is for bell telephone labs, but then he went into into racial thoughts. He said, let's breathe another very eugenics better. Gratifying that there was no demont goods. Ray cotswold? He's a guy who thinks machines will take over T bones to be frozen is blubber face by liquid nitrogen until that era bring him back, and then he's bringing back, and I don't go along with this. I I've told people who advocate this. I want to end my life in English churchyard northern California refrigerator. I think we should end it on that note. Sure. So it's always to see you. Inferences, and when you present, and I was like tracking your books. Good. Thanks for come to New York for this. Well, thanks the question. An congressional you're doing to spread and like meant. Yeah. I I can't wait till like other people doing it. And then I just go to the Bahamas. Latest book on the future prospects for humanity. And it's a fast read, but an important read because the future of humanity lies in the Bronx, and may good to have been so long busy is why haven't seen you wrote a book man in America. I love your observations of American culture. It simultaneously, embarrassing and hilarious. All right. You've been watching possibly most likely listening to this edition of star talk. The future of humanity with my featured. Yes, sir. Martin rees. I've been your host Neil degrasse Tyson. And as always I bid you keep looking. Gallileo to orange.