9 Episode results for "Karen Hopkins"
Curiosity Killed the... Mouse?
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins Parasites live on or even inside another organism awesome and some can even change the behavior of their host to boost the odds of their transmission. Take the single celled Taco Plasma Gandhi mice infected with at this bug appear to become attracted to the smell of cat P and odor that uninfected mice. Smartly avoid the infection thus raises the chances that a mouse will wind up in the cat's mouth. Obviously bad news for the mouse but good news for the parasite which needs a kitty to complete. Its life cycle and spread to additional hosts Devious indeed but it turns out this cunning scheme may be less precisely targeted than it initially appears because a new study finds minds the Tuxedo. Plasma doesn't specifically eliminate a mouse's natural aversion to cats rather the infection makes them generally less anxious and more adventures which which makes them more curious about cats and pretty much everything else. No Work Appears in the Journal cell reports the story about the Plasma Gandhi manipulating relating the the behavior of its host is Simply fascinating biologists. Yvonne Rodriguez of the University of Geneva one of the study senior authors. It was funny. cally intriguing for us to understand how the Perez Zaide achieves specific alteration of the neural circuits quits involved in the response towards few line creditors. Something that has never been elucidated so Rodriguez and his colleague set out to determine the molecular mechanisms. That underlie this legendary feline fatal attraction for their first step. We decided to perform quite broad panel of behavioral April essays within victimizing order to get an overview of how a virus it's host we clinically observed. And that's infected mice word anxious were more explorative erected to quality control mice when confronted with a potential. Aw threads for example mice infected with TACO plasma. Were quicker to check out. The far reaches of an elevated as than their uninfected comrades they interacted directed with the human investigators hands and were unperturbed when an anesthetized rat was plunked into the middle of their cage an event that caused uninfected mice to to freeze in their tracks. The infected mice in this study did indeed show an attraction to the urine of Bob Cats but they were even more interested in the sense of foxes this and Guinea pigs of course whether or not infected mice are drawn specifically to the smell of cats parasites still gets. What it wants says Rodriguez? The the end result is to favor. Detroit mission of the infected rodents to the cats as to the mechanism. It appears that the parasite triggers a general inflammation of the brain. One interesting finding is that we observed a correlation between the level of inflammation and severity of Behavioral Alterations Medley. A GRADUATE STUDENT IN THE RODRIGUEZ LAB. She and Rodriguez will continue to explore. How Neuro Inflammation sends mice to their almost certain doom does it render these mice blind to danger or endow them with the kind of curiosity that's usually associated with their feline foes? Thanks for listening. For Scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
Some Wolf Pups Show Innate Fetching Talent
"This is scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins. It may be one of the Doggone doggies things a dog he can do chasing down a sticker a ball and then bring it back. But when it comes to playing fetch. Perhaps the apple doesn't fall all all that far from the evolutionary tree because a new study shows that some Wolf pups demonstrate the same innate fetching skill a finding that suggests that an ability ability to playfully interact with people might have been around in ancient wolves before they transitioned into domesticated dogs. Some fifteen thousand years ago. The work is in the Journal Journal. Science researchers were interested in understanding how domestication affected canine behavior so they raised several litters of both wolf and in dog puppies and ran the little furball through a standard series of behavioral tests in one of those tests. A puppy assessor someone. The animals never before met would toss a tennis ball across the room and encourage the puck to retrieve it. Wolf pups in the first two litters tested showed little interest in playing ball but three of the six POPs in the third letter caught on quickly to wolves named Elvis and Lenny brought the ball back in two out of three throws while the intrepid little sting knocked it out of the park and carried carried the ball back all three times. These results were actually unexpected. The researchers had thought that the ability to socially engage with unfamiliar humans was something that likely arose after dogs were domesticated the fact that a few of the wolf pups were up for some fun suggests that the potential for a connection between canines and people could've been present from the get-go giving some wolves a leg up or maybe even multiple legs up in becoming our best friends for scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
Certain Personality Types Likely to Make a "Foodie Call"
"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkins when it comes to the ritual. Act of dating participants often have very different expectations some hope to meet their soulmate others see companionship. Some are looking good time and think that spring for a meal entitles signals them to one and now a new study finds that some women say that now and again they just want to score lobster tails the findings in the journal social social psychological and personality science. You're probably wondering how he came up with this. Idea bryan collison a social psychologist at zoo's a pacific university in california collison says he's always been intrigued minute scientific sense by romantic relationships so when one of his co-authors trista herald also it is a pacific told him about this interesting new phenomenon that maxim magazine had nicknamed of foodie call curious to explore how often women the men for food rather than relationship now in this study. The researchers focused on heterosexual women in part because based on long standing cultural expectations men often pick up the tab particularly on a first date eight in a pair of online surveys. The researchers asked more than a thousand women. Have you ever agreed to date someone. You're not interested in a relationship with because he might pay for your meal. We found that approximately twenty three to thirty three percent of women surveyed had engage necessity call of those who admitted to having swiped right for the free eats the majority jordy claimed to have done so only occasionally or rarely but about a quarter admitted accepting the restaurant outings with greater frequency the respondents most likely to engage in this type of the dating for dinner behavior. We're those who endorsed traditional gender role beliefs and who scored high on a personality test designed to detect what's called the dark triad the dark triad refers to sub clinical levels of psychopathy which is a lack of remorse and empathy and perspective taking monkey volume which is where you purposely manipulate others.
Can people ID infectious disease by cough and sneeze sounds?
"This is scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science I'm Karen Hopkins. The supermarket trying to choose a right tomato when behind you, you hear. If you're like most people, you probably hold your breath. Tighten your mask an hope. You don't catch whatever patient zero is spraying all over the fresh produce, and if you're like most people chances are you're overreacting? Because a new study shows that we're not very skilled when it comes to diagnosing infectiousness based on the sound of a cough or sneeze. The work is in the proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences. Previous studies have shown that folks can tell when someone's sick based on how they look, or in some cases how they smell, so it's only natural to wonder whether the same would hold true for an assessment with our ears, so researchers asked volunteers to listen to audio clips of people, hacking and sneezing half of the cost and sneezes were produced by people with an infectious illness like flu or the common cold in. In half were produced by benign causes like eating too much cinnamon, all at once or sticking q tip of their noses Nicholas lack a Grad student in social psychology at the University of Michigan. We clipped these sounds from youtube videos in which people told their audience that they were sick. Many reported having been diagnosed by medical professional. All this said we could not directly confirm whether people in our sound clips were infectious. Infectious or not, and what he found across four studies of over six hundred participants in total on average people guest, four out of ten sounds correctly, which is consistent with random guessing in other words, they weren't very good at judging whether the sounds were infected, but being bad judges didn't dampen their confidence when asked how sure they were about their guesses on a scale of one to nine participants reported an average certainty. Certainty of seven, interestingly, we didn't find any evidence that people who were more certain about their guesses were any more or less likely to guess correctly, so what made them so sure that certain sounds warped sure signs of disease well, the cities they figured made noises that seemed the most gross, the more disgusting. They perceived a sound, the more likely they were to judge it infectious, even if the sound wasn't infectious, so. Might be deemed more contagious than. Depending on your own personal nasty ometer, all that's to say even if it seems like you can tell whether a cough or sneeze is infectious based on how disgusting it sound that feeling has the potential to mislead you in other words. You can't judge a book by its cover. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science I'm Karen Hopkin?
Why Some Easter Island Statues Are Where They Are
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds. Science I'm Karen Hopkins. The statues on Easter Island are among the most mysterious objects made by humans. We still don't know how they were moved why they were placed particular sites around the island and why they were made in the first place. Now, researchers think they have at least some answers because a new analysis fines that the statues are located near sources of freshwater. The study appears in the Journal plus. It's believed that the residents of revenue the indigenous name for Easter Island began constructing these carvings in the thirteenth century the statues called Moai which sit upon stone platforms called who are the very definition of monumental, most way between twenty and thirty tonnes and of the thousand on the island about four hundred have been moved from the quarry where they originated and placed on all who located elsewhere. But those locations aren't necessarily everywhere there in some places and not others. And the questions that we started to ask ourselves was, why do we find these out who and why some places on the landscape but not others Carl, Lipo an anthropologist at Binghamton University in Central, New, York he says that most of these sculptures are found along the coast but some are inland and they're not necessarily in obvious places. For example, we don't find out WHO and statues located on the tops of hills places that we might expect to find them if. These things were symbolic representing ancestors where you wanted to show off to the world or the itself, the fruits of your creation these statue. So the statues are more than just towering talismans to be admired from afar indeed lippo and his colleagues noted that people spent most of their time living in working around these sites which made the researchers thing that the statues might be located near a valuable resource. So the question was what resource was water freshwater marine resources. Or Division places, which of those which combination of those best explained locations of who on the landscape and their statistical analyses pointed toward potable water, which Lippo says made sense every single time we found a big source of freshwater. There would be a statue in and out who emmy facilities over and over and over again in places where we didn't find freshwater, we didn't find statues and I hope now that doesn't mean that the sculpture served as markers like sign saying. Here. But rather that the community themselves were connected to those resources and thus their investment in statues was done around that resource because these locations had the resources that they needed survive. It seems that many of these massive sculptures are where they are for totally pragmatic reasons we'll build here because here is where we wanna be. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science I'm Karen Hopkin.
Famously Fickle Felines Are, In Fact, Clingy
"This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins. When we think about pets? We often considered dogs to be overly attentive and cats. Well a bit more aloof. But a new study shows the cats can become attached to their humans. And we'll turn to that person for comfort in times times of stress the findings per in e journal current biology although kitties are a popular pet more people own cats than dogs here in the. US There are few few studies that examine how the furtive felines feel about their owners. There has actually been relatively little research into the cat human bond especially when we compare it to the number of research studies with dogs in humans. Kristen Batali a post doctoral scholar at Oregon State University to explore the Cat Caregiver Connection Battalion or colleagues colleagues turned to a test. That's been used to assess bonding behavior in puppies apes and even infants the researchers would show a cat and its owner to an unfamiliar room and leave them there for two minutes. At which point the owner would depart leaving the cat on its own. We know that in human infants attachment behaviors toward their parents. It's our heightened in response to a frightening or novel situation so in this case the experience of the cat being in the novel room alone. Axes are strange. The situation in allows us to observe the cat directs any attachment behavior to the owner. When they then come back to the room when the owners returned battalion company would observe their reunion and they saw the feelings displayed a variety of categories says some cats greeted their owner and then they returned to exploring the room while periodically Riyadh going back to their own? Ah for attention. These kids are apparently secure enough in their relationship. Let's some quick reassurance. Was All they needed before continuing to pursue do their perusal of the room on the other Pau some were real scaredy. Cats other cats behaved in an insecure way in excessively clung to their owner side. And then there were the cats that lived up to their reputation for supercilious stand-offishness other cats avoided their own are when they return to the room. These securing an insecure patterns of behavior are actually the same as what we observe between dogs and their owners and even human infants in their caregivers. In all three of these populations nations the majority of individuals are actually securely attached to their caregivers indicating similarities across these species. Although snubbing is generally considered classic classic conduct the majority of cats in the study around sixty five percent actually use their owners a source of security one could even describe right. Those cat human relationships as Don. Thanks for listening. For Scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
3 Words Mislead Online Regional Mood Analysis
"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins. You can tell a lot about people's general state of mind based on their social media feeds. Are they always tweeting about their biggest peeves or posting pics of particularly cute kitties? Well in a similar fashion, researchers are turning to twitter for clues about the overall happiness of entire geographic communities. What they're finding is that regional variation in the use of common phrases produces predictions that always reflect the local state of well-being. But removing from their analyses, just three specific terms, good love and L. O. L. Greatly improves the accuracy of the methods. We living in a crazy Kobe nineteen era, and now more than ever will be using social media to adapt to a new normal land. Reach out to the friends and family that become meet face to face. Tokyo Judaica studies computational linguistics at the National University of Singapore but a woods aren't. Just to understand more, we as individuals stinking feed, they are also useful clues about the community we live in one of the simpler methods that many scientists used to parse the data involves correlating words with positive or negative emotions, but when those tallies are compared with phone surveys that assess regional wellbeing. Jessica says they don't paint an accurate picture of the local Zeitgeist to find out why jet got her colleague Yohannes Istat of Stanford University analyzed. tweets from around the United States, and they found that among the most frequently used terms on twitter are ll love and good, and the actually throw the analysis of in fact when we moved the three words alone be managed to improve upon the simple word, counting methods and obtain better, if not perfect estimates of happiness why the disconnect well, Jessica says one issue is in donate languages, really different beast than regular, spoken or language. We've adapted words from the English or capillary to mean things in different situations take for example L. O. L.. I've tweeted the word. To Flood Express irony, annoyance companies just feel surprise when the mature for mentioning. As a market of happiness included in the nineteen nineties, it still laughing out loud well. There are plenty of terms that are less misleading, says shed are models. Tell us that words like excited. Fun Grades. Opportunity interesting fantastic. Those a better words for measuring subjective OBI looking at the data, their work appears in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences being able to get an accurate read on the mood of the population is no laughing matter, and is particularly important now in the time of covert where we're expecting a mental health crisis, and we're already seeing in survey data, the largest diminishment and subjective oh being. Ten years at least if not ever no doubt we could all use more fantastic opportunities for great phone excitement. Give or take yellow. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
Virus-Infected Bees Practice Social Distancing
"This is scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins. If there's one thing we know about viruses it's that they love to spread the novel. Corona virus is happy to use US humans as its host other viruses fancy bees but like us B.'s. Fight back in the case of one particular virus called Israeli acute paralysis. Virus study shows honeybees. Actually use a form of social distancing to prevent transmitting the infection within their own colony of course not to be outdone. The virus manipulates the bees in a way that spreads the infection to the colony. Next door move studies in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Honeybees live in large communities that contain tens of thousands of related individuals in close quarters so researchers got to wondering how can keep infections from spreading like wildfire while a graduate student. At the University of Illinois Champaign Urbana Tim good not developed an automated system for continuously tracking the behavior of thousands of individual bees and he watched what happened when he introduced infected bees into the hive. Entomologist Adam Dozo. Who worked with good Described what they saw. We found in this study that within their own Colin context when they are interacting with their nest mates usually they're sisters. Infected fees experience fewer contact behaviors fewer mouth to mouth feeding contacts than bees. Who are not infected. The researchers also saw the same sort of social avoidance when instead of infecting the bees with virus they artificially activated the bee's immune system so the behavior is driven by the virus but by the bees own immune response which Dole says make sense if honeybees are going to protect their colony in their queen from disease sick. Bees need to keep their feelers to themselves. They have to they live in these really large colonies. Where everybody's touching each other all the time. They're all closely related joke. That honeybees have been doing social distancing for millions of years at the same time beezer under no pressure to keep infections from spreading to other colonies. And that's where the virus gains the UPPERHAND. Amy Jeffrey who worked on the project. As a graduate student found that the guard bees from other colonies were actually less aggressive toward incoming infected bees than they were to uninfected bees as a result that infected beezer accepted into the colony at about twice the rate of control bees or immune stimulated B.'s. The virus it seems alters the chemicals that bees produced to communicate who they are and where they're from and so we think that One way that the virus could be gaining entry to these other colonies is by changing the bees physiology in a way to make it more acceptable to other colonies on guard bees. Let's bad news for beekeepers who tend to keep tens or even hundreds of hives right next to one another to really ripe situation for bees to be able to move between colonies relatively easily and bring pathogens and parasites along with them. Seems you gotTa Carefully Mind Your Beeswax. And keep kept colonies. Healthily socially distanced for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
'Fight or Flight' Nerves Make Mice Go Gray
"This is scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins. They say that Marie Antoinette's hair turned white the night before she lost her head to the guillotine but constraints really have such a dramatic effect on hair-color a new study in mice concludes at Ken and credits overactive. Nerves with stripping the color from the animals locks and possibly hours researchers at Harvard Stem Cell Institute. Were interested in these stress and hair color issue so they decided to take a closer look at the stem cells that give rise to Milan. Ascites the cells that pump pigments into each hair follicle stem cells. Were an obvious target. Because changes in the stem cell population translates to try and justify hair color which very visible and easy to identify. Jacek sue the study senior author to start. She and her colleagues subjected mice to some rodent sized stressors like having their cage tilted their bedding dampened or their lights left on all night. So what did we find? We found stress indeed leads to premature hair grain in mice by took a long time for us to actually narrow down how occurs first they thought it could be the immune system attacking the millennia site stem cell population however mayes lack immune cells steel. Shell premature here graying under stress than they thought the key factor could be cortisol. The quintessential stress hormone the one way removed from the mice so that they cannot produce quarter so like her mows. The hairstyle turned gray under stress. That's when they turn their attention to the sympathetic nervous system which or constraints the body's overall reaction to stress including the classic fight or flight. Response those nerves reach out to our muscles organs and yes even our hair the nerve terminals wrap around each follicle like a ribbon and sooner team cut. Those connections the stem cells were spared and the animals kept their shiny black coat even in the face of minor discomfort. The findings appear in the journal Nature. It's unclear whether the same sympathetic nerves make us gray as we age but the results provide hope that we may someday be able to fight to hold onto our natural hair color and avoid that monthly flight to the hairdresser. Thanks for listening. For Scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.