2 Episode results for "Less Than Ten Gigabytes"
May 1, 2019 show
"Oh. Today is may the first twenty nineteen. Yes, I know it's May Day. Welcome to the personal computer show. I'm hang key in my colleagues, Joe king. Do you know who has your personal data? Do you know how Facebook Google and Amazon are using personal data is that product boyfriend Amazon account, if it you should find out I'll website is radio show dot org. We can be hurt each Wednesday at six PM eastern time on P R, N dot FM streaming on the internet as well. As on various podcasting hosting sites podcast of the programs available on PRN dot FM on the internet and PC radio show dot org to listen to the live program on the telephone each Wednesday at six PM eastern time. The number is six four one seven nine three seven zero nine one. For those who are listening to the program on demand. You can leave us a message with your question. Comment to Hank at PC radio show dot org. You can also reach us on the Google number eight six to eight hundred six eight zero five that's eight six to eight hundred six eight zero five and you start your message with the personal computer show, followed by your message. News alert for windows, seven and windows. Eight point one users window security update caused recent antivirus conflicts and freezes Microsoft release, the April twenty nineteen patch Tuesday updates and since then uses have reported, performance issues and freezes in windows, seven windows. Eight point one windows two thousand eight windows two thousand eight revision to windows twenty twelve and windows twenty twelve revision to as reported by Microsoft in numerous accord, articles for April windows updates antivirus software installed on these versions of windows may become unresponsive upon we start after installing the recent April updates an attacker who successfully exploited as vulnerability could run arbitrary code an attacker could then install a programs view change or delete data or create new account. With full user rights to exploit this vulnerability and attacker with I have to log onto the system and attacker. Could then run specially crafted application, take control of an affected system. The update addresses vulnerability by correcting how the windows see as our SS handles objects in memory is fixed for this. No. But there are certain things you can do I have made the following information available on website PC ratio dot or so if you don't have a pencil paper ready to copy down, the KB or knowledge base number just go to our website. If you're running windows, eight point one there are two patches one is for the security only patch and that is KB four four nine three four six seven and the windows. Eight point one monthly row. Patch is k b four. Four nine three four six. Now, if you are running windows seven the patches are as follows KB four four nine three four four eight is the April window seven security only patch and k b four four nine three four seven two is the April windows seven monthly row. A patch? The first option is you uninstalled security patch to either windows seven or eight point one. And if this does not resolve the problem, then what you should do is uninstall the row patch for either in though, seven all when those eight point one, in some cases, it is reported that there was necessary to do a system restore to a point prior to April twenty nineteen and this would essentially remove the patch Tuesday that was sent out by Microsoft, what is the risk level? If the patch was removed as I have. Stated to exploit this vulnerability an attacker with first half to log onto your system and an attacker could then run specially crafted application to take control of an effective system. This seems to be unlikely to happen for most uses all good things must come to an end. And this is a reminder that support for windows seven is ending January fourteenth twenty twenty Microsoft when the lawyer provide security updates so support for P C's running windows seven after that date windows. Eight point one falls under the same life cycle policy as when those eight which reached and of mainstream support on January ninth of last year and of extended support on January tenth twenty twenty three. Maybe it's time to upgrade to win those ten. Microsoft issue's important windows. Ten upgrade warning the multimedia cod MMC is the memory card. Standard used for salt state storage in low and windows notebook systems. Thirty two gigabyte EMC has been the standard capacity installed. The EMC storage called is sought it onto the motherboard. And it is not replaceable. I have such a system with thirty two gigabytes. I've had the jug of the system to fit the windows ten operating system. Updates in this limited storage, the actual free storage with windows ten in stored is less than ten gigabytes in a new advisory. Microsoft has one users that they will need up to twice as much free storage on their PC's to receive when those ten nineteen or three the upgrade which finally gives oil uses control over windows updates. The new requirement will apply. Two overs of windows. Ten home pro and enterprise in effect. Dismembered of windows update has rendered these low end systems obsolete is it advisable to skip the update. Hell, no. The new minimum is thirty two gigabytes. Double the previous sixteen gigabyte stipulation of thirty two bit windows ten and almost forty percent more than the sixty four bit editions for uses with modern PC's. This is unlikely to be a problem. But for all the PC's or uses who consume a lot of storage discovered prove a more problematic hurdle with some finding that they need to buy a new hard-drive and migrate their data. Microsoft's move will open the floodgates to fall lodge requirements in the near future. Don't be surprised if sixty four gigabyte minimum will be needed in the near future. So if you have an older PC or simply don't want to give additional. Space. Should you just windows? Ten nine hundred ninety three the answer is. No. So yes, you need windows. Ten nine hundred ninety three and yes, you may have to offload or delete some data or by some new hardware to get it. But this is an upgrade, which is to important to skip you've been one I now have two options at this point. I the select and install a Lennox distribution. Or try to convert the notebook into a Chromebook actually is third option. The doorstop. Google bans one of the biggest Android app, developers from the play store based on a BuzzFeed analysis. Several of the most downloaded apps from the Google Playstore may have been caught sharing data. They collect with the Chinese government. Google is banning the app development question. In addition who go is removing or apps from the developer the global that have collectively garnered more than a half a billion down lows. These are the apps have been implicated in buzzfeed's investigation. If you have any of these installed on your phone, the lead them now selfie camera. Total cleaner smart, cooler ram master a oh flashlight. Omni clean wa wa ya ya emoji flashlight and Samsung TV remote control via peo- technologies Inc. Google had discovered the device. Lopa was engaged in anad fraud and had begun pulling its apps from the store. Buzzfeed reports today that almost fifty apps from the developer have already been removed and the other fifty will be removed. This is not the first app developed to get smacked with Playstore ban. Not only is global among the biggest. But by do has a thirty four percent stake in the company by do is sometimes described as the Google of China both fees early announces found that the developers were exploiting the place stores rules and procedures to hide who they are. And offer absent aggressively abuse uses permission and commit ad for on one of them was a TV remote app that said it might use a microphone in your phone to record sounds while you watch TV plus a flashlight app that you think would offer pretty cut and dried functionality and yet still ask what lots of dubious permissions, a Google spokesperson stated the following. Thing we actively investigate militias behavior. And when we find violations we take action, including the removal of a develop as a billion montage the app with asthma or published on play to get a sense of just how much of a presence DO global has enjoyed the play store. The company boasts more than a quarter of a billion monthly active users, but the company has apparently taken pains to mask its identity from many of the apps ahead in Google online. Marketplace many of them according to reports lists myriad addresses and develop a contact details. Obscuring the common ownership in response. The oke logo has published a statement apologizing for their actions in the past week we have noticed a series of reports about our apps by the media. We fully understand the seriousness of the allegations. As such immediately conducted an internal investigation on this matter. We regret the fine irregularities in some products use of Admiral advertisements given this. We fully understand and accept Google's decision. Moreover, we have actively cooperated with them by doing a thorough examination of every app. Involve we would like to thank the media are partners and the public for this support moving forward. We will strictly follow relevant regulations and continue conducting a comprehensive review of our products Lashley during this process. We have cost misunderstanding. Great concern too are being unable to communicate in a timely manner and provide complete inflammation. We offer our apologies. My vices to avoid off things the Okla will and perhaps of oil things by do. Milieu of New York City Bill de Blasio said we're going to introduce legislation to ban the classic glass and steel skyscrapers that have contributed so much to global warming. They have no place in our city or our earth anymore. He later admitted his legislation would actually just tighten the city's energy code to make it prohibitively expensive to develop glassy high rises he later clarified. It doesn't mean buildings can't use glass anymore. He pointed to the recently erected, American Coppa, building and Mary hill, a K shaped structure clad and Coppa and glass as an example of a structure that would still be acceptable. The Blasios cited unspecified buildings in the Hudson yards development as examples of the wrong way to do things. Hudson yard developer related companies later hit back by pointing out that just opened. Glass office building. That is certified LEED platinum do US green building council's highest as ignition is one of New York's most energy-efficient class, eight office towers. Lead is global industry rating standard. It includes a set of rating systems for the design construction operation and maintenance of green buildings homes and neighborhoods that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources officially there are one hundred possible base points distributed across six credit categories, sustainable, sites water-efficient city, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources indoor environmental quality and innovation in design up to ten. Additional points may be earned four dishes points may be received for regional priority credits and six additional points for innovation and design which includes exemplary performance credits for existing credit categories. What are the certification levels buildings can qualify for four levels of serve. Vacation just certification south forty to forty nine points Silva, fifty to fifty nine points. Gold sixty seventy nine points and platinum highest eighty points and above. Last week. The city council passed a Bill to slap strict greenhouse emission caps on private buildings exceeding twenty five thousand square feet by forcing them to retrofit pipes heating systems, lights and other utilities by twenty twenty four or face. Big fines. In New York. This is by half the buildings the Bank of America tower on forty second street, for example, is certified LEED platinum, but the developer the dirt organization calculated. It would still face two point five million and fines on the new Bill when twenty twenty four rows around and the fine will escalate annually from their critics say the new measures are unrealistic. They'll likely aren't enough contract is to get off fifty thousand affected buildings up to code and time and the pine sky targets were just turned business away from the Big Apple meanwhile, small buildings hospitals and New York City housing authority complexes and affordable housing won't be subject to the same rules. The law doesn't take into account what the building does tech and media are energy intensive you're going to have an owner who would think twice on who they rent out to avoid fines. The may is goal. Is to reduce emissions by forty percent by twenty thirty ordaining at the happen. Does mean will happen? He was reelected in twenty seventeen. And he's term limited in twenty twenty one. He won't be around in twenty thirty can be done. Sure. Just have other businesses move out of the city from an economic feasibility point of view. It would be cheaper to do business somewhere else. Marty. How realistic is this legislation? Gimme your two cents over the next door. What ten years or so New York mayor de Blasio wants to cut skyscraper offenses to its energy profile by forty percent? And Hank said, hey, Marnie. What do you think is it reasonable can that happen and the answer is? Yeah, it can happen. Maybe not quite the way. He's described it. I can tell everybody here from my own experience the best way to reduce energy consumption is to cut losses. And I mean, the losses that happen because they just are allowed to happen. It involves reinforcing insulation. It involves cutting the air pads short of allowing the building breath. It involves smarter use of the resources. We have can you cut? It forty percent. Yes. In fact, you can cut it to forty percent. It's going to take attention to these things. It's not going to be inexpensive. Is that reasonable is it realistic? Well, I think that depends in part on how soon and if it gets passed, and if it does get passed whether or not mayor de Blasio is still in office during the course of those ten or eleven years to make sure that everything happens the way he has mandated or dictated, or at least or rated you ought to reduce emissions you reduce emissions by reducing waste. He want to reduce emissions of the building itself. There are many many sciences they can support that you want to reduce emissions within a building. That's going to happen. Anyway, all of the electron IX are improving in their energy profiles. The biggest defender is not the computer systems all those are pretty big. But the displays displays are getting much more. Energy efficient because that's being driven by TV sets the computers themselves are also getting more energy efficient, and that's being driven by electric bills. And also a lot of downsizing today's microprocessors are more efficient. Today's memory can be more efficient and the blend of making more happen in places other than right at the point of work. Also increases the number of computers that can be supported on a limited amount of electronically. So if you ask me cannon happen, I'm saying, yeah. It can will it be expensive. Yes, I'm saying. Yes, it will be expensive. It will be costly those services their prices all of that to go up rents are going to go up all as a result of saving energy, saving energy is a good thing. Saving energy should happen. Can it will it is this the way? Well, those questions I'm gonna let you guys decide personally, I might take a slightly different path. Gorno the days when part-time work or side hustles were frowned upon the gig economies here to stay for Beto fours gig is a slang for a live musical performance. Originally coined in the nineteen twenties by jazz musicians. The term short for the word engagement now refers to any aspect of performing such as assisting with performance and attending musical performance. Why is it called the gig economy? The gig economy gets its name from each piece of work being Kintu an individual gig or though such work and four on the multiple names gig economy workers can also work for more traditional companies, which have changed how the staffing system operates the modern gig economies all about outsourcing specific task to freelances or independent contractors these gigs mostly on a short term basis. They are. Usually task that can be worked at from your home or office or anywhere from a computer stuff, like writing editing proofreading software development and programming falls into this category. Now, it's reported that the feds have issued a rule that one companies gig workers are contractors. It's a question that cut to the heart of the way tech giants like Oba and lift do business. Our gig economy work is really just contractors or should they be classified and compensated as employees ease on Monday, the US department of labor hinted at an answer writing in a letter to one gig economy company that its workers are in fact, independent contractors the letter came in response to inquiry by single unnamed company that sort of departments advice on whether it's workers could fairly be considered contractors on the law. The opinion issue Monday applies only to the company dress in a letter. And isn't legally binding as reported by the Wall Street Journal. The headline is US says gig workers are not employees. The Labor Department says gig economy workers who find jobs through online platforms a not entitled to protection under the fair labor standards act. The federal department confirm. It's the situation in a lettuce stating that workers who get jobs on platforms. Handy or task rabbit contractors rounded, an employee's of the company, and while the letter isn't binding it provides guidance as to how it would interpret the law. So instead of relying on analysis from the news media, let's look at the actual news release from the US department of labor it reads as follows U S department of labor issues new wage, and our opinion leda conclude service providers for virtual marketplace company are independent contractor do US department of labor announced today that it has issued a new opinion letter that addresses compliance issues related to the fair labor standards act, which is L essay and opinion letter is an official written opinion by the department's wage and our vision at stubby HD on how a particular law applies in specific circumstances represented by the individual person or entity that requested the letter the opinion. Let issue today is addressing whether a service provider for virtual marketplace company is an employee of the company or an independent contractor under the F L essay. This letter response to a request on behalf of a particular virtual marketplace company. It concludes that the workers who provide services to the consumers through this Pacific companies virtual platform, independent contractors, not employees of the company to make this determination w HD applied its longstanding and unchanged. Six factor balancing test derived from supreme court precedent, the nature and degree of potential employers control, the permanency of the workers relationship with a potential employer. The amount of work is investment in facilities. Equipment or help is the amount of skill initiative. Judgment of foresight required for the work services. The workers opportunities for profit laws and the extent of integration of the work services into the potential employers business, an important role of the US department labor. Is to ensure that employers who want to do the right thing have clear compliance assistance says the acting administrator of the department's wage in hourly division today, the US department of labor offers further insight into the nexus of current labor law and innovations in the job market. The department offers a search function allowing uses the search existing opinion led his by keyword year topic and of a righty of other filters and encourages the public to submit requests were opinion letters to w HD to obtain an opinion or determine whether existing guidance already addresses their questions, the division exercises its discretion in determining whether and how it will respond to each request. That was published by the department of labor. Labor advocates however view the letter as a blow to contract workers who they say are being denied benefits and protection that the entitled to including minimum. Mhm wage and overtime pay. The department refers to the company as a virtual marketplace that connects service providers with consumers to determine how to classify workers at the company that deployment analyze six aspects of the business. I consider how much control the employer has over workers because the business doesn't control workers shifts quotas or hours and gives them flexibility to work full competitors. The department concluded the workers a more into contractors. The letter also searched that because the business doesn't inspect people's work or rate, their performance, the workers are in fact in business for themselves. Next department assess the workers permanency and found that they appear to maintain a high degree of freedom to exit the working relationship. Another indication of a contractor relationship the department. Also concluded that work is paid for their own facilities and equipment and department notes that the workers. Rely on the software the company builds, but that reliance only marginally decreases their relative independence because they can use similar software on competitive Klatt Fulham's to other considerations included. How much skill the work requires and the work is potential for profit and loss that the poem said it didn't have any information on the work of skill in this case, but the fact that work is negotiate own pricing and accept or reject war across a number of competitors. Where all indications that the workers, not the company controlled profits and losses finally that the department looked into how integrated into the business to work services are in this case the department found that the business is merely a referral service where workers and consumers can connect. That means the departments is the services the workers performs whether giving someone a ride cleaning home are a separate business. So is the gig economy. Good for us. The truth is the gig economy has allowed people who may not be able to find full time employment and opportunity to earn money in some ways, this has been official, for example, earning supplemental income to help guarantee a healthy retirement is a good thing right now. More than one in three workers are freelances of the freelances who are over fifty five. Forty nine percent are using supplemental gig were to help fund eventual retirement this contribute to the overall growth of the gig economy. But the news is all good overall forty percent of freelance work is worry that they will not be able to retire comfortably. Yet. They are not giving up on vocation. The dirty little secret that is prevalent in the job market is ageism. Eventually if you live to be at least fifty years of age everyone's affected by this yet. There's no politician addressing this form of discrimination. According to a new national AARP survey. A of adults over the age of forty five. Sixty one percent of respondents says they have either seen or experience age discrimination in the workplace while thirty eight percent of those believed the practice, very common of those survey older, women, African Americans Hispanics, and those who are currently unemployed say the more likely to feel prejudice show treatment while employment trends will the people favorable with twenty eight percent of fifty five plus workers suffering long-term unemployment compared to eighteen percent of those sixteen. Fifty four in age the longtime unemployment aspiring suggests that entrench age by still exists. Too often in the workplace, according to government, data workforce participation rates for older workers today exceeds participation before the great recession, while younger worker participation is below pre recession numbers by twenty twenty two AARP. Says that nearly thirty five percent of workers will be age fifty or older still according to work as as a need to strengthen laws surrounding age discrimination that was an acting nineteen sixty seven or the ninety percent of older Americans survey said they would support strengthening the laws with an fifty nine percent saying that they would strongly support a change while thirty percent say they somewhat agree with laws being changed and more than half of older workers who have either seen or experienced the unjust treatment. At the job say they believe it starts when workers are in their fifties for about one quarter of those age discrimination is describe as as hearing negative remarks related to the older age from a colleague or supervisor while sixteen percent side not getting hide foot job day ply for because of their age. Meanwhile, twelve percent said age was the reason why they were overlooked by an employer for promotion or another chance to get ahead yet despite these concerns. Only three percent have ever made an official complaint about it to superior human resources. But AARP says given the current job climate many experienced workers have the opportunity to be judged on merits rather than age with rich work histories, varied experiences and expertise older workers want to work. They're ready to work. They need to work AARP launch an employer pledge companies who hire workers on Billy regardless of age over the last five years six hundred and fifty employers have signed up on this pledge a wait a minute. How many companies are listen the US stock market approximately eighteen and a half thousand less than four thousand companies on the new York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ, and is another fifteen thousand companies that are traded over the counter in the United States, and they've got pledges from six hundred and fifty employees from nineteen thousand big corporations. They gotta do better than that. Listener always asked the question, the best, cheap smart bulbs. Doesn't matter which when you buy a mardi. You can answer this better than I can, of course. Yes. At matters. At least a little let's approach it as a process of elimination. If it isn't compatible with the home automation platform, you already use ju- really want to add a whole other platform, if it doesn't fit in your fixture or your lamp shade. In many won't, that's another stopper. Then there's the question of why you're really considering it at all is it really that important to give up the cost of a good bottle of wine. Just have one more light bulb. Do tricks for you. It is then double check the specs. They don't put up front like whether it's life expectancy is too short or whether it's light intensity that lumens rating is compromised or whether the light quality the cri rating might be. Just a little on the ugly side. If you're adding a smart light bulb because it can truly contribute to your home more power to you and make your best choice. But if you're adding Justice show off your home automation system spending on a smart lightbulb can make you look less than smart and in some applications, you might be better off looking into a smart light switch instead. And it doesn't need to be part of a home automation platform. You may have needs that simple motion sensor or timer can fulfill. That's my two cents C. Benjamin Rockwell, presenting the IT pro series tech support to five take it away. Benjamin Benjamin Rockwell I've been in IT professional for okay? Well, you don't want to start counting. This is part two in a five part series on technical support and working it better to your advantage. Now, I've spent years calling technical support I've spent years on hold with technical sport. I've spent years helping people helping callers as technicals board. So even now I answer calls regularly. Now last week I named off the characters this week were talking about before the call preparing for the call getting you in the position where you're going to make your best. Technical support request. You should write this down as a checklist. You should keep this handy. I have the specifics of your computer problem documented out, I wanna see specific error messages. I want to hear that you are writing down that problems are occurring because of this and so forth, you want to document the problem carefully. So that the person on the other end of the phone can solve it as quickly as they can they are measured by how fast they solve your problem. They are measured by how many calls that they handle every day. They get into trouble and they get penalized. If they take too long with you or too long with everybody and so forth. So they have to wait for you. They're going to be less enthusiastic about helping you. Now, we're going to note down everything that you've done already. You wanna use an approach? Amount of detail. So that you might prepare them if you're asked to you need to document your items make model serial number there may be a service tag number there. And you want to have that ready to give them rather than you hunting for it again, make Hewlett Packard model age is an envy, seven fifty whatever it is so K. So there's your model you're making your model, the serial number one two three four five six seven, and then the service tag, number ABC, one-two-three, X, Y, whatever it is. And you have all of that ready. I want you to document this. If you have a reason for urgency, you want it down there, but it needs to be legitimate. I don't want you to make up things for your urgency. But you want to at least be able to verbalize this to note noted down in writing BA. Because if you are reading it off if you're telling them this. It's a lot better than you coming along. And you're going to have this done right now because my boss is gonna kill me. And then you're overreacting a lot of what we're going to be dealing with next week is the call, and I want you to stay calm throughout the entire thing. You're going to list on this sheet, your whether you want to call this cheat sheet, or whatever it is. You're gonna list down to the specific date of this. Call a will go on in a few minutes to note, the time you'll also want to document the technical support number that you're calling as well as each digit that you've entered afterwards. So that you can speed things along this Ivy are interactive voice response is a killer. But if you have the shortcuts noted when you call back tomorrow or the next day, you'll actually be through it in no time at all have this paper. And extra paper handy by your side. Make sure you've got a pen, pencil, whatever the first page, the cheat sheet the following pages. Whatever you need to write down next. And this is this a little bit crazy. You don't think about this, please? By all means you're going to use the restroom you're going to take two minutes as well to condoms on you're going to relax. I like to say a prayer not only for the computer. But for the technician on the other end of the phone this for me is about being in the right frame of mind. It's about keeping my frustrations in check. It's about my focusing on the goal, and it's about my focusing on being nice. I want you to prepare to empathize with the technical support for some people. It's really. Hard to do. But you have to put yourself there. You need to understand that your call is going off to a far off land. Frequently it's going across the country. It's going to wherever else you're going to people who are dealing with many calls that are similar to yours. They're working on getting through each call quickly and moving onto the next one or they're going to get into trouble. There's all kinds of pressure on them, and they have their own issues in life that they're dealing with. You may have called four times before. But if you have to give the person on the other end, a call I want you to also give them a chance to fix the problem for them to be able to escalate to someone else without you being irate. These folks are dealing with are the grunts the front lines. And usually they can only do a couple of things they can fix your call from a script or they can move. It along they can escalate it still if you already done a particular task you might be able to ask them to skip this instead of repeating it as glaciers fine. But if you're not calm and forgiving at this stage, you may be escalated to the bruiser rather than the solutions expert. Remember what I said last week bruiser deals with a hard cases. And he's equally hard back. One more thing. I want you to pour yourself a Cup of tea. Maybe it's a big mug of tea. I'm saying camomile tea, an herbal tea non caffeinated something mild not coffee not so no caffeine. No, nothing. That's going to get you riled up. And that is all about preparing for the call next week. We'll be talking about actually making that call. This is Benjamin Rockwell back to you hang. Thank you Benjamin. The rewind the act was passed by congress in two thousand and five the real idea establishes minimum security standards for state issued driver licenses permits and ID cards that act also prohibits federal agencies like the TSA from accepting cards for fishing purposes, from states that do not meet these standards. Well, what is the real ide- cod beginning on October, the first twenty twenty the federal government will require a driver license permit or ID card to be real idea compliant, if you wish to use it as identification aboard a domestic flight that's within the United States or intimate Terry bases and certain federal facilities enhanced driver license permit or non driver ID and valid US passports already real ide- compliant and can be used aboard a flight and enhance ide- can also be used the anti United. By land or sea from Canada, Mexico, and some Caribbean countries and Hance driver's licenses are available to US citizens who reside in states of Michigan. Minnesota New York for Mont and Washington enhanced driver's licenses are able to Canadian citizens residing in British Columbia Manitoba, Ontario. And formerly Quebec the real idea has a round black dot in the upper right hand corner. With a white five pointed star inside the circle it is located in the upper right hand corner of the driver license permit or non driver ide- the enhance real ID has a flag of the United States. Located at the bottom right hand corner of the driver license permit or the non driver ide-. If you want one commission on what real ideas, visit the website d h s dot gov. The New York state DMV began issuing real ID licenses permits an ID cards on tollbooth thirtieth in twenty seventeen. You can get a real idea at anytime, but you need to go to a DMV office. You cannot get a real idea online by phone or through mail. You must bring to the office the following original or certified proof documents the proof of identity such as the valid license birth certificate or passport with your full first middle if it's applicable and last name this name as it appears on your proof identity will be displayed on your card as required by federal law next proof of social security, number or social security, number ineligibility. If you have a valid New York license permit ide- cod. You must bring your ridge inal social security card or w with full SSN on it. If you. Don't have a New York. State driver's license. Ide- cod. You must bring your social security card or a letter from the social security administration proving your ineligibility to have a social security number. If you lost your social security card. You must get a duplicate before you come to the MVP the social security administration website has more information on obtaining a duplicate card next. You have to bring in proof of your date of birth and next the proof of US citizenship, lawful, permanent residency or temporary lawful. Status in the United States. You also would need to different proofs of New York state residents, such as you Tilley, Bill Bank statement or mortgage statement PO box numbers are not acceptable. This address will be displayed on your cawed if the name on your license permit or a non driver idea. -plication does not match the name on your identity, lawful status and social security proof. You must bring in court or government issue proofs documenting events causing a name changes such as a marriage license. Divorce decree, adoption or court order documents the application process. Also requires that the MVP take new photo. So what is the cost will rely de the is no additional cost to get a real ide- all normal transaction fees, still apply. If you want to apply for and enhancement, driver license or enhancement ID cod. There is an additional thirty dollars fee. Getting a real ide- is not mandatory. But it isn't courage, a real ideas option. No, and is not needed for the following being licensed to drive voting or registering to vote entering fed with Acilia that do not require person to present identification applying for or receiving federal benefits accessing health or life preserving services, including hospitals and health clinics law enforcement or constitutionality protected activities, including defendants access the court proceedings and participating in law enforcement proceedings or investigations, if you decide you do not want a real ID or enhance document, please advise that any license permit or ID card issued after October the thirtieth twenty seventeen will be marked not for federal purposes. If you have a US passport it can be used by vacation boiling plane for domestic and infamy. Nation flights and entry into federal building a military base. And what if you're under eighteen years of age TSA does not require or presently require children on the eighteen years of age provide identification when travelling with a companion with the United States, the companion will need acceptable identification visited essay dot gov. More information in all likelihood requirement for real I d as defined by the federal government would be subject to the slippery slope argument in which it is just a first step which will lead to a more universal usage. You remember the social security number was not to be used by definition. We hear now for money Winston on the most private room in a home. It's very rare to see a toilet that can't outlive. The person who bought it, and that's been true for more than a century. It's much more commonplace for the building that it's into come down. So people rarely think about replacing toilets not that they shouldn't. Hey, you can skip all the puns and jokes about toilets. That are crossing your mind right now, I already thought of them in cross them off my list toilets are seldom the subject of polite conversation. But that's exactly where we're headed in this segment. I'm going to go over in the most genteel language that I can muster reasons you may want to think about replacing the toilet you have now, and I'm really not much talking about the mechanism inside you can get parts for those or whole kits and lots of people can readily replace that stuff themselves. In fact, only couple of my point. Have to do with the toilets themselves. Most of what I wanted to get you thinking about involves people you'll see you own a plunger, how often do you have to use it if you're drains and sewers or clear there's a question. They may not be toilet tends to back up a lot check that with a plumber. But if those drains are clear, and you do have to use a plunger more often than you'd like then you may have the wrong kind of toilet. That can happen that toilet. You have may be exhibiting some, oh, shall we say incompatibility between what it's being asked to handle and the design limitations on what it's able to handle. I'm going to mention to brands that I found to be better at handling more cargo than others one is colour. And the other is TOTO look them up. My experience is that I can count on their products to well, shall we say swallow more than other brands understand it's in. Entirely possible that other brands may offer some kinds of toilets that perform better. I only have my experience with the specific models of theirs that I've used but toilets are too costly, depend on trial and error, especially when product returns are awkward to the point of unlikely. I mean, really I wouldn't want to deal with that. So of course, you wanted to let that will just send everything down the first time you try and won't back up even in poker. A straight flush beats full house, which leads me to a different kind of hand you may have been dealt. Are you still at teenager still in your twenties your thirties, you have more than half of your life left? Are your knees? Still strong. Have you noticed that among people, you know, who are in their middle age years or older that they're not as agile as your younger POWs at the transition between standing up in sitting down or standing up after sitting down if you've ever been to an ele-? Mentally school open house and had to sit on one of those low to the ground little kids chairs you may. Remember how awkward it is to get into and out of them. And the same thing is true of toilets. Look around stores that sell toilets you'll see low rise models and high rise models. Low rise models are great for smaller children. But other than kids bathroom, if you're buying toilets part of what's in a new house, or if you're serious about replacing your toilets, even if you're a teenager, get a high rise. None of us is young forever. Even now, a high rise is easier on your knees, and your thighs, and you'll notice a difference very soon after you change to that loft your elevations get a little older or pay a lot older and a low rise may be next to impossible to climb out of and possibly painful to get into the time will come when you simply can't do without an altitude adjustment. But that isn't. All especially for men, and I should say to a lesser degree. It could also be an issue for women guys when you're younger and you aim for the bowl, you may sometimes miss, but mostly you hit it get a little older. And you may find yourself standing closer or even straddling a little to get everything into the bowl and save yourself at chore of grabbing some bathroom tissue to wipe off the rim a little older. Still ended may seem like the liquid is defying the rules of fluid IX and even going backwards. I just asked my doctor about it for real and got a very logical explanation. There are a lot of parts of the body that lose some of their elasticity with age like that thing in the back of your mouth that now makes you snore. Even if you never did before the same factors also affect the last inch of your delivery system as you stand by the toilet. It's like pinching hose or the end of a soda straw. What once flowed like Pountney may sometime. Come out in a spray, or at least enough of a spray to send those droplets hither and yon, and there's a cure for that not one for you. Sorry, but one in your choice of toilets. It's an elongated front table. That's higher off the ground and a long gate it's front and it something like pitching in the World Series in getting the size of the strike zone. Doubled. Where the score is counted in Bovis's ram. You'll see a lot more. No hitters toilets. It's also offer option that your roommate will appreciate soft drop to eliminate that big bang when you're closing the lid the one that keeps you awake. Not because it bang, but because it woke up your roommate who insists on giving you a half hour lecture when you'd rather just go back to sleep, by the way, speaking of toilet seats. Do you know what they call a guy who never puts the toilet seat down? A newlywed one more feature you may want to consider especially as you age into your senior era day, even if you used nothing paper your entire life as you get older the bending over may become increasingly challenging if your vision degrades, it may be more difficult to know that you're not leaving the job half done both of those issues wash away when you use a day modern toilets offer many options there, and again, I encourage you to investigate them next time. I'll talk about ways your walls can do more than just border a room, especially if it's a noisy room or one that you wanted to prevent being noisy. I have both. But I know how to take care of that. And you can find out more next time. Thank you already. Public service announcements computer club meetings in New York, New jersey, Connecticut tristate region, the computer clubs have random access sessions at each of these club meetings. If you have any questions or need for technical advice, the club members are more than happy to assist. The is no such thing. As a dumb question. The Westchester uses group is meeting Thursday may the second meeting time is seven PM Keller Williams Realty one twenty Bloomingdale road in White Plains New York amateur computer group of New Jersey as a meeting on Friday may third beating time eight PM and meet at the Scotch Plains rescue squad nineteen sixteen bardo avenue in Scotch Plains New Jersey, then berry area computer society has their meeting on Tuesday may seventh meeting time is seven. Thirty PM, and they meet at the Danbury hacker space. One fifty eight main street in Danbury, Connecticut. The New York amateur computer club. We'll have a presentation on the computer printer in the paperless society. Thursday may ninth meeting time is seven PM at NYU thirty two Waverly place Silva, building in Manhattan, New York. Long Island MacIntosh users group meet on Friday may the tenth meeting time is seven PM. And then meet at the Harry, j shirt whole New York institute of technology old Westbury campus in old Westbury, New York, computer learning center of Ewing as a presentation than apple sees and apple devices, they meet on Tuesday may the fourteenth meeting time is two PM and meet at the Ewing senior and community center at nine nine nine of ferry road in Ewing, New Jersey. The kings bite computer club meets Tuesday may the fourteenth meeting time is seven PM and then meet at the park plaza restaurant to twenty Cadman plaza. West Brooklyn, New York, the brookdale computer users group as a presentation on a look back at the club's history and personal journey. Thursday may the twenty third in the middle town library lodge meeting room fifty five new Monmouth world, Middletown New Jersey, Princeton PC use. The group will have a meeting on Tuesday may the twenty eighth meeting time seven PM at the Mercer county library and Lawrenceville New Jersey, if you have a computer club meeting you want me to announce on the air, send me a note. My address is Hank at PC radio show dot org. Our website is PC radio show dot org. We can be heard each Wednesday at six PM eastern time on PRN dot FM on the internet and podcasts audible from all major pod hosting sites as well. As on our website, PC radio show dot org. If you have any questions for us all commentary on any while features segments. Just send us your Email address with your telephone number in which we can call you at a convenient with playback on the program. If you have any questions for us, just send us an Email address to Hank at PC radio show dot or the is no such thing as stupid question. In the meantime, stay in touch and keep on computing and remember the backup Hanky and on behalf of joking and Michael Horowitz. We thank you for listening. Stay safe and healthy until we meet again. Shame time same station next week.
Prof. Philip Mauskopf, Prof of Physics at Arizona State University
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses at unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis the most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations. Bit researchers leaders. Who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info. Mike duties purposive. Philip mouse calls who has joined appointment at arizona state university in the school of earth and space exploration and the department of physics his back now distant primarily experimental cosmology in particular deciding a good thing new types of instruments for measuring signals from the most distant objects in the numbers buckle phil. Thank you nice to be here. Thanks doing this. I want to start with. What if your people from twenty eighteen Billy bates grave. Polite to using kinetic inductions detectors for told tech. I don't know if that's pronounce that day. And beyond so before we get the details of this. What exactly is protected. Call that day. Yes sure yeah. Toll tech is. It's the name it's named after a you know a group of the native group of in mexico and it's named that because The the the what it is is it's a camera at millimeter wavelengths that we have been building for a telescope in mexico which is called the large millimeter wave telescope or l. m. t. or in in mexico. It's the grand telescope Metric or cake day at and It's it's it's the mexico has actually a really strong background. Historically in astronomy like from the Early civilization and this telescope project which was started a decade ago. Maybe actually more. Like twenty years ago was still i think. The largest scientific project in mexico was building the telescope which is a fifty meter diameter telescope on top of sierra negra which is fifteen thousand foot mountain in the middle of mexico and so totake is is a camera that we're building using the latest superconducting technology or to go onto that telescope and make measurements location-wise Obviously will get into people but Mexico because it's a near the topics evident It has elation so what what is of the primary capital states Authentication yeah well. The primary characteristics are Allocation you know for a astronomy. And i know you've had other people on who also work as i do with telescopes and other places like chile or hawaii so so basically what you want. Is you want to be as you know. As high as possible to be above the atmospheric water vapor and that's the main The main component of the atmosphere that That absorbs millimeter. Wave light so So mexico it turns out has a fairly high mountains including pico. Or it's about or. I think it's called seat loyalty pedal which is right next to serra negra mountain which and that. One is the tallest mountain in central america. It's a nineteen thousand feet or so almost and so the mountain that it's on fifteen thousand feet. So that's that's what you want. Also it's it's a good latitude so it's nineteen degrees north latitude. Which is the same pretty much the same latitude as hawaiian. It gives you good access to most of the sky. So if you're too far north you can only see the northern stars two thousand southern stars so Good good position to and The millimeter size Vive linked what this target. What what sort of the primary target. Yeah so there's there's a couple but millimeter wavelengths so it's long a thousand times longer wavelength than the light that you see with your eye the optical which is just short just smaller than a micron wavelength and and so what we're looking at is Light from either from the early universe leftover from from from the early universe which has peaks at wavelengths around one millimetre. So that's one of the things we can look at and then the other main sources of emission or might at millimeter wavelengths are on gas and dust in the universe mainly in galaxies our own galaxy. So where where. There's a lot of gas and dust is also where you have a lot of stars forming. So we're looking at star formation in our galaxy and then also in other galaxies you can look at the gas and dust with farther away. So you don't get quite the same resolution and detail that you can see in our own galaxy but but still you can measure of overall things like star formation rates. And then you can do that out to you know for for galaxies at a whole range of distances and and trace the evolution of star formation in the universe speeding sort of half a billion or so years from the from the big bangla. So what's what's the range we're looking at so you mean like For for the dust and the galaxy the automated tennis club could target lights from the early universe. So oh right yeah so the the cosmic microwave background in the light from the early universe. I was talking about which is also what other telescopes in chile like the atacama cosmology telescope or south pole south pole telescope at the south pole. Look at the cosmic. Microwave background is actually light. That comes from well. It comes to us from almost you know the very beginning of the universe. The last time This light actually scattered or interacted with other manner before it hits. Our telescope was We chart time. We talk in terms of redshift. Which is how much the universe has expanded since the light last interacted. So it's redshift about eleven hundred one thousand one hundred for example some of the most distant galaxies that we observe are at a redshift of sort of six maybe eight maybe ten sort of the most distant so it's a one hundred times. The universe is expanded one hundred times more since that light was was last sort of scattered than than any light from any Gravitationally collapsed object like galaxy. But but actually the light and that corresponds to a time about four hundred thousand years after sort of what we call the big bang. Which is you know as far back as you can go so thirteen point. Seven billion years and but that light was around from the very beginning because the cosmic microwave background light mostly comes from its left over from the The annihilation of all of the matter. Antimatter when that happened in the early universe all turned into photons. And that's the light that we see Yes so it has been kind of moving around that long at at unfolding thousand years It became clear and they could get out right so the detector on the toll tech The kyw netted stick detector. Talk a bit about the technology. Sure yeah so. This is actually something that i really enjoy it. And spend a lot of time working on the development of a technology for strana me and other things and so this is a an often. We're doing this using superconductors because This superconducting devices can give you the best sensitivity And the lowest noise so this is a superconducting detector that that works by a. It's very very simple. And in a way. It's kind of something that i invented with grad student. A type of superconducting canetti conducts detector called lumped element. Connecticut sectors. Back in two thousand five. I think it was based on an idea from caltech that was Published in nature paper in round two thousand two and the idea is that a superconducting film. So if you if you deposit a thin film of of superconducting metal and then cool it down cold enough. so it's super pacs. The the the way that it conducts so we sway their conductor. Works is that there are are free charges. That can move around in response to light. And that's why It reflects the charges kind of mimic the light and then the light reflects the light back in a supernatural. There's two kinds of these charges. There's the regular kind like you have an irregular conductor which are actually in a superconductor called quasi particles and then you have the superconducting charges and those are made up of pairs of electrons. That pair off into these things called cooper pairs and And so when does are carrying current they don't have any resistance is pretty incredible superconductors work and you can have a current without having any Any resistance any voltage associated with it and or any loss in terms of energy converting into heat but the thing is that those particles still have mass and that means that it still takes some energy to to speak to increase their velocity and so if you wanna generate a current in a superconductor you have to. You have to accelerate the the charges such up to a certain point so that they have the right velocity so that they're carrying the current and that means that there's some inertia So in other words it it takes a little bit of time. You can't just instantly accelerate them that inertia is a form of its kinetic energy. You're giving to them and that Is a form of inductions. It acts just like a an inertia. The the concept of inductive is something that is pretty tricky In general for especially for for physics students that i teach to understand but basically the idea of an inductive is that it's it's an inertia to to having a current so it's what it's what causes sort of if you want to have a current in a wire. It's what causes it to take a certain amount of time you can't instantly getting a current from zero and there's two forms of at one is the magnetic inductive. That's the normal form where you're actually. There's because there's magnetic field associated with current and there's an energy stored on your kind of having to fill up that you know put energy into the field and so that takes time in order to produce a current and the way to put the energy in the field is applying a voltage or electric field. And so this is the the normal inductions but in the case of supernatural. You also have this connecticut ducts and the thing about it is a connecticut since can be really large in in a superconducting film. Because it's related to the kinetic energy required to carry a current in a superconductor. Since there's no resistance you can carry a large current with a small number of charges. So that's that was a long physics description to get to the how the detector works which is light that comes in interacts and breaks apart. These superconducting pairs of electrons and this is similar to the way that Acc camera you know your your pixels in your camera in your phone works except that it what's happening is line is coming in into the semiconductor in creating these electron hole pairs and in the silicon detector like that it takes a certain amount of energy. There's a binding energy that you need to break those those pairs and that's about equivalent to the energy. And a single photon. But we're detecting millimeter wave photons. Which are a thousand times lower energy. Fortunately superconducting pairs of charges have a binding energy. That's approximately a thousand times smaller. Than the binding energy and the semiconductor so sue so millimeter wave photons come in and break apart these cooper pairs and superconductor and that and the problem is it doesn't change the resistance. The resistance is still zero but what it does. Change is the inductive. The inductive related to the number of cooper pairs. These pairs of electrons are carrying the current. And so if you can measure the inductions in your superconducting film. Then all you need to hold your film up to light and have light shine on it. And then measure the distance and then you're measuring. How much light is coming in. And so it's hard so the last piece is measuring inducted into the way we do. It is by patterning the film in the form of an electromagnetic resonator so we put a capacitor in parallel and then that resonates cancels out the inductive and then what we look at is the change in resonant frequency. So think of it. As kind of like we have these electromagnetic tuning forks that are ringing for a really long time because they're perfect. Superconducting resonator and. We can hear the home that it's ringing and then if we shine light on each one the tone changes a little bit and so by listening to the tone of the resonator we can tell how much light is hitting the resonator and then we can make we can pattern on a on a single for we can pattern thousands of these into resonator and design them so that each one has different tone and then we can listen to all the tone simultaneously. And then we unwrap which were listening to and traffic and measure the light and we can do that really really well. With with like very very small number of external components and so this is a really kind of revolutionary style technology 'cause detecting these long wavelength photons with low energy it has been You know is more difficult than it is to detect the optical type coat. Yeah it almost sounds slighty necessary. necessarily requirement rights. Macy fly. If i understand fell so inducted is very much like inertia in superconductor is sorta kinda dick intact terms. And you have this. Ah cooper pairs of electrons light of comes in breaks them apart and to stop to move and that that movement somewhat of a change inducted. Dwags yeah exactly so. I mean literally. Connecticut is actually the same inertia and so So it's exactly that essentially what you're doing is changing if you like the the total mass of the charges. That can carry the current. And you're doing that. By breaking apart. Cooper pairs when you break apart. The cooper pairs the those electrons. Those charges are now no longer participating in the carrying of current because they have resistant. And it's just the remaining ones that are still paired that have no resistance. And those are the ones that are carrying the current and so you're by reducing the the mass it turns out it's like you're increasing the kinetic conduct it's because Reducing the mass means. You have to have the charges. The remaining charges have to be travel faster to carry the same current so To do that means that you know the inductors is actually more before this idea. Did we not have a way to detect this low energy litter evening. No no we did. We had other ways and actually going way back. I worked with instruments You know all the way back from when. I was in graduate where we used Detectors type of detector call belong later and these are still used these detectors when i was in graduate school which was in the nineteen nineties. These were we we were. I was literally making below by hand with glue and like sticks of wood. And so we. We transitioned from making individual detectors to making a raise small as of these types of detectors in in a fabrication setting like the similar to what you use for making a c. cds. And so that was. That was a big step forward. The problem with the barometer is that at least compared to connecticut detectors. There's there's two complications. The first one is that bolama tres are difficult to make because the way they work is that they are. There are thermally isolated islands absorbers which has thermometer on it. So you absorb light and then heats up and then you know. You measure that with thermometer. And so in order to make it you have to make these arrays of these kind of delicate thermally isolated structures which usually are now made out of things like thin films of membranes of silicon nitrogen for example. And then you have to have these thermometers and then reading out that thermometers. Since the thermometers are not like giving off these tones for example They are a resistor. So you have to have a way of reading out thousands of resistors and so in order to do that. You use a whole nother technique which is a superconducting a type of current sensor called a superconducting quantum interference device or squid and that requires a whole another fabrication. It's cold in it. Requires you know. Sixteen layers fabrication or something. In the belongers. The connecticut inductors detector array is is actually a single deposition single patterning staff. at least. That's how it happened for us. Those were the early ones now. There are slightly more complicated. But still a lot simpler to fabricate one and a lot simpler to read out in large numbers with with a simple frequency division multiplexing. So so there's some advantages and it really makes it now because so now that we've been building cameras with more and more pixels and this is true in the optical in your phone but it's also true for astronomy at longer wavelengths sort of it's really important to be able to scale up and this is one of the ways that i think really helps us scale up to learn easy to manufacture i would imagine lower cost over. Also would you say these. This technology will essentially be a sort of the go-to technology going forward. I think it's clearly has been taking over in certain areas so at shorter wavelengths so in in what we would call the sub millimeter or far infrared pretty much. Most instruments now that are being proposed or are being built are using connecticut. Inductive detectors especially instruments like the one that was involved in called a blast which was balloon borne instrument that From artika that used connecticut ducats detectors and future nasa missions likely origin space telescope and the galaxy emission pro. Both being studied and those will be planned to use a connecticut duct detectors at the shorter wavelengths at millimeter wavelengths from the ground there are still a number of experiments that are using these barometers using superconducting. Thermometers and there are also instruments that are using kinetic conducts detector. So i'd say it's it's approximately fifty fifty at the moment. And and i guess it just depends on exactly what what you wanna do. There's some things that i think. People have developed that you can do with with the barometer. That are still not fully developed the canetti conductors detectors because they they are a technology that has been Proposed or is developed a little bit later on so it may be that as as things move forward more start switching over. But it's also you know it's also true that the bombers are still having a progress in their in their development and and so we'll see but i think certainly if the shorter wavelengths mostly now people are looking at connecticut. Inducted detectors is the main option. Yes so this has the new action phil. So you have designed these things for many instruments. we talked about told tackle ready. You mentioned blast. I found that a heavy interesting. Could you talk a bit about. This is an experiment of balloon based experiments in the dark. Yeah right so blast stands for a trying to get it right Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope. It's a it's an. It's a project that's been going on for about twenty years now and there have been. I think total of six balloon flights. So nasa this is a nasa funded project. Nasa has a whole program of what's called sub orbital missions and technology development and so that includes balloons so they have these giant helium balloons there the size of football field when they're fully inflated and they fly and carry up to about five or six thousand pounds up to Way out of the atmosphere up to three million bars pressure. So above ninety nine point seven percent of the atmosphere and that's about thirty five kilometers above ground so much higher than any mountain and until blast has flown on one of these balloons blast is. It's been up to a two point five meter primary mirror so this is a big telescope similar in size to the hubble and it it has a camera with the again three colors and each one of the Of the the colors has not only it has basically polarization sensitivity so it can see it can distinguish the polarization of the light and we had. We had our last flight a little over a year ago january just before the pandemic from antarctica. It was with these three arrays of connecticut ducts detectors and it after a long campaign and i have. I have this blog. That i took i. Yeah we imagine a number of times you try and And so many things have to come right of it to work right yes. It's a challenge. The just just the launching of this giant A challenging because any the wind conditions have to be just huge win sale literally the size of football fields incredibly long. it's it's somewhat fragile in its. It's pulling its trying to pull out a thousand pound thing. It's so the launches is very challenging The instrument To you know it requires cryogenic. So it's got liquid helium so you have to do. Helium fills before launch. And it's it's a lot of work it's mostly done by graduate students. So this is for nasa. This is it's a high risk activity and one of the main purposes is is training the next generation of scientists and engineers and also testing new technology. So one of the things that that was succeed go ahead. It's also cheap labor and cheap labor to be a graduate student. You know you have to you have to be able to Solder and live off of a you know a fairly low stipend but It's it. It's also really useful for testing new technologies for nasa for spaceflight. So this was one of the the main sort of tests for Connecticut inducted detectors as technology to be used on future space missions and in that it was very successful because we launched we got to float we made some observations. We measured the detector response and the response of the electron. Ix and everything was working well and so that counts as nasa says check. This technology has been tested and is now suitable to be proposed to fly on a space mission unfortunately on launch. We had an incident where there's a caller that holds the balloon when they launch it that that is released after launch and usually. That's fine but I guess one out of every between twenty and one hundred launches the collar when it falls a hits the payload who'd and that's what happened to us it. It hit the payload and then about ten hours after we arrived. We got to our altitude up to thirty five kilometers. A piece that had been damaged presumably In that Launch a piece structural piece broke and we were no longer able to point the telescope so We only got about ten or twelve hours of data instead of three weeks hoping for i would imagine. Fill out this is a very large balloon is a helium balloon. That goes all up to what heights. Yeah so about thirty five kilometers height so an airplane is flying like seven or eight kilometers. The the yes about one hundred and twenty five thousand feet I guess though about ten times you know a typical sort of tall mountain right Higher and It's not quite in space but At that at that height the sky even when the sun is up is is completely black Very little atmosphere. As i said there's is about three mil- bars it's it's a slim similar to or maybe slightly more than a slightly less than the atmospheric pressure on the surface of mars So it's a it's enough in space that you can basically do a lot of astronomy that you would normally need to be in orbit to do but you can do More cheaply from the balloon and But as i said it's it's also a riskier. I think than Than the normal launches of of satellite telecoms. So so that the mission that you've flew you got some data you see here. polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust revealing magnetic field structures in nearby giant monitor clouds of debris actually get some data from the mission that that flew up me. We did we. We scanned across We did some scans on the sky when we were still able to two point and we detected in while you can see it while we were there and since we've been working on doing more detailed map reconstruction of the of the data After the flying. So we have some sources that we've measured We've also got from a previous flight. Where we we measured some sources And magnetic fields Or polarized estimation and then inferred information about magnetic fields in star forming regions. We obviously didn't get as much data as as we wanted to. We weren't really able to To get any data on our our main science targets so so but since we prove the technology works We are currently proposing still. We had a proposal that was into nasa. That was i it was. It was very well rated. But there were a limited number of a a missions selected for the last round so we weren't selected last time we were encouraged to be apply to fly a another version Rebuilding and doing this again to do a more comprehensive survey and i think part of this is a. This was the first test of the new detector technology and a lot of other things. So we're a lot more confident that now. If we get to go ahead that will be able to fairly quickly build. You know rebuild an instrument that is even more capable and And actually get a all of the science that we were hoping to get with this flight. How much time would you typically have in a in a freight and how do you think it down. You essentially releasing the easy to bring it down. Yeah that's what they do so so in antarctica. The balloons are launched in the antarctic summer. The sun is up which provides your energy through solar panels on on the back and you point. We point our telescope away from the sun Whereas i said this guy at that altitude is is black in office. It's pretty much a perfectly black. There's very little scattering and an article in the summer. The the winds take you around at at one hundred. Twenty thousand feet wins. Take you around in a circle and so you after between ten and fourteen days you. You're balloon that you've launched comes back around to relatively close to where you launched it from an usually one time around is when most Experiments in most groups will will ask nasa who have control over the balloon and they have a commands that they can send to rip open the balloon and released the helium. and then drop the payload. So usually they'll do that when it comes around the first time we were kind of thinking. Ideally we'd like to go around two times so we get more data right so More like twenty days a data but This is what's called a long duration balloon. Flight is Between sort of ten and ten twenty or thirty days there are also ultra long. Duration balloon fights that nasa has been developing in has launched a few and these are launch not from artika but From other places like new zealand and those can stay up for up to a hundred days and that's what we're targeting for next Proposal is a slightly longer flight with a goal of like more like thirty days so that that's the plenty i remember i feel longtime ago. I don't know what the status of this use either. And i think it was google Balloon internet. i don't. I don't know what happened. Yeah no no apps mean and even there was a. There was a lab a an office here in arizona because a student of mine i think went to work there or interview there for for a google alpha alpha project about four millimeter wave internet. So they were going to have a balloons you know flying and and then have them transmit receive millimeter waves and use that as a internet method. And i think they gave up on so so if take a quick break come back. We'll talk about the ranks mission as well as your most recent paper on superconducting kennedy conductors cubits for quantum computing. Right sounds. Good thank you. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations bit leading academics and researchers on a variety of topics. If you'd like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to info at scientific sense. Dot com soviet-backed outfield We were talking about the kite. Natick inductions detectors that you design for vegas missions. Deductible told tag We talked about last Decided the mission that you are involved in a fear spirits this is as nia infrared spectral photo metric all skies So so much speech. X yes is is a bit of a different kind of instrument from the ones that We've been talking about because it's It's it's at a different wavelength range. It's near infrared. it doesn't use. Superconducting detectors uses semiconductor detectors. But what it has in common i guess. With some of the other experiments i work on. Is that one of the main goals of spheriks is to make measurements. That will really try. And tell us about the origin and evolution of the universe so understand a little bit more about fundamental parameters in In our model of cosmology so the way that it does this and And send in the title or in the name of the experiment. It's a it's an all sky survey so it's a small satellite actually. It's a very small telescope. And it's amazing what you can do with small telescopes. It's a twenty centimeter diameter telescope. But what it has is. It's covering the entire. Sky has a very very wide field of view and actually another. It's not that unlike a another telescope launched recently by nasa called The tests which is trending exo planet sky survey telescope and and that's also a relatively small telescope say compared to the hubble but it's also got a very wide field of view in the goal is to to to make observations. You know over a large number of objects in that case and similarly for spirits. Our goal is to make a map as complete a map as we make of the three dimensional distribution of galaxies in the universe. And so the way that we do that is by having this telescope wide field of view but then we actually make an image of the sky In ninety six different bands so in ninety ninety six narrow wavelength bands and from measuring the pattern of light in every point that we measure on the sky in those ninety expands Where there's a galaxy week and use the spectrum so those ninety six different wavelength measurements. We can use to actually locate the galaxy in three dimensions. We know where it is on the sky so in two dimensions but then we can measure distance or its redshift by looking at the the spectrum of light and so that's one of the main goals on one of the ones i most interested in is his this three dimensional map and if we have a three dimensional map of galaxies are then we can construct from that a three dimensional map of sort of the the matter in the universe as a whole so the gravitational mass in the universe and that includes the dark matter as well as the the stars and gas and then from that we can. We can then trace how that as a function of distance because we have this three maps which goes out pretty far in the third dimension in the distance dimension. So we can we can. We can trace the evolution of of matter and and gravitational over densities as a function of distance and as a function therefore time and that helps us to understand the evolution of the universe due to get sort of all sky survey typically. You can't on department sure that's absolutely true. And there are in fact. There are a number of other experiments and groups working on doing something similar in particularly from the ground But of course from the ground you know you have a limited view. You can only see a certain fraction of the sky from any point on the surface of the earth so so typically these surveys from the ground cover Some fraction of the sky. I mean they're getting bigger and bigger. So there's there's now optical surveys from the ground that cover at least half the sky and there's plans to cover you know similar amounts there's also other satellites that will do similar measurements. There's the satellite called euclid European lead but with collaborate or in the us that will do a measurement that's complementary to two spirits in that its using a different form of a of of emission lines to measure the distances to the galaxies and it's also measuring different types of galaxies in at different distances. So when you combine all of these ground based and satellite measurements together we really should in the next ten years Build up a really good. Three dimensional map of our universe and this is gonna tell us and so So this is a forty metric spectrum. So you be only seat normal matter here right now doc matter. Yeah that's that's right In fact we don't really have any way yet of seeing directly seeing dark matter at all and so the only way that we really know that it exists is indirectly through the gravitational interactions. That we observe This being spectra metric Survey really what that means is that it's a it's kind of like a the way to the spectrum is made is that it's in little of sort of slices or images Photo metric images but at each in each wavelength lights rather than some sort of having a different type of spectrometer that may be scans wavelength or or or split up the wavelength like with the diffraction. Grating our instrument doesn't do that. We just observe a little slices all simultaneously but at different wavelengths on the sky and then we patch them together. technology here six by six big salon sky. Something like fourteen billion factor expectation. So just this she had amount of processing data would imagine is a challenge young. Yeah so i think you mean six point six six point. Six seconds on his side is the is the size of the pixels An arc second is is One three thousand six hundred of a degree So so it's It's about one six hundred a degree by one six hundred of a degree per pixel actually not super small in terms of Pixels for optical instruments means the resolution of the hubble space telescope. This is where we have a small telescope. The resolution of the hubble space telescope is is less than better than an arc second so so we're low resolution on the sky but it's still a large number of pixels on the sky and then each pixel has as i said ninety six different wavelengths that we measure so in total it is Actually one of the issues is is storing and processing all of that data. So we have a plan for that yet and so this is the nia infrared and so it is that why that that type of solution is sufficient. yeah I mean the. The resolution resolution is sufficient for our science goals. Which are Since we're interested in measuring you know the the large scale distribution of matter in the universe We're not our. This mission is not sort of focusing in and trying to resolve. You know very fine Structures anywhere in in our galaxy. Like like you are with other instruments or or like hubble or tapes web so it's a survey instrument the near infrared is is important because It's it's it's too so first of all it contains the wavelength information that is useful for us in that we can use to to measure these These distances to these galaxies and secondly. I suppose it's complementary to ground based measurements because Covering this range of wavelengths in the infrared is not possible from the ground. There's only some narrow atmospheric windows that you can look at it in the ground so we can cover this wide range of wavelengths that is completely inaccessible to ground based telescopes. How does it work feel So then you look out in the car. You're looking back in time. And so to get the three dimensional structure of the utilize. You could look at the same distance in all directions right at my understanding it. Yeah i mean basically the way that we construct this. Three dimensional image or map of the structure is that it turns out that that there are there are lots and lots of galaxies in the universe. But there's also big gaps distances between galaxy though so any even any six point six arc second pixel on the sky most of them. You don't have a galaxy in that pixel and so they're still over one hundred million galaxies at least at a certain brightness level as you as you look to fainter and fainter galaxies you see more and more and this is what you see in like the hubble deep field for example but But we are interested in primarily the brightest galaxies the biggest galaxies And so there's like one hundred million or or a few hundred million on the sky and we'll see And that's you know maybe one every thirty or forty pixels on the sky so so we're gonna construct this map by taking the the the sources that we see and knowing where they are both in the sky which pixel they're in and how far away they are and then sort of putting that into a three-dimensional model and then using that model as a way of we. What we will see in there is Know fillon -tory structures where you have multiple galaxies. All arranged in in these in filaments will see big bubbles and holes and voids. And we'll see all of these different structures just by putting dots pinpoints in three dimensional space for every single galaxy that we observe that is brighter than a certain brightness or or or more massive than a certain mass or or that kind of thing. Yes have i. I'm sure i'm missing something. So the the new a galaxy in the pixel one the one hundred pixels each of those pixel that shows a galaxy shoeing it a different times on. How would you so. Maybe i'm not fully understanding. So then i say hit us talk of the universe using you know kind of pixels that a different time time points. How would i construct that. Yeah okay. I see what you're saying so you're in fact. This is a key feature for us because basically yeah so let me try and explain it this way. So what what you're saying is true that any galaxy that we look at. We're seeing at a certain time in the past the time in the past that we're seeing is also directly proportional to its distance away from us so So we can we can make this three dimensional map but each each spherical shell around the earth. Right is like is like a three or is like a two dimensional. You know set of galaxies At at a certain time in the past and so this is exactly what we're gonna do is we're going to analyze the data looking at each each time slice so each time slice is like a a surface of a sphere around the earth right. So we're looking at all of the galaxies. That are a certain time. We're getting light from a certain time ago. Which is the same distance. And we're gonna look at those galaxies and then see how how that changes how the pattern of the galaxies in the mass. and everything. how it changes you outwards in slices or farther time. And that's basically tracing the evolution of of matter and formation of structures in the universe throughout time so to sort of that the outcome would could be sort of a movie that right now so so we can kind of see hunting over time yet and in fact yeah in fact on the sphere x web page. I believe there are movies which are You know flying through a simulated set of galaxies. And as you fly through your flying In space really but also forwards or backwards in time depending on whether you're blind towards us the earth or you're flying away from the earth and so So exactly you could. You could make a movie and You know there's various ways to visualize you know this but this map will be telling us they'll in any sort of theoretical questions that That you might get insight to. I think checketts there. Yeah there are so as i said. We're interested in learning about the the evolution of structure in the universe and also were interested in learning about the distribution so how matter is distributed throughout the universe and one of the key. Things that sphere x is is really should be very good at and is highlighted is looking for any anomalies in the distribution of matter that they're and by anomalies. What i mean our Things where there are either big excesses of galaxies or big where you have really really few galaxies more than you would expect from kind of what's called gallician random noise. Oh so one of the things. That sphere x is really going to be looking for is evidence for something called non galaxy hannity and as i said that's deviations from randomness and non-drowsy hannity is important because if there is non it's predicted that there should be some non out sanity if you believe certain models for what happened in the very early universe and so We still don't really know that much about what happened. In the very early universe so detecting Any kind of non gase any deviations from this kind of just random pure randomness Would actually be a window into really really early universe stuff which is also related to possibly very high energy physics so that's kind of the ultimate goal it's also very challenging so we'll see how it works. I can't quite remember. But that was a feature called the data tractor or something like that That aims to be pulling in galaxies. Is that is that still Is that still true. Young there are again. I i mean. I i actually remember going to one of the first talks when i was an undergrad student at this at harvard. Because that's where some of the people who were really pioneering this kind of survey this is called a redshift survey. That's exactly what spheriks is doing. Some of the very early redshift surveys were uncovering things like the great attractor. These this is. This is nearby distribution of galaxies and places where there are concentrations of a large numbers of galaxies. Obviously been nearest concentration. Where in is is called the local group but then the great attractor is like some another nearby concentration There's there's a super super cluster in the constellation virgo. I think there's perseus has a super cluster. i i don't. I'm not super familiar with all of the nearby structures but That that's definitely exactly what we're talking about was fear exits just extending from these nearby collections of galaxies. Sort of out to not not really quite to the place. The limits of where get first galaxy forum. T-rex will will really only go out to a redshift of about one Whereas some other experiments will go. We'll go even farther James bob will be looking at to the very first galaxies out as i mentioned before to redshift up to ten or even even more but but yeah a complete math out to redshift one that would comprise no ninety more than ninety percent of the total volume of the observable universe. So so it's a lot of the the volume there sellable universe. We are still limited to fight that but I guess we can see that. The potentially extrapolate from the to to the Complete universe i mean i think i think there's a. There's the possibility that one day we might understand enough about you. Know the about cosmology especially in the very early universe to to be able to extrapolate to what what the the universe that we are not yet able to see There are also other possibilities that if there is some topologies some complicated Topologies to the universe We might actually see evidence for that in in various Things like the cosmic microwave background. If they're certain patterns there we could we could. We could perhaps figure out what the overall topology is. But it is also possible that we won't ever really be able to know what lies outside of the university. We can observe with with light and you know in our our light horizon so it takes because it takes a finite time to reach us and the universe is only a finite age than than that limits our ability to see and there was some speculation allowed sort of colliding universes that might show up. Cmv anything like that The might be might be able to get some data on well. Yeah i mean so that would also be something Potentially could give signals in this matter distribution map and it might give some some signals. There might be some sign of something like that in the sphere data. I would say it's less likely. I think it's because the cnbc is actually covering you know pretty much our entire horizon. It's probably our best bet for seeing things like that though. Spirits is is better for seeing affects that that show up for example as these non gal district non non housing effects in the distribution of matter. But i want to finish up with your recent paper Of interest for you decide of w ban. Superconducting kinetic inductors. Cubit it So there is a big race In native quantum computing universities and companies So this is a different type of cuban kite Inductive cubit right. Yes yes and and if you remember we started talking about connecticut detectors so it's basically it's using the same Physics that we're using in the detectors for astronomy so yeah and so How small businesses show. Yeah so it's As you said the the idea is kind of comes out of of the types of things that we use for astronomy detectors but but it's it's replacing so so it's a superconductor right. Still superconducting and and there are currently one of the best types of quantum computing systems. That people are working on is is superconducting quantum computing sistance. Ibm google righetti is another company. Working on amazon is working on their own. Superconducting quantum computer all of these superconducting. Quantum computers for their cubits. Which is you know. They're they're fundamental. Unit of logic from all of them are using an effect that is based on The josephson effect so josephson junctions which are tunnel junctions. Between superconductors that were first described and won the nobel prize per brian. Josephson a physicist and end so these Joseph are used. Because one of the things that you need to make accu- bet Just like a transistor or a regular bid is you need. You need to have non year behavior so you need to have some non linear already. And and that's what allows you to go sort of zero or one. St and in the case of a quantum a cubit than this non linear also able to be used and and put into state as well of your zero in one state but but these junctions are have some issues there sometimes tricky to make tricky to to to make reliably and one of the key things today is is trying to make more and more cubans so bigger and bigger arrays of of these cubits that are connected together just like you know is important to make more and more transistors in regular computers and so until google surveys and demonstration by something like fifty three cubits or something like that right. Yeah yeah they have on order. Fifty and ninety m has about the same number. Which isn't that. Many of the computing goes up exponentially with the number. So you don't have to get that many before you're able to compete or do better than a regular computer but but so the there's two things about our design That are that are different so the first thing is that we're not using any junctions instead. What we're using is a superconducting nanna wires so very thin thin wires up superconductor and these have our non linear because because of not not an effect called non linear connecticut which which we Which we've been using or or noticed When we were making our astronomy detectors and because there's no there's no junction. The thought is that they would be less sensitive to a certain type of noise that you have in this In the gap in between the superconductors in this tunnel junction and also the hope would be that they would be easier again. Just like the connecticut detectors easier to fabricate and easier to make large numbers of the other thing. that's different is. it's w band. So w manned is a wave guide. Bandit is centered around ninety gigahertz or one hundred gigahertz The cubans that. Ibm or or google or using They tend to operate in less than ten gigabytes. And so that's that's an important difference because at at ten gigahertz. One of the things that you have to do. If you want your quantum computer to work is you have to make sure that it's not upset by thermal noise so you need to cool everything really cold and you have to cool it for ten gigahertz the temperature you have to cool it to is proportional to the frequency. That you're cuban operates attend gigahertz. they're cooling their these cubans down to sort of fifteen degrees. Fifteen million degrees above absolute zero. Fifteen million kelvin. But if we can make ours work at ninety gigahertz hundred gigahertz then we only would have to cool to maybe. Two hundred million kelvin. Which still sounds pretty cold yet but it turns out that it's a lot easier to cool stuff down and in fact we. This is the temperature that we tend to operate are superconducting detector. Arrays the ones that we use on the balloon we operate those and around two hundred to three hundred million kelvin. And that and that's a lot cheaper and it requires. You can have one of these in your home. You can actually now plug into the wall and get down to two hundred fifty million kelvin in your home but if fifteen million kelvin is probably a little bit too much power too big for you to have in their in their home so so there's two ways that it could be better. It's early dates for this technology. We just we just admitted. This paper was published in applied superconductivity. But but who knows. Maybe this is the right way to go yet. it's exciting. I don't know much about this. So these q. Beds in operation at this on an entangled state the issue is that you can't really keep them in A stable states is that right. Yes so what you wanna do to to do your calculations you wanna you wanna keep your your your cubans as for as long as possible in a in a state that is is is not Say collapsed or or inter interfered with by the environment and usually the environment means Any kind of Thermal disturbance so You can you. Can you can think of a quantum system as as being this like a pure kind of System that could be entangled and you could. Have you know multiple states existing simultaneously. I guess like in. Show dinger's cat. You know your cat being alive at time. Although that's i think a bit of a stretch but that at some point the the rest of the environment the rest of the universe surrounding it destroys that Coherence is called. So what you want is you. Don't want to have coherence. And so the higher the frequency that you're cuban operates less sensitive. It is to deco from the environment. Which is why atomic cubits so there are certain types of cubans that work with with optical light and these can work at room temperature because Because the the thermal radiation you know from the room is is is much lower energy say than the the energy of the the cuban but superconducting cubits obviously have to work cold enough that your material superconducting but But they don't have to work at the frequencies in the energies that that they're using You know right now and so This is a design and a proposal to To make you bits that work at at these higher frequencies yeah. Yeah it's exciting so in conclusion. Fill it it. Seems like you have a foundational technology. superconducting kinetic intact And using it instrumentation possible uses in quantum computing subpoenaed forward fifa news. You see other applications for this platform technology. yeah do i mean for example. There is my my my old group. Where i worked Before i moved to arizona state In cardiff has a spin out that they are working on to use this technology for millimeter. Wave security scanners in this would be assive a imaging so instead of So in airports or for scanning You can see through canvas trucks and things like that. It's it's a it seems like it's very a potentially very useful right now in in the uk because of the the new brexit rules on mean they have to do a lot of this in addition There's there's other applications so earth-observing for example the millimeter wave Satellites that that look at the app in the earth's atmosphere are one of the two in With near-infrared actually are one of the two main ways that we can measure What's happening in terms of the weather. So we get information about water vapor in the atmosphere which is very useful for predicting things like rain. Which we haven't had here in arizona very much for the last year so there are a number of applications that are not in astronomy or in in quantum computing or fundamental physics as well and then there are other things too. I guess The other things that we talk about in my group are using superconducting devices or very a common now for things like searching for new fundamental particles like axioms and we're also talking about if we can possibly use superconducting devices to determine whether or not gravity is quantified by detecting gravitons. So there are a number of new and exciting areas that we're thinking of and i suppose it's nice having sort of this. This base in this technology as a springboard for ideas and our philosophy is usually that we try and think of things that would be really cool but people think now might be not possible or very difficult. I think quantum computing was something like that say ten years ago fifteen years ago and then people were working on it and now you know it's becoming a reality so i think there are other. There are other things that are going to be. Like that. And i would think from media. Site's perspective as we get a higher temperature. Superconducting materials that is going to propel this even further right. Yeah no definitely i. There's a lot of applications out there for for higher. tc materials. That's it's a very exciting time for that. As well and i know that you know there's records being broken so we also we follow those Those those developments that very keenly and I guess one of the materials that we've talked about using Is not that. High t c but it's It's one of the highest. Tc sort of standard superconductors metallic once called the magnesium diebold ride. so that's that's something that you know. is possibly going to be next and i guess the other thing though is it's also there's been developments of cryogenic technology. So so the fact is it's a lot easier now to go and buy a an instrument for not a lot of money That you can plug into the wall and will cool down something to A temperature below four degrees kelvin. Four degrees above absolute zero so So yes a high t. C is is definitely something exciting but i think there is this great potential for even using a lower critical temperature superconductors because of the crime. Yet i can see this melville they saying argh using your phone put that into freeze. Its finding a quantum computer in there just I'm not sure that the cri- will get that small but that would that would certainly be. Yeah be something worth worth paying attention to. Yes but yeah. This is great. Thanks so much for spending time here. No problem thank you thank you. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations with leading academics and researchers on a variety of topics. If you like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to in full. At scientific sense dot com.