7 Burst results for "London School Of Hygiene"
"london school hygiene" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing
"Up to donald trump's impeachment trial and will also be telling you about some of the weeks less miserable news stories as well. That's all coming up right here on the briefing on monocle. Twenty four and welcome to today's of the briefing with me. Andrew miller now anybody who has had any experience of life on this earth the last year or so. We'll be firmly of the belief that one strain of covid nineteen is more than enough as it spreads itself around the world however new variations keep being detected including one in the uk which appeared more readily transmissible a south african one which might be might be rather somewhat resistant to vaccines and brazilian one. Ditto small numbers of both of the latter have already been identified in the uk and dot dallas present elsewhere or on route. One joined with more. By dr chris smith monocle twenty fours health and correspondent also a virologist at cambridge university. Chris as we have discussed many times before all viruses mutate. What they do. Is this one doing so unusually quickly an door. Dramatically hello andrew. We don't think so in some respects. This is to be expected for the reason. You've outlined that the that all viruses mutate and change this one's no exception and therefore we're going to see a gentle drift or evolution of the virus specifically. We're going to see that happening. Most often. in parts of the world where the prevalence of the disease is highest in other words. Where you've got lots of people being infected. I'm passing the virus to lots of other people. That's loss of the roles of the genetic dice that the virus can take in order to accrue changes and optimize itself because at the end of the day viruses optimize themselves in order to spread most efficiently in their particular host and this is a new infection humans therefore it was pretty well adapted to us but not perfect. There's some room to maneuver and that's what the virus is doing. Its adjusting its behavior and its biology. A bit in order to spread most optimally among us. Humans the different variations though in different places those responses by the virus to local conditions. I guess whether it's it's climate or something else yes. Any kind of organism on earth is going to adapt itself in response to selective pressure applied by the environment in which it lives. These corona is a living in a human environment and therefore all behavior to a certain extent affects the behavior of the virus as we apply more selective pressure to it by making his job harder to spread between us for instance by social distancing through various other public health measures and spread control infection control. You'll going to select for viruses that all reproductive fitter in other words. They're better at doing what they do. And and in that way you'll get something that is usually more transmissible. That's what we saw the slight surprise here. Is this question about whether it is causing more severe illness or not now. Obviously the jury is a little bit out on this. At the moment we do have some directional data than that may be the case but it is early days of only just begun to take this trend. So we're not entirely sure whether this is a statistical artifact just a product to the fact there are lots of numbers and so the viruses is producing lots of infections. So we're seeing more severe infections or whether the genuine is evidence for higher talapity rate in each of the cases. So that figure we've been given by the uk government that suggests that the uk variant might be thirty percent More deadly which is an alarming sounding figure. Is it possible that figure is either less alarming than it sounds or actually not entirely accurate. Will the government put this across a downing street. Press briefing country balance-sheet presenting numbers in terms of deaths per thousand. And he said if you look at say a sixty year old man the risk with the parent strain of corona virus of that person passing away. If you had ten people with a thousand people with krona vars you might get ten people with die with this new variant that ten rises to thirteen or fourteen hence a forty or thirty percent increase in the mortality rate so they are nevertheless odds to emphasize the case fatality rate remains very low so in other words we haven't got something that's killing thirty percent people what we've got something that appears to based on the data that initially have been analyzed. Be a little bit more lethal as in not for the person. Obviously if you die but it's on average killing slightly more people than before but we don't know for sure if that's the case i mean. We have got a number of studies that present this london school hygiene tropical medicine of showing that the the risk ratio is about one point three five times greater with the new variant than the over one point three five. That's a thirty five percent increase. Imperial college of donna. Study then numbers range somewhere between high twenties to mid thirties. In terms of percentage increase in risk ecstasy university They did a smaller study. One point nine one was there multiple in other words. It's ninety percent worse. A public health england cited figure one and a half or so so therefore all of them seem to be centering on there being an increase in risk. But we don't know exactly how big that risk is but we think there is one but we need to reassure ourselves. This is real finding. it's not just a product of the fat. We're seeing lots of infections with this new air. It might be that. We're there foreseeing because of the disguise of the the problem more people who are at risk of having a severe infection. Cropping up with this very factional. They are trying to control for that so it doesn't like it might be real here in the uk. Of course they have announced a fairly dramatic new restrictions on who can come in and who can go out of the country now obviously in the. Uk's case this comes about ten months after several comparable island nations say ustralia new zealand. Taiwan did much the same with pretty spectacular results Here in the is this entirely the act of shutting the stable door when the horse is a tiny dot on the far horizon that it might appear. I don't think so. I don't think we're really comparing apples and apples here. One has to be a bit cautious about jumping to too many conclusions. A new zealand and australia are quite special cases. Despite the vast size of australia the population is very small. In the grand scheme of things you could take the uk population quarter at and you'd have about the population of australia new zealand. You could pack the entire population of new zealand into One part of london. So you got to be very cautious about that because population is in terms of population movements in terms of population density. And if you've got lots of people have lots of people coming and going but when you got lots of cases this is the critical thing. If you've got lots of cases of the disease you've got lots of roles of the genetic dies and lots of chance of creating new errands as what happened in south africa. It's what's happened in brazil and why it's happened in the uk but we think probably isn't that those are isolated examples. It's probably happening. Everywhere and the differences that very very diligent micro biological and genetic analysis. That's going on in countries like the uk thanks to say cog uk. The consortium we have here means we know about these things and there's one person puts it to me. If you seek you will find out but you might not like the answer. And that's really what what is happening in our country. But we've seen big upswings in cases in the uk for example but many other countries half the countries in europe are in the same parlor state that we are in the uk. Have they got new variants that they haven't disclosed or haven't been able to find yet because they haven't been scrutinizing at the level that say the uk. Has i mean that's certainly a valid speculation. chris. Smith thanks as always for joining us. You're listening to the briefing. Here is yelling on with the days of the headlines. Chinese and indian troops have clashed again in an area along their vast disputed border. The latest incident happened between baton and nicole on wednesday. At least twenty indian. Soldiers died in separate border skirmish in the logic region last year. Russia has accused western nations of encouraging vast rallies. In support of the kremlin critic alexander volney tens of thousands of protesters defied a heavy police presence to take to the streets over the weekend. Observers say that thousands of people were detained. More than one hundred people have now been arrested. Following anti dam protests in the netherlands rioters said fires in the southern city of ant ovan while police in the capital amsterdam used a water cannon to disperse. Protesters will have more on this story shortly. And today's musical minute reports on vietnam communist party congress which is getting underway in the capital hanoi. Today you can find out more about the significance of the gathering. And what it means for vietnam by heading to monaco com slash minute those audits headlines back to you.
New Strains Of CoronaVirus Are Breaking Out Worldwide
"Now anybody who has had any experience of life on this earth the last year or so. We'll be firmly of the belief that one strain of covid nineteen is more than enough as it spreads itself around the world however new variations keep being detected including one in the uk which appeared more readily transmissible a south african one which might be might be rather somewhat resistant to vaccines and brazilian one. Ditto small numbers of both of the latter have already been identified in the uk and dot dallas present elsewhere or on route. One joined with more. By dr chris smith monocle twenty fours health and correspondent also a virologist at cambridge university. Chris as we have discussed many times before all viruses mutate. What they do. Is this one doing so unusually quickly an door. Dramatically hello andrew. We don't think so in some respects. This is to be expected for the reason. You've outlined that the that all viruses mutate and change this one's no exception and therefore we're going to see a gentle drift or evolution of the virus specifically. We're going to see that happening. Most often. in parts of the world where the prevalence of the disease is highest in other words. Where you've got lots of people being infected. I'm passing the virus to lots of other people. That's loss of the roles of the genetic dice that the virus can take in order to accrue changes and optimize itself because at the end of the day viruses optimize themselves in order to spread most efficiently in their particular host and this is a new infection humans therefore it was pretty well adapted to us but not perfect. There's some room to maneuver and that's what the virus is doing. Its adjusting its behavior and its biology. A bit in order to spread most optimally among us. Humans the different variations though in different places those responses by the virus to local conditions. I guess whether it's it's climate or something else yes. Any kind of organism on earth is going to adapt itself in response to selective pressure applied by the environment in which it lives. These corona is a living in a human environment and therefore all behavior to a certain extent affects the behavior of the virus as we apply more selective pressure to it by making his job harder to spread between us for instance by social distancing through various other public health measures and spread control infection control. You'll going to select for viruses that all reproductive fitter in other words. They're better at doing what they do. And and in that way you'll get something that is usually more transmissible. That's what we saw the slight surprise here. Is this question about whether it is causing more severe illness or not now. Obviously the jury is a little bit out on this. At the moment we do have some directional data than that may be the case but it is early days of only just begun to take this trend. So we're not entirely sure whether this is a statistical artifact just a product to the fact there are lots of numbers and so the viruses is producing lots of infections. So we're seeing more severe infections or whether the genuine is evidence for higher talapity rate in each of the cases. So that figure we've been given by the uk government that suggests that the uk variant might be thirty percent More deadly which is an alarming sounding figure. Is it possible that figure is either less alarming than it sounds or actually not entirely accurate. Will the government put this across a downing street. Press briefing country balance-sheet presenting numbers in terms of deaths per thousand. And he said if you look at say a sixty year old man the risk with the parent strain of corona virus of that person passing away. If you had ten people with a thousand people with krona vars you might get ten people with die with this new variant that ten rises to thirteen or fourteen hence a forty or thirty percent increase in the mortality rate so they are nevertheless odds to emphasize the case fatality rate remains very low so in other words we haven't got something that's killing thirty percent people what we've got something that appears to based on the data that initially have been analyzed. Be a little bit more lethal as in not for the person. Obviously if you die but it's on average killing slightly more people than before but we don't know for sure if that's the case i mean. We have got a number of studies that present this london school hygiene tropical medicine of showing that the the risk ratio is about one point three five times greater with the new variant than the over one point three five. That's a thirty five percent increase. Imperial college of donna. Study then numbers range somewhere between high twenties to mid thirties. In terms of percentage increase in risk ecstasy university They did a smaller study. One point nine one was there multiple in other words. It's ninety percent worse. A public health england cited figure one and a half or so so therefore all of them seem to be centering on there being an increase in risk. But we don't know exactly how big that risk is but we think there is one but we need to reassure ourselves. This is real finding. it's not just a product of the fat. We're seeing lots of infections with this new air. It might be that. We're there foreseeing because of the disguise of the the problem more people who are at risk of having a severe infection. Cropping up with this very factional. They are trying to control for that so it doesn't like it might be real
"london school hygiene" Discussed on The Daily Dive
"Bobby bones I host the bobby bones show and I'm pretty much always sleepy because I wake up at three o'clock in the morning a couple of hours. Later I get all my together we get into a room and we do a radio show share our allies. We tell our stories we try to find as much good in the world that we possibly can, and we looked through the news of the day that you'll care about. Also your favorite country artists are always stopping by to hang out and share their lives and music too. So wake up with a bunch of my friends on ninety eight point seven W. MC in Washington DC or wherever the rotation on the iheartradio APP. Ask. Way they do. This is to take on this case of deactivated form of the virus were doing an explosive. They would take the explosive unhappy dog, slip it and reward at the beginning for recognizing that smell earnings now is Francis steed sellers senior writer at the Washington Post. Thanks for joining US Francis. I'm delighted to be with you. I always love a good dog story. So your article caught my eye and right now there's a study going on. That's actually teaching dogs to see if they can detect the novel Corona virus obviously, we know that dogs have enhanced olfactory senses. They can smell a lot of things already we know a bomb sniffing dogs, they can smell explosives they can already smell other diseases, things like cancers and whatnot. So right now they're being trained, there's a group of them being trained to sniff out the covid nineteen so Francis tell us a little bit about this. So this is a study being done by the University of Pennsylvania Walking Dogs Center based in Philadelphia, there are a couple of. Other, very good studies being done around the world one specifically at the London school, Hygiene and tropical mets. As you mentioned dogs, I'm very good at smelling you that these dogs being trained by the people who also walk with special ops dogs, dogs that will do very high level sent what with explosives and things. So we know that many diseases do create a smell. If you think about people have diabetes that are known to have a fruity smelling urine when people get sick that breath often changes and these could be signs of illness. So the question these are such wants to know is, is there a distinct smell attached to this new disease the corona virus that produces covert? Him has been causing such disaster around the world and that's what they're doing using the same equipment. They would use to teach dogs to detect explosives the way they do this to take in this case deactivated form of the virus. If they were doing an explosive, they would take explosives and have the dog slip it, and at the beginning for recognizing that smell then the. Smell on what's called a sent wheel among many other tempting smells and the dogs learned to recognize and get rewarded for recognizing the appropriate smell. After that, you can go out and test and see if the dog can recognize that small among many many other smells and that's what I was witnessing play school greencastle Pennsylvania at a dog training center a couple of months ago. Program, has been going on for about ten weeks or so now and they're finding out that some of the dogs are actually really accurate in predicting this and they're hoping that if they can. Detect that sensor and really hone in on that. They could even find people who might be a symptomatic and have colvin ninety. So what I was saying sort of. Action, the dog accuracy was stunning. They were testing deactivated urine urine that come from positive patients at the hospital at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's hospital. was once the activated was put into these camps that the dogs were circling looking for, and they were very very accurate. They can go from that to test other things like saliva also see them or sweat of him as sort sticky substance that succeeded on people's backs, and we'll shop on t shirts. They're going to ask people to wear t shirts, people who've recently been tested, and then to return them and see if the dogs can recognize the smell people's t shirts if that's true and these results look very promising, there is the possibility that dogs could one day be deployed an airport now they're actually is. This week news of a test that whole simpler than this it's actually taking samples of t shirts and this happened after my article was published but taking samples of t shirts and Dubai airport and dog sitting US look at those samples and we haven't yet had the results of those tests whether they're accurate. But you can see the huge possibility also huge possibility but using dogs and the first stage of developing electronic noses, which could be less invasive and can what twenty four seven instead of the day that don't have to what and these kind of Breathalyzer type knows is the same things that using the cuming industry. There are some doubts about using dogs in this sense to sniff out people with cove in nineteen. I guess some of the detractors say there's problems with scaling it up things like that but the accuracy could be there but just the time that it takes the train, the dogs might not be the kind of expense and the accuracy is seems if it's very good at the moment at the. Time and expense, and then safety issues of course, for hands and dogs who could be deployed an APP. What we know to not disease does that came from animals and also this disease moved into the animal population. All those issues are extremely important in moving had with potentially deploying dogs, which is one of the reasons why not it knows could be so much more efficient and say going ahead. What does the dog breeds there are being used in this particular study right? The one I saw was eight labradors and one Belgian Mountain Wa Belgian along with a dog that had a little bit more experience with other smells beforehand in London that using Spaniels. I believe and some labradors and the French study, the study that sampled t shirts, and that's usually Belgian. I honest about the dogs because the dog that's most famous for it snows of course, the bloodhound and I said, why don't use a bloodhound and the train ability factor with a labrador that wants so much to please or another working dog like a Spaniel makes them very very inviting to these trainers what Doug do tonto if you wanted to have an easy to work with and? They. These tend to be typical dog. We like Spaniels and labradors I'm a dog lover myself I just always geek out at these types of stories and just kind of endless possibilities that we can use these animals for and so this is just another great one. So in the end of this whole thing, they're not necessarily sniffing out cove in nineteen itself there's these things called. Organic compounds, and this is how the virus would break down other cells in the body, and this is really what they're smelling what they're sniffing out for. That's what we believe because we actually don't know yet exactly what I fan that's one of the mystery hanging over this, and that's why the chemistry and physics will come in later and developing an electronic noses narrowing down exactly which molecules people released. But we do know smell the chemicals up molecules that are released from bodies and they changed with sickness. So these both look compounds with shedding all the time we should differ blunts fix. Francis Steed sellers senior writer at the Washington Post. Thank you very much for joining us. Thank you very much having me. Talk. That's it for today. Join US on social media. Daily, pod, both twitter, and instagram. Leave. A comment. Give us a rating and tell us the stories that you're interested in. All of us on iheartradio or subscriber every get your podcast. This episode of the daily divers produced by Victor Right in engineered by Tony's Tina. I'm Oscar Ramirez this. Daily died. If you crack open an American history book, it's short to be filled with founding fathers, bloody wars in the inventions that brought this country to the industrial age. But there's a whole other world that waits for us in the shadows tales of unlikely heroes, world changing tragedies and legends that are unique to this country spirit. So, join me Lauren Vogel. Bomb I tore of American history unlike any other through new podcast from iheartradio and. and. Mild get ready for American shadows. Listen to American shadows on Apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts..
"london school hygiene" Discussed on The Signal
"This is an ABC podcast. While Victoria has been closing back down. Europe is being opening up Europe's internal borders gradually opening up again. Now, Spain has reopened its tourism sector welcoming British holidaymakers without any need to go into porn team. France Belgium. Germany. Austria and Greece will completely open their borders to fennel e you member states, and the most confusing part of that is that Europe's covid nineteen case numbers are actually worse than house in almost every way. So why are containment measures moving in opposite directions? I'm Angela. David Smiley, today on the signal, we're trying to understand the chasm between strategist current pandemic policies and the response in the UK and Europe is it possible that a lack of optimism in those places is to black? So, most of my daydreams at the moment involve being on the other side of an international flight to Europe. I don't know in like a patch of Sun by the sea somewhere maybe eating olives. So specific. Yeah. I have a very good imagination. Another feature of this fantasy is that I'm two thirds of the way through the best book I've ever read and I have just audited a Redo well I mean not that women on just hoping I'll be able to go to Adelaide sometime without chlorinating. The point is neither of these things is possible right now, which is why its particularly jarring if you happen to know anyone in the northern hemisphere who is off traveling and posting relentlessly about it on social media, right? So strongly ends at Harlem still extremely grounded but as we mentioned Europeans and any Australians living there on not an seeing some of these scenes from the northern hemisphere, it is hard to tell from looking that there is a pandemic going on seems like the one my friend Hugo is currently inhabiting having abandoned his home in London for holiday. I can hear birds, where are you right now? I am in an old stone house in France just of the border from. Switzerland. So what's needed to naval? What can you see with your eyes? I could see some steering on a terrace and I can say in the distance the Alps. and. In between the terrorists in the outs, its fields and few vineyards. S-. Pretty good. Getting awfully close to torture Oh fisher. Yeah. No, it is, and he's not even done talking so. Cycling Tour my partner. And we are. Going to cycle frahm Velos, which is a sort of medium sized town in south of France and we can go through kvant. For ten days heartland up in say. Swim which we haven't done for. Ten months aside and then. Mike Our by trying. To. Damp crowded oil and the guy. To, avoid a slipping into a jealous rage at this point I thought I would also get Hugo to explain quickly about London for anyone who hasn't spent time there in particular what it's like in pandemic, the feeling of serious claustrophobia. and. I, think like London is coming from somebody who lived in Sydney Sydney is a huge city geographically. I would say London's probably smaller in area but this dance, the summit pack team, the seventy people living cheek by jowl. And It's almost impossible to avoid tables so that Even to Cape. Tomatoes. Even like on the pop not wide enough to keep tomatoes shops a too small to Cape Tomatoes. What does that? Do you have a number of months like being that kind of cooped up feeling that claustrophobic but I thought it was handling it pretty well to be honest. But then sort of realized that I been going like a fault in very slowly hating water just caught myself. Banging. Sign. A rail look I, don't know what what better way to put the most sensitive wanted to put that. But like. Really sort of snappy and. Just. Wanting to get out viscerally just wanting to leave. So. Yeah. It's a thing that craving for spice and a craving for of being able to interact with people. Mind tends that is I think an important corrective as we picture you spotting about in the French countryside. swanning madly. At birth you frantically swimming. And the reason that this morning is somewhat frantic, is that up until recently, this kind of activity was pretty strictly off limits similar to the way it is now for us. To come here to get to France was a question all. Checking the French. Website. In. Constantly pretty much The rules changed about a week before we got here. But they had flagged was going to change. So we're able to book in advance. So it really was a question of we booked and when it wasn't allowed. By the time the flight came around, it was allowed. Okay and presumably the limitations were there before for epidemiological reasons so. What has changed that means that you are now allowed to go to France it's a great question. I think. It's a huge combination of factors. Franz has it under control more or less now I feel like. I think they've got a handle on. Mosques compulsory in any enclosed. Spiciest. But there's not the sense of the hospitals being overwhelmed. Huge part of southern Europe opening up their economies it just so dependent on tourism that they need people from. The Cold Northern countries of your to come and spend money in places like crazy in. Spain. I'm still a little mystified by why they let people who live in the UK because it is. Not on the control. So. Okay so this is the thing he goes right about that part it's not under control. So on. Tuesday. For example, Australia recorded three hundred and ninety five new cases. Meanwhile, the UK recorded nine hundred and twenty eight France has been averaging about one thousand new cases a day and Spain, which is having a terrible time right now has an average daily case count at the moment of more than three thousand, and if we look at Ditz from Cova Nineteen. Reported in the past two weeks as of yesterday astray was sitting at ninety eight, the UK at Eight, hundred and ninety, eight Franz at one, hundred, twenty, nine, and Italy at one hundred and eight, just to give you a sense of the patent, right. So with that in mind we wanted to find out why each country is reacting. So differently, I'll get you to introduce yourself if you don't mind. I kneel sure I'm Neil Pius on professor of if the. Statistics at the London school, Hygiene and tropical made some That I've been in the UK eighteen years. But I'm I'm originally in from Wellington. In New Zealand and I, still have relatives in Wellington and Melvin. So aren't Following hip. Ning in those.
"london school hygiene" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria
"Is being exhibited locally by local communities by local NGOs by local informal infrastructure. That has long been the primary mechanism by which these communities provide security and well-being to their people they have not generally relied on state services and in many places have developed structures to protect themselves from a predatory state so much of our work is building strong relationships and we have over many years with this creative capacity with these straits in local communities. Some of the things that are being implemented being discussed tested are things like task shifting protocols for Covert Nineteen task shifting has been in place many parts of the world where you're not gonNa have enough doctors and nurses so you train local people some without much education but train them to do specific health related tasks and these community health workers systems is tash shifting to an extremely successful and these systems have been extremely creative in constructing protocols systems approaches. That are extremely effective. That emerged from local knowledge local experience and to a certain extent local power and we are working hard with colleagues around the world at universities like Johns Hopkins the London School Hygiene Tropical Medicine. Ucsf UC system in California but more importantly with universities and local communities in Africa in Central America in South Asia to develop and disseminate these strategies from the ground up. One of the things that has emerged is what's been called radical shielding a kind of reverse isolation most times isolation involves separating. People are sex from the rest of the population. This is a reverse isolation where the most vulnerable people in a community are identified and they are isolated hopefully not emotionally isolated but physically isolated in terms of distance saying and use of masks and other kinds of approaches to protect the most vulnerable namely the elderly for people with chronic disease in these communities. This could take many forms and people are working hard to figure out the best ways to consider radical shielding reverse isolation as a means of protecting these communities. There are the components that are being put into place. The basically it's translating. Who CDC recommendations this technical guidance into the realities of these communities the material realities is a poor places crowded places in general but also the political realities where local infrastructure local capacity local organization. Local power are the essential components of building collective action. I was impressed by reading PORI. How Communities Yomata have organized many of these communities precisely exists in conditions of poverty. Minimal Healthcare highlander ability to placement by militant groups and expedience range of natural disasters such as flooding villas manmade disasters. And they have been really proactive in self-generated tank quote on team places for migrants that have been returning from highland. Middle East other parts of Asia with the communities feeding that they will bring with them but doing so in a humane way and in a way that's not groups when discriminating the migrants has been the case elsewhere including in US responses or in Mexico and also devising systems minimizing. Sucrose communities could easily. These communities have expedients and expedients. That is I could table and mode brutal in dealing with issues the Respond to mean have seen. Similar efforts absorbs organization in India. That has often been much darker. Where a lot of the community self organization in policing has in fact salted in yet another significant increase in foul ride Hindu brutality type of violence against Muslim communities and the facts that some of the sources of Kobe spread but mosques where people gather and watch numbers of people in the Wgn sextant and spread the disease on the Fed the propaganda where even the government of India its healthcare officials would be speaking about Muslims. In mosques be at using that kind of language that just facilitated attacks so not a nice side also community self organization and indeed capacity the community has for Soga nation is very much a function of its three existing strength how much the leadership has been decimated by war or crime. It's not surprising that criminal groups or organized crime rooks frequently. Target COMMUNITY ORGANIZERS. In the first place strike to eliminate them so the community loses the capacity to respond to coercion but it also means that the community wanted the capacity to respond to other shocks or even solve. Organiz for just coping with daily activities. Well these last comments triggered a question that I've been wondering about quite a bit over the last few weeks. Is that see many political scientists and others comparing the responses to Cova nineteen between democratic and autocratic regimes as the primary dichotomy of the political systems. And how they respond. However I've been more impressed by the divergence and response between populous leaders and others less dependent upon populous support. Why do you think that populists in such places as Brazelle the and the United States have all had such denial list impulses? What is it about a pandemic that tends to generate this kind of response so as you said not all of slums not all urban dense places? Same old populists our same President motive visited India. Being one of the big outliers nonetheless that in many Populus including Imran Khan Prime Minister in Pakistan and in fact this is the day in the Philippines fall into the mold that you suggested very strong efforts to deny dependent make exists that it is not just a fable of fantasy language. They would frequently use and then trying to avoid social distancing another measures for a long as possible but in the case of. Bolsonaro still today. He is in denial and rejecting the need for such approaches. I think that it stems from several sources. One is that all of the populace elected in the context of significant segments of populations believing that they have been economically underprivileged in. The day have slipped through the cracks of the previous system than the previous system. Did Not Take. Care of their basic needs and they all campaign promised to radically change the economic wellbeing of those groups whether this is unrest manual door Mexico who message was fighting against the Mafia power expression. He used against the both the Mexican people to bring economic well-being the forty fifty percent of Mexicans who live in poverty or whether this was both a narrow enbrel sale that will again promising to empower particular Booder Brazilians. So for them to adopt the social distancing means that is significant economic downturn is it has meant for the entire world and hence they have been loath to see economic effect that directly contradicts the campaign. So I think that's one. Element is the economic implications for them. The political implications of economic downturn for them are perhaps even more pronounced than for any politician or any government second. I would say that many Oakland campaigned precisely on the crime is that they will cure the country from the MELAS. They identified before by removing the country from the international system one way or another in check stink multilateral institutions rejecting elemental globalization's where the desist trump `isolation is on the immigrant use whether this is what is bouncing brexit in the UK so this strong isolationist element problem is the outside world at this note us has been very strong and so that is a tendency to recheck the twice that's coming from abroad and also coupled with what you talked about namely that all in somebody's promising to break the system throw away the system blow up the system seeing the previous system as fold and the detecting education and the checks institutions. Not Just National Alonso. Mystic ones Think experts and rejecting systematically rule of law and anyone who promotes room of law. So I would say that second. Strand is the rejection of knowledge the embrace of misinformation and lies the rejections of multilateral approaches the objection of learning from others rejecting others in the first place. And then I would say. Third Element is that they are copying each other before the condemning the populace have been watching each other and copying each other's responses on each other success in being elected very pronounced with both Directly making trump trump prophetic but he posted debris glowing terms through the territory and other dimensions. And so when the first populist started rejecting Kobe the following but then that are sort of interesting developments to that I would say that will happen both the populace knee business. Some extend the same thing that happened with covert and militant groups and criminal groups namely they all tried to appropriate it for the purposes so the tetteh classic example here. I rejecting Kobe using same languages. Both on Otto and Traum is fantasies drill. Still thinking that message in mid-march now the Philippines probably the worst hit country in Southeast Asia but video rapid spread minimal testing by expectations that probably tens of thousands hype and thousands have likely been infected. You bundled that this thing is minimal and so what does detector do while just last week? He essentially grabbed power. Something he has trying to do for the previous two years of his rule and now declared himself to have extraordinarily emergency powers that go way beyond what is arguably needed. In the response saw Kobe's though he is directly responsible for augmenting the spread of opening the Philippines became a mechanism for him to aggregate more power to essential launch assaults. Huda Tom in the country similarly in the United States than trump his US Kobe now to shutdown would migrate in the United States and moved to minimize or eliminate migration if he has his way not just infamous of undocumented workers but also in terms of illegal migration such as suspending and trying to minimize green card visa and other elements. And we're seeing the same thing among militant groups whether they are Islamists or whether they are far right groups in the United States however they checked coveted first late. Andrei say okay well. Kobe is not a tool to for example. In fact Jewish people. Those are some of the statements that have been simulating among far right groups in the US. Who encourage their members to get infected by Colbert and go to places with high concentration Jewish people to infect them Isis in Syria in Iraq? It's just woke OVID'S I lost punish men on the field is on the infidels. It's fine believers will be affected but late on has been suggesting. Well he is an opportunity to exploit this against the enemy against infidels the West whether it's people spreading the illness or whether it's encouraging attacks notice attacks while law enforcement forces are focused on other issues are preoccupied with Colbert whether this is encouraging just rebellion and misinformation to create distrust in beacon legitimacy mistake of the state now. They've been some interesting cases and those cases of criminal Luke's or militants even like the Taliban who in fact try to the new providers new providers in some ways filling a gap that would often be filled by international NGOs outside groups working in.
"london school hygiene" Discussed on Mysteries, Myths
"Many businesses have closed in the United States and most other countries with a high incidence of the disease and many employees have lost jobs with drastic personal and economic consequences. It sometimes feels as though we're at the mercy of a relentless invader but our defenders the real heroes of this battle are the armies of first responders healthcare workers and support personnel who are quite literally putting themselves at mortal risk to care for the sick and they are doing it with limited resources. They as well as the workers who keep the supply. Chains operational are deserving of our deepest gratitude in the US as in many countries the numbers of those infected with Cova nineteen and the heartbreaking numbers of deaths are increasing daily at this writing the CDC the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates over. Six hundred thousand confirmed and presumptive cases in the United States with more than twenty five thousand deaths the World Health Organization W. H. O. Estimates nearly two million cases globally with more than one hundred thousand deaths because not everyone has been tested the number of those infected and possibly recovered without confirmation is. An underestimate is difficult to conceive. What the number of cases and deaths they will be even from week to week until therapies. Vaccines are globally available. Meanwhile we're experiencing the tragic and frightening loss of loved ones and friends without knowing when it will stop as fearful as this viruses imagine how terrifying. It must have been during the pandemics of the past. During for instance. The Spanish flu the H one in one virus which didn't originate in Spain but which country published the first reports of the illness. It is estimated that some five hundred million people were infected worldwide from nineteen eighteen to nineteen nineteen with as many as fifty million that is ten percent of infected people dying from the viral disease. There was no vaccine that time and know pharmaceuticals for effective treatment. The measures to avoid infection relied mainly on the same ones recommended. Now physical distancing good hygiene quarantining. The sick eventually the Spanish food out because they were no more hosts people either died recovered and became immune successfully avoided infection. The fourteenth century robotic leg which was caused by a bacterium rather than virus is also estimated to have killed fifty million people at thirty to sixty percent of those infected or about one third of the European population. The first wave of the black death lasted twenty five years with successive ways occurring. Until the cause of the disease the bacterium your Scindia Pestis was discovered. Five hundred years later after the bacteria was identified in eighteen ninety four separately by doctors Alexander Years and and get a subtle Chaba. Saburo a French physician. Dr Paul Louis. Simond trace the route of transmission from rats to infected fleas humans in sixteen sixty five sixteen sixty six. Nearly one quarter of the population of London died from the plague caused by the same pathogen as the Black Death. Y pestis descriptive account of that. Perilous time is given by Daniel Defoe author of such books as Robinson crusoe am all flanders in seventeen twenty two. He published a journal of the plague year. A novel based on a great plague of London in which he gives a fictional but historically credible account of the course of the disease he writes it was about the beginning of September sixteen. Sixty four that I among the rest of my neighbors heard an ordinary discourse that the plague was returned again in Holland for had been very violent there and particularly Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the sixteen sixty three with her they say it was brought some said from Italy others from the Levant among some goods which are brought home by Turkey. Fleet others said it was brought from candia others from Cyprus. It mattered not from whence it came but all agreed it was coming to Holland again and from Europe. The plague traveled to London. The author gives the number of burials per week by parish and observe their increase over time and by season defoe has his narrator question with the deadly sickness is a divine instrument and he concludes it. It is in that vein narrator decides to cast himself entirely upon the goodness and protection of the Almighty given that however defoe goes on to describe the mini countermeasures that city officials take to contain the plague including banning public gatherings instituting greatest sanitary measures effective burying the dead quarantining homes with infect the residents all of which indicate knowledge of the extreme infectiousness of the disease even if the vectors of infection were not yet known with limited knowledge of medicine overall energy to fo- tries to understand how and where the diseases transmitted and who are the most vulnerable. He concludes interesting. Make quote that. It was not the sick people only from home. The play was immediately received by others that were sound but the well that is one could get the plague from someone who has not yet had the symptoms. Despite the fact that dafoe attributes the origins and ending of the plagued divine intervention. He attributes its propagation to natural means. Does it might be argued. Because of his fact based observations that he was a nascent epidemiologist the term epidemiology is derived of course from epidemic cove in nineteen so named by. Who Comes from the first two letters of Corona Co plus? The first two letters virus the eye than the disease code and the nineteen from the first appearance of the disease in China in two thousand nineteen and nineteen. Let me preface this by saying I'm not an epidemiologist. Although with some exceptions I have spent most of my career in the Department of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health now called the hard t h Chan School of Public Health. I began as a research assistant to the department chairman calculating that time statistics on the Association of Radiation and cancer intern. I became a project. Data Manager for a multi country study breast cancer and lastly the Managing Editor of an International Journal of Cancer Epidemiology. I've had the privilege of working with many of the exceptional faculty and staff that department and in particular three notable epidemiologist. Dr Brian McMahon Chairman of the Department Dimitrius Drakopoulos the subsequent department chairman and also chair of the similar department in the University of Athens and Dr Richard Munson professor in the departments of deputy meteorology and environmental health as well as editor of the Journal. Cancer Causes and control. Doctors McMahon Coppola's although epidemiology as an independent discipline is said to a begun in the mid nineteen hundreds the first credited founder of epidemiology with John Snow physician born England in eighteen thirteen. During the period of eighteen forty six to eighteen sixty there was a worldwide pandemic of cholera a highly lethal intestinal disease that causes diarrhea and vomiting and in eighteen fifty four. There was an outbreak in the Soho district of London were. Dr Snow lived and practiced. He observed that the cluster of cases with more than six hundred people dying from the disease was located specifically at or around a particular locale broad street. At that time it was commonly thought that the disease was conveyed by breathing. Bad Air called. The mayas matic theory miasma meaning basically a motorist night air snow on the contrary believe the cholera was caused by contaminated water in London in the mid eighteen. Hundreds there were no residential sewage water lines so that people got their water from communal sources for example the town pump and because people dump their sewage into rivers or open cess pools snow deduce that that contamination worked its way into the water supply and because of the specific location of the cases and deaths. His suspicion fell upon the broad street. Water pump how Dr Snow came to. This conclusion is the resulted as identifying who the cases were mapping where they lived an asking where they obtain their drinking water. He also tracked those people who did not get cholera such as inmates of local prison. Which had its own drinking. Water supply the subjects. Who DIDN'T GET CHOLERA? Became a natural control group case control studies have since become the backbone of many epidemiologic investigations? Although snow couldn't identified the specific source of the contamination from the broad street. Water pump. He recommended to the town officials that the pump handle be removed so that people could not drink that water. The administrators reluctantly did so but even though cholera in Soho declined afterwards. The town officials still did not believe there was any evidence the Association of Cholera with water contamination and there would have stayed had not an adversary of the sewage. Tried to prove Dr Snow Wong Minister. Henry whited believed that the broad street cholera was an intervention by God in his zeal. Reverend Whitehead interviewed residents of the area expecting to refute snow instead. He found a woman who confessed that she had washed her baby's diapers in water that she then dumped into a leaking cesspool just three feet from the pump. Water to his credit wife had published. His findings in a magazine confirming snows theory. It took several more years for German physician to identify the actual bacterium the Brio Colorado. That causes cholera. Dr Robert Koch K. O. C. H. which might have been pronounced. Caulk or cook. I'll stick with cutch after my ninth grade. Science teacher demonstrated that the bacterial disease. Although infectious was not contagious person to person and that scrupulous sanitation would prevent color from occurring. Had It not been for snows empirical methods the ultimate eradication of cholera might have taken much longer and cost many more lives in recognition of his contribution to epidemiology. There is today a Jon. Snow Society at the London School Hygiene and tropical medicine however there are competing claimants for the founding of Epidemiology. One of whom was Dr William far? That's F. A. R. Another British physician. One just a few years earlier than Dr Snow in the eighteen thirties far wrote numerous papers on medical statistics and in eighteen sixty four. He published a report on the statistically high number of deaths among coal miners in Cornwall. Dr Far concluded these deaths mainly among middle aged males were due to pulmonary disease from that occupation the Association of a particular occupation with a particular disease diseases by gender age based on statistical analysis was new and some two hundred years before that in sixteen sixty one a non physician in fact a haberdasher dealing men's clothing named John Gaunt published a treatise natural and political observations made upon the bills of mortality. He observed that death mortality rates were higher in males. Although illnesses were busy rates were fewer among other things. He found that there was a high mortality. Rates among children and that rickets was epidemic the treatise however appears to have been his last major public health publication. His clothing business was destroyed in the great fire of London in sixteen sixty six forcing him into bankruptcy. He died eight years later at age. Fifty three unheralded and destitute. They ask wave away. Hail and farewell John Brunt. Why did this two century development of epidemiology occurs specifically in Great Britain most historians attributed to good recordkeeping by parish and county registers as well as parliamentary proceedings? In the Lord's archives however one might ask if this attribution of the beginnings of epidemiology to British investigators is somewhat Western centric view. I'm not familiar enough with ancient history and literature to know whether some keen observers in the Veronica in Islamic civilizations for instance or the Roman or Greek ears or an Asian and African dynasties made epidemiologic association with diseases in their own coaches in many ways after all epidemiology began as an exercise in logic until it became a methodology. Initially the field of epidemiology was defined as a study of the distribution of disease in the human population primarily incidents in prevalence as it was applied to infectious diseases however overtime epidemiologic methods replied to other conditions. There is of course cancer epidemiology. Which was in part fostered by Dr? Brian McMahon but there is now for Miko Epidemiology that Naria Biaggi molecular epidemiology epidemiology of occupational safety and health and more not only are incidents in prevalence studies but also in the case of communicable diseases. The transmission conditions and outcomes of the disease in subjects methods of study differ between infectious diseases such as bacterial cholera and viral Kobe. Nineteen and non infectious conditions such as cancer which may result from genetic causes dietary causes and noncommunicable exposures including for example Tobacco Smoking Radiation Industrial has etc in-investing gaining and infectious disease. One may look at a sequence of exposure by whatever means to the bacterium or viral agent then infection to some incubation period to the from first symptoms two degrees progression then depending on dimension two degrees of outcome in the case of Kobe. Nineteen the time from exposure to infection appears to be rapid than infection. Illness evident by greater or lesser symptoms appears to be a matter of days with the illness than having several possible outcomes from non fatal to fatal depending on certain variables ultimately investigating a non infectious disease breast cancer. For example the sequence may be susceptibility. Where the agent may be genetic or acquired or the interaction of both then some potential latency period sometimes years diagnosis then. Some potential agency sometimes years depending on treatment outcome going from the course of a disease in an individual to some larger aggregate population is more involved. The numbers of people exposed susceptible may be difficult to determine the latency periods. If any may also be difficult to determine may vary and may in the case of non infectious conditions. Take a long time to come evident. As for treatment and potential outcomes they too can be variable and each disease runs. Its own course. So you could see that quantifying all these steps can be complicated and there are lots of statistics involved assessing risks and probabilities confounding factors and modeling. The behavior of the disease. What epidemiology does not do is what Dr Koch Did. In laboratory experiments nor generally speaking do epidemiologist do garages and geneticists. Chemists do neither FDR themselves usually responsible for implementing their findings and recommendations is principally public health officers and physicians who guide us through an epidemic but their recommendations are continually being informed by epidemiologists who assessing the democratic distribution of cases where they are occurring among which populations younger versus older healthy versus compromised.
"london school hygiene" Discussed on Is The Mic Still On
"You know that was one of the funny things that cause people saying the same thing because people still think being bipolar means you have two personalities like literally like the movie split attention and when when people do try to fall back on that it's like look man like you don't get really depressed and then you start talking about I love trump like those those things don't make any sense I could see if he had some form of schizophrenia maybe but maybe he does we don't know maybe he does and he's just not been what do you call it diagnosed properly right but we were supposed to have a conversation about this but I think contain is one either he's really just losing it and doesn't really know a lot of the things he's saying or two he's just completely full of shit but I don't I think that calculated I think he would have said that same stupid shit anywhere he went and I don't think anybody would shit about it I think they would have left and adopt up I would agree they wouldn't have stood up as our hollering at Chi are we not holding him accountable as far as we can obviously you know say this for the people listening He has a right to how feels appears his thoughts as political affiliations whatever that's totally is right but when I'm asking are we not hold him accountable I I look at the what people are saying like all a is having a mental break or you know he's he is Bob Polar and we're trying to blame it on mental in ill his instead of Knob right this is what he really feels and thinks now as opposed to what he did are we giving him him out I don't think so and this is just from my perspective I the way he's operating really doesn't make any sense literally maybe maybe a year ago could have been a year ago I think it was less than that like I said before when we were talking about this he was running around with these tea shirts off with Pentagram upside down crosses whatever whatever then you have his wife that's doing the exact same thing she's wearing fucking Morbid Angel Hoodie with Pentagon rams this is a very known satanic death metal band but then now all of a sudden you're back to I'm I'm god-like again you know I'm born again I'm putting on a gospel album then what the fuck where you're doing a few months back when you were running around with this metal shirt on with these fucking clearly demonic symbol on it but what it was speaking about earlier where that girl that I knew went to his release party thing I guess he had like apologized. or said that he repented or something for being blasphemous and calling himself uses and he knows that that is something that interesting you know wasn't awed and from now on only make Gospel albums and this and that and the third so he apologized while he was on before I guess so interesting okay so this is the fourth fourth May God well honestly say he said no more secular music what what did you say one of these fucking I want to say like a week or picnics these Christian picking a lane the host Sunday service thing I didn't know that yeah not so that as more contests too I sat on care why dorm as so does Kim just follow along what the fuck early silent though no she's been talking she said Yeah but I'm saying when he was wearing the fucking metal shirts then she was Miranda metal shirts to and now it seems like when he's all I'm born again so it does she is she's saying she's born again to know she supports her husband that's it that's probably what it takes that's probably what it is sometimes you have a united household or not appear to have united front in public interesting I got two more two more short clips on row you've already done enough to me I know this is to be the one to hear loving Cagno he's uh-huh Sir Sir innocent so that was so social media is what you want to think sober slower slower said sober slower is designed to slow you down okay I mean tweeting okay it takes some time I wanNA make sure it's grammatically correct and all that it does take a little time the law is the last clip nfl right now yeah this is not a museum all right so what are you going to do about those one and three Khania go free them all individually was she she has doing a lot of work to free a lot of wrongfully accused people ally or she freed the one it was working on Nashi street over twenty people what a and when did this happen we talked about it on Black Korea weeks ago months ago she freed she got twenty people freed I'm a looked at nothing I don't believe you or maybe not twenty feet or maybe she's working on five it's not look at least double digits I don't remember exactly is not working on to do whatever number out there back something that's all I'm saying she's doing something dollar one they always say that that base law he was playing those disown pretty good Jesus walk outside the The people cheering were interesting but fan exactly does the ABC what three Oh my God back and they will repeat it out I just wanted to Connie's edition right Oh my God that's deep anywhere all right mind his brief too but did you guys hear about that man that that paralyzed man and started walking again Essel Skeleton Jesus healed him or something yeah it's pretty dope man yeah it's just do start walking in like light like war machine oh you did yeah exactly Rhody you're looking at Adele don't uh-huh shoulders now control in his brain twenty eight year old is attached to a rope holy him stable but what's propelling him forward is his mind with this essentially using a system of sensors composite news brain they recall elected plan that she said the patient had to train on a game avatar system for two years to try to understand his thoughts as a product of a two year long trial scientists Zac hold a macho right regain this cut that water Dr Dope this is stuff I didn't think it was at first but yeah it is is it what is it got over his brain why are you saying Whoa look like I would like a cartoon villain guy was bugs bunny in what was his name I want to know what he does uh-huh he saved obviously he's going to create the thing I'm just saying he saved the World Besser Tom Shakespeare London schools hygiene and tropical medicine crane his head my God oh my dick about if he just headbutted you you would Iraq about that if he wants you like e Honda ooh yeah man I thought that was I guess I'll be bringing a lotta the tech stuff but Yeah I heard about that I was like wow that is actually crazy it's kind of like comic books as we saw in avengers you know something APP we've thought about I think the Dan Gaming Angle is using video games you guys talk about that in a way to talk about it using video games to like get people rehabilitation yeah man that's that's Kinda Kinda Dope like imagine the possibilities you know twenty thirty years from now we got self driving cars now and now we're going to have people being able to walk again the Javan carshield it's time to get it brown came beat self driving cars can't can't can't can't wait no man no 'cause like like what if somebody just like just I don't know the system and drove your ass off a cliff you should always be Scott Rod to sit back and say you should be authorized like airplanes airplanes are self driving fly autopilot yeah but then when the solid died the plane's going to crash but necessarily what you mean they need they still in high demand it but I'm just saying but two point is that you could override the autopilot on no you bet on that right over here you trust me more than that Dan Machine I one hundred percent but I but I feel can in terms of moving technology forward I think that we do need the advent of self driving cars and things of that nature feature but I just know I won't be a proponent of that because because I'm for the tech but I'm for controlling it myself just like you know like I talked to all the time like these TUSLA's and shit they're cool and they're fast and they perform but if you don't make no noise I just I can't I can't get Jimmy that so the same thing is like I'm cool I'm forward pushing forward but KNOB rare like I I'm not gonna I'm not GonNa let nobody drive me driving MMMM so why don't you want to self driving car because he lazy I want to sleep you wanNA sleep you shouldn't be driving sleeping right now she wants to go to sleep go on your way to work answering the question people can't I am thinking in a make the road safer that kills folks now but vitually once they work it out definitely a mistake fuck you just ran somebody over that person matters did an accident is excellent right much I always your sports what else for allows I know but I mean you know we got the percentages awesome sacrifices have to be made for the Advancement August yes fucking move up sound like a corporation yeah I do all my God but we knew I mean but obviously they shouldn't know that there's a percentage there's a possibility that people are GonNa die eight nine one hundred percent but people are dying all the time on the road so happened immediately it wasn't like they lost a year later here's a mistake what a week who weeks Iran somebody someone a Lotta Cole road and it didn't even try to stop this move okay so we don't wait so we know we need to put that in there we all people over we stop at least not when you rose about over and and you know realize that Jerusalem body over and they're sending a resume that is he dead kicks act the nine one one we like to think I just hit somebody each other out eight I think it's GonNa make the road safer and people don't know how to drive you guys know this And I I remember what would it matter if you can if you can over I don't I don't think the majority of people would brightest people are going to be lazy and then you won't get stuck in that light because I know you'll be stuck in that light be on the phone and then you look at the light and nobody moving that was when I was out mind somebody why don't fuck it we're not moving it doesn't work but at that point it's too late now really I'd be honking still a little hole light before you hawk no no no no because I'm cars behind I'm still honking they get area a two second courtesy that's it is her home yes unless you your taste in my little you still gonNa be light but with self driving cars Mike you won't have to unless the shit done didn't get an update or some super shake it update lab work for about thirty five minutes that's your car your WIFI connection get lost take it even a step further I think that it will alleviate a lot of traffic because like once these cities are like all the way interconnected will like the light systems like go lights in like they'll be able to just control an I know the word control don't be they'll literally be able to control everything including the traffic like like you'll be able to get places is quicker advancement of technology it is set about this you're just lazy you're just lazy cars more work than fucking whipping a horse making them pull your carriage so I go from us too what a square had to have a square wheel somewhere somebody had one way didn't work so I'm confused he'll probably came association octagon wheel would have been more as I know well I bet that square where it was fascinating it may not buddy hitch I probably would be a circle from the advancement of technology so that or the buffalo that was pulling it down they were like Oh damn this is actually better than a fucking shit that we came up with anyway back to this damn s.