35 Burst results for "Ketamine"
The Resurgence of Psychedelic Psychiatry
"I'm only here with. Npr science correspondent. john hamilton. hydro on me. So as npr's neuroscience reporter you're always reporting on the most interesting thing so what you got for us today. What i've got for you. Today is psychedelic drugs. Not literally of course. But i wanna talk about how these drugs are getting a second look as a way to treat psychiatric problems like depression anxiety substance use disorders. Even ptsd in the past decade. It's become a very hot topic. Brain sites yes. It is a very hot topic. In fact john. Our first shortwave episode was about using silla sivan as a treatment for smoking cessation. Some guy you're bringing this topic back to the podcast. What are some of the drugs will be talking about today. Lot of familiar names. You mentioned suicide side. There's also ketamine masculine. Ibew gain ecstasy even Lsd in some cases and those are all drugs that can cause hallucinations or out of body experiences. Right right and most of them are not legal right but how do they work for depression. And all those other psychiatric conditions so ketamine for example is able to help a lot of people with major depression even when nothing else works about ten years ago i was able to talk to one of the first people to take part in a clinical trial ketamine. His first name is christopher. He asked me not to use his last name. Christopher had depression that made him so aside uil and before he got ketamine he had been prescribed just about every drug out there to treat his depression he told me it started with prozac and paxil and went onto klarna pen atta van zanex ramen gabba penton byu spar depakote. They had me on for a while. That is a long list and none of those helped him either. They didn't work or the side effects. Were so bad. He had quit taking them. But christopher was lucky managed to get into one of the first studies of ketamine and now fifteen years later the fda has approved a version of ketamine for use in people like christopher.
Police, EMTs criticized in death of Elijah McClain
"In colorado and independent investigation into the police killing of twenty three year. Old elijah mclean has found aurora. Police officers did not have the legal basis to stop mclean or apprehend assaults him. The report published monday says mcclain's encounter with the police was violent and relentless struggle and that the limited video and audio available from the incident quote. Reveal mr mclean surrounded by officers all larger than he crying out in pain apologizing explaining himself and pleading with the officers unquote mclean was stopped by three police officers on aug twenty fourth two thousand nineteen as he was walking home from picking up a nice tea for his brother at the local convenience store. He was tackled by. Police placed a chokehold and was then injected with ketamine by paramedics. He died on august thirtieth after days on life support.
Tapping Psychedelics for their Anti-Inflammatory Powers
"Joining us daniel pleasure. We're going to talk about the therapeutic. Potential of psychedelics loose and it's pipelines experimental therapies that extend well beyond mental health indications. There's a growing interest in psychedelics. as medicines what's led to the transformation of this area from one of illicit substances to wonder drugs. Well i think that science has led the way And really it's been clinical research conducted at the top universities around the world Principally johns hopkins to start and now all over imperial college yale university new york university etc Very much led by the science. I i think that When you the question of wonder drugs though is interesting because i think that Silla sabin like ketamine are drugs that have a tremendous amount of promise for the treatment of depression within psychiatry and these drugs have therapeutic potential and other drugs beyond psychiatry but The classification wonder always brings the kind of and probably justifiable skepticism of Is the hype real. And what's really kind of the fundamental Potential and also what are the stumbling blocks for these therapies. And so all of those things are really the focus of the company in in in looking to develop These therapies both within and beyond psychiatry. How restrictive an area is this to work in today. And historically how hampered his research been it has never been more easy to do research in this area You know over the last forty fifty years. Things have dramatically changed. I think that What's what's really notable is the amount of knowledge that the regulators have in this space. The fda ema are very well informed about both the therapeutic potential of these drugs as well as the the risks associated with their development and use. And so i think you have a very informed regulatory audience and you also have increasingly Investors and other sources of capital that are willing to explore and develop these therapies. So i don't see really the limitation being that of a regulatory or legal wine and it's much more about The you know the the aspects of clinical development and really how do you take something with potential and translate that into a solution to address. Unmet needs there's long been interest in the potential of these substances to treat depression and addiction. But you're looking at a broader range of diseases. Among other things you're looking at these substances potential anti inflammatories. What's understood about the potential use of these drugs as anti inflammatories. I think that you know. Our company is is really notable for the fact that we have the the world's leading scientists and clinical developers focused on the full range of potential. Both within and beyond psychiatry. Interestingly when people think about serotonin they think about it in the context of depression they think about it in the context of psychiatry but actually serotonin is a modulator of basic function throughout the body And in fact there's more serotonin in our in our gut than in our brain and in particular the primary target of psychedelics. The new the The primary receptor which mediates the psychedelic effects of serotonin. Two a receptor is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. It's on all immune cells. It's on all major organ systems and so fundamentally We have been away dazzled and and a bit distracted by the profound psychiatric potential of these drugs and certainly their perceptual effects. But in reality there is a much broader potential because these appear to modulate Stress response in a variety of ways. You know you if you think of it in the context of psychiatry than depression or anxiety or substance abuse are all in a way related to the kind of inappropriate or maladaptive response to stress in the rest of the body. You know whether it's Due to aging whether it's due to an inappropriate immune response we see. Similar type of modulating where the serotonin receptor seems to be implicated in a variety of chronic. Inflammatory diseases the initial discovery of the potent anti inflammatory effects of some psychedelic. Compounds was was. I made by our scientific founder. Professor charles nichols at lsu. The that research That kind of kicked off a long Research campaign in the development of anti of the anti inflammatory potential psychedelics has less through A number of very interesting discovery specifically that some psychedelics are potently anti inflammatory in models of allergic asthma in cardiovascular disease and in a variety of different models of of inflammatory disease associated with ophthalmology related to diabetic. Retinopathy macular degeneration in addition to which there is potential in neuro degeneration and a variety of other conditions and so fundamentally the potential is massive and the key. Question is and really. I think we've addressed this and we're we're very excited to kind of take the next is. How do you bias the psychedelic from its perceptual effects. And make it purely a anti-inflammatory or immunomodulators medicine and that's something that we are
Progress Toward A Safer Psychedelic Drug To Treat Depression And Addiction
"There's growing evidence that psychedelic drugs can help people with mental health problems like addiction and depression. But these drugs also cause hallucinations and other dangerous side effects. So as NPR's Jon Hamilton reports, scientists are working to create safer alternatives. The drug ibogaine comes from the roots of a West African shrub. Small studies suggest it can reduce drug cravings and withdrawal symptoms. But David Olson of the University of California, Davis says using ibogaine is a treatment presents huge challenges. Ibogaine is like the Mount Everest of psychedelics. It causes hallucinations and potentially fatal heart problems. Also, it's really hard to make in large quantities. Olson in a team of researchers had a question. Can you take a really complex molecular structure like ibogaine and distill it down to its essential elements that give rise to the beneficial effects? Coulson's team started by giving the ibogaine molecules some nips and tucks be locked off the parts of the structure that gave rise to a lot of the deleterious effects and we left the part of the structure intact. It still was able to have anti addictive and anti depressant properties. The changes also left the substance that was easy to manufacture. The scientist named their creation tavern and tha Log or TV G, and they began testing it in rodents, including some binge drinking mice. Every single animal in the experiment. Reduce their consumption for alcohol, which was really, really surprising. TVG also helped rats that had been addicted to heroin, Olson says. Usually these rats relapse in response to light or sound cues they associate with the drug Tabernacle log is able to have this long lasting protective effect on heroin relapse. TVG also improved symptoms of depression in mice. All without producing any heart problems or behaviors associated with hallucination. Wilson, who has a financial stake in T B G, says drugs based on psychedelic substances have great potential because they work in a different way. They don't mask disease symptoms. Really designed to try to rewire the brain. The T B G results appear in the journal Nature, and it's still not clear whether they will hold up in people. But scientists not involved in the study say the approach has great potential. It's definitely promising it zah first step Gabriella Manzano is a researcher at well Cornell Medicine in New York and co author of a commentary on the T V G study. She says it suggest a way to make other psychedelic drugs safe enough to become mainstream options for treating psychiatric disorders. This provides a road map on how we could start tweaking these chemical compounds to make them very useful in the clinic. Keep the good parts get rid of the bad parts. It's still not known, though, whether getting rid of the bad parts will keep the drugs from being effective. Counter. Liston is an associate professor of neuroscience and psychiatry it while Cornell. One of the big questions in the field is is the hallucinogenic experience necessary for getting better. And there's some evidence both ways, Liston says. It's time to figure out what psychedelic drugs and they're triplets counterparts can really do for people with depression, addiction, PTSD and other disorders. Let's gather the data. Let's see what works. Let's make sure we understand the safety profile. But let's also be open to the possibility that these compounds could really help. A lot of people who need help. Listen, notes that one psychedelic ketamine has already been approved to treat depression. Jon Hamilton. NPR news
The Metformin Recall
"With a blood pressure medication. Losartan scientist had an online pharmacy was screening products for potential carcinogens when they saw an alarming pig in a probable carcinogen and Nitro Sada methylamine off India May levels. They'll Sergeant was recalled in July of 2018 and it was followed by the recalls of five other India, May contaminated medications, November 2018 the off-chance and two receptor blockers irbesartan and losartan September 2019 and January 2020 the over-the-counter reflux medicines Ranitidine and not seeing those recalls started hitting closer to home between May and October 2020 when the FDA recalled 179 batches of Metformin ER, So what is India May 1st what it's not ndma is not nmda. Nmda is well known in Psychiatry is the limit ergic receptor involved in the mechanisms of medications that antagonize the nmda receptor things like ketamine and Lamotrigine experimental antidepressants like amantadine resolved. Mantine dextromethorphan and drugs of abuse like PCP alcohol and two that have both therapeutic properties and abuse potential MDMA and ketamine these all have to do with an MDA which has nothing to do with ndma. These drugs reduce the effects of excess baggage automate which is toxic a little bit of glutamate in the brain is good, but too much is toxic. Back to ndma, which is also toxic but in a different way, it's a carcinogen that causes mutations in DNA and it is directly damaging to deliver even small amounts of deadly and there have been several prominent homicides where ndma was used as a poison resulting in death through hepatotoxicity on the other hand and the amazed everywhere. It's a byproduct of wastewater treatment with chlorine and that water flows through our tap into the soil where the ndma collects in the plants and vegetables that we eat. And EMA is also one of the reasons that were warned against eating grilled and charred meets. It's one of those cancer-causing nitrosamine is that forms when meat is grilled or smoked it's particularly high in smoked sausages nitrosamine Czar also found in beers. Cheese's sausages bacon and cheese. Foods that are smoked or pickled in salt. So how much India May these recalled medications producing with Ranitidine ndma levels Rose nine-fold higher than the odd for safety level four medications, but that's safety level which the FDA set for medication seems very conservative 0.096 micrograms per day. The typical diet is about twice as much ndma. And if you're drinking a lot of alcohol or eating Smoked Meats, your typical diet will have a lot more indirme in it part of the reason the safety limit is set. So low is that the FDI assumes that the ndma four medications is on top of the ndma already present in our daily Foods a pound of steak has three times as much ndma as the upper age limit for medications, but what really matters is cancer there the FDA is given us some data on the first recalled medication Valsartan if eight thousand people took those starting at the dog Some dos for four years while the drug was contaminated there would be one additional case of cancer. And remember that's at the max dose which is important because in Psychiatry, we certainly don't use the max dose of Metformin. We don't have numbers like that format form in yet. So that one in 8000 number might be slightly reassuring but when we're talking about things like cancer and lung damage, it's not exactly reassuring and we still don't know the cause of all this ndma contamination. The best guess is that it's a byproduct of the manufacturing process, but the proper points towards a troubling Trend in drug quality as manufacturing has shifted overseas in the past two decades. We are seeing more problems with medications right now about 40% of medication to the US are manufactured overseas and even when they are produced in the US around eighty percent of the ingredients come from abroad So what's wrong with going overseas? Well historically the US has had the tightest regulatory control of manufacturing safety and medications. The FDA has been the gold standard wage, but it's difficult for the FDA to regulate overseas manufacturing because they can't do what they do best surprise visits to get into another country. They have to work through governmental agencies and plan their trips to arrange these inspections and that allows the drug companies precious time to prepare for the inspectors. Most of the problems have come from manufacturers in India and China and if you're interested in this Kathryn even has detailed all the Gory details in a best-selling book bottle of Lies. We're going to be interviewing her sometime next month. The original Valsartan contamination came from a Chinese firm Sweet Pea this firm changed their manufacturing process and 2011 and am supposed to announce that to the FDA because it can create byproducts and things that might be damaging and would require new inspection but against regulations they did not announce the change in manufacturing jobs,
Ketamine that's injected during arrests draws new scrutiny
"Colorado Health Department has announced plans to review the state's ketamine waiver program. Working with medical experts to study the use of the sedative in the field. The use of ketamine faced increased scrutiny after the death of Elijah McLane, who was confronted by Aurora police injected with ketamine by paramedics and later died. Here's Fox 30 one's Rachel Scada. Paramedics can only administer academy in under a state waiver, and according to state guidelines, it should only be used on patients so combative someone's safety is at risk or to calm, extremely agitated patients who experience a condition. Called excited delirium. The reviews expected to last at least, 12 weeks.
Ketamine that's injected during arrests draws new scrutiny
"Health department is undertaking a review of the use of the drug ketamine. The drug is used to calm, agitated people, and it's sometimes administered in the field by paramedics, a department release. Did not say why it's reviewing Ketamine administration. The drug was used on Elijah McLane in Aurora last year, and Maclaine went into cardiac arrest dying days later. McLane's autopsy did not conclude a cause of death.
Elijah McClain's parents sue Colorado police over his death
"The family of Elijah MacLean has filed a federal civil rights suit against the city of Aurora, Colorado, You'll remember he was the unarmed 23 year old who died in police custody last summer. Colorado Public Radio's Alison Sherry reports on the latest developments in the case. The incident that led to Elijah McLane's death started with a call to 901 reporting a quote, sketchy looking individual. Police stopped McLane, who is African American. As he was walking home from a convenience store. McClain's family lawyer, Mari Newman, a rural police officers stopped, Elijah grabbed him tackled him to the ground and over the course of the next 18 minutes inflicted multiple types of excessive force against him. McCain wasn't suspected of any crime. In the altercation that followed. Officers put him into karate holds and kept him pinned to the ground. Paramedics who arrived on the scene, then injected him with ketamine, a sedative. His family's lawyers allege the dose was too much for his £143 body size. He went into cardiac arrest in the ambulance, and MacLean was taken off life support several days later. Maclaine's death got renewed attention this spring in the wake of the George Floyd death in Minnesota and became a rallying cry both in Colorado and elsewhere in the country for police
Field Trip's App Wants to Guide Your Next Psychedelic Journey
"Filled trip is an APP. That sort of looks like your run of the mill guided meditation APP when you open it up. But. Field trip wants to guide you on a deeper sort of mental journey. A psychedelic journey because Phil, trip pairs with supervised in clinic drug experiences quoting wired. It's a capital T. trip because the APP alongs to field trip health trial based venture focusing on psychedelic assisted psychotherapy, the trip, which begins a soft launch. This week is digital companion to field trips clinics in. New. York Los Angeles and Toronto where patient settled under rooms filled with. Zero gravity leather recliners, and waited blankets and take an ego quieting psychedelic substance under the supervision of a field trip trained therapists. Field trip belongs to a new and growing class of for profit companies using psychedelic drugs, namely, MDA Ketamine, and Cilla. Sivan, the alkaloid makes magic mushrooms magical to treat depression anxiety and other obstinate mental illnesses unlike most players in that for profit cohort field trip is. Is Open for business field trip isn't dosing patients with MD or Silla. Sabin. Because both are still listed by the government schedule on substances, but it's also not waiting for legalization to find its customers instead in New York and Toronto field trip is treating select patients with ketamine a associated drug that has FDA approval for off label use right now. The Los Angeles Clinic opens later this month. But for those sheltering in place in the safety of their homes field trips, new APP handily distills its consciousness expanding protocols, making a guide or at least a facsimile of one accessible whether you can visit a clinic or not, and quote.
Canadian citizen is second in two days to be sentenced to death in China on drug charges
"Two Canadian citizens have been given the death penalty by Chinese courts in the past two days from Beijing. NPR's Amy Chang has more A court in southern China sentence Canadian citizen You Jiawei to death on Friday after convicting him on drug manufacturing and smuggling charges. Local police reportedly found £480 of India in a hotel room. Yeah, used with five other men, all of whom were also found guilty. Is the second Canadian national to be hand of the capital punishment by the Chinese criminal justice system in two days. A day earlier, another Canadian citizen named Asuka home was sentenced to death for producing ketamine. A popular recreational drug to more Canadian men are in the process of appealing their death sentences handed down last year. Canadian police detained hallways chief Financial officer Moment Joe in 2018 on a warrant from the United States. China's Foreign Ministry denies that these death penalty cases are connected to the country's strained relationship for Canada. Imaging. NPR NEWS
Elijah McClain's mother says officers "murdered" my son
"Longer protesters and demonstrators and activists continue fighting for black lives. The more stories of police killings of black people seem to be coming to light and pressure is now mounting for a new investigation. Into the death of Elijah McCain. It happened after an encounter with three officers last August in Aurora, Colorado. Go to the family. The 23 year old was out buying ice tea when somebody called 911 claiming that MacLean was wearing a ski mask and quote acting weird. His family says, Yeah, he was wearing a mask, but it was to deal with social anxiety. Within 15 minutes, He was put in a chokehold and then injected with a powerful sedative. CBS's David Begnaud has the story. Stop! Stop! Stop! Stop. I have the right stuff because you're being suspicious. Rely on I'm going whole relax, or I'm going to have to change this situation. The district attorney investigating the case says that Elijah McClane dismissed the officers requests for him to stop. The 23 year olds family says he was just walking home. He was listening to music. When Aurora, Colorado police approached him last August, the D A. Says McLane was carrying a plastic bag when police tried to pat him down and he refused. He's then heard pleading with the police as they tackle him and use a choke hold on him. Paramedics later arrived at the scene. A medic gave McClane ketamine to sedate him. McLane was taken to the hospital. Three days later, he was pronounced brain dead. 10 months after McLane's death, more than two million people have signed a petition calling on Colorado officials to fire the three officers involved. So far, the Aurora Police Department has declined. CBS News is request for comment. Dave Young is the one who decided not to charge the officers were the actions of the officers justified legally. Yes, Mr Young. Do you believe there was a moment in this where the officers could have de escalated a situation? Absolutely. 100%. They could've done a 1,000,000 things different didn't need to die on and the fact that he died does not warrant the basis for criminal charges in the body camera video cops or heard saying that MacLean tried to take one of their guns. He went for his gun. Mari Newman represents McClain's family. Don't you think if you really had grab someone's gun, we would see fingerprints ended the lifted from the gun. Did you find any evidence that corroborates the officer who said he reached for the gun? I had no evidence to cut. Predict that Shin in McLean is Elijah's mother. They? They're bullies with badges. He wanted to help people. He was a massage therapist. He not only heal others that he killed himself. He was able to accept love give love various forms. According to the district attorney's report, the medical examiner was unable to determine a cause of death. It is important to note that walking around with a ski mask is not illegal, and when you go back to the 9 11 call, the caller didn't say that Elijah did anything illegal. He said. Hey, there's a guy wearing a mask. He kind of is waving his hand. Seems a little strange. You might want to check it out. He says He might be a good guy might be a bad guy. When the police responded instead of observing. Instead of watching hanging back for a bit, the police moved in immediately to stop him. And everything went self from there.
"ketamine" Discussed on The Carlat Psychiatry Podcast
"Before the age of anti-depressants psychiatrists relied on a wonder drug. The brand name was in deciding is off the market for fifty odd years but now the FDA's FDA's thinking of bringing it back. Welcome to the Carlisle. Psychiatry podcast brought to you by the Carlotta Khatri report keeping psychiatry honest since since two thousand and three. I'm Chris Ache and the editor in chief of the car. Psychiatry report and I'm Kelly newsom Seiken P and a dedicated reader of every issue at the back of the car. Let report we now. Publish brief newsflashes to keep you up to date on the changes in psychiatry new. FDA approvals and warnings earnings research highlights and practical tips to help your patients like ways to help them get those expensive medications at an affordable price. This month we reported on on something in the works that could radically change. The field of psychiatry. And it's called Silla Sivan. Many of us know what is magic mushrooms. The the FDA has fast track development of this controversial Psychedelic as a treatment for depression and not just treatment resistant depression but potentially as a first line agent. Agenda's well suicide share some things in common with Ketamine. Both can cause dissociation hallucinations. Both have been classified as has drugs of abuse from time to time or still are and both are sought after for their reputed spiritual effects but these two medications are or more different than a like ketamine and s ketamine work. Through the Luma turgid system and possibly the OPIOID system Sillo. Sabin is a Serotonin in an five. ht to a agonised. And why is that important this five. ht to a receptor is something we ought to be. Get to knowing. And whether we use tillerson or not the five hd two a receptor seems to have some psychotic properties and that's probably why still aside and and can induce hallucinations and dissociation on the other hand particularly in the last couple years. We're starting to see medications. Come out that increasingly treat psychosis not by blocking dopamine but by blocking five. Ht To a plaza. Ping does this as does squaw tire and to a lesser extent. Orlando pain and a centerpiece avarice. But Sodas Pinson new placid the antipsychotic attic. That is uniquely approved for parking Sonian psychosis and there's a new antipsychotic that's going to be released in the next month or two called Luma. Temporal that also operates primarily by blocking this receptor with little dopaminergic tax Murtaza's gene trouser tone and Nevada. Sadan also blocked this receptor so far we have never to. My knowledge prescribed a five. ht to a agonised. And that's what Scylla Sivan urban is Cilla Sivan also natural where ketamine is synthetic. So does it really treat depression. Ten years ago. I don't think anybody would've answered yes to that. In Two thousand sixteen a small study made headlines or they took twelve people with treatment resistant depression and gave them Silla Sivan. They saw a significant recovery's in those patients and the recovery's Ra- maintained three months later even though they had only had one single dose. That's that's the study that got people talking and since then there have been three small placebo controlled. Trials also showing antidepressant effects with the same same model. Silla Saipan given a supportive psychotherapeutic environment. Were someone acts as a helpful coach to make sure they don't have a bad trip. A Meta analysis of those three studies was just published and they found a large effect size for Cilla Simon important to know though that one of those studies was done in people with cancer receiving end of life care in that study. It wasn't depression so much that was treated as it was anxiety about it death again. They found significant effect in this small. Study of fifty one patients and last week they published a three to four year. Follow up again. They weren't taking Silla Saban in the. Meanwhile they just followed up with them three to four years later and the benefits continued many of the patients ranked the Silla. cyberman been as one of the most personally and spiritually meaningful experiences of their life and that kind of mystical experience at the medicine created seemed to to mediate the beneficial outcomes so based on all that data the FDA decided to fast track the drug as a breakthrough treatment for depression and last year. They gave it that status for treatment resistant. Depression and last month. They gave it that status for regular depression. Wait a minute magic. Mushrooms could be approved for first line treatment for depression. How did we get here. And where all these official organizations such as the FDA big Pharma and other government agencies the Houston criticize psychedelics and now onboard with it. Those mainstream organizations are not just on board with it. They're literally on the board. Thomas insole the former director of the National Institute of Mental Health and Paul Summer Grad a recent president of the American Psychiatric Association. Shen are both on the board of advisors for one of the pharmaceutical companies. That's pursuing this approval out. Let me just pause and say that at the Kara report were. We're not really for or against Silla. Sivan we just don't know enough about it. What were reporting here is that they are doing larger trials to find out what we are against. Gainst is stigma and misconceptions about medications. And nowhere does that seem to be more true than with the psychedelics. Ta Understand that. We gotta go back in time time to nineteen fifty seven. Albert Hoffman was a Swiss chemist who worked for the pharmaceutical company. Sandoz Sandoz is now known as Novartis. The company that brought US Plaza Ping Hat Sandoz Dr Hoffmann developed to medications. That have since gone on a strange journey. LSD which was released under the brand name. Declan Ancilla Sivan which was branded and marketed. As Indo Sivan. These were both used fairly commonly by psychiatrists in the nineteen fifties and early sixties. Where they were thought to enhance the benefits of psychotherapy These were different times or worthy so back then. These were used to enhance the psychotherapy experience. Experience now Silla Simon is potentially going to be marketed for depression but the actual use is almost identical because as a treatment even for depression it has to be given along with a trained psychotherapist. Who guides the patient through the mystical state in other words to prevent a bad trip up. Why is it used for depression. Now but back then for psychotherapy will back then. Things were a lot looser and pharmaceutical companies were given a lot of leeway with how they they marketed their products. In other words they could almost say whatever they wanted now. They have to prove that their products are safe and effective for a particular particular diagnosis. Not so much for something general like enhancing psychotherapy one dose and you well for six months. It sounds exciting risque. And that's kind of what the Sandos Company thought as well in nineteen sixty three. This whole business with being loose with the pharmaceutical industry started to catch up to us. Specifically there was the solidified tragedy where babies were born with deformed limbs because of a drug that had not been tested well in response response the FDA began to act much like the way it does today requiring companies to prove that their medications are safe and efficacious. The problem was there are already two or three thousand drugs on the market that hadn't been tested so the FDA gave them some time but ultimately every drug doug had to prove this and the Sandos Company was starting to get wind of some of the associated and hallucinogenic effects of their LSD and Cilla Simon and they were thinking. We're probably not GONNA cross the safety mark further. These drugs were getting into the hands of everyday citizens through diversion and they had become associated. Aided the counterculture that was rising at the time the antiwar movement the hippie movement the things that all of the official bodies hated in other words Sandoz wanted to get these things off their plate and they literally gave their entire supply of LSD to the National Institutes of mental health and and stopped producing it along with Cilla Sivan around nineteen sixty five. That's how it came off the market voluntarily things went even further further in nineteen seventy when Richard Nixon signed the controlled Substance Act which created the now familiar schedule of controlled substances which we use for Benzon stimulants. The Nineteen Seventy Act. Also rented research on psychedelics practically illegal and it was because of that act rather than any compelling clinical data that many of us who grew up in the seventies seventies eighties and nineties inherited a kind of stigma toward psychedelics. Those restrictions on research started to loosen in the nineteen nineties and in two thousand dozen six. They started to come off in the two thousands. A church from Brazil called union developmental which means literally early union of the plants had been using a herbal tea known as Iowa to enhance their religious ceremonies. I O Oscar contains contains a schedule. One PSYCHEDELIC DI methyl trip to mean more commonly known as D. M. T. earlier in nineteen ninety three. The court had ruled that native American tribes because of their special relationship with the US government would be allowed to use psychedelics in their religious ceremonies. He's and in two thousand six. The Supreme Court opened that up to all religions two thousand six also watershed event on the scientific side for Zillow Sivan to controlled studies. In fact they were the first scientifically controlled studies of Silla. Saban showed that the drug actually did produce mystical experiences of a transcendental nature. The studies had been approved by the DA and FDA and when they are released. They were applauded by the scientific. I tiffany and even the regulatory community. Herbert Cleber who had worked under George Bush senior for his National Council of Drug Abuse wrote that these findings findings revealed therapeutic potential of Silla. Sivan that might merit NIH funding all of that led to the clinical trials in depression and death. Anxiety eighty but it was another governmental. ACT The borders to where.
"ketamine" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"What would be the risks of e decided to go and see count katzman illegally? What would be the things that you worry about you will i? I really wouldn't do that. And the reasons are that this is a drug that although it's longer acting than some of the other rant presence people do relapse on it safe you get well abruptly and then you relapse then you will take again and less medically supervised provides the interval between each dose tends to reduce and so there's a real risk that people will end up taking a drug too frequently and then that's the point at which Torrance really does start to develop that's when the doses connects late so there are certainly cases of people that have tried treating themselves unto ended. DOC with terrible bladder trouble. Even to the point of having to have their bladders removed. Easy young people having that bladders removed and ending up having to have Urine out of a bag for the rest of their life. Don't do it wait until catch means available on the NHS one of the issues is that if there's a long delay in catch me becoming available on the chest and I think it's quite likely that that will stimulate the growth of private ketamine connects in the UK. And exactly the same way as has happened in the states and we need to be very alert. The problem doctor shopping that can occur now. We're not the US and that hasn't happened to anything like the same degree with opiates in the UK as it has in the US. But this is still Ciller. Risk with the potential downsides teasing cattleman as an anti persons. What is the wider evidence? The bedrick be effective enough to justify. She's so catch me and comes into mirror-image molecules as catch me in an arc at me and one of them has been developed by ANSA handsome in the states as a nasal spray and the dosing regime. There is you take it twice a week for a month then weekly for months and then either weekly or four ninety but you have to come up to hospitals to take it each time. We have to take in clinic observe by a healthcare professional and they've done an enormous amount of very very high quality. Work as you'd expect for company looking to get a license for drug and their long term data at least one year ater suggests that forty forty five percent of people that start the ketamine remained well at the end of a year. But I think it has to be a caveat around this which is of course these were patients who were recruited into clinical trials. And so they were. If you like squeaky clean. They didn't have any of the other capabilities that people have such people who are depressed and have also got for example social anxiety or anorexia role or a CD lease the all the other things that tend to go together gather so the extent to which this figure forty five percent actually applies to the use of S. Catch me in the general population isn't known and that's much it's the best data that we've got about. The sort of drug is the data on s ketamine. There's simply no equivalent data on. Catch me even if it is not the majority that is going to work for aw shaming the not a complete overlap with the people he would respond to accessorize and these traditional depression drugs. That means Some people that now something that would work for them even if it's just a bit though that's absolutely right so although I typically say to patients you know I'm afraid chances chances of you responding to this and being able to maintain it and then find it useful a probably less than fifty percent. It's still certainly better even deal tentative which typically have a remission rate at a year of about five percent so how likely is it that will soon see cattleman treatments being widely prescribed in the UK. There's an expectation that it will be approved by the European Commission at the end of December that the recommendation of this committee will be accepted. Then there has to be a form an endorsement of that decision by the HR A and within their gift. I I understand understand to introduce extra risk mitigation requirements and. I don't know when that would happen in March Nice. Swill is scheduled to give its opinion on whether or not the drug is cost effective. And I think that that's going to be very interesting decision. The initial initial cost effectiveness analyses. That have been done by. The company suggests that it would be cost effective particularly in people who have remit but In other words get completely well but there's an analysis by the American equivalent of Nice Which suggests that it may the that it may not be cost cost effective and particularly because the requirements for cost effectiveness in Ukiah substantially more stringent than they are in the US? I think this is going to be A very interesting area. Do you think that it shouldn't be introduced without a registry. Yes I think when you've got a very potent oaten antidepressant like this. We need to look after trump in a funny way in the same way as with Benzodiazepines if they get overused and then eventually there's a backlash and they get unto used and I think that his drug that does have a rapid effect and then when people relapse though won't take more of it so I think that we do have to be really cautious about regulation makes it difficult to access which I think would be a mistake then. I think that there is a risk that people would start using it illegally. which would be a really silly thing to do? If we have strong monitoring to accompany wide access then I think that there's a good chance that will be able to use it and use it effectively speaking to reports. He's clearly convinced that. For some patience Katzman can have life changing benefits and give hope to people for whom all the conventional anti-depressant therapies failed. But it's also clear that even when you have a drug that has such potential and why the medical evidence is really compelling taking that step of making it widely available in doctors surgeries and making choices. He's about should be given access to the drug and under what circumstances. He's such a delicate balance..
"ketamine" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"Welcome back impart one we head. How KATZMAN was offering new hope to some people suffering with depression but despite the initial positive Eddie Psychiatrist's report? McShane has some reservations when it comes to widely licensing this drug and others like it. People often warned about the dangers of taking Katzman. Recreationally other any downsides say. She's in clinic. Yes they're all the main one obviously is that people relapse. Although this is a drug that has a long duration of effect it still near drug in. It's not a miracle and and you have to keep taking it again and again and this is the main issue that we really need to work on his seeing how we can prolong the benefits benefits of the drug so aside from relapse the other sorts of things that theoretically could cause problems are that it could theoretically 'cause was a nasty form of bladder damage it could theoretically colas problems with dependence and it could theoretically cools problems with shrinkage of the brain and loss of neurons and one of the problems is that whilst we don't think that using the medical doses that we use these people get cystitis all get dependent. We just don't know about the long term because although we've been using it for a little while this implant play on the long term studies that show whether or not you might get shrinkage of the brain. Long-term the best way of looking at it is to say well what happens to drug look at it to take fall too much ketamine and they certainly can show some brain atrophy. You mentioned dependents. I think that's something that people automatically worry rebound using a drug line catch me is not something that you see. Two people become addicted to it and do they. For example need more and more of it for it to keep having the same effects facts. Yes we do sometimes see people needing a slightly higher dose and that's something that we have to pay attention to really be careful how we manage that obviously if somebody's needing higher and higher doses than we'll need to stop the medication but we all used to will sorts of medications where this this is a possibility and for example. Today's paints off drugs like that that if it isn't cautious with them than the can cause problems problems but it is something that we can manage and actually I think that means less likely to induce dependence and benzodiazepine pains in my experience certainly less likely than nicotine perhaps about the same as alcohol. I guess you just have to be careful that you're not replacing one problem with another problem. Yes that's rice and I think if it's managed carefully particularly secondary care then then we can do that but there's no doubt that some patients a really driven to get ketamine and and that can be a problem Particularly if if I don't think that they get to be suitable for it. I think people sometimes feel is that the only solution to their problems gained be a drug and they cycle through a variety of increasingly unconventional drugs to try and treat their problems us and the whole discourse about depression and drug treatment of depression. I think couldn't become a bit seductive in a way you know. People people sometimes think that this is definitely gained. Be The answer says. Sometimes I find that patients have come to me because I am the person who is going to deliver ketamine to them rather than for advice and one can see when on starts talk about psychotherapy and making use of what happens when you move improve their eyes glaze lays ova but actually I think this is the most important area that we need to explore. That is what can you do with your newly well brain..
"ketamine" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"So in your clinic. I know you've started trying to treat patients with a very different approach right. Could you tell us a bit about. Yeah we use a low dose ketamine as a as an antidepressant and we've been doing this for about eight years now following on from a study study some of our patients in that study did really very well and so we decided that we would start a clinic in Oxford. And that's been running since then. The reason that we started it was that there was a trial that was done in the United States. That showed really quite remarkable rapid response Danz in people who were otherwise resistant tool sorts of other antidepressants. Most people will have heard of ketamine. Is a party drug swimming though. Put people in a Trump's like immobile states they might have heard of it as well as anesthetic type drug. That is hospital but I'm really interested in how how this drug can work for depression and obviously depression is a really complicated thing to understand. But are you able to explain in what we know about. How Ketamine can help what it's actually doing in the brain that seems to help? Yes there there are about half a dozen different mechanisms assumes but perhaps the main one is that it results in release of the main brains Near transmitters the so nerve cells cells can be inhibited from firing or they can be excited to fire and exciting transmitted them. As many of them fires cool glutamate mate say ketamine results in a surge of glutamate release particularly in the part of the brain involved in emotional regulation but also so in the front part of the brain and we think that this is an important part of how it starts to work so one way of looking at it is. There's a block on the release of that. Ketamine takes the break off. What does the treatment look like say? I'm patient I've tried out. Maybe some of the conventional drugs and hasn't helped me. What kind of treatment would I get so over the years? We've been developing how we do this and the way we do it is that people typically have three intravenous infusions each lasting forty minutes over ten day two week period and then what we do. Is We send people away for months and if they have done really well with those initial infusions we usually find that they will have relaxed by by the time I call them. We will then introduce a weekly oral ketamine that people can take home supplemented by intravenous infusions every month two months so the recent patient of mine who is teacher and Sushi was finding that she was having to drag herself through every day could barely get into the shower in the morning found motivation. Really difficult coat was plagued by suicide lie dares and she'd been in this sort of St for many years actually she tried. At least I four different sorts of anti-depressants and one of them had worked for a little while but then she relapsed despite being on it so what we did was brought terrain gave her a test. Dose of Oral Ketamine followed immediately by intravenous ketamine a few days later. And then we started this cycle of weekly weekly Oral Ketamine and then monthly intravenous ketamine and we routinely ask patients to respond to texts that we send them which asks what their mood is like and so before I actually found her up I could see perfectly well that she had responded. Responded the line on the graph just suddenly completely changed place and just what she said to me was I just feel as if I can get out of bed. There isn't a break on my thinking and on my action. It's not that I'm high or euphoric. It's just that it's possible to do things easily A.. And the suicide light is a couple of days afterwards. I suddenly noticed that I hadn't been thinking that way. I started going to the gym walking the dog and and this was really a dramatic change. In the past decade repeat his treated hundreds of patients with chronic depression using intravenous ernest cadman but Tazewell here in the second half of the show. He thinks we should take caution. When it comes to licensing Katzman and Kezman like substances despite the initial positive.
"ketamine" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly
"The the garden Kesselman is most commonly known as a party. It's something that people take to fill out of it over its psychedelic properties. It's abuse also has the potential for severe long term health consequences so it might sound like an unlikely candidate for treating addiction. Mental illnesses like depression but there are a growing number of scientists who believed the drug could help people suffering from these conditions which are notoriously difficult to treat and which affect millions of people in the UK each year for the next two episodes of science. Weekly weekend talking to people using ketamine to pioneer new treatments for both alcohol all addiction and depression but in completely different ways. First up this week we're focusing on alcohol addiction and Cattleman Rafael. Dos is a psychopharmacologists at university. College London his latest research save explored the use of ketamine as a treatment for reducing heavy. Drinking drinking I started off by asking. Exactly what Ketamine is and how it works. When it's administered people probably know it most from being sort of recreationally used lousy during the ninety s and in the north it's usually dropping off now in the UK but people use it as kind of a party drug sir feel so more relaxed altogether high if you take it into a higher doses it can be slightly hallucinogenic so people used it for that reason but what it is mainly used for medical geico purposes as an anesthetic for children particularly because it doesn't suppressed breathing like a lot of other anaesthetics do it's used quite frequently on? NHS children also also infield medicine so in war zones. For instance it's a much better analgesic. Anesthetic than the opioids it's on. WHO's list list of essential medicines so it has to be stopped in drugs cabinets around the world and hospital basically and it's gone at a lot more attention recently as a psychiatric theatric drug back in the ninety S in Russia there was a guy who'd I of Guinea Kaprisky who was looking at it. For addicted disorders so opioids. It's alcoholism he really interesting research. Actually but unfortunately stopped by the Russian government because they have a blanket bound being able to research any drug abuse potential NGO for treating and disorder. But that was followed up a former colleague of Mine Celia. Morgan is currently doing clinical trial looking at sermon for alcoholism and the work that I've been doing has been looking at using. I mean in a very specific way to see if we can help people with heavy drinking problems. Could you just tell me a bit more about why you might want to eat Catamaran to help with addiction so really interesting drug. In many ways it has lots of actions. In the brain acts a few receptors one of which is when we were particularly interested in our search at UCLA and MDA receptor. And that's involved in learning and memory and the signaling from a neuro transmitter glutamate and that's the main neurotransmitter excites it's New Orleans. Makes them fire. Basically it also has these effects on opioid receptors so it can cause these feelings of relaxation and also numb in pain more recently. It's been shown that it can in hearts neural plasticity which is the brain's ability to sort of rewire Ohio. Self with innocent provide manner acts on certain pathways that increase neurogenesis potentially so the creation of new neurons and also in alcoholism and other drug use disorders as many ways it could work bates not that. We're just replacing. The rewarding effects of drug with another is doing doing something to the brain to allow it to reconfigure itself potentially out of their networks. You've just published a study looking at the potential for ketamine to help people who were very heavy drinkers at really like to hear a bit more about kind of what the logic sequels behind the study so it sounds silly to say we're not interested in Lendu study on it but we weren't specifically interested in as a drug in its own right that what causes people to start drinking too much in the first place. What other mechanisms that made people continue to drink too much when they might objectively WanNa cut down then then find that they have trouble controlling that and one of the main things seems to be leaning animals a pretty good learning about rewards CIRMAC semis rewards and minimize punishment? So we've got these very strong in belt systems to learn about things that are rewarding and collective drugs are rewarding intrinsically lance associate the taste of beer with a pleasant feeling of alcohol. Most kids when they I don't like the taste of it. And it's something that's learned through this pairing with the rewarding effects so when those associations that you learn become very powerful they can cause this kind of automatic behavioral routine where you're in a certain scenario. The smell of beer may be triggers off a really strong feeling to WANNA drink drinking when he maybe didn't want to see the idea. Is These memories that you have these associations you learn. Yeah and helping to drive this pot. Happy of just drinking at an whenever you start making you dinner or out of the game from work. Learn Robert and is the thinking that because these triggers are once each counselor in your day to day there is of embedded in your day-today life. It's just really hall all to avoid them into therefore stop drinking. Yeah alcohol's a particularly tough one. In that regard alcohol ever saw everywhere so so I was really hard to avoid triggers not going to be getting rid of alcohol advertising anytime soon. I don't think so. We needed to find a way to break down the ability for those triggers two calls ores those patterns of behavior produced drinking. And so where does Katherine in this kind of quest her breakdown those associations that say many of lent and with alcohol so I mentioned this receptor the receptor and I said that that was fundamentally involved not learning and memory so one of the key memory processes is involved and is this thing called reconsolidation and Rio kind of think that our memories are accurate reflections of the past and that sort of learned and then fixed and that was kind of the dominant theory actually in psychology neuroscience for a long time and now we know that memory is kind of reconstructive process. Sometimes when you recall a memory returns kind of active state where it can be changed so that depends on some very certain parameters when you're retrieving the memory. It's not like every time you recall. A memory becomes unstable but once it isn't this unstable state required activity at this receptor called an Md.. Receptor to re stabilize once. It's become unstable so if you get in at the right time mm-hmm with cats are men you can block that receptor stop that process of re-stabilisation potentially directly target problematic..
"ketamine" Discussed on 1A
"Is predominantly used as an anesthetic both in humans and animals and is noted for being used in children and the elderly because of. How safe it is therefore a hope you frame the drug primarily as a life saving anesthetic while acknowledging its recreational use very important point excellent point. I think that's absolutely true. And what is used as a party drug? We can't deny the fact that a lot of people, especially in certain demographics certain minority cultures LGBT people, especially gay men have been devastated by the use of ketamine. So I hear the listeners coming from. But I also understand the reputation because the reputation is real. It's real. And there are people who are taking up to one two three grams of ketamine on a daily basis, they have become addicted to the drug, and it's it's sad. When it's available. It's also they be the drug that they get as drug that's on the streets. It's cut with knows what. So I'm not suggesting that we shouldn't be careful and do research on this drug and look at the long term side effects and be careful about how it's ministered. And certainly we wouldn't want to get into the situation that happened recently with the opioid epidemic. But ketamine is a dissociate of. And frankly, why anybody wants to take it. It's the the there are there's a brief period of euphoria that occurs at least with the internet as well. Adamy if you take it in excess like anything else, it can be deleterious can be damaging very harmful to your health. But that's not the way I it would be prescribed by a responsible physician Alice Levitt, how much has the stigma around ketamine affected either you or the people around you who know that that's been an effective treatment for you. I also understand you've got a big response to the piece that you wrote in vox how much to stigma come up. Well, I think there's so much stigma around depression to begin with that when I wrote the vox story. That's what I was worried about not admitting that I had taken a party drug, and I I have met people who have taken ketamine recreationally, and they they take a much higher dosage for one thing. Then we do when it's prescribed. So it's a very different experience that I can't speak to but. I really haven't encountered any stigma. In fact, I've had a lot of people also say to me, oh, what about other mind altering drugs? Have you tried those? And of course, I haven't because those weren't prescribed to me. But there has been quite a lot of talk about it with regards to that professor sex. I also wanted to ask you in terms of the FDA process of getting this approved Glen asked did anyone note that the FDA lowered its own standards and approving skimming efficacy was only significantly better than placebo in one short term trial. FDA normally requires efficacy in at least two studies, professor sex. What do we know about the FDA's process of approving, this this process went through an advisory committee where there was a nearly unanimous vote to accept the data ketamine being a novel treatment had a kind of fast track status where the rules that were applied to it or the rules that anything with that kind of status would have been. Valuated in the in the same way. These are all you know, safeguards that are in place, not just for ketamine, but for all novel treatments, by the way. We've been mentioning a Jansen Jansen is the company that makes the approved version of a skimming called proviso. We also did reach out to the FDA which referred us to the statement issued when it approved s- Pravada the statement is attributed to Dr Tiffany far Cioni who's the acting director of the division of psychiatry products. And the statement reads in part, quote, there has been a longstanding need for additional affective treatments for treatment resistant, depression, a serious and life threatening condition controlled clinical trials that studied.
"ketamine" Discussed on 1A
"Now this winter he tried the IV ketamine infusions. He did six and fusions over a two week period at first we didn't see any change. But after two weeks we saw a marked reduction in his symptoms. It is given him his life. Back recently the food and Drug administration approved a new drug based on ketamine to treat depression. It's called s ketamine sold in a nasal spray called spray bottle ketamine IV's have been used to treat depression for years as well as to cause you for it highs as a party drug take it as a pill. What led the FDA to approve this new medication? Why is it so hard to find an anti-depression regimen that works, and what kind of difference has it made in patient's lives? Joining us from Houston. Public media is Alice Levitt, she wrote about her experience taking ketamine for the website vox. And she's also a writer who covers medicine Alice. Welcome to one A. Hello. Joining us from Harvard is Dr Gary sacks and assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, professor Sachs. Welcome pleasure to be with you, and at W S H S H public radio in Fairfield, Connecticut is doctor Dmitri pappalo's. The co director of the program in behavioral genetics at the Albert Einstein. Stein. College of medicine he has prescribed ketamine for his patients Dr populist. Glad to have you with us to be here before we dive in. We should be clear. This information may help you or a loved one think through your options for dealing with depression..
Anti Depressants: new and old
"Several years ago blaze was diagnosed with depression at the time he was a bit resistant to starting medications. So he agreed to start talk therapy. This is Dr Michael Wilks with a second opinion his therapist felt he could also benefit from antidepressants. So he agreed to give them a try that was for years ago. The talk therapy ended awhile back and these days, he's feeling better. But he's had a hard time stopping the medications when we taper down the dose over a period of a few weeks. He reports he can't sleep and he gets so anxious that he just goes back to his usual dose over the years. Psychiatrists have told me that these kind of side effects were just related to a perceived psychological dependence on the anti-depressants rather than on any true physiologic effect will blazin. I don't. Leave them. In fact, the entire field of anti-depressants have been oversold to the sixteen million people who suffer from depression. We really have no clear understanding of how these drugs work despite their fancy biological names. Like serotonin reuptake inhibitors, they take weeks or months to begin to work, and we know that at least twenty five percent of Dulce will get no benefits from antidepressants and the number may be much larger. We know that for most people with depression talk therapy is every bit as effective as medications and may lead to longer lasting benefits. More than fifteen million people have taken antidepressants for more than five years as reported by the New York Times and this rate has tripled since the year two thousand. So there are lots of people that are going to need advice on how to stop taking the drug, but there are not many studies. Have looked at stopping these drugs. And the FDA doesn't require that such studies be done. New advice has come in from the journal Lancet were research is now suggesting the need to taper the dose down over many months or even a year this results in fewer people with withdrawal side effects. But how do we get this message to the tens of thousands of doctors and others who are writing prescriptions for antidepressants? And while we're on the topic. Let's talk about an old anesthetic called ketamine that has just been FDA approved in a modified form for a nasal spray to treat patients with depression. Again. We don't know how the drug actually works, and we're unfamiliar with the long term side effects. What we do know is that the drug ketamine can be abused. In fact, it has street value and his soul. Old under the name special. K doctors have a long history of jumping on a drug bandwagon early often at the urging of the pharmaceutical industry without insisting on good term studies. We are not skilled at jumping off the wagon in this case ketamine is generic and cheap. But as is often the case Johnson and Johnson modified it's slightly and now sells it for about three thousand dollars, and that doesn't include administration. Why can't we ever learn to do the background work needed before we release a new drug, MRs Dr Michael Wilks with a second opinion.
The FDA approve esketamine nasal spray for severe depression
"The FDA just approved academy nasal spray, and I've got access to research that shows that a different administration of ketamine not the nasal spray. But a different administration academy is showing ninety seven percent reduction in school. Would what would a someone who does your line of work a clinical forensic psychologist be able to to prescribe that medication? No, it has to be through an MD a medical doctor. Okay. And because actually right now the ketamine is primarily unless that nasal spray at us for surgical procedures. It would be an off label use of it. But I've got a I've been working with the VA for several years. I got about sixteen seventeen years of data. And it's amazing. What we're finding out ketamine has can do for suicidal depressed
FDA approves 'club drug' for depression
"Over the FDA has approved a fast acting nasal spray depression treatment derived from an infamous club, drug ketamine has been used as a powerful sedative and has been used illegally in clubs going by the name special. K now a derivative of the drug could help millions of people with untreatable depression cleared by the FDA, the inhalable drug will be sold as spothero. It will be delivered as a nasal spray and be prescribed to patients who have failed to find relief with older antidepressants like Prozac, the maker says bravado takes effect almost immediately and patients will have it admits. By medical
FDA approves form of ketamine for depression treatment
"Twenty three people the special k treatment for depression US, food and Drug administration has approved a nasal spray that as a chemical cousin of ketamine club drug called special k approved for patients with hard to treat depression. Some doctors have already given ketamine to people with depression without FDA approval. Richard cantu.
Depression, Jackie Quinn And Ketamine discussed on AP 24 Hour News
"A drug related to what was a party drug in the nineteen nineties has been approved for the treatment of severe depression. AP's? Jackie Quinn has more. The FDA says only patients with severe depression who aren't getting relief from other antidepressants can be prescribed the drugs bravado, which is delivered. By nasal spray regulators warned there's a risk of abuse with the drug the chemical cousin to ketamine or special k a drug used in surgery that became known as an illegal party drug in the ninety s there are other psychedelic drugs being considered for depression because they affect different brain chemicals than the current array of anti-depressants. Jackie
Ketamine, FDA And Depressive Disorder discussed on Nightside with Dan Rea
"FDA okaying, the first new medication for severe, depression and years CBS's, Alison keys tells us it's related to the party drug ketamine, the drug is called s ketamine and the FDA. Okay. The nasal spray that can relieve severe depression hours instead of weeks it works differently than antidepressants like Prozac and doctors say it can help patients with major. Depressive disorder who have not improved on other drugs. But manufacturer Johnson and Johnson says those using the new drug will be closely tracked in high doses both ketamine and s ketamine can cause sedation an out of body
Waiting for Mueller
"Robert Miller is thought to be near the end of his investigation into attempted Russian interference in the two thousand sixteen presidential elections Kadam Chaba discusses what to expect with the F. Jeff dyer. So welcome Kadam. We've grabbed ketamine is usually based in DC, but he's passing through London the moments. We grabbed him to pick his brains and all to do with the Russian vista Gatien. Ketamine have been reports in the last week that Robert Mueller the special counsel looking into plenty of links between the Trump campaign twenty sixteen in Russia that he's about to finish his investigation. What does that actually mean? What does it mean to say that he's going to finish the investigation or we're going to get the report sometime very soon? Well, he began Anna's work in may twenty seventeen. So we're coming up to the two year Mark this year when he finishes his investigation when he's decided that there are no more indictments. He wants to bring when he decided the investigatory work that he's doing his completed then he will file a report to the attorney general. And we assume there will be some announcement that Mr. molars finished his work, the probe is completed. And then the question becomes whether. We're going to get to see that report. So you took us through the actual process. What then happens the report when it goes from Miller's office to the attorney general. So this is going to be the big bone of contention in the coming months mobile file report to the attorney general who is William bar. He's was recently confirmed to the position at his Senate confirmation hearings. He shifted the ground quite remarkably previously. Everyone had assumed an expected that we're gonna get to see the report that Moore writes, he pointed out that regulations governing Muller's work, call his report, a, quote, unquote, confidential document, and so Mr. bar has said I will get polars report that report is going to be confidential and I will do my own summary of the airport, which I will give to congress in the public. That's going to be the thing that folks are battling over in the months. Democrats have said they will subpoena millers report, they'll do everything in their power to make it public Mr. bars being quite clear that he considered it become. Dential the other thing that we don't have a good sense of at the moment is what Muller's report actually looks like. So you mentioned the Democrats are going to do what they can get this report into public. The Democrats do not control the house of representatives of what tools do they have to take anything that moolah reveals and put it into the public domain how much power do they actually have no was primarily two things. One is that they can subpoena the documents and the DOJ resists, and that will ultimately go to court, and a judge will decide whether the documents have to be turned over or not the other thing they can do is demand that Muller himself or prosecutors on his team come and testify for the house, and they can also subpoena those individuals, and again, if there's resistance to that, and it will go to court, I think it's quite likely. We'll see Muller call testify, and I can't imagine why there'd be objections that question is what he would say what he would reveal. I mean, there's an expectation that Mr. Mueller throughout his career has not been someone who is prone to. Divulge incomes and tons of gossip information, he's a very by the book kind of guy he's brought several indictments. And what we may see him do say, well, I brought in diamonds where I thought it was appropriate to do. So and I didn't bring diamonds where I didn't feel as appropriate, and it wouldn't be right for me to start criticizing people for stuff that I didn't charge them for some of our listeners might remember back in the Clinton presence say the report by Ken Starr, which was a very long and at times, extremely lurid document detailing goings on in the Oval Office when Bill Clinton was president. Should we expect something some though this time or is it going to be very different? I think if anything we should expect the exact opposite of that the regulations Muller works under were introduced in nineteen ninety nine as a direct reaction to the independent counsel investigations that had gone on before William bar said at his Senate hearings at you know, steal J palsy, not to criticize people I thought that you don't charge them for rod Rosenstein at a conference. From Washington this week made the same point, which is the DOJ shouldn't be criticizing people. If they're not going to charge them for that conduct. I'm particularly after the two thousand sixteen election where you had famously or infamously James Komi to former FBI director when he gave conference announcing that he wouldn't bring charges against Hillary Clinton. He also criticized the way she handled her emails, and there's no total agreement amongst DJ and former DOJ folks in Washington that that was the wrong thing to do. I think what you're going to see here is if Muller hasn't charged someone it's likely that we're not gonna see a lot of
"ketamine" Discussed on WSB-AM
"Is ketamine if you've heard of it tell us what about ketamine because I have we've talked about it before on the show, but it continues to have a great deal of interest, certainly in the medical community. I don't know if it's made it out into the lake community like our listeners. Well, it's been one of the most groundbreaking things for for depression. And it's it's been tested in wide variety of depression ketamine was actually developed as an anesthesia drug. Could be fifty years ago. So it's it's been around. And it's one of those. Areas of medicine where observation becomes so important. And so. Not necessarily researchers, but just physicians using the drug made observations about patients who had had or patients themselves made observations about an underlying depressive disorder and the use of ketamine made a difference. And then there's also scientific plausibility as to why that might be the case in that led to kind of re examining the drug for a new process, but it's an IV drug and some of and now they're looking at if it's going to be used for depression as poster anesthesia having some other form of delivery would make it much more accessible to patients in the way. And the we we're ingesting it is through a nasal entre nasal through. Genucel inhaler type of deal now has international ketamine hasn't been hasn't made. It has been approved for any indication yet. Not yet not yet. But it's getting close to so close so close. But again,.
"ketamine" Discussed on Ben Greenfield Fitness
"Like, don't you don't wanna take care of them. And so but. We we started to do a lot of kademi therapy. And I've been using ketamine as an SEC just since two thousand and ketamine turns off at depression pathway in the brain, which is an MD a pathway, and then also sort of broad turns on a lot of receptors almost like turning the computer off and turning it back on and. It seems to give people hope it gives it gets them to a place of feeling connected. Emotionally safe. And it gives them a sense that they're going to be able to get better and physiologically or spiritually or emotionally when they made that transition is they're relying on their journey from being in a place of being kind of dejected and pain. And all of a sudden they felt safe. I what I say is almost like your mind, leave some bread crumbs on the way or your heart. And so then tomorrow, you remember that you felt for a while like things we're going to be okay. It's like we're really trying to sort of win hearts and minds of people and get them to get the sense that they're going to get better. And so now, then you say who who are the people that are doing this. And this is kind of hilarious because might people it's like anesthesia. And so the clinics that do it are people like me that know about it and a station. So they're like, oh ketamine is pretty easy for us. It was going my only experience with it as my.
"ketamine" Discussed on Psychedelic Salon
"Firm traditional education and over. Worth coming after being involved with the train for about four or five years. It actually seems wrong to know how to touch patient in the proper way to do Healy. And I'm saying that because of the most psychiatrists, they would actually disagree or they wouldn't see where coming in terms of really like, we need to learn how to do this. You know, I think that the honestly, I think that some amount of healing is gonna come off therapy, but really some of the healing of you guys are knows net. The body keeps the potty trauma that away that we cannot verbalize. And so if said, you can have a group of therapists who has been trained by maps for the work specifically at, we have all played therapist that apply and become. Therapists through at least have interest in volume work of many people that have experienced actually do work. And that's talking about people who were in on this know that this is important, let alone the quicker. We spread this amongst westerns like holidays, like we're just gonna have a group of people that knows how to do body work. So either any we have to train a lot more of licensed therapists and psychiatrists to do bodywork or you need to also with body workers. I actually prefer the latter. I think it would be more fun than Newark collaborative work with with body workers in another type in. I think it also has the benefit of is it can be cheaper for our which is something that I've kept mine full concert working together, say. Not work with them. At least during the session, but maybe we can collaborate the fighting workers to seem vision after either after the session in weeks after you know, I do know some people that have opened to eagle heavy of conscious academy, ketamine psychotherapy practice in the United in in vivo. Viva. Kevin lozenges in the stuff equally of ketamine Meador. But there's some people who work in the end of the Kennedy experience or the days after the body can be more sensitive than with body consumption doesn't can Can I I as like a iron. psychiatrists therapists work with someone ketamine and then work with body worker that can see them later in the day or the next day we're gonna get a lot cheaper than having to come my maybe the only like one stop shop. Yeah. You talked about that a little bit in the beginning. Right? We're we're really expensive as a healthcare system right now. I don't see that changing anytime in the near future. So again, it's capitalism is privatization really all actually built it is, but but again, with especially towards the beginning, when we have a limited of their out of you make sure access is available in, are there other ways to make these more? You know, I, I came from very poor family. I've mentioned my family is from immigrants from Nicaragua. We had a family of five. My dad raised us surprised that I looked in taxes something he made about twenty five to thirty thousand dollars a year between when I was growing up in the caller. So even as a doctor with the nice New York salary, I don't even know what to do with the money that I even make right now. So. Before money gonna hopefully give low cost care as reality. They don't. I don't need all the stuff I make right now, so, but I don't want people are not really thinking that same way, and I was approached by people described as his health. Healthcare venture capitalists, we're getting prepared to try to these. And even when I heard healthcare venture capital part of the psychedelic really discussion, last year's steered me with what's going to happen to psychedelic medicine is going to be these big privates plants..
"ketamine" Discussed on Bulletproof Radio
"So how can we actually work as it because depress people get new synapses that caused their brain to fire in a different way? Is it because it's blocking some sort of an MDA or some other chemicals like walk me through the lay person from college, your mechanism of action. So we can all understand that first of all, it's important to know that anytime somebody tells you how ketamine works or for that matter, how any anti-depressant or any tropic worse or how, how, how, what causes depression you should know that they're blowing smoke because. The truth is and it's for me, you know, sort of a, you know, student of the brain for, you know, you know, three decades. Now, you know the business that we just don't know. The brain is ultimately. I mean, how does I mean just think about this? How does any of this stuff? All these eighty five billion neurons and the and the chemicals and the electrical firing. How does it create any anything that we subjectively feel love hate, you know, awareness is just alternate mystery. So we talk about correlations about what, what, what we can see happening in the brain that goes along with this and even there, it's so much extrapolation. So yes, the right now. And I seen so many so many things sort of be the trendy thing that this is the, you know, down regulation up regulation of receptors and so forth. So right now Snape Genesis is thought to be a good thing and and has been proposed as a mechanism for in fact, a paper just came out, they've, you know, within the last month showing that all the psychedelic drugs share a common ability except I began interestingly enough, share a common ability. To produce rapid Sanath agenda fertilizer for the brain. And so everyone is I seen headline saying, you know, scientists have discovered the reason why ketamine and psychedelics, you know, have their amazing. I cringe a little bit because so many times I've seen us think that it was this and turns out that has nothing to do with that. So yes, it's an interesting we see that that happens. It common aches, common sense, common sense to intuitively believe that if you, if you're able to to cause brain cells to make more connections and two mile eight more, you know, it'll do good salutory things. But the truth is we just don't know, give an example. You know. One of the important things that happens in the in the maturation of the brain and the mammalian brain is that there's actually a loss of synoptic something called pruning that occurs. You know, you know around, you know, adolescence and and continues on. And if that doesn't happen otherwise, you we have. We start off with a lot of connections, and then they'd get pruned down basically, for, you know, in terms of ones that aren't used, get pruned down. The other ones get strengthen and and there's a lot of of abnormal. A brain states like autism that are have been implicated in a lack of pruning down. No, they have more connections have more cells, and yet they clearly a, that's not a good thing in in those cases. So I'm very wary of simple explanations like, you know, depression is abnormal brain chemistry or or or deficit in your serotonin or something like that. I wish we knew, but we are just grudging the surface and you can look at if you can always look at the question number of ways you can look at the receptive from collage, ical, what it does, you know, an MDA the Seidel Sivan and the LSD they work uncertain Tonen to receptors, which is a different mechanism or you can look at. You can look at more in a global functioning way. Like I described earlier it, what they basically they all do the f. up the the, the, the function of the brain that that kinda filters out. Our awareness of of of certain realities connections between things. So you know whether you know whether it's in the a or serotonin to way maybe a better way to look at it as more at the psychological level at the high, the the meta functioning of the brain rather than molecular level..
"ketamine" Discussed on Bulletproof Radio
"And I said, I actually was skeptical and I wanted to do research on it. And I said, before I invest in doing research and you know, getting getting, you know, IRB approval. I'd like to see whether this is really as amazing as he's paper seconds. You know, somebody's in research papers, you get statistical significance. That seems really cool. But if you actually talked to the people. Yeah, help the little. So I actually convinced UCSD's the powers of the took me took me many months by Vincent to let me start treating people with it. The rest is history, so I was just looking at something from as a clinician better tools. And I had no idea that that this would lead me back to my original impetus from going into field in that is sort of being an explorer of consciousness. Both of those techniques using the large magnets on the head and using ketamine are out there. Have you sat down on the chair and put big magnets on your own head? I have as part of the as part of the training we make everybody who gets sort of certified in the in the device sort of experience what it's like, so they can they can can relate to it. How about kademi have used ketamine to go into other places? Well, the. The honest truth is I haven't yet. I look forward to doing it and I haven't yet, and there's a couple reasons for that. One of them is it's a very controversial practice. Oh, yeah, very. And there's a lot of people. Who. Staubach psychiatry in medicine and elsewhere who who really oppose the idea of starting to starting to give. They feel it's has a lot of potential, but we should study it for the next twenty years before we actually, you know, treat anybody with it. So I one of the things those people by the way they pissed me off. Twenty years before we could do any real work with something. Sorry. They're like speed bumps in Evelyn of human. Well, so I realized that this is a very fragile field and what I didn't want was to play into that. I don't want. I didn't wanna be Timothy Leary. The second reason was. I kind of feel like I'm in this privileged position where I'm the scientist and this sort of ground control if you like, I'm ground control in Houston. I have all these patients go off into these amazing places and they come back and they and they report to me and actually have created a special forum that after every trip patient patient fills out the survey in Thomas called the special k for him. Actually started out something like that. And then we, we should in case it's ever gets published. We should give it a little bit more of a formal name. So we, we call it the the, the, the psychedelic experience survey was something more along the special k Monika originally. So so I get to go from room to room and talk to people about these trips and it's like, and and I feel like I'm trying to, I'm trying to help bring this knowledge back from this other awareness into the mainstream because I feel like I'm an academic and a scientist, but also a clinician in end somebody exploring these this, this, this really remarkable phenomenon. Actually, both sides of that. When I interviewed a professor from Vanderbilt who's been studying oral nicotine for Alzheimer's, nineteen eighty says, oh no, I have never used it. How could you accept studying something years? But it act. Academic rigor. You can make that argument and it's worthy of respect. And I'm mad because my plan was to have just experienced and for the first time before interviewed you and a couple of weeks ago, my executive producer for the show, and I went down to see an NCI regenerative medicine friend of ours who's also found the show Dr Matt cook, and he uses ketamine in his practice with stem cells and other things like that. And she has a horrifying fear of needles and she's a very courageous jump out of helicopters kind of personality, but you show a needle in her eyes roll. Pam, she has the floor and anesthesiologist. He's just by training, but now he does. Regenerative metal can fix his shoulders and stem cell, and he's he's branched out, but he's years years and years doing these who has the fear of needles? My executive, yes. Yes. No, no, no career choice..
"ketamine" Discussed on Bulletproof Radio
"Michael lane. For instance, in his recent book talks about subtle Sivan and LSD, and I think the the sort of the the missing piece there is the fact that ketamine is essentially a psychedelic drug at the doses that we use the sub anaesthetic doses and the exact same things were very close to sink kinds of things that he describes throughout the book. Patients experiencing goes what my patients experience. In fact, there was a study done not too long ago that that gave a subjects ketamine and LSD and silo Sivan. And I believe also MD may in different orders. They randomize orders and after each experience had them rate their experience on a scale that basically breaks down the psychedelic experience to eleven elemental kinds of of phenomena. And if you look at. The ratings of between settled cyber LSD and ketamine they very much overlap. I mean, some of them have, you know, particular, you know, for taes if you will, ketamine is escorts str- strongly on on the disembodiment of scale, which is the out of body, but that the three of them look more closely overlapping them and the may which seems to be more, you know, four genyk than sort of profound. You know a second in the classic sense psychedelic or or or or mind handing. So if there's if there's one thing, I really would hope that this podcast sort of starts to promulgate is the idea that can allow my colleagues don't you who are where of ketamine 's remarkable impact on depression. What a great breakthroughs are are surprise when I say it's a psychedelic. They think of it as a dissociate anesthetic. So I'm glad you really glad you brought that up, but going back to how I got into starting ketamine, really, it wasn't. I had no idea. It was actually a psychedelic myself at the time. I was just frustrated I was. I had part of part of why I was excited about going into psychiatry was that I felt that in my career span, the psychiatry would go through a kind of amazing revolution the way that the Rasic surgery had gone through in the sixties with with people like, you know, the bay key and doing transplants where they learn to take a hard and put it into a somebody else. And I thought, well, we're going to do amazing things because neurosciences is really expanding sprain scans are becoming more powerful. So I want to be part of that this tremendous. You know advance in in the brain and hoping that it would really lead to greater understanding of who we are in the world around this, the quantum physics and blah, blah, blah. But then years go by and I was getting frustrated because I realized that, you know, I'm still using the same tools like the anti-depressants that essentially were no more effective than the ones that were developed in the sixties. And we psychotherapy that really had about the, you know, really wasn't advancing and, and it was very frustrating. And you know, a lot of people don't realize that that we have dozens and dozens of conventional antidepressants, but not a single one of them is ever proven to be more efficacious than any other one, including the the very first ones that were discovered in the late fifties and early sixties. Deprenyl. Are you talking about her? Yes. A amid bromine tougher. Neal was one of the first ones and the inhibitors by the way. Do you know the the, you know the anecdotal story of how antidepressants were discovered with when I loved upper, no. Well, interestingly enough, you know, just. The the quick version here. Torello sus, you know, you know, in the earlier part of the twentieth century was scourged and there was no treatment for so people were put replacing these in these sanatoriums with recall, basically quarantine from society and and you can imagine the high rates of depression in these miserable places..
"ketamine" Discussed on Psychedelic Salon
"For interventions like in emergency rooms for example especially pediatric emergency rooms they'll use ketamine slightly maybe like two to four milligrams per kilogram for call procedural sedation so again you're inducing pretty short lived state of dissociation you know say kid comes in with a separated shoulder and they need to put the joint back into socket and that's obviously very painful frequently they'll give a kid ketamine so that they can do the procedure and it's painless to child and you know within twenty minutes they're back to their baseline and everything's good so it's a highly useful medicine for that for those purposes it's use as an answer precedent went undiscovered for forty years i think largely because of the fact that at that dose you're not really causing much of an antidepressant effect so nobody ever noticed that there wasn't antidepressant effect until by accident there is a group at yale using low dose ketamine for in to study is a model for schizophrenia because there is some you know hypothesizing that the bio chemical mechanism of ketamine might sort of mimic some of what's going on in a brain that's undergoing psychotic episode so they discovered as part of those studies that very low dose ketamine we're talking like a half milligram per kilogram administered intravenously aside from what ever they were looking for in terms of the psychotic side of things they saw that people who are taking it at that does were becoming.
"ketamine" Discussed on Psychedelic Salon
"It's a very slippery slope and so it's so fascinating because it can be so good for for some people's chronic depression then it can also just exacerbate that in too much worse spots so i wanted to just ask what was like for you to circe involved in ketamine war yes so ketamine has been really an exciting development in the field psychiatry i think it's important to make a distinction between ketamine as it's used an sesia versus ketamine as it's used in antidepressant protocols versus ketamine as it's used recreationally because those are three pretty different things anesthesia and i think they're a lot of it is a function of of dosing and frequency so an anesthesia you're using relatively high doses we're talking maybe like four to eight milligrams per kilogram to essentially put a person into state of complete dissociation where you know like an invasive surgery can happen and they're not gonna feel it and they're not going to remember it and they're not going to be traumatized by psychologically and it's a very useful tool and has been in use sincerely nineteen seventies for that purpose very safe anesthetic it's one of the only if not the only anesthetic that doesn't suppress heart rate and the respiratory centers of the brain so they actually to the stay still use it as like a battlefield aesthetic so you know you have somebody who's can't afford to lower their blood pressure their bleeding from a wound or something use ketamine so it's a very useful in aesthetic in a lot of situations also very brief and short acting so.
"ketamine" Discussed on Mentally Ch(ill)
"But the feeling of just pressing a button on the phone it's like there's a five thousand pound weight on my finger and then around eleven o'clock last night it started to lift a little bit and i had hadn't washed i'd been really bad you said about two weeks you've been really bad i've been bad about two weeks as well i haven't i hadn't washed my hair in about two weeks and that's like an example of like for bathing you're welcome so around eleven o'clock last night i was like i'm not gonna sleep well if i go to bed feeling dirty like my hair hurts greasy and i just and i got up enough motivation to just shower then after i showered i was like i have enough strength to put away the dishes and i did but that was all i had yesterday act on that and you think it makes you feel better it parts of it does parts of it doesn't but with the ketamine it's it it goes back to when you're in that shitting this for so long out of nowhere you just it you realize that that is not a task anymore but when when that is your life you don't you know nothing you know nothing different and and then when you see that it's basically once you've weathered those storms you emerged essentially in the sunlight and it's but that puts scares me spend the going back part like you know the ketamine maintenance life is all maintenance in this is like a maintenance for your mental health but it's just like i wish it could just last and i know there's the possibility for it lasting for some people but the it's just like cutting your nails washing your hair getting ketamine treatments it's like life is just the maintenance and it's exhausting i wish it could just not be if you think about it this way i think one that's that that's depression talking right there oh totally nutshell like the cynicism cynicism of.
"ketamine" Discussed on Mentally Ch(ill)
"Trying to prove and get it out there to the fda that you know it is safe and it works very well as an off label treatment for depression insurance can cover it the fda approve it and all that stuff but that was what i was kind of confused about because on wikipedia it says it's not an approved treatment for depression however there's treatment clinics like ketamine ketamine treatment center of los angeles or whatever are they is a pdf out of date or are they operating like literally but giving you a drug i don't understand the they're they're operating legally and one of my buddies is an anesthesiologist and i was talking about it and it's basically it's it is fda approved for other things for depression whatever yeah so just like let's say the mic doll is used it's an antiseizure medication that they prescribe off label ketamine is an anesthetic that is being prescribed off off label meeting just just different use it is legal but the different the juxtaposition between like is it being used for this which the fda has approved my head would be totally in my ass with this but it seems like that's exactly how it works is if it's being used for what it was originally made for than you know they'll cover it with insurance or what have you but the fact that it's still is legal these these few clinics and i don't know maybe if you saw like what states actually allow it what don't i don't see what states that's actually that would interest me but.