2 Episode results for "Kyle Ryan Toth"
Cosmic Queries Asteroids and Comets
"Toro is a car sharing. Marketplace that happens between people who make up a community of local hosts, you can book any car you want wherever you want. Whatever your car need may be Toro has got you covered from tesla to iota Ferrari to Ford you can choose the best car for you. Whatever your budget. They have over three hundred fifty thousand cars listed globally, and many of the host will deliver the car to you directly. Download the Toro app today. That's to you are oh at the app store or Google play or visit Toro dot com. Get twenty five dollars off your first trip when you sign up for tomorrow and use promo code star talk at checkout. Terms apply. Hayes. Dr talk fans, thanks to all of you for voting. We are proud to let you know that we won the webby award. It's the people's voice award for best science and education podcasts, we could not have done it without you. So from all of us have star talk to all of you who helped thank you. From the American Museum of natural history in New York City and beaming all space and Vic is startling. We're science and pop culture alive. This is star talk on your host, Neil degrasse, Tyson your personal astrophysicist and today is a cosmic queries edition of star talk. And I've got with me co host Mark Norman, Mark nice the first timer. Hey big fan here. Your local New Yorker local got lost in the museum like an idiot. If you have to get lost anywhere. Let it be the American Museum of natural history. That's true the day. Yeah. Terrified you don't want to get lost at night. Now. I sadly, I was using my night at the museum knowledge. Oh, I've seen the movie using your your your coordinate system from that movie Boyd. Nobody we got here in one piece, which is excellent. Today's topic is comets and asteroids, and I know a little something about it. But I don't know as much as I should know about it to carry this episode alone. So we went in for backup nice backup and is a good friend of ours. Who's been a guest before Natalie Starkey, Natalie? Welcome back to star talk. Hi, Neal scrapie here. Thanks for having me. We've got you online. You are in Chicago. Actually. No. So we've got her. You're in the UK right now. Is that correct? Yes. Yes. I am. I was over in California for about three days living that and now I'm back in the case. So I'm getting used to the rain again on the cold. I'm very miserable spoil that you were so acceptable to us over those three years forgetting that you're basically UK person. So so you're you're fishing a science communicator. That's like a title that you carry for the open university just outside of London, right? Yes. That's correct. Yes. I am. I been a scientific research for about a ten or eleven years and only go into bright saying, and I love communicating the science that I d see how I'm getting into it more seriously now, so I've got a serious science background. I know quite a bit about comets asteroids, so fully can be if he stay on hyping fingers cost. So we've got an I happen to have. I think what is your latest book called Ken? Ching stardust yet, it's asteroids and the birth of the solar system. I have in my lap. For the cameras. Product placement. Exactly. But you gotta come back one day and sign it definitely. So we called questions from our fan base on this topic of comets and asteroids. And so let's let's see what you got neither sheen arrive seen these questions. All right. Let's check them out. I'm a bit worried. I hate having my knowledge tested. If you don't have no idea go onto the next question. Okay. All right. These are pretty good. I I read a few and I'm gonna go hand pick this first ones from Kyle Ryan Toth. He's a patriot member matron. We gotta serve them. I. Yeah. Exactly what it really be possible to hollow out an asteroid and use it as a starship. Ooh, natalie. How about that one? Okay. So I'm gonna say no straight off just to be really boring, but actually one of the reasons we couldn't really do this. Well, with most stories anyways that they're either just to hauled older just don't make the rice stuff say we've got some stories made completely of metal said, I mean, trying to hold it out would be will Mason possible we've talked about in mining as in the past and we talked about in the shake quite a bit and is incredibly difficult to do that. So I think Moines a pure metal asteroid would be hauled and the others made of the can be slightly. So after we describe some of rubble pile. So that Honda just rock that's not very well, consolidated, not very well pushed together say that would basically break up is seen as she tried to stall excavating it anyway, say you'd have a better John's maybe living on the surface. But I think even then doesn't a gravity essentially say that kind of hot based to work with. I don't think we're gonna live. Side one. So the very low grab they have some gravity. Right. They do they do have a little bit. And he basically you would need to be tethered onto the surface of one. If maybe we went to the law just asteroid the story about which is Sarah's it's about thousand kilometers across and said is going to have a little bit of gravity. But if you jumped too high a knee, you would probably just end up floating off into space. So it's not gonna be a great environment to try and live on or in rather. I think the lesson there is just make your own damn spaceship. Yeah. But could you get a rudder on there? I mean could you steer? You know what I mean? I feel like you wouldn't get any any direction -ality if it's just a hollowed out. Yeah. Yeah. You need some kind of retro rockets fixed to the side of it. So that you can maneuver exactly rather than just like a homeless shelter in inside a shell. Yeah. Right. Yeah. I don't know if they were thinking of with that question. It's a fun thought. All right. Let me throw a this guy. He's Kyle you blew it. Nice job. He's smoking weed. This kid lost one pitcher on. Okay. All right. This Michael halter men can comets have different colors diversity. Maybe when the ingredients and organic molecules are different. Can they spread molecules for the beginning of life? Yeah. Okay. So the questions that so the fast, but it was about the colors of them. And. Yeah, Faucheux when we see comments in the noise sky, they glare different collision. She green is really common color in. What will we look at these objects and various reasons, and when we look a comment or an Astros may be in the noise sky with telescope that they can glare green because of the origin this in them. But actually, sometimes if you see a me coming through. So basically if you get a little bit, but asteroid break off in the space, and then head to the and you see that as a fiber will in the night sky. Sometimes they can go green. And that's for different reasons that because we have basically nickel which is burning up. So I mentioned that we had these mess last Royds and nNcholas is one of the metals that they have in them and actually when that bans the atmosphere that blaze green. So sometimes you see this kind of green streak with a meat. You're lucky if you say I've never actually seen it site by people talk about it. And so that's the nickel. Bedding up say, yes, they definitely have different colors. What was the second part of that question? I forgot no ready. This is no good. No, you're killing whether the the ingredients within the tail of a comet are are the right ones to possibly spawn life. Yeah. Definitely. So this is been quite a recent research finding Ashley we discovered with some of the recent missions to Coleman say invitation that European Space Agency send the resents mission to guy and land on the F is a comment back in twenty fourteen now, and and they discovered that was Sheikh ally scene, which is an amino acid within the comment. So we know this these complex carbon molecules within them and say does every chance that you know, they have the ingredients for life. And this is why we sort of say well in the post, we think earth was bombarded by comets asteroids from space, and so it's applause -able way that we could have full life and water because we night at these objects contain a lot of these ingredients, and we need to asteroids. Contain hundreds of amino acids, say these objects in space, very old, very cool primitive at some of the most the only things that formed in the system, but they contain all the ingredients that you need to basically build a planet and build life on that planet. So that this is why I find them such fascinating objects because they just they have everything we need that life based on what you just said. Life could be vastly more common in the universe than people might have previously suspected. Yes. So the problem is a bit of a leap from going from just having the amino acids on the basic, you know, Cobb compounds and the the molecules to getting life cases massively because the problem is we might have these ingredients in space everywhere. In fact, they might be in every sailor system. We've cats look at. But the problem is it doesn't mean that we've got life because we need some very special conditions to let those ingredients become life isn't just a simple step. So we think they're special conditions may be their common. Well, this is very true. We have any safer upset life once and that is on earth. But it doesn't mean that in the hundreds of billions of galaxies out there on the stars that there isn't life someone else. We just haven't seen it yet. No of a c we actually there's no other life in our system. We just haven't seen it. But we we're pretty sure it doesn't exist on the terrestrial planets. The ones that need to these are the rookie one's needs to the son like much Venus, malls, maybe they had life in the past. We haven't discovered that yet. But there is a chance that there is life on some of these wit moons. Like, you're putting and sell it things. So we're not sure yet. But there's a chance that could be because they've got a lot of the right ingredients full life. They've liquid water. They've got an end that basically the energetic bodies. They've got they've got heat that they're losing. So they have the energy that they could create life and help it get along and move along. So we just haven't found yet we need to go. And look when these missions to go in and look at these places. Detail, but challenging environments to send space cough tea. So that's one of our problems at the moment as Frankenstein's, do, Dr Frankenstein. You can't just have the wrong greediest you need energy. Right. And he had like lightning bolt going to Trojan on the on the neck. Yes. That's all. That's it. Wow. Well that was well done. Thank you. All right. He got killed it. All right. Let's see. Well, done also nickel. I didn't know about that. Nicole? No, please who knows about nickel brothers for the fireworks all these metals that get burned and fireworks give you all the beautiful colors. I didn't know. Wow. Nickel nickel. Copper. What else they have in their magnesium? I think Natalie. Yeah. Yeah. Yes, they basically it's a bit like doing that flame test. You might on that in chemistry labs at school. Basically. It's the same principles each element burns of the different color. But basically this is the principles. Yeah. Fireworks and everything. And what we see banning up for for Meech is we could tell a lot about what that asteroid was made of if we can see glowing. So yes fascinating. All right. All news to be. Here's another one from Ashley VG. Thi this is off Instagram. I've read that water did not originate on earth. But instead was introduced by asteroids, but wouldn't the water evaporate away upon entering the atmosphere? Burn up burn up coming in. So we. Say the whole thing is is definitely a big a pin debate still scientists currently really have a good consensus on where our will to came from. So this the purpose. If started with water from the beginning, so our planet is about four point five billion years old. It was blown out of this cloud of gas indust really close to the sun. And and we think that that early cloud contained water because we go into interstellar space where all our solar systems made from and they sure enough there is water out that as as is, of course, because it's very cold. And now that gets kind of swept up into the forming star, and then the planet suborn out of the cloud of gas and dust is around that star. So so this water I said could then be contained within the planets that we form, but the problem is the very first few millions lash billion years of of a planet infancy, it's it credibly halt. So it's basically a volcanic world. It really wouldn't be able to support a lot of water unless the water was the Quested away very deep within the planet. Maybe and and it didn't create the surface. So we know what? Sure, whether we could have from the beginning had a water or whether sure enough it will boiled off during that process. And then we need to bring it in late Ron, and we know we were bombarded by commits an asteroid's about four billion years. We just have to look at Zeph at the moon for that actually because you see that that beautiful crated. Seth is the main and actually we hit as many things as the mood was hit by. But we have this thing called plates tonics where surface gets continually change in dated and recess. So we've lost to evidence of all those craters. Whereas the means preserve them for us. So we know that we were hit in the post and sure enough as comments Nastro contained water some of them did anyway, all of them. And and they could if they didn't they were launched enough and they didn't evaporate as an explode completely on reentry through the atmosphere. And remember our atmosphere was quite different back in the day. In fact, we. We might have had much much thinner atmosphere that didn't slow them down as much then potentially. They could have bought votes with them. But for us trying to figure out where the water came from is very very tricky because we need to find out what the water looks like and it so mixed up. Now, we've got a mixture of these different types of water say if we want to measure it now, it's very complicated traffic out exactly I came from an an the comments a different or the asteroids different say, it we need to go out there immeasurable these objects then try and piece the story together. But it's it's important. We want to understand why would is here. Why are we the planet and all sailor system with liquid water? The surface is the question that we really want to answer to understand where life came from as well. So that was a yes. Favorites. That was clear. Yeah. This Donnie Hus one one three over Instagram how much material to asteroids contain and how much are they worth like a comedian? Let's sharpen that and say of the metallic asteroids that have like metals we care about can you estimate the value of them. And what is the value mean if they're out there versus if we brought them back to earth? And now they're just on earth. Like value is just values of is a flexible thing in this, right? Is that it's sort of like, the diamond is she like, there's plenty of diamond we find plenty of them and actually have been mind. But then the diamond mock is controlled because if we released days diamonds onto the market and one guy we'd fled the Mark. And the price would drop say in the big diamond company, stay will not to happen. So they control that Marcus. They it's sort of the same thing with these asteroids and one strata cater this mission a NASA mishmash. She going to an asteroid who'd sixteen psyche. And it's make purely metal. We don't understand a lot about Sesto. But it's quite large. And actually the team the planning to go into this asteroid estimated that is worth ten thousand quadrille. Billion dollars a naturalist within that. So basically, if they were to mind that whole asteroid which would be impossible because it's too large. We we have no way of doing this at the moment. But if we fail to figure that out, and we will all that mess will back to earth. And sure enough we're gonna flip the market, and it wouldn't just kill the metal market would kill din tire Kona me because we didn't know what to do this. So so they're worth a lot. But one of these is we don't really know how to currently mind, we didn't know how we would extract that Messele, and we didn't necessarily want to bring it back to the planet to be honest. We would like to bring some back, but actually one of the reasons we want to mine in space is to be able to further explore space itself. So we could use these materials to watch the make things we might have a basil in the meanwhile, we actually manufactured materials to an spacecraft to whatever we needed in tools to actually go and explore further into space. There's a lot of economic questions around mining Stroyev's is not just the science of how we do. It is looking at how it works and what we're going to deal with. Materials that we get. Rebuttal. It's funny to just assign a value to something, which if you obtained it would not have that value. Yeah. Really? A weird economic facts. Right. Right this. So I never get money out of an asteroid. Yeah. Well, plus iron is not uncommon on earth. Right. So I'm thinking that Lee that if you are going to bring a medal from an asteroid to earth, you bring a rare metal that we can use in ways that we can't do. Now, we can't if you bring all that iron is some else you're gonna do an iron that we're not already doing with iron nice about the thing. And the thing about these asteroids is Katie contain little I am, but they contain maybe less than a percent of precious metals that things like platinum and gold, and these these metals that we use in technologies in the modern day, and nothing is they contain very low percentage of days, but that is still a lot more of these precious metals than we mine in any one year on planet because the thing is about the precious metals on earth is that distributed throughout the crust of the earth and not very well concentrated. So to mine them it takes a lot of effort. We have to dig up a lot of land in order to get these metals rather than just went to an asteroid that low easy to obtain, and they sort of concentrated and these objects so these metals that are really important because at the moment, we have a continued infinite supply say the kinds of industrial technologies, we're looking. Advanced technologies wants develop a sort held back by the fact, we don't have this infinite supply of some of these precious metals, that's the key point. Because it's not that you're just going to sell the metal and someone's going to then make jewelry out of it or something there's industry that uses metal. Yes. So it enables no matter the price it enable certain industries that would otherwise being able. Yeah. What branch we shouldn't think of it just as the metal as a pure thing. But the metal as an as an enabler of other ideas that engineers would pull out of the box. We gotta take a break. Mark. You still hear Dr Natalie Starkey still there? Yeah. Out there outside a London. Thanks for in. We're talking about asteroids and comets on this cosmic queries edition of star talk. Sienna moment. Let's say you're traveling fifty five hundred cities across the US, Canada, the UK and Germany, and you need a car, but you want to get the rental counter. Congratulations. You just found Toro touro is a car-sharing. Marketplace made up of a community of hose in over fifty five hundred cities with over nine million users worldwide pick the car that it's your needs and often the host will deliver it to you directly. Here's my favorite thing about touro. They have over eight hundred fifty makes and models available including tesla Porsche Mercedes Benz for Rory. And even wait for it Toyota and Subaru yet. That's right. You know, I'm a Ford man myself because I can't aboard a tesla you see what I did there. Okay. Forgive me Toro has your needs covered from sports cars to impress a hot date to a practical SUV to car pool from the hotel to the. Convention or just combine the two and stuff your co workers in the sports car. Now, you're thinking Toro has over three hundred fifty thousand cars listed globally insurance. Options are available on every trip. Download the app that's to you are on the app store or Google play or visit touro dot com. Get twenty five dollars off your first trip when you sign up for Toronto and use promo code star talk at checkout. Terms apply. Unlocking the secrets of your world everything orbiting around it. This is story. Star talk re back house Macquarie's edition, Mark Norman. Oh, yes. I love it here watching you. Dr Natalie Starkey, you still with us. Yes. I'm still at. Actually. Yes. Yes. Expert on comets and asteroids, and that's our topic for the day. Yeah. I know a little bit. And she knows a lot L. Yeah. That's why we brought her on for this for this episode. So Mark my pet subjects. You've got questions on this. I got a million. Well, we took with the nickel and the iron. If you got a question to you can do it. Okay. I just wonder if feel it if unit if asteroids contain diamonds, and we mind them, we got the diamonds and diamond prices went way down on earth would women still want them. Yeah. I mean, the thing is they do contain diamonds. I'm actually more special than the diamonds. We have on earth say they're actually saw like interstellar diamonds old them even better say the system. So they, but Tony this is the purpose of the, you know, the kind of hard to find. So you probably wouldn't eat need might Crisci. She say on your ring finger some, but you know, you could tell everyone how special that it was. May. All right here. We are Kimberly dot I o on Instagram underscore can believe that I owe. How often is an asteroid come across our solar system. We actually well reading his asteroid or a comment, but there was an OJ recently cooled, a Moore Lua, and which is a Hawaiian word for ACT kind of like foreign traveler or something and and this object that appeared, and it was troubling very far throw sailor system and some astronomers in in Hawaii sore it and found it fast. And that's why go to Hawaii name and it was trumping safer. So they figured out. You couldn't have come can never originated within the system. Say aunt. She decided that it must have come from another star system. What they have no idea where exactly this to trying to figure that out. And but basically it didn't it was going to say foster didn't get captured in two sons just kind of scooted by 'em. So. Didn't end into orbit into our solar system. And this object has probably been traveling for potentially billions of years across interstellar space. We if with early solar system, it's traveled through, but it's going on this massive long journey now of coolest this object could've actually collided with the planet, and we wouldn't have seen it coming because it was going quickly, and it was relatively small. It was very dog, and it's really hard to spot. But the thing we realize now is we've spotted it because technologies go so much better at trying to spoil things in the night sky is actually probably happened before probably we've had these visitors from other parts of the United galaxy many times before but we've just seen them. And sure enough our incumbents Nastro could be out that visiting of the stall systems. It's just something that happens during the prices of fooling star and the planets around that is a little bit chaotic in say comments necessaries resent, the bits and pieces left over that didn't become a planet and sometimes because this small they can get checked it out with the sailor system. Will they get? Thrown into the sun, and they ended in a fiery death. But some of them get thrown out. And and they just end up leaving the sun's gravity, and they go into space. There's nothing stopping them that gonna keep going. So so, yeah, it's really cool that these objects if we can start to identify more of them in the future, and she looked for them than we might also missions ago. Maybe sample one one day, which would be amazing. We'll find out about the chemistry of another star system. Which is something I would be interested in and, but yeah, the moment we've seen one on. It's kind of Ghana it's exiting the solar system. And it's going on its merry way into the abyss. Wow. It's Mary way into the abyss. That was. I looked up more more. I think it means scout like a first journey person onto new land into a new place a scout. Yeah. The nice thing. Yeah. It is. It is. It is quick question may not be answerable from Paul Pimento on Facebook. Can we track where asteroids came from HS Pacific -ly where they originated? Yeah. Yeah. Definitely. So actually, I mean, this is invested in that sometimes we get a matrix ends up on the on the planet. So this is just a raw from space that will usually come from asteroid can come for another planet. If we've seen that coming three to night sky coming bending three Dama sphere. And then there's lots of basically camera networks out there now and one of them's in the deep Australian outback, and they just basically have cameras on the night sky to register these objects that coming in and what they're trying to do is figure out an exact Jack tree full them that they can basically backtrack that with mazing. Math and and actually figure out where object to originated and trying to track. It back to the asteroid belt itself. We can check calculations in the Senate way by analyzing the chemistry of those rocks. We can pick up that rock is basically anywhere landed. 'cause they've got that trajectory coming in on the cameras they can pick that rock analyze in the lab and compare it to what we know about the objects in the asteroid bell ready. Yes. It's actually possible. It's very complicated work, but it would make much progress with it in probably the lost decade or say, but yet we can definitely saw figure on we use tonight. If it came from another planet that's much easier to Akao actually came from the planet than than any old particular asteroid because those kind of billions of the mouth that it is tricky. Fewer planets. Yes, they're on their own many planets, but as probably like maybe two billion s Royds if I recall Matre in the asteroid belt say there's an awful lot of them in this millions smaller ones, and there are objects Alba, but a lot of there in these groups they're in families, then it all different they all their groups that chace minorities and where they were made they contain. It's like a twenty three and me for it is. He goes up Jewish. All right. How large does from Rene? Douglas, patriots, listen up. How large does a captured asteroid need to be in order to be called a moon and can accommodate also be captured. And yes, the fast PA I mean, in fact, it depends what you closes ameliorate Ray. Because some of the tourism selves have means around them, and we've actually started just found about two hundred means around S Strodes now cities, just smooth objects overseeing an basically attached to the asteroid in some white at the associated with it. Now, the thing about the asteroids in cells is that even the largest asteroids, we know of which is Sarah's is cool to signs of Alamein say even the biggest one, and even if you pack them all together. So you take all the asteroids asteroid bell the mood gathering. One bold 'em. They would only be. Fool percent of the mass of the means of them out there, but not very big. So if you wanted to capture and astroid will you wouldn't be capturing one of the largest ones because this sort of light thousand while hundreds of comments is in diameter say they just dodged to catch you when Nasser vet she done some studies looking at potentially capturing astroid with of a bag or something. It sounds kind of crazy, but that's literally will that sort of planning group. And and and looking at something around forty meters say it's not going to be particularly massive. And it's not gonna pay a problems if it guys very role that would still be an issue if that clotted with the planet C N, Tim's of capturing them, you wouldn't catch something really massive. 'cause you I mean if it went wrong, babe. Read in trouble 'em if that client with us. How are we not more than? I don't know anything and I'm on Molly right now. But why get hit by more, asteroids and realize it and feel it. Well, we do get hit we okay plows through Nellie creek me from wrong several hundred tons of meteor dust day. Wow. Earth just by plowing through interplanetary space. And does it make dent? No, most of it. Just just settles as dusk. Because it lost all its energy coming through the atmosphere. But it's big enough to plow. Relationship an invest relationship. So the big the asteroid this heading for the planet. All it's gonna come through down say, the the less frequently it hits the really small pieces of deaths that literally raining down all the time amend that could Mike meets rights, basically stardust, and then he gets the lodge objects like the ones that killed off the dinosaurs, for example, than they hit very frequently in every ten thousand maybe one million years will probably more in fact for ones that size. We hadn't event in Russia back in twenty thirteen. It was cold Chelyabinsk, and it was a twenty meter asteroid. M fanny large kind of like a double decker bus and that didn't kill anybody. But it did cools quite low of damage in the region. It had this big sonic bay. Is it came through the atmosphere, and actually it blew windows and everything in the town. And we didn't that was coming because it was actually quite small. We didn't we didn't see it. We hadn't smoked to date before arrive say, yes, they happen in oversleep that hit central London. I'm pretty placed central lens. And that's about sixty miles across maybe if you take great London into account, and actually that would be quite an issue if that had landed in the center of London, so it just sort of lucky that makes the planet is so empty and a little of these asteroids tend to Landon the actions, they may see them in the coals any harm. But yet they do hit all the time and just large ones nose often, we're gonna hit somewhere Russia's the place. A political statement or ju- geographic state. I don't know anything about collusion country with the largest landmass saying too. So it's going to get more asteroid than any more more comet collision. But that's what they get for conquering. You conquer you. Gotta realize you're gonna hit more asteroids go, it's all right. What else are you? Hey, we go Nedeli from Frank Cain, patriot member out of Orlando, Florida. Is there a really clear distinction between comets and asteroids? I mean comments generally of some rock in them asteroids have a lot of frozen gas in them, right? Where do we draw the line very good round? So the asteroids kind of rookie hall metallic ones classically, and then the comments is sort of the icy dusty dusty stables, or whatever you wanna call them. And but yet this sort of works is is pretty old distinction that we always fool back on. And, but it's a very classical Vive with these objects, and actually what we finding as we look at more and more of them that we've got a little asteroids that can contain quite a lot of Walter, ice and other ICES. Like, methane and things, and we have some comments the completely droid because for solve if they've been around the son-in-law of times. And and they've been basically having the volatile ICES awful time, then and they're going to be drawing. They saw there for like an asteroid say this this old misled continuing we think potentially is a continuum compositions. We've got some things definitely looked like this classical asteroid. Something's definitely like comment. Right. I see and then a low of material in between. And the moment was still trying to piece together that story of basically where these objects fold Neville will there that made today, and they will have been affected by what they've gone through in that four point six billion history since they formed say it. Yeah. Basically, we have that distinction. But it doesn't always work. But we have yet to see a metallic comet tree. But they do. Yeah. Yeah. That's very true. We haven't I mean, if you had a purely metal objects how that it's definitely an asteroid in fact in this. Ecksteen psychiatric. Did they won't get an academy? Think could be the center of a planet that was kind of blown to pieces some point in the past when law maybe collided with another asteroid say it had basically in India. We've got this metallic cool. And that's what happens to these large objects in the system they differentiate so there'd be of magma and heavy material. And that magma the metal fools to the middle of the planet. And the lighter stuff is on outsides say experiencing impacts, all if this what we call the crust mantle, which is the lightest stuff on the planet. It gets kind of blown off the surface, and you get left with this solid cool, which is very hard to break up. So that we think that's one theory of what this asteroid to be. So we can study it actually look at the core of planet, which is incredibly held to because we can't drill to the core of a planet say these objects are ready valuable scientifically for that reason. How could we film them and watch them hit each other like, there'd be great pay per view? Very cool pay per view, you could bet on them like with the mob. I got Haley. We did have a collision where there was a comment that was predicted to and of course, successfully collided with because it was predicted to do so the planet Jupiter. Wow. On Hubbell telescope and everything. Hey, oh, it was it was amazing semi the link. It was amazing. All right now, it's a comment that got ripped apart into multiple pieces. So it's like a train of cars. One after another, and they didn't all hit the same spot at Jupiter. You know, why Juba big Jupiter rotates? So it would rotate a fresh bit of surface into that next piece would hit their so by the time everybody hit there was this line of impact scars in the atmosphere Jupiter whose beautiful beautiful beautiful beautiful. I love it. But how do I just don't get? Why would not burn up in the atmosphere? What we're seeing we're seeing the residue of that collision the energy. Would vaporize the volatile, and it would also vaporize the rocks to wouldn't it Natalie? And there's a lot of energy. I definitely it sort of depends. It really depends. That thing is made. So as I said, if we just had a purely fluffy comment that was very icy. So if you match just taken a snowball and adding to it, and then compacting it's gather a little bit. If that came through our atmosphere atmosphere any planet. It will miss certainly would break up very high up and Reno cozy damage it wouldn't get to the surface. But as I said, this continuum of composition. Some of these comments are bit more rookie. So actually the move rookie in the memento companion. Instead OJ contains the more likely is to survive impact met missile. He's still too high temperature before it's gonna Malik splayed say say, this is what's hard to predict what's going to happen. So actually being able to see that one eating Jeep was worrying formative because we can actually try and figure out what it was made of and by the way, reacted to two jeeps atmosphere. So it's the same when they see, you know, heading to us if we think one's coming forest than we really want to understand what is made over. And if it's actually going to risk to us because. Surely enough, you know, if it was just made him ice probably is not going to be very harmful. Even if it's an enormous is probably not gonna just see this is why we won't understand them in more detail and understanding composition and structure as well. So we take a break back for our third of three segments of cosmic queries asteroids and competition with Dr Natalie start return. The future of space and the secrets of our planet revealed. This is star talk. Star talk. We're back cosmic queries. Asteroids. Comets addition with our friend and colleague, Natalie Starkey, Natalie phoned in from London outside a London, we miss you. Stay here for three years, and then you just left us. No, I miss California as well. But it's really far from Himes. I it's nice to be back in the rain joy. Said no one ever. She she Briggs it Brexit. Yes. Yes. So so sorry sorry. So Mark my co-host for today. What do you have for us? Here we go go. Void Walker ninety two Instagram. Are there any asteroids with their own natural satellites currently known if so how common or uncommon is this and how does the dynamic affect traff tracking and understanding trajectory of the asteroid. Nice. That makes sense earlier lean that quite a lot of stories have moons natural satellites around them, and it's probably other bits of material of that same asteroid. But when show 'cause we haven't studied them in detail, one of the problems is that we can't actually see them raise late because they asteroid themselves small NFL that means around the even smoother say we found about I think it's two hundred moons around asteroids. Now say we definitely knew that that we want to study the more detail because it will tell us more about that object is self and how the object formed do think those asteroid do you think those moons dislodged from the asteroid itself to become one option? All it could be that they captured them like say, some of the means that we see around planet Sirri the captured moon, so that foam someone else in the system to that planet, and then they succeed at planet was laude and say this gravity attracted other objects to it. Alright main for example, didn't in play formed from the itself during a massive collision about four and a half billion years ago, and it basically threw off. Orion planet, and then it coalesced would mood, and it was then Trump with the so this different ways to form them. But we need to study more of them to figure out exactly how they old. That's question. Well, said well said Richard Stenhouse from Facebook. Hi, guys, loved the show kisses. I'm enlisting on Spotify. Since September twenty eighteen whilst I'm at work. And I'm as far back as season two can't get enough. A regular Natalie to it. Anyway, my question is is there a point between stars where comets or asteroids are under no influence of gravity at all. And if they somehow lost momentum would they hang in that space till the end of time from north Wales. UK I love it. Love the question. Great question because I actually Amy founds out recently myself, some of the comments like the cloud, which is the the cloud of material outside of our kind of surrounds us this system. So everything else that is this MS on a plane on the disc will the planet little comments asteroids. And then we've got this old cloud around us, which is always icy objects of which we actually have never really seen any of them because this so far away and some of them the edge of that cloud a far away that that will not gravitationally bound to our rain sun. And they're always close to the next all systems I secure enough. I don't know what happens to that. I mean, I guess maybe some very clever astrophysicists may figure out what is happening to these objects out there. But, but yeah, they could easily be turbine. We would say they might be pushed around by the gravity of another star system. And then and then even thrown out of our sight is completely will pushed in so they actually come in and visit visit the song on the innocents system. But but that's a great question susceptible. We the sun the planets and everything that the family role orbiting the center of the galaxy among other stars. So even if you have a precariously positioned comet at the edge of this or cloud, and it doesn't have a gravitational allegiance eventually will move. We're moving past other stars. Somebody's gonna snatch it. Yes. Or perturb it and have descend back down into our star. So so, yeah, the things are always in motion. If if you're without allegiance that wouldn't be for long. I'm so. Jealous. It just to be clear or is named for a guy named John. Or who's a Dutch strana Mer of mid-century century who first proposed the existence of this reservoir of comets was he here. And then still don't really proven as such. But because we don't really seen it say, it's just say far away. We'll never get there. And, you know, even if the spaceship the now like boy aja they are not going to get that full. Tens of thousands of years say, yeah, it's tricky we go pro on one think plus this was mid twentieth century persecuted for suggesting. This this relatively modern times. Fifties right. He's not persecuting for that. At least they were very religious. Then right. Right. All right here, we go. Brit Larue also patriots. If we were to mine, a significant amount of a comet would this change its orbit? And if so how could we be sure this would not set into motion future collisions that would result at a major earth impact? Generalize. That question as we start poking around with Astra landing on them mining them. What risk does that pose to taking what was previously a safe orbit and turn it into an earth crossing orbit that could then kill us. Yeah. It's it's a huge risk is a huge risk of this is why the people that are looking at doing a probably looking at facing on the smaller asteroids all comments, if they won't comments base, generally asteroids, we talk about and because then if they were to dislodge onto an audit that was then hazardous one full planet than he would ban up in the atmosphere causes any issue. But in terms of mining them, we probably wouldn't just goes the mind than we'd want to drag them, some wet what we would consider a safe all bit and say, this might be near the moon where basically just kind of dump the stuff, and it just sort of sits that it's this gravitational sweet spot where the thing basically if it's small enough object is not going to go anywhere. And then what you could do is have a base on the mood. And go back and forth to that objects and mine it gradually, so you basically just wanna get it somewhat safe. I because sure enough if you start mining it, you all going to you probably going to change its bit in some way. And then it's hard to predict how it's going to spin. And where it's going to end up in the feature. Question. Wow. Coming fascinating stuff here. I wish I cared. When the asteroids headed your way, you'll care. That's true. We become the most important people in the world today that happens Bruce Willis movie. Yep. Yep. Generally Joe's because you guys cares that you it makes you learn. I'm gonna die alone and an idiot because. Airbud anything? I'm dead inside. All right. Doug Bartlett on Facebook. I know we have found organic material in tardy grades on asteroids. My question is are these tardy grades thriving, quote unquote on these asteroids or in a state of hibernation if alive could it be possible that to collide or contact and crossbreed organisms organisms? Okay. So I'm not entirely convinced. We have found Taty great. So asteroids nail show. That's true. Because that's. And we haven't found anything living. So these Tony greats like these crazy organisms can basically survive anything. They're insane. Big Knicks survive extreme pressures and temperatures, and they can just go into hibernation full. I think like millions of years, and they can just basically survive anything that come to life. Again. I literally this is the very edgy of my knowledge about these things this is very much Astroboy the day. But they haven't been found on asteroids. They think theory that talking about as pens Permian, where we basically looking at transposed involved materially around the stem from one objective another, and and that's one of the theories of how life to in fact, it's no that will accept it in his fantasy that, but I mean, I I believe it personally, I think that's how life with and, but there is a Trump's that basic building blocks for life. The the mole basic call been molecules came from comments nostrils in woods live. Us in that way. But the actual organisms themselves want as far as I'm concerned. Anyway, you just said that the tar grade conserve anything. So it could survive a trip through space as a stowaway in the nooks and crannies on a rock that gut catapulted from one planet to another. So you said that earlier in this program. Wow. I did. I did just say no you're saying that you're not buying it. Oh, calling you out. So I think the issues we need realize scientific pref- say we need to do these experiments. We need to take those bugs into space. And I'm I'm sure she only outside of the international space station, they've taken organisms, and that basically saying how they react to that radiation environment. Because there's no anytime precious say we didn't like radiation, all biological cells can't deal with that. We get comes from we dive right quickly. In fact, the Astros again to space. They're a much higher risk of radiation poisoning than you would be on the pundits. This. One of the problems that bothers Camacho hasn't space. So we need to do this experiments. We need to take those bugs out into space and see if they even if we can grow things out there as well. So we do that. I'm I'm no show that things come supplied in deep space. No sunlight full kind of billions of years that we that we require, but I'm may be tightly role. And every statement totally. Prefer the term special needs grades and tardy great. But yeah, I see what you do there. Well, done both you these this is quite a speed date. So so Natalie we're running out of time. Do you have any sort of reflections? Simple reflections you'd like the viewer listener to take with him as a as a lesson for this program. Yeah. I think I think, you know, someone like may you probably wondering why I'm interested in these objects? I think it's just because I'm inherently interested in where we came from, you know, on this very long of one hundred years, if we're lucky and and in that time, I think well, let's give a pump is toil life. I'd love to figure out why we hit how we go ahead. And and what we leading to offi to descendants. And if basically we may have hit because of comments Nestroy, and she in the future, we may die off because of comments now stories they could collide with us and in a devastate all of humanity only one this. These objects for many reasons because of how we go hit will say to protect us in the future. And we need to understand what these things and made off. And will that all bits are and understanding so much detail? So that we can actually protect the planet. I think it's important. I think everyone should be concerned about it. But not worried I think we need to be worried. It's more we're gonna dine an asteroid impacts, although it could happen. But I think is something we need to be concerned with for the for the features leaving have ruined planet to maybe it will be ruined in other ways. But we're not gonna leave it ruined with an asteroid impact in the future. And we can do something about it and asteroid before hits. I'd like to think I just picking up on your point Natalie. It is intriguing and intriguing and underappreciated fact that asteroids and comets may have been the bringers of life the ingredients of life, but perhaps even life itself, and yet they can also serve as harbingers of doom for the very life that it brought well. And that is causing perspective you've been listening to possibly even watching this episode of star talk. Cosmic queries, asteroids comets addition. I wanna thank Natalie Starkey friend and colleague who went back across the pond. Good luck. In your your new science, teaching exploits at the opening university in the UK and always heavy and how how people find more of you out there. I am stocky start us on Twitter Instagram. Starkey stardust great band from the sixties. And you also one of our star took all stars. I am. Yes. So I have other Shays that you can go and listen to you. I've had about four now. Go some water in the solar system and stroke lot of asteroid staff. I to the malls insight mission, which is actually malls. At the Maidment said as if he thinks he can go check out very good and linked today. Shays in the description. Excellent. Mark your you get around. I get around. I'm on the road every weekend doing road. Again, my comedy stylings and a comedy club near you. And go to Mark Norman comedy dot com. Oh, inciteful and clever and funny. I love what more. Can we ask your for what the world needs today ear big inspiration year? Traffic light tweet. That's a joke. That's a bit. Yeah. I'm obsessed with jokes. And that's a great. Joe tried joking. But it's you know, they don't always land. But I'm coming from. I love it. I love. All right. That's been star talk. I've been your host Neil degrasse Tyson your personal extra physicists. And as always I bid he to keeping. Thanks again, Detroit for sponsoring today's show Toro occurs during marketplace the happens between people who make up a community of local host, you can book any car you want wherever you want. Whatever your car need may be and Toro has got you covered from tesla to iota for right to Ford. You can choose the best car for you. Whatever your budget because they have over three hundred fifty thousand cars listed globally. Download the touro app. That's t-. You are on the app store or Google play or visit touro dot com and get twenty five dollars off your first trip. When you sign up for Taurel and use promo code star talk at checkout. Terms apply.
Curing Cancer, with 2018 Nobel Laureate Jim Allison
"The universe is filled with secrets mysteries when leaving this with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science society are converging here for the first time. Oh, what do you think? Cleveland? Grandma's house. Again loud. Busy. This star talk. I'm your host Neal, the grass Tyson your personal astrophysicist. And I've got with me coho. Chuck nice. Hey, always could have you check. Always good to be here. Tweeting at Chuck. Nice comet. Thank you, sir. Yes. I am a right. He never says my Twitter handle, I got to say his tweet. He never says that fine fine. I'm just saying I don't think you have to say when the person has like one hundred million people on Twitter, we have twelve million Twitter followers than you know. Thirteen million no worries. This is a special edition. I'd think of it as a special edition of cosmic queries. It's a special edition because we have with us someone who is not only the world's expert on this topic. He might be the greatest expert in the universe on this topic. And it's the topic of curing cancer. Yes. Yes. It's a big topic on everyone's mind, and our special guest help answer these questions on curing cancer. Because obviously, I've no such expertise is immunologist. Dr Jim Allison, Jim welcome to star talk. Thank you very much. Yeah. Your Skyping into us from where? Office to catch. Huston the cancer center in Houston, huge medical complex there. If I if memory serves, and you would just like minutes ago, awarded the two thousand eighteen Nobel prize in physiology and medicine and your professor and chair at the department of immunology at the university of Texas at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, did I get all those all those titles. Correct. That's correct. Excellent. So did they call you in the middle of the night and said, you win the Nobel prize, and you hung up because you thought it was a prank call because that's how it happened for me. No, actually, there's been some buzz last couple of years and. And my wife says, well, don't we wake up the clocks founded ring? So this next year. Okay. This year, I got up and said the phone I guess next year. In writing. I guess we're gonna make sure the phone rang at that instant was my son. I just saw TV Nobel prize. And I said really what? And then. And then found there was call from Sweden on it. Basically. Peter you found out like through the news, basically, not from the actual Nobel. Right. So number something. I don't know. See I've never gotten to know about price because my phone number's unlisted. Better fix that. So again, thanks for. I know you must be swamped with media inquiries, and and the likes. I'm delighted that you gave this program this hour of your time. So thanks for that. So if you could just lead off by telling us, what is it that you were recognized for doing? I was reading dice for developing away to get the system to attack cancer cells, which is something that, you know, people doing for time, and and it's potentially curative in many cuts cancer. So instead of attacking the tumor, which would be the natural. I thought right 'cause that's bad. Let's get rid of it. Let's attack it you you came in the back door. Yeah. What we did. For three decades. I've been trying to understand how these cells called T-cells, the kind of the warriors immune system, all of your body at tricked virus-infected seller tumor or something then I deal with it. When I use it killing. Anyway, we know they could attack doing the us tumor cells. But Gilliam effectively was easy. A lot tries fail to try to you know, arm to attack the cancer or getting. But found a molecule called CT LA Ford matter when for but is a molecule is sort of breaks of immune system after T cells get going use this as a negative regulator turned himself off. So they don't hurt you by just continuing to divide divide divide y'all with Coyote, sell it. So the idea that maybe. Normally that molecule the brakes coming onto earlier stopping details. Limiting the cancer. So I thought well, let's just say disable the brakes temporarily and sure enough it works. But just just for the reason you're said a lot of people had real cello with because I said, you know, how could you she cancer back during the catcher, you're not even treating the cancer. You're treating them system. Not. Not. You started your answer. He said I found a molecule. All the time. It's an sponsor while you look at. So when we see these commercials on television that say this is not a video game. This is not a screen saver. This is an actual cancer cell being attacked by your own immune system is that your research that the referring to. Wow. That is really proud now. Now, you only impressed because it was in a commercial because anybody just won the Nobel prize winner. No. But not everybody could get a commercial TV. That's true. I'm interested because I I'm I'm familiar with your work because my mother was lost to cancer last year about a week ago last year. I lost my mom to cancer bone cancer. And so but the immunotherapy was a little too. She was too advanced and too old. They said, so what are the cancers where your discoveries are most effective? Up to now, the most effective what has been melanoma about twenty metastatic melanoma, which when we started working on this. There was no approved treatment and been no jug that to had ever improve survival in randomised trial. There was no successful treatment. And so that was where the child with started. We started by when I was lucky it worked against all kinds of catcher, but started Melva, and what we know now that in approved by the FDA two thousand eleven after a lot of trials what we know now actually about two years ago. There was enough data DEP ten years. Follow data on five thousand people who've been treated in twenty something percent over twenty percent or alive ten years after a single round of treatment. And so when you add a second drug to drug subsequently discovered. By honcho, and his group shares the project that that response rate goes up to sixty percent. Wow. So that's the highest. And there's no reason to take those patients will be around for ten years while we have to wait. See we don't know yet. Hopeful. But also it's been approved by the food Drug administration for lung cancer kidney cancer, bladder catcher Hodgkin's follow so cancer head net. Catcher few others. Fifteen indications has been approved for and burying response. Rates for from just being to fifty percent. And so it's that that basic defector proves any doctor, of course to prescribe them. I just heard you say head and neck cancer, which I've never heard of until this moment, and that's not brain in throat that's actually heading. It's is from either smoking are human papillomavirus. The people that treat Abaco ours. Ours could a lot. Okay. Okay. So I quick question. Just before we go to our fan base. And because that they're the ones that supplied the foundation of questions that is going to make this show. Procedurally if you can demonstrate that something you're working on cures cancer in mice or rats. Do you have to have human trials for to still be approved by the FDA? Yeah. Absolutely. When I started on this a lot of people said to be anybody, get your cash advice. Oh, wow. That's funny that my gosh. Yeah. So that you know that we call those haters. People need education. But but yeah, you have to have the trials to prove it safe in. You know to do advocacy. Yeah. But what something that was revealed in a movie that Dallas buyers club? The Dallas buyers club the FDA was the enemy. And then in the said, the FDA loosened some rules to get drug into use even before trials are fully completed. If I'm about to die to say, oh, this might not be this drug might be safe for you. But it could cure me an entirely that the F the efficacy of that feels wrong. Yeah. It's a complicated. Subject only. My brother. Ed, metastatic prostate cancer. And while we were developing this jug, and I really wanted to get it to him. But could the reason his, you know, the companies that are helped Beverly I couldn't develop by myself had teamed up with a tech company to actually make the drug itself, then they had to get approved do these trials which they can only make so much. And if they try on people outside of a trial and hurt them or or killed him. Then that's that ruins the drug. You know, so. The risk of slowing down. It's just a. And these trials I think what they've done especially since two issues you're talking about they become a lot faster now. So this class of drugs, they they've really greased rails on it. Now where enough experience rated, you know, if you showed Alaska see that's good enough because they don't now about the safety. Yeah. Wow. So Chuck, let's go to our fan base. Okay. So do you have Kyle Ryan Toth from patriot and says this along with our search for curing cancer once eight forms are we researching ways to prevent cancer from even developing a yes. And that that's that's a great question way. Yeah. We working on that. Actually, there's some vaccines for H P and do cervical cancer, for example that just word of wisdom. I think all teenage kids may. Male and female need to get that back saying before they become sexually active because we can completely present that disease. Now, the normal cancer catcher that we're talking about here melanoma and stuff like that. It's just so hard to predict who's going to respond and. What the targets are immune system just attacks stuff. In almost every case is different. There are some hereditary cancers, though, might be able to vaccinate people to really give serious consideration already have some lesions that may predispose the then we could take care of that. Jim is it is it that the we have one word to describe all of these kinds of cancers. So we think of them as one monolithic target to attack. But maybe we need different words for them. All so that we can think of them as things that were respond to their own unique solutions. Right. I mean, it used to be it was cancer. Then we realized we I'm speaking for the whole field. People realize that you know, there's skin cancers breast cancers, code caches. They're named after the the tissue that they came from. Then the next step was when people studying the cancer, biology realized that. D mutations that caused them were were very different than they sort of. They all were different shaded back. What causative gene mutation was gay rash on your custom Allison one hundred cats. Ryan there. Okay. So that is the trend line. Yeah. You have a when we look at them. Now. It's it's sorta we're broadening again, we just look at Kennedy too big amino genetic, meaning they provoke immune response. So they don't. Okay. Right instead of any individual type of cancer and just very quickly before we move on could Sombor almost time for the settlement by I you mentioned something occurs. Refashioned that I think is very important. And I just caught the the way you phrased it every teenager might want to look into HP now as that including men because you know, when when you're a guy and eighteen you hear cervical cancer, you lay I'm good. I'm. I'm I don't have to worry about maybe good. But the women that you encounter may not be good later on because manner. He said to Matic, you get it and you pass it. But you never know you had it. And so, you know mandate to get it as well. So that that was my point is that this is something that affects everyone and the vaccine we know leads to the direct prevention of cervical cancer in women because it fights the virus that causes it in women. Correct. Exactly the same system destroys the Paris before it could do anything fantastic. Wow. Okay. We're gonna take our first break. You're listening to a special cosmic queries addition where we are privileged and honored to have the freshly minted Nobel laureate. Loud sounds so cool, man. Meant it. Nobel laureate actually rented, right? They just made Dr. Stamp Iverson because. Dr Jim Allison from university, Texas medical center in Houston. We'll be right back. Get it. Get. Get it. Hey, I'm a fan of SimpliSafe home security, and you should be fan to simply safe is ready for anything. I don't care what it is. If a storm takes out your power. Simplisafe is ready, if an intruder cut your phone line. Simplisafe is ready say they destroyed the keypad or the siren simply safe will get you the help you need. Maybe it's overkill, maybe you don't need to be ready for every worst case scenario. Hey, you like putting it out there? And just seeing what happens living your life all nilly willy. Go ahead and do that I for one like security, especially when it comes to my home. And that's why I know simply safe is ready. No matter what happens now, simply safe could cost you an arm and a leg, and it probably should. But it doesn't they charge you. What's right? What's fair fourteen ninety nine a month? My God, I can't believe that's the price. But it is no contracts. No hidden fees. I recommend SimpliSafe to everyone. I know. And I'm doing it right now. I'm actually making the recommendation right now, you go check them out. Today at SimpliSafe dot com slash star talk. That's M P L as a f- E dot com slash star. Talk. Free space inside his down to earth. You're listening to start talk. Kantha kale? Exception. We're back starts. We have with us. Dr Jim Allison, freshly minted Nobel laureates we and he took time out of what we know is an over subscribed day of his to just share with us, his insights cancer is and how it works and how how would try to fight it. And we it's 'cause Macquarie's so keep it going. Here's the next question. This is from a friend. Hey, doc, what are you going to do with all that money? You realize he's got a split three ways. You realize oh what? That's not right, or whatever the total money is he gets a fraction of it. Okay. Let's start there. All right. Okay. Jim what are you gonna do? Just one other just to as as to the government's third when I get. Wait a minute. Are you telling me that they tax you on your Nobel prize? That is that's disgraceful disgraceful. Okay. So he gets half the prize. And then the government gets like the other. Okay. So what are you going to do with the forty dollars and eighty nine cents? Probably give it to give a lot of it to some. Cancer research organizations, and I think I need to do. I will let you do that wasn't even serious about the jerking around. We was great. All of this stuff about the no pill prize. All right. Let's go to a real question. As a matter of fact, this should have been the first question before our patriotic. And this is from naira n- Reich on Instagram who says what is cancer. At least, you know, a lot of people may not know exactly what cancer is. That's true. We still know exact cancer is, but a lot of people have referred to sort of a social disease, you know, complex Arcus different cancer cells and they've got to play nicely with each other. You know to go ARGUS certain size at stop and to be able to heal wounds. But this stop wanting damn stay where they're put not go someplace else it so cancers just. Is sort of. What is is hyper pleasure meeting starts growing fast doesn't stop. But that's basically just sells losing the normal could shows that that make cooperate with all other cells to make you what you are. And these are your cells do not exterior alien alien in cosmic sense. But just foreign but foreign foreign some foreign thing in your body that you could just remove and all his well. Your body is misbehaving is that a fair way to characterize it. Yeah. You're the sales in your body. Some yourselves your body misbehaving and causing damage to the cells around. Just by getting too big. But no the case too vague destroying tissues. Cool. All right. All right. Let's move onto Rene Douglas from Pittsburgh. And she wants to know this. If a curious found would occur all cancers, or are there different types of cancers would each one need a different Heure and just as a follow up. Is there a means of achieving a universal cure is probably easier. When it actually question of it used to be that, they're they're called personalized therapies, reach patient and. Try to figure out where where the mutation was causing the cell to be a cancer cell, and those are not to be good curing cash because there's so many mutations in a lot of cancer cells is that there is not just one Jerry kill ourselves mutation. There's others jug done works anymore. EMT changed it. But one of beauty of beg me Mian system. Go is. And in addition to the T cells to attack to resist they can recognize, you know, many many of the mutation. So they become a multi, you know, bigger army that could hit up to. Targets as since it's not directed against any specific thing. You know, what that is when I thought of this in the mid nineties, this could be a way of treating all catches, and you know, that has not been realized there are limits that have to do with just a number of mutations other properties had been cancers like lung cancer melanoma bladder kidney, these could be cheered fraction of patients these can be cured down. But we. We know for melanoma was the most experienced over twenty percent of people live ten years after a single treatment. And that's maybe going up to about sixty percent. But other ones like good bless Toma. Which is what McCain data? We just haven't made much progress there, and where you know, working my my wife productive pathway Sharma. Oh, physician and physician scientists have scientist, but we working together and a called therapy platform here. The Anniston our whole goal is to get cancer cells from patients get the tumors and see what's going on in their cut a t cells or there what could've abused sales in there. What's going on in individual cancer? So that we could figure out how to make combinations that'll treat, you know. He's been cash we cast. But I think we're going to have a large fraction of many kinds of cancers. But I don't. I think I don't think I could say see a world where there is no cancer. So you you just created a cancer Bank. Is that characterize that correctly? Basically, we store specified to react. We also studied the fresh out patients as well. Nice cool that is one Bank. I never wanna Bank. Hanser bang. I'm just saying I I'm happy with my money. Oh, we'll take that back. Hopefully this good mad. Absolutely. Let's go to Ari malady or our Ari Mody who says this ca- cancer cure through any of the breakthroughs achieved from crisper, the gene editing, and I'll just follow that with our was that instrumental in any way in your research crisper, and gene editing. It wasn't. And then you go. Promised a lot of people thinking about the problem is if you could get rid of those genes that are causing the cancer using crisper turn back to normal problem is it's kind of hard to figure out how to do that. Because you'd have to do the many other. We have to do all one at a time leading figure out a way to if deal working on this to change a whole bunch of was that might work. So there's a lot of Saudi yet. But I wouldn't rule it out. So so so you're not ruling out the the notion that could be you have to sniff out a piece of Jean that would be causing cancer. Whether or not crisper is the actual means by which that would happen. Right, right. Okay. Cool. That's excellent. Excellent. Good stuff. Data Bailey from Facebook wants to know this. There are a lot of claims out there about different superfoods and how they're able to he says cure. But that's the claims that are made are not that they cure cancer. However example tumorous, but are there any? Typically, validated foods or diets that can help person who is battling cancer to aid their immune system in the fight. Thank you. David bailey. What a like west food question. Yeah. And people ask me that all the time. And I really can't give you any single answer except to say do things. Your mama told you here kid around a diet. Don't smoke don't out. Some don't, you know, drink too much to everything in moderation. To stay healthy, Cam good. You had a good mind. My mom used to tell me you're going down and. House out there. You got a dime. So I think. Jim just said that I can stop eating kale. That's what. I think I heard him say that he just a little bit of it, right? In moderation moderation of kale? Kale, kale was a garnish what happened to our? I guest and kale. All right here, we go. Jeff Farris from Facebook wants to know this estimated about one third of the people who get cancer are genetically predisposed to it. Where are we on the ability to do testing to predict the outcome? And how reliable is the current state of testing is having a genetic marker of fifty percent positive or seventy present positive a good means of being able to tell. Yeah, I'm not sure it's has thirty percent of significant number arm. But but breast cancer, for example, to some extent ovarian cancer in women can because by brecca mutations. And so and by the way, Dr just for all of those who are unlike made that know exactly what Brad mutations are what what are what are the over? I bound to to just by studying backwards that women with breast catcher head very often had this Jane remember what stands for but anyway. Jayco BRCA best answer, I guess be says for breast cancer. But but we don't now there's involved in DNA keeping your genes normal. You know? Visit heritage if women inherits one copy for her mom the other copy that could be dangerous. So, you know, it's something that will breast cancer. But a lot of other kinds of catcher dot quite as definitive is that prostate cancer. We know that if you have a brother that got it you're twice as likely to get it. But nobody's been able to put their finger on. Why that is yet? So on on what part of the genetic of your genome is then responsible. So so with the with the Brakha, it's it correct me if I'm wrong is that the first time, you have such high level confidence that a person will get cancer that you people are convinced have preventative surgery that does happen is right, right? But there's no other cancer prediction for which that is advise. Is that correct? Not that I'm aware of. Yeah. This is delete Cunningham Troia and. He says my five year old daughter or granddaughter was diagnosed in may with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Pete since it is generated in the marrow. Is there anything new on the horizon? So are you familiar with this particular cancer, and in any research that might be encouraging? I'm not I'm not an expert on that comes as, but I can tell you that there is there is activity at sing these these check my blockers as we call. Work leukemia's and adults, and they do cases the the works early. It only started a few years ago, but there's some hesitation and using them in developing adolescence or younger kids because people are somewhat worried about I mean changes while your body's changing and everything, but I would be gets there. Sooner or later. Oh, well, that's courage. You go. That's a very cool therapy called car T. So which is an engineered Kennedy sell. It's good back into the Kimia. Patients might also have promised. It has been used kids. All right. So two things to perhaps look forward to. And of course, we wish Denise granddaughter all the best. This is Cheryl squeaker Carter. And she says is there actually any scientific research being done on cannabis and the effects it has on cancer. Yeah. I think there's quite a bit with most of its, you know, is giving to will become palliative kidding today. Patients more comfortable, less nauseous when they're getting chemotherapy. I don't think there's any evidence that cannabis. You know could be used to treat cancer itself. And in fact, you know, if smoked it has some of the same carcinogens did actually spoke Tabatha tobacco has that much much lower level. So so far as I know the only things being said is just helping patients feel better the carcinogenic components. Does that though they're much smaller? Does it matter? How you ingest the cannabis as and what role could then play in these cancer? That's yeah. Immediately go into your lungs and then ultimate in the bladder. If it's eaten a lot of it gets gets digested away. I don't think I don't think there's any data showing with it. Would it has caused cancer? Other matters doubt. If it would it was just, you know, cookies or something. Okay. Brownies brownies. Or any number of edibles? Very cool. I don't know why. But I feel a need to buy a ticket to Colorado. Time for one more question in this segment. Okay. This is jet Daniel Junius or Junius wants to know, this is a plausible to kill cancer with kreisls surgery. Yes. Yes. Absolutely. And we've done some experiments with that just be clear cry. Oh is cold? Freezing probe is done is done. In the clinic. A lot particularly kidney cancer, breast cancer. It's gotta be localized. But we we showed in mice that if you had to tumors opposite sides of mouse, you could cure what Obama phrasing it maybe other mental loan, but injecting are drug just after you've froze the first one because that makes him follow parted them primes, the T cells go kill the other one. So that's now in clinical trials in kidney cancer, breast cancer. Wow. That sounds like a military operation. We will conquer this side of the enemy. Yes. Re deputized them in our. Army? Did we created a BI to go kill cancer super cool? All right. So Jim we can take a quick break. And we'll be back for a final segment star club cosmic queries. How do you cure cancer? Hey, thanks to Nord VPN for sponsoring today's show for those of you unfamiliar with north VPN, it's virtual private network. What's that mean? You're worried about your computer picking up a virus because he went to that questionable site. Meanwhile, you're letting it have public relations with every public WI fi hotspot that's out there. Guess what you putting your computer and all of your information at risk because that's where hackers hang out because when you're on a public network, you can be seen, and if you can be seen you can be hacked Nord VPN's chrome browser is lightly and user friendly from the first click and secures, your browsing in seconds, get up to six teens connections and unlimited bandwith with nor to be PM and with a thirty day risk-free money back guarantee. There's no reason for you to put this off, you know, when I'm in an airport, which I often am I really am very afraid that while I'm looking on my computer someone else's looking with me because you don't want all your. Business out in public so start protecting your internet experience today at nor VP dot com slash star talk and use code star talked to get sixty six percent off a two year plan that's about three dollars and ninety nine cents per month. Or text star talk to nine hundred dash nine hundred that's north VP N dot com slash star, talk and code star. Talk to get sixty six percent off a two year plan and protect yourself online with north VP and today protection. Space in science down to earth. You're listening to start talk. Rebecca final star cosmic queries. Addition check Knight, the subject is curing cancer. And we got all up in the face. Dr. Jim allison. Yes. He's here with us here, and now just won the Nobel prize in human physiology, one of the categories of the Nobel prize, and we've been we've been picking his brain about this with our with our query again, Jim thanks for being on star talk. And let's continue. What do you have? I write. This is Kyle Coon from Facebook and Kyle is from Airdrie Canada and says is their chance if we never find a cure for many types of camps cancers, humans will one day in a Darwinian sense of all out of cancer. So a little awkwardly worded. But what he's saying is can we evolve if it's killing us if it's killing us can we evolve beyond cancer kind of like selective? Breeding the sense. Where the small percentage of people who do not develop cancer will be naturally pre-selected to continue propagating the species. Interesting question, not sure if that's your expertise, but well, an Lucien is Jovan by survival of the fittest. You know, so it works on on development spent this what you made your children and Alicia doesn't give a damn Patchett. So there's not allowed to evolutionary pressure to, you know, so they childhood cancers and stuff there may be pressure. But I really don't think that there's going to be a selection against people that are old to get cancer. Because they just read that doesn't make you veteran able to reproduce. I guess society could change enough for that different. But. I don't think it would have babies. You know, nature's done with you. Right. Reggie propagated. Your your does. That's really what the whole thing is. About sending your DNA into the future. Right. And what happens afterwards? No one gives it rat's ass about. Wow. Yeah. Yeah. Boy nature. What Mr. C is? Oh, well, there you go. That's that was a great question, then and and very disturbing answer. All right, by the way. So, you know, the Darwin award given annually to the person who does something completely stupid and ends up dying for having done. So right. Okay. It's called the Darwin award, but you can only get that award. If you've died for doing something stupid and have not yet had kids right because then you already sent your stupidity full, then you would have read. So it's it's calling the heard as it is given out every year, and you go, and if you don't wanna be a winner of it because it means you're dead true. At why? And stupid, and that's no way to go through life. Did. Okay. Muhammad. Amir from Facebook says naked mole rats sharks and rays have immunity evolved to efficiently resist cancer. How is this possible? And can we use that to our advantage? I know sometime ago there was a great deal of extensive research into broccoli enzymes, and and shot DNA, and we still headed down that path. Doctor still a lot of studies shorts do have immune system. But it's very it's very simple compared to ours. And it's true that they don't get cancer very often. But I don't think we really understand why that is one reason this because until recently the ocean was pretty free of carcinogens Tyson and. Saying we're changing that. Certainly on top. I am. I'm going to ask a stupid question. How do we know the cause of death of sharks? That's a good question. I have no idea who's doing this. 'cause I teach me when you die in the ocean. You are bait and consumed instantly by everybody else within minutes, right laying up there dead. There are no shark mummies. It's right. I guess occasionally sub some wash out shore or something. Okay. All right. All right. Well, they have it. Let's move on to Jess new Dollo who says this. I don't know if this would fall under the topic. But I'd like to go down a different direction and ask if we can take advantage of cancer cells at all I've heard of the Hella or AT L A cells, which may be relevant but can't say that I'm an expert on the subject. Well, thank you for explaining yourself, so incredibly detailed. Is is there a way? Is there any time where a cancer cell can be beneficial to the host can that mutation do something good in any way? But cells that we take cell catch yourselves out of patience all the time and use a study what caused cancer and how they respond to treat much steps up. So that's what those does he Lascelles? He's talking about where you store for years. Now, there's a lot of sellers like that that are in use for research. Cool. Okay. That's good to know. Good to know. Excellent. Let's go to Vassilios economy. I Kona me. I caught him. I this. Okay. These Greek just Greek. Yeah. Feel the Greek. It would be economy economy economy economy. Well, you said it was Greek the Greek came out of me man, look at that. Breaks up. Nice. Have there been any advancements in stem cell research that connect to or better our understanding of cancer, research stem cells all the news all the time. Hot topic Ray charged. Yeah. Again, there's there's a lot that's being learned from using stem cells to to figure out how to put in the right to change have developed normally also again to discover things about how they could go ride as far as. Thank you arrive to become catcher sales. But so far as is usually those to treat catcher, someway, again, that's I don't think they do that. But but the very useful in learning. To work. There seems to be you know, to two separate approaches. One is taking these cells learning, but but the tree or treating and preventing is is kind of an different area. Yeah. Actually, actually, I I doubt southern it's really big. But I was thinking. Themselves, but leukemia's very often treated, but she was stem cells patients Bomer all there, but producing sales are killed with chemicals radiation, never replaced it with stem cells, which grow up and replace all the blood cells. There's been some thought and some other cancers, it'd be do the same thing. Yes. So far except for the K MIA'S that really has tried it breast cancer. But that's nothing torque yet, so the answer's yes. But in a in a in a limited way so far. In fact, I used to be the only way to cure leukemia with with stem cells Lale, and is that because when they with their really kind of resetting the entire immune system because they destroy everything right kinda get onto LaRosa. And then then in then when you inject those stem cells, you're actually kinda like jumpstart jumpstarting starting. Got it all starts over it replenishes, everything eventually. Wow lucky if you're lucky the got rid of cancer cells before it reminds me of poop transplant that they've been doing lately, you know about that. By the way, people have chronic digestive problems. And and they take they'd put somebody else's poop inside of them and jumped. The the the the flora the. Healthy gut biomass somebody else. The new star that actually works quite well, what number of found recently in including Dr Jennifer war, go here. MD Anderson melanoma. You could sort of get an idea whether somebody's gonna respond to therapy or not by the cata 'Bacterial. They have. If you will. And so there's some thought and we're actually working with with her a little bit on this of trying to find out what the real good bacteria are giving to patients while they're getting the therapies sounds like some crappy research. I couldn't help. I know hit me. Go ahead. I serve it. I deserve. I deserve. It. All right. This is serious frosts from Twitter. And he says or C says because it doesn't give a gender. Do you think that and this we're both of you guys? I don't know it do you think that with the recent spate of development in quantum computing? We would see the rise of nanotechnology as a feasible solution to cancer and other ailments reasonably soon that's hard to say reasonably soon. But I what I know and delighted to then defer over over to Jim I think about it if you construct any I'm going to give a cosmic perspective on his, okay, if you construct anything it'll in the end of the day, it has it will relate to what is the size of the thing that you tool communicate. Okay. So if it's a brick building, then you grab bricks and you put bricks in place, but if you wanna make something smaller than a brick, then you need a tool that smaller than the brick holder you need. Tweezers? Okay. If you wanted to make something smaller than with tweezers make any something. Then the thing that it is you're making right. So if you're gonna if you're gonna make molecules you need tools that are smaller than the molecule to assemble to build a molecule. Okay. So there's a quantum tools that have in fact, one of the Nobel prizes this year in two thousand eighteen if I remember the the the the bio of it references tools that enable you to manipulate atoms and particles, and if you can do that if if the folks in the cancer research that you know, what we need we need this other molecule in this particular way in this particular figure configuration, then I bring in the Nanno tools the net toolbox. And then then he's got then he then he then he can bring his genius to the problem. Yeah. There are a lot of people working on that just as you said because you could make thinks to deliver drugs with a lot of precision and deliver multiple things at the same time. So there's there's a lot actively there. So it was pretty promising. I'm gonna take host privilege and ask the last question. I just happen to be sitting in front of a book written by a colleague of mine. It's called cosmic discovery published like thirty forty years ago. But this was very influential on me because as an astrophysicist I wanna see what he says about discovery, and you read through it and half the book is a description of how advances in modern Astro physics only came about because of some advance in another field in particular physics physicist, invented some other detector or some other tool or some other thing, then it gets applied to our work. And then we make discoveries you describing using radiation therapy to zap the immune system. Jumpstarted we physicist you got that from physicist, you guys didn't invent that. We did. Okay. So are you are you in need of some new physics advance to help you do your work? And can you comment on on the leaps that your field has taken when engineering or other technological advances show up at your doorstep? I say to that that one is the technological advances in computation and a lot of little machines that we use. Now, they're now, I guess to figure stuff out about cancers, and what's going on inside with great speed and precision didn't exist for years ago four years ago. And so so there's just a lot of effort there. But in imaging to because we don't out other. You know, be useful to note watch sales next to another one it what's going on. And then. This is imaging with decision to be able to see that level of detail. Right. Right. And it I think there are a lot of advances being made in the in the treatment area, really giving more powerful radiation or focused wave. We could figure out how to match it to really kill just the tumor sales surrounding Titian. We might that might help Bill really more effective away that huge sleep victories of cheating cancer. But but certainly the adult techniques up with or just amazing. There's a something that happens now that we're not so much anymore. But days of. Immunotherapy drugs. Boomers would subtypes get big really fast. So the doctors looking at him at a pathologist, look and say well your drink catcher. It's making them grow faster. When you take it out cut it open before T cells. Yeah. Tumors. Wait inside somebody you can't really do that. So new imaging techniques that allows to tell the difference between a so they're better Bollock ways now imaging but to get to restrain radically tease Elena rapidly, dividing cancer cells. So we need something better there to help us diagnosis and follow disease. So for me that that's a call for funding of research on all frontiers and cross pollinating them. So that all convinced it there's none of this study this kind of science now it will other kind of science on hold. You just have no idea at the frontier. What the what that cross benefits might be? Absolutely. Absolutely. Thanks it. I try to do whatever I can is point out that what we found out. Ended up being the basis of this therapy that research had nothing to do with cancer whatsoever. I was doing because I wanted to know how T-cells worked I figured that out of cat scratch. My head went, hey, maybe we can do him, you know, and it works. So the reason for doing work those who are only listening to that comment. He actually scratched his head on video. Yes, he did. He said I scratch my head, right? We got we got to wrap this up. Dr Jim it's been a delight to have you on and congratulations. I on your research because that's what matters most the Nobel prize is an after the fact recognition of it. It's at the end of the day. It's the issue research that will make the difference in the world, not the fact that you got the Nobel prize for it. And so I just wanna. One of those people that say the prize, really, I guess, and I wanna thank you and your team and others and just the whole enterprise of those who have given their lives to just improve the lives of others. And so yeah, yes. And although it's a shame that my mom could not benefit from the from the work that you've done and everybody in your field. Not just us collective you. The beauty of being able to see how the field operates is everything that she went through is going to help somebody else you, and that's that's the cool thing about what you did. So thank you. Okay. This has been star talk. Cosmic queries can't secure addition. And Dr Jim Allison again, thanks for being with us. Thank you up to. I've been with my coach Chuck nice. Always good to have you here. I am Neil degrasse Tyson your personal, Astro physicist. And as always. Did you to keep looking up? Dela lael. The arns Nord VP is one of the most trusted online security solutions with thousands of servers in over sixty one countries, nor DP ends chrome. Browser is lightweight and user friendly for the first click and secures your browsing in seconds. That's right. Don't have all your business in public while you're using public WI fi guess what you might be getting used at the same time. So that's why you need Nord VPN the birchwood private network that protects you from all of those people trying to get into your business. And by that, I mean, half your computer, you don't want that star protecting your internet experience today at Nord BP and dot com slash star talk and use code star talk to get sixty six percent off a two year plan. That's NORAD P N dot com slash star talk or text star talk to nine hundred dash nine hundred.