33 Burst results for "Karen Hopkin"

Male Bats Up Mating Odds With Mouth Morsels

60-Second Science

02:14 min | 1 year ago

Male Bats Up Mating Odds With Mouth Morsels

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin sharing a meal is a standard first step in the mating rituals of many mammals, but Egypt fruit, bats take splitting an entree to a whole other level because males that allow females to take the food, right? Out of their mouths are repaid with reproductive rights and are more likely to sire offspring with their favorite female fruit finagler 's, that's according to a study in the journal current biology, a couple years back researchers noticed that in fruit bat colonies, some bats forage for food while. Other simply snatch it from the forager's mel's. Offices for expanding this Yossi avail of Tel Aviv university has studied these bets for years. Maybe the scroungers were relatives he says, or maybe they're just socially dominant bullies. We observe the mostly scroungers are females. Got the researchers thinking about something of great importance to most animals, reproduction specifically wondering whether. Might than mate with them males that provide them with food. This was. Sex food. I officers that we just you've Ellen his colleagues monitored, the interactions among bats in their colony for more than a year. And the check the paternity of the baby bets that were born what they found is that females were more likely to make babies with those males that provided free meals. But you've Bill says that the process is not strictly transactional. Sometimes they took a lot of footfalls civic individual of made with him. What's important is, is what we think is, is the bonds between the dome. So you this individual is the main provider of the female than the ability that they made. That means that offering free lunches, no guarantee for an Emmers male. But it does up his odds. And unlike human males that boys clearly learned that it's in their romantic interest to chew with their mouths open. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Tel Aviv University Egypt Yossi Ellen Bill Sixty Seconds
Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

60-Second Science

03:26 min | 1 year ago

Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin the microbes in our intestines. Help keep us healthy strengthening our immune systems, and promoting metabolism, but they may also give us a leg up when it comes to moving our legs up and down again, rabidly and repeatedly. Because a new study finds that mice that are fed bacteria isolated from elite athletes. Log more time on the treadmill than other mice that are treated only to 'Bacterial found in yogurt the results appear in the journal nature medicine Alexander caustic microbiologist at Harvard, Medical School was initially interested in hell, the gut microbes of people with diabetes might differ from folks without the condition. The idea being that tweaking the microbiome might help to treat the disease, but the question of enhancing overall health and fitness can also come from the other direction. But here, the question was more. What's unique in the microbiome with someone who is? Supremely healthy? And can we use that feature of the microbiome to transfer into other people to potentially make them healthier and handy window into the gut is poop so caustic, and his crew asked fifteen runners, who completed the Boston marathon in twenty fifteen to provide daily stool samples from a week before the race to a week after they also collected samples from ten people who were decidedly more sedentary and they tell you the bacteria present in each? And when we looked at this data, there was one thing that really jumped out at us, and it was this genus of bacteria that isn't, so, well, studied vinyl, we found that it was very significantly higher in abundance in the gut after the marathon, but not only that it was found much more frequently in elite marathon, ROY. Owners than in the general population to see whether this microbe might provide the athletes with any benefit the gave some to mice, and then let the little rodents run and they found that the mice loaded with via nila spent more time on the treadmill than those that got lactobacillus and this was an increase of thirteen percent. I think any endurance athlete Ernie athlete in general. We'll tell you that thirteen percent increase is pretty significant. Now the interesting thing about viola is that they thrive on lactate, which is a chemical produced by fatigued, muscle, the bacteria, consume lactate and converted into a fatty acid called proprio Nate, then mice that were treated to proprio Nate, which was delivered via teeny tiny Animas to mimic. It's released by gut bacteria. Similarly extended their treadmill time. And so this creates a kind of positive feedback loop and helps us to understand why vinyl might be enriched in elite athletes. And I. Place, exercise produces lactate, which feeds by Annella by Annella produces proprio Nate, which somehow promotes endurance, at least in treadmill trotting mice, which means that, gut microbes may hold the secret to extending that workout without getting hooked. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Nature Medicine Alexander Boston Nila Harvard Viola Medical School Thirteen Percent Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:11 min | 1 year ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin in the wild monkeys need to keep their eyes peeled. For all sorts of dangers like leopards eagles, and snakes, but the green monkey studied by Julia Fischer, the German primate center, an additional challenge. They also have to scan the skies for drones. Why did we find drone off? Green monkeys. One may ask one may indeed. The answer is that Fisher and her colleagues are interested in how primates communicate then a classic study back in the nineteen eighties. Scientists showed that East African vervet monkeys produce alarm calls that are specific for the predators, they encounter. So, for example, vervet monkeys hearing a leopard alarm might scurry up a tree. Whereas the eagle call sends them running for cover under the closest shrub. Now, the green monkeys that live in Senegal share a similar system to warn of leopards and snakes. But they aren't known to raise a ruckus in. Two birds of prey. And so, therefore, we decided to Adrover them the researchers treated eighty green monkeys to show of drones, how did the animals react to this unfamiliar aerial intruder, the monk is digital spot, and they responded with alarm 'cause, and there is sponsored by running away. But here's where things get really interesting, the calls, the green monkeys made after spotting the drones were different from the ones they used to signal leopards or snakes, but even more intriguing to not clinic analysis these alarm, 'cause they're almost eerily similar to the ones of the East African verdict. The findings are described in the journal nature ecology and Evelyn, the fact that the two monkey species seem tube, speak the same language if you will even though they diverged from their last common ancestor some three million years ago suggests that the vocal warning system is hard wired. So if you hear a monkey go watch out for a hungry bird or check. To see if you've got a package delivered. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Julia Fischer German primate center Senegal Fisher Evelyn sixty seconds three million years
Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

60-Second Science

02:10 min | 1 year ago

Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin in the wild monkeys need to keep their eyes peeled. For all sorts of dangers like leopards eagles, and snakes, but the green monkey studied by Julia Fischer, the German primate center, an additional challenge. They also have to scan the skies for drones. Why did we find drone off? Green monkeys. One may ask one may indeed. The answer is that Fisher and her colleagues are interested in how primates communicate then a classic study back in the nineteen eighties. Scientists showed that East African vervet monkeys produce alarm calls that are specific for the predators, they encounter. So, for example, vervet monkeys hearing a leopard alarm might scurry up a tree. Whereas the eagle call sends them running for cover under the closest shrub. Now, the green monkeys that live in Senegal share a similar system to warn of leopards and snakes. But they aren't known to raise a ruckus in. Two birds of prey. And so, therefore, we decided to Adrover them the researchers treated eighty green monkeys to show of drones, how did the animals react to this unfamiliar aerial intruder, the monk is digital spot, and they responded with alarm 'cause, and there is sponsored by running away. But here's where things get really interesting, the calls, the green monkeys made after spotting the drones were different from the ones they used to signal leopards or snakes, but even more intriguing to not clinic analysis these alarm, 'cause they're almost eerily similar to the ones of the East African verdict. The findings are described in the journal nature ecology and Evelyn, the fact that the two monkey species seem tube, speak the same language if you will even though they diverged from their last common ancestor some three million years ago suggests that the vocal warning system is hard wired. So if you hear a monkey go watch out for a hungry bird or check. To see if you've got a package delivered. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Julia Fischer German Primate Center Senegal Fisher Evelyn Sixty Seconds Three Million Years
Bonobo Mothers Supervise Their Sons' Monkey Business

60-Second Science

02:18 min | 1 year ago

Bonobo Mothers Supervise Their Sons' Monkey Business

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all some parents. Get overly involved in their kids. Personal lives. But Bonaparte mothers take this tendency to the extreme they fix up their adult sons with a female of their choosing. And they even keep other males from getting near their future daughter-in-law, the behavior may seem overbearing, but it boosts the odds that they'll be surrounded by grandkids. That's according to a study in the journal. Current biology researcher studying wild bona bows, in the Congo notice that some females behaved a bit like males finding over fertile females and fending off some of the males who come according that observation struck Primatology Martin sewer back as odd. So I just wanted. Hey, what is it actually of their business? No intent most of their mammals. It's just an MA of business this competition over access to females to get to the bottom of this. Unu-. Activity, sore back who is currently at the max plank institute for Evelyn canary anthropology got DNA samples from the players in this melodrama. And so it became more apparent when we did the paternity as the turned out, these females were maters of some males and Indies, female dominated society of Bonaparte, the Motors, ex kind of like social passport allowing their sons to be more central India group, and therefore, having more Oprah -tunities to interact with other females and after the moms introduce their sons to the most desirable, ladies, they make sure the couple won't be interrupted. As a result, we found that may have about three times, higher likelihood to sire offspring by their mom was still alive in the community in contrast mothers of the closely related chimpanzees. Don't chaperone there? Sons. In fact, male chimps are less likely to sire offspring when their moms around seems that chimps prefer privacy for their monkey business. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Max Plank Institute Bonaparte Primatology Martin Congo Researcher Oprah India Sixty Seconds
Unread Books at Home Still Spark Literacy Habits

60-Second Science

02:45 min | 1 year ago

Unread Books at Home Still Spark Literacy Habits

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. We know that reading is good for children and presumably for adults as well. Now, a new study suggests that just being around books has its benefits even if you don't make a point of reading them, a lot, a team of researchers in Australia finds that growing up in a home with a sizable library, enhances literacy, number sense, and even technological know-how in later life, you can read all about it in the journal social science research, the researchers were exploring the advantages of scholarly culture in particular. They were interested in a curious observation that some call, the radiation affect the effect is the situation what children grow up around books, but they don't read books, but somehow books benefit them, even though they don't read them as much as maybe the would like them to Joanna Sikora a sociologist at the. Australian National University. She and her colleagues, parse data collected between two thousand eleven and two thousand fifteen by the organization for economic cooperation and development. The survey assess the literacy, numeracy and technological competency of more than one hundred sixty thousand adults from thirty one different societies and it included a question about how many books participants had in their homes during analysts able to. Was that people who grew up around books on had better literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills than people who have fewer books growing up, but head signal education levels similar jobs. Any similar adult habits in terms of reading are engaging in various numeracy enhancing activities. In fact, teens who only made it through high school, but were raised in bookish environment fared as well in adulthood, as college grads who grew up in a house bereft of books now. How might mirror exposure lead to intellectual enrichment. So if we grow up in house, in a home parents, enjoy books, were books are given as birthday presents and cherished and valued. This is something that becomes the part of identity, and it gives us this lifelong incentive to be literacy, oriented to always kind of still towards books and read. More than we would otherwise to keep those shelves stacked with books, your kids will not only be grateful. They'll be more likely to be able to spell grateful correctly as well. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Joanna Sikora Australian National University Australia Sixty Seconds
Chemists Investigate Casanova's Clap

60-Second Science

02:49 min | 1 year ago

Chemists Investigate Casanova's Clap

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all Cazenove the name is synonymous with a reputation for romantic. Let's say excess but a new study suggests that the real Jacome Cazenove may have exaggerated his sexual exploits none in terms of their sheer volume, but in their infectious aftermath because though Cazenove claim to have suffered several bouts of gonorrhea, researchers could find no traces of the responsible microbe on the pages of the womanisers handwritten memoir. The findings will appear in the journal electro freezes casanovas memoir completed in seventeen ninety eight fills twelve volumes and its English. Translation, runs to thirty five hundred pages in this tell-all casanovas tally some hundred twenty two lovers then confesses to recurring gonorrhea relapses to investigate these claims. Researchers turn to a technique they'd previously used to. Positively identified the bacterium that causes plague on the pages of death registries from seventeenth century Milan. Thus we thought we would be able to detect the gun Opoku on Kazan Avas pages. CC candidate meted in use memoirs have been been infected by gonorrhea in his first sex intercourse at the age of eighteen and having suffer from relapses of the sex Peja his lifetime as a gun lover. Giorgio Righetti, professor emeritus at Milan, polytechnic Righetti and his colleague glib Zuber Stein. Who has a company called spectra fon in Israel developed a hand held device that allows them to capture characterize protein, fragments and other macromolecules from the surface of historical documents such biological materials. Can get stuck to a manuscript when say someone licks his fingers to more easily turn the books pages leaving behind traces of potentially infected saliva, but in the case of Kesse. No. Ova that goes not racist caucus could be detected. They did however find traces of cinnabar a red pigment containing mercury sulfide at the time that chemical was used to treat these sexually transmitted diseases. Do your including syphilis gonorrhea quite likely that cousin Alvin been using macrey suit, find to cure relapse, his taraji. So it could be that as infection was in remission when Cazenove pen the three or four pages of chapters one and two that the researchers were able to examine and that in addition to his way with women Cazenove also had a deft hand with eighteenth century pharmaceuticals. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Gonorrhea Karen Hopkin Cazenove Milan Jacome Cazenove Relapse Giorgio Righetti Israel Kesse Zuber Stein Opoku Syphilis Professor Alvin Sixty Seconds
Grandma's Influence is Good for Grandkids

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 1 year ago

Grandma's Influence is Good for Grandkids

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all living with your parents has its benefits at least when it comes to raising your kids their grandkids because two new studies and to the evidence that grandmothers can enhance the survival of grandchildren that is unless grandma's too old or lives too far away the results appear in the journal current biology, humans are unusual in that the females live long past the age at which they stop having babies. We don't really see that in nature. Most of the organisms will reproduce up to their very last moment. Patrick version, professor of biology at bishop's university in Quebec this increase in post reproductive longevity is often explained by the so-called grandmother affect because family members shared their genes. There could still be a benefit for postmenopausal woman to increase their genetic footprint by helping their daughters to rear larger families to explore. The grandmother affect hypothesis version. Colleagues examined nearly two hundred years worth of French Canadian population records from the seventeenth eighteenth centuries. At the time life was tough in some years thirds of the kids were not even making it to one year of age. But the researchers found that having a grandmother still alive was a definite plus families grandmothers live were larger by about two and survival of these children to age fifteen was much improved. This beneficial effect was only seen when the matriarchs live nearby which suggests that grandmothers help by playing an active role in their grandchildren's lives. Unfortunately, that rolls tougher for them to fulfill as they get older, which brings us to the second study, researchers at the university of Turku Finland us records from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. They found that the benefits associated with having a grandmother on hand depended on her age once nanna hit seventy five the grandchild survival benefit disappeared hen Denham. In other words, it was grandchildren's have no living. Grandmother a toll that it was to live with an old one or one who was in poor health. Simon Chapman a doctoral student biology. This was almost certainly due to some form of indirect resource competition though, rather than wickedness on the parts of resident grandma's so healthy grandma helps make for a healthy grandchild. If over the river through the woods to grandmother's house isn't too long trip. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin University Of Turku Finland Patrick Version Nanna Simon Chapman Bishop's University Quebec Professor Sixty Seconds Two Hundred Years One Year
Human Diet Drugs Kill Mosquitoes' Appetite Too

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 1 year ago

Human Diet Drugs Kill Mosquitoes' Appetite Too

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all believe it or not mosquitoes don't bite out of spite female mosquitoes of the species agent tie. Need the nutrients present in your plasma to ensure the proper development of their eggs? Then though there I may seem on quench people. The ladies actually, take time to savor your blood once they've sip their fill after female bites she'll double her body weight. And then she'll actually completely lose interest in biting people for several days. Laura Duval postdoctoral researcher at the Rockefeller University in New York City, the insects post-prandial recovery phase may divall in her colleagues wonder, whether they could essentially trick mosquitoes into thinking already eaten divall works in the lab of Leslie Voss hall who studies genetics neuro science and behavior. Here's fossil our idea with that maybe the same drugs that would turn off human appetite might actually. Work to turn off mosquito. Appetite turns out that when the Rockefeller researchers fed mosquitoes a drug that's used to treat people for obesity. The insects were indeed less interested in hunting for their next human meal ticket. But the problem was that we needed to figure out how the human diet drugs were actually working in the mosquito. So the isolated the receptor protein with which these diet drugs interact, the receptor, which they dubbed NPR L are seven looks a lot like the receptors that regulate hunger and people the researchers knew they had the right receptor. Because when they knocked it out in some mosquitoes, the drugs, no longer dampen, the insects appetite a finding they describe in the journal cell. In fact, the mutant mosquitoes were all around insatiable said the are seven mutants behaviorally strangely. Even after they take a huge blood meal. They remained thirsty for human blood next divall says they'd like to explore exactly how these drugs act to curb. Females bloodlust does she become less sensitive to the clues teller that humanist nearby? Or is this more like smelling a hamburger app you've already eaten three either way the approach could provide a novel method to limit the spread of diseases that are transmitted by mosquito bite like Dunga and yellow fever and give us a new way to tell mosquitoes to buzz off. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Rockefeller University Leslie Voss Hall Obesity Postdoctoral Researcher Laura Duval New York City NPR Fever Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:20 min | 1 year ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin elephants don't diet as far as we know. But their weight does fluctuate at least for the ones who live in zoo. Now, researchers have found that this gain and loss in an elephants mass appears to hinge on their jaws more specifically be unusual way these animals replace their teeth the results appear in the journal mammalian biology, researchers at the university of Zurich's clinic for zoo animals, exotic pets and wildlife were exploring how elephants mass tracks with its overall physique whether the animal is jumbo sized or spelt for an elephant. So they gathered data on the entire population of captive elephants throughout Europe the clinics. Mark is Klaus is a professor of comparative digestive physiology. This was due to the commitment of a student. I had at the time was called Christian Shiffman who is the driving. Force behind all this because Christian visited AC Kate every European zoo. That keeps elephants he returned with records revealing the relative half of the resident pachyderms at first glance. It's operations were not so surprising. As in western societies also zoo, a lot of beings tend to be less than deal poor condition and a little bit more on the obese site and elephants of just the same in that respect. But a deeper dive into the data turned up something curious, and that was that once the elephants reached what you would call adult age and adult body moss. There seemed to be something like assistant Matic cyclicity the data body must going up and down up and down over age. They yellow effect didn't sync with seasonal changes in the animal's diet. And it wasn't because some of the females were getting pregnant and then giving birth. Because the researchers saw the same thing in both breeding and non breeding animals so Christian came up with the idea. Maybe it's related to the tooth cycle and elephants for most mammals us included. Baby teeth are replaced by full-sized adult set. But because elephants are so big, and they're just have to grow to keep up. They go through six sets of chompers each bigger than the last and the new teeth. Don't wait for the old ones to fall out. They push them out from behind during the process there at times when both sets our president wants it's not that the extra teeth themselves way so much it's more like more teeth means more food processing, and that means either they can eat more during those times they can chew better during those times. UT more evidently gives energy chewing also gives Mina g because for more the final the to the more energy. They can get out of this food the ultimate. Formation of a connection between molars and mass may require the cooperation of veterinarians who can ask their elephants to hop up on a scale and say. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Christian Shiffman university of Zurich Europe Mina g professor Mark president Klaus sixty seconds
Elephant Weight Cycles with New Teeth

60-Second Science

03:19 min | 1 year ago

Elephant Weight Cycles with New Teeth

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin elephants don't diet as far as we know. But their weight does fluctuate at least for the ones who live in zoo. Now, researchers have found that this gain and loss in an elephants mass appears to hinge on their jaws more specifically be unusual way these animals replace their teeth the results appear in the journal mammalian biology, researchers at the university of Zurich's clinic for zoo animals, exotic pets and wildlife were exploring how elephants mass tracks with its overall physique whether the animal is jumbo sized or spelt for an elephant. So they gathered data on the entire population of captive elephants throughout Europe the clinics. Mark is Klaus is a professor of comparative digestive physiology. This was due to the commitment of a student. I had at the time was called Christian Shiffman who is the driving. Force behind all this because Christian visited AC Kate every European zoo. That keeps elephants he returned with records revealing the relative half of the resident pachyderms at first glance. It's operations were not so surprising. As in western societies also zoo, a lot of beings tend to be less than deal poor condition and a little bit more on the obese site and elephants of just the same in that respect. But a deeper dive into the data turned up something curious, and that was that once the elephants reached what you would call adult age and adult body moss. There seemed to be something like assistant Matic cyclicity the data body must going up and down up and down over age. They yellow effect didn't sync with seasonal changes in the animal's diet. And it wasn't because some of the females were getting pregnant and then giving birth. Because the researchers saw the same thing in both breeding and non breeding animals so Christian came up with the idea. Maybe it's related to the tooth cycle and elephants for most mammals us included. Baby teeth are replaced by full-sized adult set. But because elephants are so big, and they're just have to grow to keep up. They go through six sets of chompers each bigger than the last and the new teeth. Don't wait for the old ones to fall out. They push them out from behind during the process there at times when both sets our president wants it's not that the extra teeth themselves way so much it's more like more teeth means more food processing, and that means either they can eat more during those times they can chew better during those times. UT more evidently gives energy chewing also gives Mina g because for more the final the to the more energy. They can get out of this food the ultimate. Formation of a connection between molars and mass may require the cooperation of veterinarians who can ask their elephants to hop up on a scale and say. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Christian Shiffman University Of Zurich Europe Mina G Professor Mark President Trump Klaus Sixty Seconds
Targeting Certain Brain Cells Can Switch Off Pain

60-Second Science

02:24 min | 1 year ago

Targeting Certain Brain Cells Can Switch Off Pain

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all pain, it's unpleasant. But what if pain could be rendered less painful, emotionally, speaking such uncoupling might not be entirely far fetched because researchers of located a set of neurons that seemed to encode the feelings of heard that accompany pain pennies, both a sensory emotional experience. Gregory sure a paint expert at Stanford University much of the resort so far in the pain field as focused on the sensory aspect of pain. Perception in the house, sells, you know, nerves are able to detect stimulated we perceive as painful, but less is known about why most of us find pain so distressing. So sure and his colleagues set out to first dentist, those brain cells that are active when an animal experiences paying the researchers used a miniature microscope to look at the brains of living mice that technology was developed by Mark Schnitzer. Who does neuro science and applied physics at Stanford? There's microscope is small and light enough that it can be born on the head of an adult mouse as the animal behaves in the natural manner. When these microscope wearing mice were poked with a pin or exposed to mild, heat or cold sales in subregion of their Migdal is lit up. So this indicated that there's a type of cell even region of the brain that seemed to specifically encode the percent of fame, but are these sales responsible for sensing pain or interpreting that sensation to find out the researchers shut the cells down, and they poke the animals again. And so when we did that what we observe is that what animal were still withdrawing from the stimulus indicating that they could detect it. So this sensation aspect of pain was intact. They didn't seem to care about the stimulus that is. They didn't make any effort to avoid the place where they experienced discomfort, which is how mice usually to pain. The findings are in the journal science a future part of treating pain could therefore involve targeting these particular neurons, you'd still have the physical part of the pain, but the negative perception of the pain could be diminished, which means still paying but also gain. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Stanford University Mark Schnitzer Stanford Gregory Sixty Seconds
Intimate Hermit Crab Keeps Shell On

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 2 years ago

Intimate Hermit Crab Keeps Shell On

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. So I never really thought I'd study Pena size, but I sort of stumbled on this topic Mark lider, a biologist at Dartmouth College light travels to Costa Rica to study hermit crabs a species called sina Beata compresses. These land crabs do some interior remodeling of their adopted shells, the extensively hollow them out removing Streit's called spiral cholula to give themselves some extra elbow room. The renovation renders. The shells more precious to their owners and two other covetous crustaceans as well. These more valuable shells, though are also more easily stolen since without the spiral. Kolya Mellon signed the shell to grip onto individuals are pretty liable to have their property snatched from them, particularly when they're engaged in other activities like copulation which requires coming part way out of the shell despite his work in the field. It wasn't until lighter was wandering through Ziam that he noticed something about his favourite crabs the really striking thing. Was that scene? Evita compresses the one who social behavior I've been studying for so many years headed unusually large penis, in fact, bigger than any other species the observation gave him an idea, which he dubbed the private parts for private property hypothesis in a sense, the hypothesis posits that in large private parts can be an adaptation extending amounts sexual reach and thus enabling both him and his partner to remain safely tucked away inside their shells, while they copulate thereby protecting the private property of their shells from being stolen during sex Darwin proposed a similar idea to explain why barnacles which are stuck in one place are so amply Dowd did test his private parts for private property hypothesis light or sized up more than three hundred male museum specimens, including hermit crabs that live on land. And it's see any found that crabs that carried custom coverings head the most impressive Kornel equipment at the same time species that got their shells off the shelf had bigger geared than did crabs that walked around with. Oh, shell at all is results revealed in the Royal Society journal open science, it's intriguing to think that this high posses might have greater generality beyond hermit crabs. But like a hermit crab encountering a humdrum. Shell Lantra says he's going to leave that one alone. For me. I'm much more curious about how forms of animal architecture and remodeling in the environment impact social behavior. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Shell Lantra Kolya Mellon Sina Beata Streit Mark Lider Pena Kornel Dartmouth College Costa Rica Royal Society Journal Ziam Partner Dowd Sixty Seconds
Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

60-Second Science

03:18 min | 2 years ago

Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All monogamy. What makes one species pair off while members of a closely related species? Play the field. The answer may lie in their genes. Researchers at the university of Texas at Austin, we're interested in how complex characteristics arise during evolution. We chose to investigate. This question using anonymous mating systems because animals listening systems are available in all of the different vertebra Clayton's Rebecca young a research, associate and evolutionary biologists. Who led the study able to find species that had independently evolved monogamy in each of these lineages Young's colleague, Hans Hoffman professor of integrative biology ads. So we decided early on that we didn't just want to study a particular group of animals, like mice or fish, for example, or particular group of birds. In compare between monogamy and nominal there. But instead take very broad look across the prince across four hundred fifty million years of Lucien when these fish birds, and frogs and us she at the last common ancestor. The researchers chill is five pairs of species and look to see if they can spot a signature pattern of gene activity that was shared only by the animals that were monogamous and they discovered a set of twenty four genes whose activity in the brain is strongly associated with monogamy, including genes involved in rural development, learning and memory and Coug nation the results appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. And again, this is surprising because they've evolved monogamy independently. And the species have diverse for hundreds of millions of years from one another. So we might expect because of this distance evolutionary distance that gene, expression brain will be quite different. But in fact, we find this share signature that. Seems to be related to the mating system of the organism. No, those chains may not be setting up entirely new patterns of behavior. They may just be building on underlying mechanisms that all species share take. For example, pair bonding Herrmann. One has to tolerate another individual for a long period of time, yet even members of the most intolerant species have to put up with one another at least for as long as it takes to get the meeting done shrews, great example, they tolerate each other for one day year into those mechanisms already exist in in very aggressive species that they just happened for short periods of time. And we think potentially what's going on is as modifications of these conserved pathways that exists in different kinds of mating systems. Get elaborated or modified in the volition of monogamy in principle young and Hoffman and their collaborators could have extended their study of monogamy to humans perhaps comparing. Our gene expression signature to that of one of our less monogamous relatives say chimps the results could suggest whether we should pick up a few extra cards for Valentine's Day. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Hans Hoffman Rebecca Young Lucien University Of Texas Coug National Academy Of Sciences Austin Herrmann Clayton Professor Sixty Seconds Four Hundred Fifty Million Yea One Day
Simple Sugars Wipe Out Beneficial Gut Bugs

60-Second Science

02:02 min | 2 years ago

Simple Sugars Wipe Out Beneficial Gut Bugs

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All we all know that stuffing our faces with sweet treats is not good for us in part because it's bad for the health promoting bacteria that inhabit our intestines. Now, researchers have figured out how simple sugars wipe out a particular strain of beneficial gut microbes the on the line assumption that existed in the literature was that simple sugars such as fructose and sucrose which are prevalent western diet are not good for humans yell professor of microbial pathogenesis at Werner Grossmann. Who led the study simple sugars like those in high fructose corn syrup or the table sugar? Formerly known a sucrose we're thought to be absorbed in the small intestine. So a lot of our good bacteria would never actually spoke to them because fiber in complex carbs made of long chains of sugar molecules are harder to digest they make it all the way to the large intestine where they promote the growth of good bug. Dhs like bacteria these data Yoda own Micron microbe found in individuals who are healthy and lean. But now what are works from his shows is that both fructose and sucrose do make it to the column or the microbiome exist and sacond that these sugars impact good bacterium. Even though nutrition is not involved. In other words, the bacteria are not using fructose and sucrose as food instead the sugar service signals that shut down the production of a protein that beneficial bacteria ladies need to colonize the intestine the findings appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. Grossman says he'd like to explore whether complex police polysaccharide can save bacteria's from this sugary death sentence because then maybe we can eat cake and have our gut bugs too. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Werner Grossmann Grossman National Academy Of Sciences Professor Sixty Seconds
"Hunger Hormone" Ghrelin Aids Overindulgence

60-Second Science

02:00 min | 2 years ago

"Hunger Hormone" Ghrelin Aids Overindulgence

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All TIs the season for over eating, but it's not just your lack of willpower or the omnipresent holiday treats. No, you can lay some of the blame on guerrillan because new study shows that gremlin the hormone that makes you hungry also makes food and food smells irresistibly appealing. The finding appears in the journal cell reports grill in is produced in the stomach, and it's levels rise before your habitual mealtimes. And after you have an Eaton for an extended period. So the hormone reminds you to put something in your belly. Injecting rats with grilling encourages them to eat and people who receive a dose of Groen, grab extra helping the buffet. But how does the hormone induced overindulgence defined out researchers at McGill University trained volunteers to associate random images with the smell of food. For example, every time they saw a tree they might get a whiff of. Freshly baked bread at the same time, some of the subjects received gremlin others got only sailing the volunteers were then ushered into an FM Mariah machine where the researchers watched their brains to see which parts got turned on by different images. Seems that in subjects under the influence of Gretl in the brain region involved in pleasure and reward lit up only when the volunteers viewed the images they associated with food aromas, their brain pleasure centers were disinterested in images that had not been paired with food smells, also one. Participants were then asked to rate the pleasantness of the images, the ones who'd been exposed to grill in gave higher grades to the food associated pictures. Then did folks who got no grilling. So when visions of sugar plums or the smell of apple pie, get your stomach growl. And you can think or blame your grilling as you reach for a fork, thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Mcgill University Gretl Eaton Sixty Seconds
Bone Building Needs Bit of Breakdown First

60-Second Science

02:32 min | 2 years ago

Bone Building Needs Bit of Breakdown First

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. Exercise builds muscle, but it also strengthens bones. Exactly how exercise boosts bone strength is a matter of debate and a subject of scientific scrutiny. Now, a new study in mice shows how a hormone secreted by active muscle cells triggers, bone remodeling, physical activity stimulates the release of multiple molecules from skeletal muscle take Iran, for example, this hormone named after the Greek messenger. Goddess iris is produced by running rodents and by us humans when we do high intensity Arabic training once it's generated iris and improves bone density and strength to find out how Bruce Spiegelman and his colleagues at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School took cultured bone cells and located the receptor to which Iran binds, this receptor protein is particularly abundant on cells called osteo sites. These cells of the master regulator of. Bone remodeling and the most abundant cell type in bone. What we found interesting in. This paper is the magnitude of the effects, we get in terms of iris and acting to stimulate osteo sites and preventing their death in culture. Also their ability to make a key protein sclera Sten under the stimulation of iris scores. Ten is a protein that actually stimulates the breakdown of bone that Iran, which builds bone would promote the production of sclera Ston which destroys it may seem counterintuitive but Spielman says that this bit of bone breakdown that signals the body to engage in some skeletal renovation the results appear in the journal cell boning up on the actions of Irishman could help us work out. How we can derive the most from our workouts and possibly keep our bones dense enough to keep us dancing in our dotage. And the new work identifying the receptor. Also allows us to really a much more easily identify. What are other target cell types for IRA Sinn with particular reference to neural cell types, where there is suggestive evidence by us and others that iris in may play a neuro protective effect in disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and a LS? Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Iran Karen Hopkin Dana Farber Cancer Institute Bruce Spiegelman Sinn Alzheimer's Disease Harvard Medical School Spielman Parkinson's Disease Sixty Seconds
You Gotta Scratch That Itch

60-Second Science

02:16 min | 2 years ago

You Gotta Scratch That Itch

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All everyone knows what it's like to which and the sensation can drive you mad or if you're Yengo son of the Chinese Academy of sciences. It can drive you to explore how the brain tells you it's time to scratch. Our study is aiming to understand the burn mechanism data promote that you just quieting cycle. Itching can be caused by a number of irritants from allergic reactions and abrasive textures to bug bites skin conditions infections or drugs, the usual solution is to simply scratch, but this cycle of scratching if it continues unabated connection damaged tissue like if you scratch yourself, raw and sun notes that effect to treat them for chronic h is still lacking this is largely due to our limited knowledge about the enormity of age over the past ten years. Scientists learned a lot about how the ignore is carried from the skin to the spa. Final chord in contrast when the were little about how the information is processing the brand and how the bring can dynamically modulate the processing of each son in his colleagues focus their attention on the Perry. Akwa ductile gray a brain region known to be involved in handling the closely related sensation of pain. They started by exposing mice to histamine or the anti malarial drug chloroquine both of which trigger scratching, and they found that this issue inducing treatment activates a particular set of neurons within the Perry AC with Dr gray neurons, the produce neuro chemical called Tak one when the researchers eliminated this set of neurons scratching was significantly diminished. And when they activated the neurons, even in the absence of a chemical irritant, the scratching resumed son, thus thinks of these tech one expressing neurons as the ignorance and the brain getting these neurons firing makes animals itchy and gets them to scratch his findings appear in the journal nor on physician yards in the burn can be a potential central therapy. Target for breaking the wishes issue squatting cycle associated with chronic age, which could be a big relief for many irritated people. For scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins.

Karen Hopkin Chinese Academy Of Sciences Karen Hopkins Perry Histamine Chloroquine Sixty Seconds Ten Years
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:52 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all interested in studying exotic life forms, maybe even identifying new species. Well, forget about buying a plane ticket. Just take a look in your basement bathroom or booed warr because researchers in North Carolina aimed document the critters that live among us in the great indoors. Ten years ago biologist led by rob done, North Carolina State began to explore the biodiversity of insects in fifty homes in the Raleigh area, though they expect it to uncover a couple dozen bugs. They turned up more than a thousand distinct species. And when they expanded their studies to other cities, they found lots more some entirely new disci-. Now they're enlisting intrepid brigade of citizens scientists to carry the work further. That means you simply explore your immediate environment poke around under the sink behind the curtains, the back of the pantry and snap. Pick of what you find then upload your images to the social networking app? I naturally I, the observations you post will be shared with the global community of experts who can identified the creepy crawlies you've encountered to participate in Duns effort. Just tag your image to his project, which is titled never home alone, the wildlife of homes. And if you happen to be in Raleigh on November fifteenth pump, by the celebration for the publication of the book, never home alone in which done reveals what he and his colleagues have discovered. So far they're done will present the twenty people who identified the most indoor animal species, a trophy adorned with a bedbug. I'm not a real bedbugs. I assume. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin North Carolina Raleigh warr Duns rob Sixty seconds sixty seconds Ten years
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:50 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Introducing simply light lemonade. Can you hear that? That's the sweet sound of seventy five percent less sugar and calories? We want to make sure you here. It's seventy five percent less sugar and calories because it tastes so good. This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All good disguise keeps you hidden. Right. Well, sometimes the best disguise is actually the most dazzling because research reveals that flashy metallic iridescence can visually baffled predators which allows colorful prey to survive. Another day. Those eye-popping results appear in the journal scientific reports shimmering iridescent coloration, which changes, depending on the angle from which it's viewed is favored by everything from birds to Beatles and blossoms to butterflies. I mean, our research group, we are of course interested in why vivid metallic colouration is so taxable Michaeli widespread the nature car in Jeonju of the university of Bristol. She says that in some cases, the showy splashes of light or a sexual strategy here, I would like to point out that in some species, particularly those who display strong sexual morphism such as birds of. Paradise or the p. fall. And even in some butterflies and fishes. The occurrence of distance is most likely driven by sexual selection. For example, in many of these cases, it is the males that have these vivid iridescent colors and they use them in may choice. So they used them as a signal to attract mates, but iridescence also shows up in situations where reproductions not an issue, for example, in caterpillars crystallises. So what we are studying now is whether natural selection imposed by predation could explain the occurrence of iridescence in prey animals. The idea that I catching colors could be used as a cover up isn't a new one. The father of camouflage theory about here. He really believed that iridescence should be categorized as camouflage strategy, and he wrote in his famous life were concealing coloration in the animal kingdom already. Nine hundred ninety nine that brilliantly tangible or metallic colors are among the strongest factor. In animals concealment. And this sounds like a completely countering to thing to say, because how can colors that are both brilliant and changeable contribute to animals concealment. After all, when we think of camouflage, we tend to think about blending into the background, but there are forms of camouflage called disruptive coloration that worked by breaking up an animal's otherwise telltale shape in a similar way. We were offering whether iridescence due to its changeability could work as a form of camouflage by obstructing shape. Recognition, Jentzsch bow in her colleagues trained bumblebees to associated particular shape circle or an oval with a sugary ward. And they found that the bees, when given a choice would preferentially visit the shape they knew to be sweet. But when the shapes were iridescent, the bees had trouble telling them apart. It seemed that the strikingly Redan surfaces on our targets visually broke up the other wise recognizable shape of the. Targets, which made them hard to distinguish s for making use of this method for hiding in plain sight. Any practical applications. These, of course, directly linked to any industry that has an interesting camouflage that is how to conceal objects or make them more difficult to recognize. The researchers are currently conducting experiments with birds which often prey on iridescent insects to see if it helps to have a bird's eye view. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin university of Bristol Jeonju Jentzsch seventy five percent Sixty seconds sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:21 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. Neanderthal walks into a bar. Bartender says, why the long forward projecting face? Well, according to a new study, it helped Neanderthal air conditioned, the large volumes of oxygen. He inhaled to support his act of lifestyle. The work appears in the proceedings of the Royal Society be the bartender appears in many, many jokes, Nandor dolls, headed distinct facial appearance, heavy brows, big noses and protruding. Upper jaw and scientists have long wondered why that configuration with far heads it appears they inherited from their ancestors, but the jutting mid face that wasn't Evelyn canary innovation, all their own. Some scientists say it's so they could use those prominent frontier for some serious chomping others say it gave their nasal passages the right size and shape to warm and moisten the cold, dry ice age air to put the theories to the test researchers. Structed a set of three D simulations of the skulls of various humans. They included Aena north all, and an earlier homo. Heidelberg s.'s as well as a handful of more modern noggins males and females from Europe and Asia, and an Arctic Inuit, and they digitally crash tested the faces to see how they responded to the loads imposed by heavy biting seems the protruding chompers of the Neanderthal or not particularly well suited to forceful medication. Some of the modern humans seemed to be more efficient when it comes to using less muscle to take a big bite. Then the researchers modeled how air flowed through knee under all nasal passages. And that's when things got interesting. The results indicate that Neanderthals were better at heating humidifier air than H Heidelberg inches, but so are us modern people's whether we hail from cold or hot climates where Nandor those really stood out was in their ability to move large volumes of air through their nasal passages in and out of their lungs. That's a. Plus. When you spend your days running down mastodons or running from other critters, whose teeth are better adapted for biting action than yours are. To the bartender still listening. That's why the distinctive Neanderthal face. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans. Sixty seconds. Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Nandor Aena Royal Society Europe Asia Sixty seconds sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:58 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. If you've got the flu, you're focuses on getting better, not on how you caught it. But from a public health standpoint, tracking how flu spreads can help keep the virus contained in the past models predicting the path of focused on travel by plane. In some cases, combining data on population density with airport locations. And when study showed that influenza transmission is modulated by humidity scientists, injected information on climate into the mix. Now, a new study combines data on a variety of factors from doctors visits and vaccination coverage to weather patterns in the movement of individuals as recorded by Twitter. The finding in the US influenza typically arises in the warm humid conditions of the south and spreads quickly. Thanks to the high degree of social connected in the region. The findings in the journal E life. The researchers started by pouring over health. Care records from more than forty million families. Looking for reports of flu like symptoms, the analysis covered nine seasons worth of data from two thousand three to two thousand eleven, and it pointed toward outbreaks starting near the Gulf of Mexico or the southern Atlantic, a surge that seemed to coincide with the southward migration of ducks. What did the first analysis did leg ducks could be possible carriers of the virus starting spark of the influence epidemic, Andre Redskins of the university of Chicago, the study senior author. He says, they wrote up their duck hypothesis and submitted the paper for review reviewers, so to speak, strongly encouraged us to include additional factors into the model. Specifically glanced variables, temperature, wind speed, solar radiation. Humidity can when they did lo and behold that clip with assists collapsed. Ducks predictor were. Important anymore. And climate took the first place based on the data, they collected the researchers like in the spread of flu to a wildfire. The spark that night's the epidemic is provided when a blast of colder weather strikes and otherwise warm humid, urban environment that chill allows the virus to remain viable in water droplets and perhaps forces people indoors into close quarters. That's where southern hospitality comes in folks in the south are more highly socially connected than elsewhere in the country. So friends, neighbors and community members have plenty of opportunity to pass the virus to one another face to face. Finally, driving from county to county or traveling by plane, allows the flu to spread like wind carries a fire. So y'all come back now, but I make sure you're no longer contagious. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

flu Karen Hopkin US Twitter Gulf of Mexico Andre Redskins university of Chicago sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:15 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific Americans, sixty seconds, science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All nature may be read in to thank law, but one plucky caterpillar dresses in orange and black to avoid becoming somebody's lunch. What's really surprising though, is that this distinctive set of strives can service both a warning or is camouflage depending on how far away It is from the viewer animals can deploy color as a defence mechanism and a couple of ways. Some shades and patterns help potential pray blend into the background. Whereas bold markings often serve as a signal that an animal is unpalatable. For example, chock full of toxins. Resolution and often seen as mutually exclusive, an alternative mechanisms, but on natural conditions is distinction is less clear-cut. Jim Barr head of the University of Bristol, who led the study to explore whether the same coloration might do double duty, allowing an animal to be obvious under some conditions, But unseen in others. They focused their attention on the caterpillars of cinnabar moths these larvae sport, bright orange and black stripes. Their vivid appearance was believed to remind the birds who may have eaten others of their kind that they are none-too tasty. Thanks to their diet of alkaloid rich ragwort plans. The researchers snapped photos of the caterpillar's in suburban green spaces around Bristol, and they used a visual muddling program to give them a bird's eye view of what the caterpillars look like. Either close up lower from farther away. Firm. Fringe constraints are highly conspicuous these rights colors distinguish it quite easily from direct with background, but were viewed from distance big blend together to form a color, which is actually quite difficult to discern from the background color. So what we think is going on is that the caterpillar is getting the best of both worlds close up the stripes sake keep your distance, but from a distance, They allow the caterpillars to hide in plain sight. The results can be seen in the Journal Royal Society, open science. The finding is a reminder. Don't forget to step back and see things from a different perspective. Thanks for listening for a scientific Americans, sixty seconds, science. I'm Karen Hopkins.

Karen Hopkin Karen Hopkins Bristol Jim Barr University of Bristol Journal Royal Society sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:28 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin all that are sophisticated communicators and not just when they're in vampire form i am struck you new research finds that egyptian fruit bats actually have regional dialects depending on the fat chatter that surrounds them as they grow us the studies in the journal plus biology exists among humans one person's is another ones can i well populations of beds also display group specific localisations but how do these vocal characteristics arise did they reflect innate genetic differences or are they learned and if that accents are acquired who were these very flyers imitating their parents or their roost meets to find out uc see yuval at tel aviv university at his colleagues captured fifteen pregnant fruit bats and divided them into three groups each of which was house in its own separate bucks the mothers gave birth inside these boxes and their babies called pups lived there for a full year during that time the researchers expose the pubs to a select symphony of bet sales fruit pets in the or reared in colonies the contain dozen this to thousands of individuals so they're used to being surrounded by a cacophony of calls and other vocal communiques for one of the boxes yuval and his team expose the young battling to a selection of squeaks that were biased toward the higher frequencies pups in the second box heard lower pitched pete and the third bucks got a random sampling of fruit bet hits that was heavy on the mid range frequencies st's but also included those at either end of the oral spectrum and what we found is that they were influenced by the playback of the heard boc of all so the control group was using a vocal repertoire that was identical to the mother than identical to food bets there in in the colony in here in israel but the two women nip related groups were using different dialects we actually were able to create three different groups of fruit bats with three different dialect in the lab of course birds are famous for their songs which the males learn from tutors typically their dads but you've says when it comes to vocal learning bats march to a different drummer here we show that even though the parcel with the mothers and there were exposed to them.

tel aviv university israel karen hopkin journal plus biology pete sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:00 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin all are you one of those people who can tell when a storm is approaching based on your aching knees well you may think you are but a new study of more than one point five million seniors finds no relationship between rainfall and doctor visits for pain the results are in the british medical journal the idea that our bodies our barometers for all sorts of weather related phenomena including changes in temperature pressure and precipitation he is not a new one it pocket himself actually partially this idea in nearly four hundred b c anew palm jenna a physician an expert in healthcare policy at harvard medical school and the massachusetts general hospital who led the study if you talk to people i'd say millions and millions of people probably believed that things like rainfall influence symptoms of joint pain and stiffness but if you look at the studies there's actually been surprisingly little evidence to suggest that is true most of the studies have been quite small and we were interested in thinking about whether we could approaches question in a big data sort of way he and his colleagues looked at information collected in more than eleven million visits that older americans made to their primary care physicians they compared these records with data on daily rainfall and they asked do more people reports sore backs or swollen joints when the weather is inclement and what we found is that if you look at days where it rained versus days where it didn't rain there is no difference in the proportion of visits to a doctor that involved a complaint of joint pain or back pain they saw no rain affect even when it poured for seven days straight and if you're thinking well what if people couldn't get an appointment until the skies cleared up and you if you look the week after a period of heavy rainfall you still seed no relationship and that doesn't mean that factors like rainfall or the temperature humidity don't effect.

british medical journal harvard medical school karen hopkin massachusetts general hospital sixty seconds seven days
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:07 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin all picture a women's fruity training eighteen hours and covering seventy five miles and an average week these athletes are pretty ripped yet they don't hold up bicep to prehistoric female farmers because a new study shows that based on upper arm strain the neolithic ladies leave modern women even elite athletes in the dust newark appears the journal science advances the studies researchers had previously examined the bones of prehistoric men because bones adapt to the load they bear they can provide a record of the sort of activities in which an individual regularly engages so at the dawn of agriculture men's leg bones were strong like today's cross country runners but by the late iron h their legbones look more like that of the average couch potato it's kind of matched with two klein's in mobility as people became more sedentary through time allison mcintosh who did that work when she was an undergraduate student in archaeology at the university of cambridge but we didn't see these drops women are their leg bone strength was consistently lower than men's it didn't change significantly through time it's really the women just looked quite sedentary pretty much right from the getgo and we didn't think that was very uh probably necessarily very accurate representation of what they had been doing now it could be that prehistoric housewives sat around and lunched their way through the neolithic but mcintosh thought that unlikely instead she and her colleagues figured that the bones of men and women react differently under pressure so mcintosh noah postdoctoral fellow with the same group decided to look at the limbs of some ladies she recruited eighteen championship rowers eleven soccer players seventeen runners and thirty seven somewhat less sporty undergrads and she's scan their upper arms and lower legs which he found is that the leg bone strength of prehistoric women was as variable is that of her living subjects running the gamut from those who run marathons to those who engage in marathon study sessions but the.

newark klein allison mcintosh mcintosh noah postdoctoral fel university of cambridge eighteen hours sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:59 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin all the yeti also known as the abominable snowman it's a legendary primate some people believe exists in the himalayas and adjacent frozen lands but what are you get when you use modern dna techniques to analyse bodily samples allegedly left by he's well eight times out of nine you wind up with the genetic signature of your non abominable neighborhood bear these unmih steriods result are revealed in the proceedings of the royal society b this new study is not the first to examine dna extracted from samples allegedly derived from yetis analysis of short dna fragments from a pair of samples collected in india and bhutan matched that of an ancient polar bear bone that two thousand fourteen finding raised the possibility that the abominable snowman could actually be a previously unrecognised bear species or even some sort of hybrid brown bear polar bear that wanders the tibet and plateau in the current study researchers conducted a more comprehensive comparison of dna from 24 samples including nine that supposedly came from yetis these specimens collected from the field or borrowed from museums included bits of hair bone skin and scat eight of these nine yet he samples were identified as actually coming from the asian black bears himalayan brown bears and tibetan brown bears that call this remote region home but what about that ninth sample from yeah it was from a dog the abominable fido may be on the serious side the analysis did address a mystery of a more scientific nature regarding the evolution of these local bear populations the result suggest that himalayan brown bears belonged to a distinct evolutionary lineage that diverge from the other bears during the greatest of earth's ice ages cut off by the spread of glaciers these bears have been keeping to themselves for more than six hundred sixty thousand years that period of isolation has rendered.

himalayas india bhutan karen hopkin six hundred sixty thousand yea sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:50 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"The scientific americans 60second science karen hopkin this will just take a minute all if you need help hurting some xiv poor retrieving a stick you can count on your canine companion because dogs so we seemed to be keen on lending apart but only if they're partner is a person when it comes to cooperating with one another dogs are truly lost and instead it's wolves who've mastered the art of teamwork that's according to a study in the proceedings of the national academy of sciences for thousands of years humans have been breeding dogs that can do all sorts of neat tricks and because pups aim to please us we've come to think that domestication is somehow boosted dogs powers of cooperation but researchers in austria have been wondering whether that notion could be barking up the wrong tree because left to their own devices dogs are bigger loners than wolves so wolves living very closeknit family packs they cooperate in raising the young they also cooperate in hunting and in offending the territories said the radi have a strong dependence on cooperation in many aspects of their lives in contrast to this free range in more dogs ashley forage mostly by themselves so they totally made seventy mothers that race a young and they do form pacts that they tend to be somewhat more fluid if you want that sarah marshall pechiney of the wolf science center at the university of dna she and her colleagues decided to test dogs in wolves relative powers of cooperation in the set up a pair of animals either two dogs are to wolves is presented with a contraption that will allow the participants to access the tray of food but only if both members of the team simultaneously poll on the two ends of a rope.

partner austria sarah marshall pechiney wolf science center karen hopkin national academy of sciences university of dna 60second
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:11 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin all sucking blood is risky business at least for the female mosquitoes that need those nutrients to nurture their develop an egg not only did his bugs have to find a suitable blood donor but once they've had their fill they have to be able to escape undetected to avoid the big swat how they finesse this stealthy departure has just been revealed in the journal of experimental biology feasting on an unsuspecting mammal can double the mosquitoes body mass so how does a fully loaded female heave that added bulk off the skin of her host without triggering its pressure sensors and bringing on that fateful slap the find out florian mahrez the vargen in university in the netherlands and his colleagues used cameras that record thirteen thousand five hundred frames per second tick captured the takeoff maneuvers of 63 blood fed malarial mosquitoes what they discovered is when it comes to a soft yet speedy getaway for female skaters the wings the thing with a wing beat frequency of about six hundred beats per second the insects are able to lift themselves lightly off their host that approach is the opposite of the one favored by most other winged thing says marra's most fi animals funded take off a bruce or fly for example the first usda legs to push of very hard earned in the in the air than this so beating their rings and generate economic lift to be able to fly away mosquito does it the other way around it first beating its rings and the to do out in the mcc forces that do newsmen generated the bodies being lifted off from the from the substrate and done there do's gently also pushed down with the lome lags to be able to further power that the the liftoff but these forces of there being generated by legs are relatively small in fact the faint flutter of a mosquitoes wings produces less than one third of the force exerted by similarsized but much less subtle fruitflies as they shelve off in search of another banana.

florian mahrez marra karen hopkin journal of experimental biolog usda mcc sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:46 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Little scientific americans sixty seconds science on karen hopkin this will just take a minute all what does panic sound like like that for sure but also like this and this but maybe you already knew that because a new study shows that humans are actually good at identifying vocalisations that are emotionally intense even when those outcries come from other species the findings are communicated in the proceedings of the royal society b it was charles darwin who first news about the evolution of emotional expression as he wrote in the descent of men all the airbreathing vertebra necessarily possess an apparatus for inhaling and expelling air when the primeval members of this class were strongly excited and their muscles violently contracted purposeless sounds would almost certainly have been produced now if producing those seemingly purposeless noises turned out to be beneficial by warning others have predators summoning protection or enticing mate the behavior would persist and over time become selected for of course for that to happen the meanings behind those utterances would have to be clearly understood to explore this question researchers ass 75 volunteers to listen to vocalisations produced by nine different species from black kept chikki's to american alligator's the recordings included sounds made by animals when they were relatively relaxed like this hourglass tree frog or in some way excited say reacting to an aggressor or competing for a mate like this hour glass tree frog the listeners were then asked to identify which of the paired recordings from each species represented a sound of distress or emotional arousal.

chikki karen hopkin charles darwin sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:34 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Little scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen hopkin this will just take a minute all we all know money can't buy happiness but according to a recent study there may be a loophole a team of researchers finds that shelling out for services that saved time can bring greater feelings of life said his faction than say simply buying more stuff the results appear in the proceedings of the national academy of sciences it's safe to say that most of us often field crunched for time so much so that we're experiencing what ashley willens of the harvard business school lead author of the study describes as a time famine and like any famine this chronic lack of time takes its toll on our health you we feel like our todo list are longer than the hours that we have time and data complete them we can feel as if our life is spiralling out of control thereby undermining our personal while being mo if time is money willens inner team wondered whether money that's used to buy time could offer some relief like paying someone else to clean the house modal lawn or deliver the groceries to find out the researchers asked more than six thousand people from the us canada denmark and the netherlands to rate their overall satisfaction with life and to estimate how much money they lay out each month to outsource on enjoyable daily tasks or otherwise purchased some time off and they found that respondents who willingly swap funds for free time also report feeling more content regardless of their income or how many hours they work each week.

karen hopkin ashley willens harvard business school the house us netherlands national academy of sciences denmark sixty seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:42 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Little scientific americans sixty seconds science on karen hopkin this will just take a minute all summers here and it won't be long before schoolage kids across america start complaining that they're tired of writing their bikes playing at the parc swimming in the pool and all the other awesome activities their parents who would keep them entertained for the next ten weeks well if it's any consolation such rapid onset boredom could indicate that the kids have amazing powers of recall because a new study shows that the better your shortterm memory the faster you feel sated and decide you've had enough the findings appear in the journal of consumer research those say chichan can be physical lake when you feel full after eating too much we were interested in the psychological side association like when you're just tired of something noel nelson assistant professor of marketing and consumer behaviour at the university of kansas school of business she and her colleague joseph redden at the university of minnesota tried to think outside the lunchbox something that was interesting to me was that some people get tired of the same things at very different rates so if you think about pop songs on the radio some people must still be enjoying them and requesting them even after hearing them a lot but a lot of other people are really sick of those same songs the difference the researchers posited might have to do with memories of past consumption for example study showed that people push away from the dinner table sooner when they're asked to describe in detail what they ate earlier for lunch so the researchers tested the memory capacity of undergraduates the students then viewed a repeating series of three classic paintings like the starry night american gothic and the scream or listened and realists into a series of three pop songs or three pieces of classical music.

karen hopkin america journal of consumer research noel nelson assistant professo university of kansas school of joseph redden university of minnesota sixty seconds ten weeks
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

01:33 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Little scientific americans sixty seconds science on karen hopkin this will just take a minute all it may sound strange but scientists are celebrating the survival and spread of tens of thousands of mosquitoes they released in northeastern australia the whole thing makes more sense when you know that these mosquitoes are not just any runofthe mill bloodsuckers their weaponized infected with a type of bacteria that prevents the spread of zepa dan gay and other mosquitoborne viruses the bacterium coal wool bolkiah is present naturally in nearly twothirds of all insect species although it's not usually found in 80s agip die the mosquito responsible for spreading zeka dang gay yellow fever and chicken koonya but when researchers introduced baalbaki intimacy does in the lab a decade ago the bacteria bollocks the skaters making them unable to transmit their viruses to humans which gives public health experts hope that by releasing big groups of will balki infected mosquitoes into problem areas they'll spread well bucket to the local populations making them incapable of transmitting viral diseases to people but a big question was will the weaponized mosquitoes remained contained where there let loose or will they move enough to mingle with their wild brethren so researchers in australia ran a test in two thousand thirteen they release some thirty five thousand bold bolkiah carrying 80s agip die at one site one hundred thirty one thousand at second site and two hundred eighty six thousand at a third site all in the city of cans and they tracked the insects dispersal.

karen hopkin australia agip public health sixty seconds mill