34 Burst results for "Karen Hopkin"

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

04:47 min | 3 d ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific Americans, 62nd science. I'm Karen hopkin. Ask anyone what an elephant sounds like, and they'll come up with something like this. But some elephants can also do this. And researchers using an acoustic camera that converts sounds into colors have figured out how. The findings appear in the journal, BMC biology. Elephants actually have a few ways they can get their message across. In addition to the traditional trumpet. They also communicate using a rumble whose pitches often too low for humans to hear. But then the Asian elephant and the Asian elephant only produces ridiculously high pitched quicks. The seem to come rather from a mouse than from an animal the size of an elephant. Veronica big of the university of Vienna. She and her colleagues set out to locate the source of these unusual chirps. The only idea that was out there so far was that. Elephants produce creeks in the same way as they produce the trumpets. That is, using their trunk. So we started out with just observing the facial movements and posture of Asian elephants when they squeak. First up, a group of 14 adult females at an elephant camp in Nepal. So first, we observed that elephants squeak when they are roused. So any time they get excited or upset. And they are easily upset when there's any strange noise or strange smell a Carpathian by in the distance, a dog or a cow coming too close to the enclosure. They also squeak in social situations. But I have only been separated briefly, and they greet each other again. They burst into exuberant choruses of trumpeting wampler and squeaking. And even when having a bath. But are the squeaks coming from the trunk? Or the mouth? And that is why we use the acoustic camera, with an array of 48 microphones. Because the camera can calculate the time differences with which the sound reaches the different microphones and translate it into a beautiful rainbow colors, which in the end makes you see way more colors coming out of the elephants, mouth or trunk. And what they found? The way more colors clearly came out of the mouth when the elephant squeaked, and our of the twang when it did to trumpet. One particularly talented pachyderm, a female called paw on, could squeak and snort at the same time. And this told us that clearly the sound production mechanism has to be within the mouth because otherwise it wouldn't be possible to produce a perfectly fine squeak and a perfectly fine nasal snort at the same time. The squeak it appears is made when an elephant presses air out between its tensed lips, which produces a noisy vibration. I couldn't find this technique to be described in any other animal except for human trumpet players. They call this technique lip buzzing. Bake got pretty good at it. I have to admit that it was not that easy to learn, which caused lots of skeptical and annoyed logs on the matter on my daily commute. Not all elephants make use of this buzz. In the first study group, only four or 14 elephant squid, and the ones that did did so a lot. How on would start practicing her signature sounds at four in the morning. Which generally got her the attention she was seeking because it's extremely annoying, studying additional elephants that lived in family groups, the researchers found that when mama is a squeaker, the kids are too. And that is what makes me think that maybe an elephant's actually have to learn how to squeak I went to squeak from the mother, which means that elephants may have something to teach us about the development of human language. And that parents really need to watch their mouths when they're around little ones with big.

Karen hopkin BMC biology Veronica big university of Vienna Nepal
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:50 min | 3 weeks ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific. Americans sixty second signs. I'm karen hopkin. They say it's darkest before the dawn and that's just the way that sweat. Bees like these tropical insects which live on an island in the middle of the panama canal visit night blooming flowers undercover of darkness and a new study shows that the shapes made by gaps in the rainforest. Canopy help them find their way home. The work appears in the journal. Current biology even though most bees are active in bright daylight. There are a few species that have become nocturnal due to competition. And you predators. Eric warrant a professor of zoology. At the university of lund in sweden this is particularly true of the woman. Parts of the world such as steamy rainforests of panama. Warrenton is colleagues have been studying these night. Flyers called mega opted gino's for more than twenty years. We have discovered that like all. These mega doctor is able to learn visual landmarks around the nist and presumably also along the foraging route. They use these landmarks to find their way through the vast forest and to recognize their nest. It's no easy feat especially considering the size of these nocturnal navigators exactly how they manage to do this when such tawny eyes and with such small brain is still to a large extent mystery but it seemed that the first step would be to simply look up. there is one visual cue. That is quite obvious in this. Otherwise profoundly dim environment and these are the bright patches of night sky seen through gaps in the forest canopy directly above. But did the bees raise their eyes while flying forward in the dark to find out the researchers got to messin with the muggle octa with place the mcglockton est which is a hollowed out. Stick at the stand in the forest. Sandra scheib a university of lund doctoral student who worked on the project on both sides of the nest with place to additional mock mistakes which we had drill halting to resemble nests above each nest they placed a distinctive visual a single black barred marked the real nest and a pattern of stripes in different orientations above the fakeness to be was allowed to forage for a few nights to get acquainted with area and then one night when the beat was away. Shy would shuffle the landmarks and when the busy got back she immediately entered the nest underneath the landmark she had learned which was one of the fakes of course after a few seconds. She realized a mistake and she came back out again. After a short flight to get reoriented she would again make the same mistake too. It seems the bees worst sneaking in a last look up before flying in the front door and the same thing happened when the researchers used circles of different sizes to four more canopy like patterns to mark the entrance to the nest. She took a look at the patent from underneath and flew directly into the mock nests. The results were as clear as day but there in the dark. They weren't exactly easy to see even if we put a hand in front of l. face. It's very difficult to see it since it was totally dark. I used night goggles. To monitor the nest and an infrared camera to film the bees comings and goings after sunset and before dawn. Of course it's not the most pleasant thing getting up in the middle of the night set up the cameras on the other hand the rainforest is the most mason place at the time. Many animals for the most active at this time even the humble sweat bees which will showcase their remarkable skills. Anyone who is prepared to watch for scientific americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen how good..

university of lund karen hopkin Sandra scheib panama canal Warrenton gino Flyers panama sweden mega Eric mason karen
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

04:22 min | Last month

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin wintering in the northernmost regions of alaska is known walk in the park. It's cold and dark and sometimes snowy but that didn't stop dinosaurs from nesting there. During the cretaceous period. Dinosaurs were not only just living in the arctic. Seventy million years ago in what's now northern alaska. But they were actually capable of reproducing there as well. Patrick druckenmiller have the university of alaska fairbanks and the director of the university of alaska museum of the north in discovering that. They were reproducing there. It has an important implication that strongly suggest that they were actually year round residents in the arctic. Now the arctic wasn't as chilly then as it is today but it was below freezing with temps dipping down to around fourteen degrees fahrenheit occasional bouts of snowfall and of course four months of winter darkness. If living in those conditions seems daunting so was obtaining the study samples in order to get an reach our field sites we actually have to drive from fairbanks about five hundred miles north up to prudhoe bay oilfield from there we board small planes and helicopters and we fly out to our field site and then we put together a couple of boats and then we use the rivers up there as our highways when they spot a rock that looks particularly promising usually in a bluff for cliff face along the river they climb up and start collecting sediment which then gets hauled back to the lab to be processed and examined. We wash it. We screen it. We sit and we collect and save every particle larger than half a millimeter. And what we do then is inspect every grain grain by grain by grain under a microscope looking for these little remains the bones and the teeth of what we now understand to be baby. Dinosaurs these itty bitty bones and teeth are way too tiny to have come from an adult dinosaur. Even a we won and they lacked the features one would expect to see in specimens from an animal. That's developmentally mature so far druckenmiller. And his team have dug up species from seven different dino. From big duck. Bill dyno's sarah thompsons and tyrannosaurs to smaller thessaly sores lepto saratov's dramas whores and tro dante's the findings are described in the journal. Current biology now. Why does the presence of baby bones suggests that the dinosaurs weren't just passing through now the reason we think the or your own residence is because if you reproduce in the arctic you have really a very limited time of year to do your business. Egg-laying animals don't usually engage in reproductive activities in the winter so if you laid an egg in the spring and that egg took five to six months to hatch which is what we understand the incubation period to be for some dinosaurs such as duckbilled dinosaurs. Then that means your eggs are hatching out at the end of the summer. Which doesn't really leave enough time to head south for the winter with the family and that raises probably the most important question. So if you're overwintering there how do you deal with the cold. Some of the smaller species like desola- sores and lepto ceratops could have burrowed underground hibernated and other researchers have unearthed evidence that some larger dino species actually sported feathers including young t rexes and their shaggy coated cousin. You taranath hawalli. We're pretty certain that most of these meeting dinosaurs might have had their own down parka as it were to deal with the harsh winter conditions. Even more intriguing. The evidence suggests that these arctic. Dyno's were likely warm-blooded we don't actually find fossils of cold blooded land living animals alongside our dinosaurs. We've never found turtles. We've never find crocs or lizards. The only thing we find besides dinosaurs up there are birds in mammals which are warm-blooded to date druckenmiller and his colleagues have spent decades braving the elements to figure out. What made this remote polar location an attractive place to raise a family at least for dino who didn't mind the cold it's definitely a labor of love and a product of stick to witness particularly when it comes to clinging to an arctic cliff face to collect a bunch of baby teeth for scientific americans sixty seconds science..

arctic karen hopkin Patrick druckenmiller university of alaska museum of alaska druckenmiller university of alaska fairbanks Bill dyno sarah thompsons tro dante prudhoe bay fairbanks taranath hawalli the journal dino
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:49 min | Last month

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific. Americans sixty second sites. I'm karen hopkin. It happens to us all. You might be reading a book or washing the dishes. Maybe even listening to a podcast when suddenly you realize your mind was miles away. Well if you've ever wondered why the mind wanders you might wanna pay attention to this. A new study shows that localized brainwaves resembling those present. When we fall asleep are associated with brief interruptions in our stream-of-consciousness the findings appear in the journal nature. Communications tomas boundary. On of the paris brain institute grew interested in the neural mechanisms. That underlie daydreaming while on an extended road trip with his wife trouble for year over three continents by car accommodating long hours and difficult roads as time rolled slowly by andrea and found. His attention would stray from the road ahead. Indeed somewhere deep in patagonia. I sleep the whole call on the roof just because i was thinking about something else and reacted bad. He when getting back to the real words when no one was harmed but the incident did make andrea on wonder whilst going on in our brain when a mind wonders. It actually happens more than you might think. According to some accounts we spent up to half a waking life mind wandering and it happens most frequently when we're tired or fatigued at that point began interstate in which part of the brain will show an activity resembling sleep. Despise the rest of our brain being clearly awake. It's like part of the brain takes a power nap. But does the same thing happened when an individual's not worn out but well rested andrea undecided to find out to do so. We asked twenty-six healthy bottom to verify rather boring tusk like pressing a button each time they saw an image of a number unless it was the number three as you can imagine. He is easy to switch on the ulta pilot and performs a task mindlessly freeing ample room for mind wandering periodically the researchers would interrupt to ask participants whether they were fully focused or if they were thinking of something else or even nothing at all based on this feedback it seems. Participants were single-minded and fully on task on behalf. Time to find out what was going on the rest of the time. The researchers monitored participants brainwaves by eeg to observe their neural rhythms during sleep. The brain is blanketed by slow waves of synchronized neural activity and the team saw something similar. When participants indicated that they were mentally checked out. These waves off thought to be issues ated with poses in the activity of individual neurons which could perturb neuro processes and two lapses of attention. The only difference was that the slow waves andrea saw during the experiment. Were more localized to particular. Parts of the brain importantly location of the slow wave within the brain could distinguish between different modes of inattention when the slow waves were concentrated in the front of the brain. Volunteers found that their mind was wandering and then reacted to the images impulsively. When in the back of the brain they said their mind was a blank and they failed to respond at all andrea says that makes sense given what we know about what different parts of the brain do for us. Frontal regions are indeed heavily involved in cognitive control in the regulation of impulsively whereas poster regions encoding integrate sensory information enabling us to react to our environment. The researchers are currently exploring whether these slow waves can be harnessed to promote creative thinking which might someday lead to big reward for sleeping on the job. For scientific americans sixty seconds science time.

andrea karen hopkin tomas boundary paris brain institute patagonia
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

06:04 min | 2 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"I guess not every job can ignite your curiosity about the possibilities of tech but the job went fought works can thought works is hiring for rules across the us from senior and lead developers to data engineers infrastructure consultants and more. They're looking for talented technologists to join them. In revolutionizing the tech industry make your mark learn more at fault works dot com slash careers. This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds sites. I'm karen hopkin. What has one head one foot and one heck of an origin story. No it's not a strange new superhero. It's a microscopic worm called a road that was brought back to life after spending about twenty five thousand years locked in the arctic permafrost. Its tail is told in the journal current biology. This is a long-term topic for our lab stassen eleven of the institute of physio chemical and biological problems in social science in pacino russia. He and his colleagues have spent decades probing siberian permafrost and they've managed to revive a variety of interesting organisms from a plant seed and simple bacteria two scores of more sophisticated single celled critters. We have isolated around sergio. Maybe forty trance already unisel care but for some reason people weren't totally wowed by resurrected amoeba. Yeah the dentist is much much better wrote a. I are better or at least more interesting. Because they're multicellular animals with a head and body that can eat crawl around and make more road offers than considering they're more or less teeny tiny worms. There actually cute little guys have guys know. They're all females. In fact these little ladies reproduce asexually laying eggs that hatch into the next generation of self propagating road differs. so they're easy to grow in the lab although not as easy together in the lowlands of siberia misplace is the distance. I go by to your three blames the by bulled over by helicopter than they drill one or two more or halls in older the times People use the first ball hole is a fridge to stalk can grant goals in their nowadays portable. Freezers helps them keep their samples chilled until they get them to the lab. There malone and his team cut a small piece from the center of the core to prevent potential contamination. Modern microbes then. They pop it in a nice warm petri dish. This is cold in enrichment alteration in microbiology because those organisms on contorted folded up and we can see them you microscope so we need to wait until they reacted from descriptive fighters. Come out from this Permafrost start moving multiplying and so on not every sample yield success. So usually we see nothing. It's relatively ray when when something live is isolated from his cause Which is also considered a kind of indirect proof that sounded contamination because if it was sample maybe age. Second sample a you. Son live organism and it's bach one out of two antonio in moravia end in one sample collected in twenty fifteen. The researchers found this one little rhode for they allowed it to reproduce and conducted some dna analyses which showed the although they're frozen wrote a for is similar to modern varieties. It's not exactly the same. We consider to being is the science and based on radiocarbon dating of other organic materials in the permafrost sample. They consider it to be between twenty thousand and thirty thousand years old. That's approximate emulates. Two orders of magnitude more. Maybe three orders maintenance more than Was known for In those animals the previous record for frozen i was a decade or so but this guy i mean gal was around when willie mammoths walked the planet now. The fact that wrote differs can spring to life after a thaw is not a total surprise. Entering a state of crypto bios allows even modern road refers to survive seasonal changes in their local environment and more other assaults. They were actually sand into space. Can space this wide and so on the next step is studying. How wrote a. I can chill for millennia and still maintain their cellular integrity main makes actually this suspension of animation. This expansion of metabolize opt to almost zero in on maybe zero state and so the need energy. They also produce special proteins that act as antifreeze or the control. The formation of ice crystals findings that could someday enhance the preservation of human tissues. That's why we act going proteins that helps to survive in those conditions and when they figure it out maybe did something for scientific americans. Sixty seconds science..

karen hopkin institute of physio pacino sergio arctic siberia russia malone moravia willie mammoths us rhode antonio
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 3 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Bats use echo-location to hunt for their meals and moths are often on the menu but in the acoustic arms race between predator and prey. Moths also have a trick or two up their sleeve nor actually on their wings because a new study shows that most wings are covered with scales that absorb sound particularly the ultrasonic variety preferred by bets so moth and butterfly wings are covered in layers of scales. These are made of a naturally occurring. Polymers called keaton. Which is a polymer that you find in. Most insect and crustacean actually skeletons. That's thomas neil of the university of bristol. He started out by bombarding bits of moth wings with sound and seeing what bounced back. We discovered the moscow actually resonate in response to being hit with ultrasound and they resonate frequencies that pretty much perfectly match the frequencies that bats use for echo-location location vibration convert sound energy to mechanical energy which muffles the echo. The gets backed the bets. The property has an by accident that these scales such a shape and size that there is a new thing at just the right frequencies that they could absorb sound energy from punting bats. Next neil and his colleagues modeled these sound dampening capabilities of an array of different scales. The really cool thing about months. Their scales are all different shapes and sizes. So what we found is that each individual scale will resonate slightly different frequencies on they collectively. They actually absorb ready. Broadband range of frequencies that range covers the frequencies of echo location calls. Findings neal presented at the meeting of the acoustical society america. So it means that the most should be pretty well protected from a whole host of bus that they might interact with out in the wild but does this strategy actually work so we don't actually know how effective these cows are protecting moss in the real world but from everything that we can model a measure in predicted. Seems like they would have quite a considerable advantage in trying to hide these. Moths from bats hunting at night for any bets. That might be listening. Neal says there's not much you can do to thwart this moth maneuver. The only real thing they could do would be to call it high amplitude so to increase the strength of their own echo-location calls such that the eker they got from offered stronger. In other words. You might catch more months with a shout then with a whisper. For scientific americans sixty seconds science karen hopkin..

thomas neil university of bristol keaton moscow neil neal america Neal karen hopkin
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:56 min | 3 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin. They say that practice makes perfect but sometimes the best practice is not on a keyboard. It's all in your head because a new study shows that the brain takes advantage of the rest periods during practice to review new skills mechanism. That facilitates learning. The work appears in the journal. Cell reports a lot of the skills learn in life are sequences of individual actions. Leonardo cohen of the national institute of neurological disorders. And stroke or ninds for example. Playing a piece of piano music requires pressing individual keys in the correct sequence with very precise timing at level of virtuosity requires a ton of practice and a lot of repetition but cohen says it also requires a certain amount of wrestle. We know from previous research that interspersing race with practice during training each advantages for learning a new skill in fact we recently showed that the truly all early skill learning is evidenced embraced rather than using the actual practice. It's during those intermittent breaks. The brain starts to so together the individual movements that make up. Us seamless piece. The question then becomes how to find out. Cohen and his colleagues turned to an imaging technique called magneto and several law griffey or emmy. The unique advantage of msg is that allows us to observe neural activity across the entire brain with millisecond time resolution which is crucial for investing very fast widespread brain dynamics ethan. Bush collin's colleague get ninds. They in their team had thirty. Volunteers sued inside m. e. g. scanner. And they asked them to type the sequence four one three to four una keyboard as quickly and accurately as possible. The participants would type for ten seconds. Rest for ten seconds and then repeat. While the researchers monitored their neural activity in what we found was really quite interesting so we actually found that the brain kept replaying much faster versions of the practice activity patterns over and over again during rests so a sequence that might take one second for fingers to type would take just fifty milliseconds for the brain to replay. So that's an impressive. twenty volt compression. The region's most active were those involved in controlling movement and representing sequences and the more often the brain repeated the sequence the faster the subject improved when the participants were beginning to learn skill. They were initially typing about five. Six repetitions of the sequence during each ten seconds of practice but during rest the brain replayed about twenty five repetitions of the sequence. And that's a fivefold increase over the same amount of time that lightning-quick neural rehearsal superchargers learning and memory. it's as if the brain actively exploited these rest periods to amplify the effects of practice in rapidly. Consolidate the skull memory in. This actually appears to be the skill binding mechanism that we're looking for so next time you sit down to practice give yourself a break for a lot of little breaks your brain and your audience will thank you for scientific americans. Sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin..

karen hopkin Leonardo cohen national institute of neurolog Bush collin cohen stroke griffey emmy Cohen Us
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

05:00 min | 4 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Twenty one bank of america corporation. This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin sounds convey a lot of information. They can alert animals to potential dangers. Let parents know when their offspring are hungry or service. Mating calls territorial warnings. Third just a way to let others in the area know that you're there and it turns out that even embryos pay attention to this natural soundscape. A growing body of research shows that for many animal species embryos use audio from their environment to guide their development a trick that can give them an advantage after they're born so the species that studied labor finch refined that the parents make a special goal. When he's hot and that's those he hickel prepay development of the embryos for heat millan mariot of deakin university australia and she made this discovery by chance. I was studying the communication between the parents at nests. When i noticed said sometimes when your parents was incubating the eggs by itself It was producing a cord. That was quite different to the others san since there was no one else around. She wondered whether that parent might be talking to the eggs so she hung around the aviary and listened in it soon became apparent said to province for only calling to the eggs when you was really hot but what does that do for the developing chicks to find out. Marriot's started the eggs cheat. Take them to an incubator and play them either. These zebra finch heat call or a different call. One that the parents make when they change shifts. Then she'd returned the eggs to their nests when the chicks hatched mary. It film that the birds that had heard about the heat were actually smaller than the others. That was a little bit surprising at the time. But then fans at reducing gross in the heat whose advantageous because individual than produce more babies when they're adults And that's probably because savoy did so costs of growing big in the heat which takes a lot of energy. Birds are not the only ones who learn about prevailing conditions via embryonic eavesdropping in frog embryos. They use the vibration that snake prieto make when they approached the eggs to know that they have to much to fall in the water and then had beaten and cricket embryos pay attention to male courtship songs if it sounds like there's an abundance of available males sh- female speed up their development to take advantage of the situation while the males take their time so they'll be stronger and bigger when they finally emerge other embryos chirp at their siblings to coordinate. Win the hatch. So no one gets left behind and crocodile. Babies talked to their moms from inside the eggs so colder that make down some weather that thereby too much so she can start digging out nest and so that makes it hatching process a lot easier. Fold of the embryos in the coach. Even human embryos can tune in to the goings on so in humans. Renault that fater scan learn to recognize the most of all is and they can also stat recognizing the middle d of the native language. Of course the next question becomes how are these embryos actually listening in through an eggshell or even a womb and more importantly how do they act on what they here i had to go into noodle baiter g and look at how the brain may processes information and how it may be transmitted into changes in development murray had found that in these species the brain regions that process sound are wired up to areas that control things like hormone production work. She describes the journal trends in ecology and evolution. So embryos can respond to this and without really knowing woodsy sondhi's about and so it's not really that the embryos he owes sounds consciously basically it's spontaneous physiological response but it helps them make the kind of sound decisions that will queue them up for future success for scientific americans sixty seconds science i'm karen..

sixty seconds Third Renault Twenty one bank of america deakin university australia One Marriot americans Americans
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

04:17 min | 5 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is scientific. Americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin dogs and their wounds. We like to think our who just can follow what we're telling over well to some degree they can even when they're young because a new study shows that puppies are able to track human social cues at just eight weeks of age before. They've really spent much time with people in their ability to do so has strong roots in their genetics. The work appears in the journal. Current biology we've known for a long time that adult dogs are especially skilled in understanding cooperative communication from humans. Emily bray is a postdoctoral researcher at the university of arizona and the canine companions for independence so for example they can spontaneously follow a human pointing gesture. They're even better at it than apes which are much more closely related to us than canines are evolutionary speaking. So this fakes. The question of why is it a skill the dogs pickup simply by spending time with people. Or is it a trait that was selected for when dogs i became domesticated to find out brian. Her colleagues spent time with three hundred seventy five puppies that were going to be trained to be service. Dogs by canine companions. All were either labradors golden retrievers or mix all. Were around eight weeks old. And i'm guessing all were pretty adorable figured that by working with pups that it spent the bulk of their young lives with their litter mates and mom. She could tease whether dogs have to learn to interpret human communications. Or if it's something they come by naturally. The pups participated in a handful of cognitive test designed to assess dogs social smarts in one experiment. A researcher would hide food under one of two cups and then call to the puppy and point toward the cup that held the treat and we found puppies. Were able to use this social cue effectively choosing the correct location significantly. Above what you would expect by mere chance in another experiment. A researcher would talk to a puppy. Yes you this goes on for about thirty seconds. Yes that during this interaction. The researcher would record how much time the pup spend gazing at her with joyous anticipation and then compared to how the other puppies behaved and what they found. I learned something important about the developmental basis of these skills in the largest sample to date we show that puppies will reciprocate human social gays and can successfully use information given by a human in a social context from a very young age and they do so from the very first run and so it seems likely that puppies really are starting the task with the communicative ability necessary to be successful rather than just quickly learning an association over the course of the task in addition the researchers found that these social skills have a strong genetic component so while many puppies breeze through others just cannot figure it out. And what's really fascinating is that we found a lot of this variation can be explained by the genetics of the dogs. Around forty percent of that variation is heritable. These are actually quite high numbers much the same as estimates of the herd ability of intelligence in our own species so all these findings suggest that dogs are biologically prepared for communication with humans next braces she'll be searching for the genes that are linked to this canine social intelligence. It could help. Breeders select for better behaved pops and it'll give brain her colleagues something to look forward to four scientific americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin..

Emily bray sixty seconds eight weeks first run two cups about thirty seconds forty percent one three hundred seventy five pup one experiment around eight weeks old university of arizona karen hopkin Americans americans
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:53 min | 10 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"If there's one thing we can all agree on it's the taking care of babies is a demanding business. New parents are always on duty and late night. Feedings and fussing leave caregivers. Chronically sleep deprived turns out the issues. Not unique to humans because the same thing happens to bees researchers found that worker bees who care for the brood get less sleep than their sisters because be babies produce chemicals that keep their caretakers away. The findings appear in the journal. Current biology it seems that all animals sleep including the birds and the bees yet this daily phenomenon still remains blanketed in mystery. Exact function of sleep is still a magma but we know that reduced or sleep loss is associated with reduced performance health and survive a motion. Nagai was a post doc at the hebrew university of jerusalem when he started studying sleep in particular he was curious about how animals can sometimes sacrificed shaddai when they've got important work to do especially moms tending to their young killa whale. Mothers for example follow their calves for the first few weeks postpartum and hardly ever sleep in this time for for several weeks rather than swimming along with killer. Whales for a couple of months negoti focused his attention on bumblebees. In these colonies a queen lays the eggs and worker. Bees called nurses care for the resulting hatchlings to start. The gari confirmed that when nurses were housed with larvae. They slept significantly less than bees. Who didn't have babies to attend to. So i envision was that the larvae are constantly signaling to the nest hungry and discipline lean is skipping the nurse bees away so the researchers replaced the larvae with poopie developmental stage. The doesn't require constant feeding and to our surprise. We found the nastiest with puberty slept even than that. We're house with feeding larvae. These babies. it seemed needed the equivalent of swatting. In didn't our we saw the nurses were incubating the. Up expensive sleep. What's more the baby's didn't even have to be there. It seems that simply surrounding the nurses with the cocoons in which the pupa had been resting was enough to keep the caregivers awaken on their toes. Which suggests that babies secreted chemical. That does the work late night cup of coffee. He decent protection is true. This is the first evidence that firms from juveniles can modulate the sleep of caregiver adults in animal keeping adult bees from getting their z's.

negoti Nagai hebrew university of jerusalem the journal swimming karen hopkin
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:38 min | 11 months ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Of having to reach for your night vision goggles. Attract someone's heat signature after dark. Well biotech may someday come to the rescue. For all of you aspiring spies because researchers have developed an injectable nano scale antenna which they've used to allow mice to see beyond their normal visual spectrum. And into the infrared. The work appears in the journal. Cell like all mammals we humans are only able to see light in the visible spectrum which includes all of the colors of the rainbow then limitation is due to the photo receptors in our is being only able to detect radiation with a wavelength of around four hundred to seven hundred nanometers which means we can't see infrared and near infrared light which has wavelengths a little bit longer and that got scientists thinking so we always curious whether we end mansard of technique to allow us to be able to see you for a light tonsure of the university of science and technology of china. He reached out to his colleague. Gone hong at the university of massachusetts medical school who engineered a teeny tiny device which he calls an up conversion nanoparticle. We actually develop nanoparticles <unk>. Upcoming worship nanoparticles actually can effectively the active by this near infrared light then. They started testing their system in mice. The nanoparticles themselves to photo receptors in the animal's retina there. They absorb infra red radiation and converted to visible green light. Green light is absurd by reconciles which the brain then interprets as regular visible light. This enhanced supervision allows the animals to not only see infrared but to discriminate between different infrared patterns so for example they could be taught to navigate toward horizontal stripes versus ones patterns that the researchers themselves couldn't see found that a bit disconcerting. When we do the experiment the sometime it feel the creepy. Because you know if you do not. We're waiting goggles and do the testing we showed the pack into the animal fact to our own eyes. We cannot kill any a kneeing. Fred patents by the inject anymore. Could they can use to cut their behaviors very accurately and efficiently. Hong says that the advanced infrared detection did not appear to interfere with or supersede. The animals standard-issue visual abilities trainer. Mice were able to perceive his life partners in the daylight conditions. Clearly suggesting that none of working in parallel with coincidental waste but we should as well. The technology in addition to its applications in military or law enforcement might even provide a possible fix for color blindness and best of all share notes. It wouldn't batteries these new particles technique is a stealthy and do not need external power the directly the activities of by the game for light itself. The nanoparticles remained active for as long as two months a similar infrared boost. Could some day allow us. Humans to breakthrough are natural visual limitations. See things in a whole new light. Thanks for listening. For scientific americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin.

karen hopkins university of massachusetts me university of science and tech china Fred Hong
Eye Treatment Stretches Mouse Sight Beyond Visible Spectrum

60-Second Science

03:38 min | 11 months ago

Eye Treatment Stretches Mouse Sight Beyond Visible Spectrum

"Of having to reach for your night vision goggles. Attract someone's heat signature after dark. Well biotech may someday come to the rescue. For all of you aspiring spies because researchers have developed an injectable nano scale antenna which they've used to allow mice to see beyond their normal visual spectrum. And into the infrared. The work appears in the journal. Cell like all mammals we humans are only able to see light in the visible spectrum which includes all of the colors of the rainbow then limitation is due to the photo receptors in our is being only able to detect radiation with a wavelength of around four hundred to seven hundred nanometers which means we can't see infrared and near infrared light which has wavelengths a little bit longer and that got scientists thinking so we always curious whether we end mansard of technique to allow us to be able to see you for a light tonsure of the university of science and technology of china. He reached out to his colleague. Gone hong at the university of massachusetts medical school who engineered a teeny tiny device which he calls an up conversion nanoparticle. We actually develop nanoparticles Upcoming worship nanoparticles actually can effectively the active by this near infrared light then. They started testing their system in mice. The nanoparticles themselves to photo receptors in the animal's retina there. They absorb infra red radiation and converted to visible green light. Green light is absurd by reconciles which the brain then interprets as regular visible light. This enhanced supervision allows the animals to not only see infrared but to discriminate between different infrared patterns so for example they could be taught to navigate toward horizontal stripes versus ones patterns that the researchers themselves couldn't see found that a bit disconcerting. When we do the experiment the sometime it feel the creepy. Because you know if you do not. We're waiting goggles and do the testing we showed the pack into the animal fact to our own eyes. We cannot kill any a kneeing. Fred patents by the inject anymore. Could they can use to cut their behaviors very accurately and efficiently. Hong says that the advanced infrared detection did not appear to interfere with or supersede. The animals standard-issue visual abilities trainer. Mice were able to perceive his life partners in the daylight conditions. Clearly suggesting that none of working in parallel with coincidental waste but we should as well. The technology in addition to its applications in military or law enforcement might even provide a possible fix for color blindness and best of all share notes. It wouldn't batteries these new particles technique is a stealthy and do not need external power the directly the activities of by the game for light itself. The nanoparticles remained active for as long as two months a similar infrared boost. Could some day allow us. Humans to breakthrough are natural visual limitations. See things in a whole new light. Thanks for listening. For scientific americans sixty seconds science. I'm karen hopkin.

University Of Massachusetts Me University Of Science And Tech China Fred Hong Karen Hopkin
Male Bats Up Mating Odds With Mouth Morsels

60-Second Science

02:14 min | 2 years ago

Male Bats Up Mating Odds With Mouth Morsels

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin sharing a meal is a standard first step in the mating rituals of many mammals, but Egypt fruit, bats take splitting an entree to a whole other level because males that allow females to take the food, right? Out of their mouths are repaid with reproductive rights and are more likely to sire offspring with their favorite female fruit finagler 's, that's according to a study in the journal current biology, a couple years back researchers noticed that in fruit bat colonies, some bats forage for food while. Other simply snatch it from the forager's mel's. Offices for expanding this Yossi avail of Tel Aviv university has studied these bets for years. Maybe the scroungers were relatives he says, or maybe they're just socially dominant bullies. We observe the mostly scroungers are females. Got the researchers thinking about something of great importance to most animals, reproduction specifically wondering whether. Might than mate with them males that provide them with food. This was. Sex food. I officers that we just you've Ellen his colleagues monitored, the interactions among bats in their colony for more than a year. And the check the paternity of the baby bets that were born what they found is that females were more likely to make babies with those males that provided free meals. But you've Bill says that the process is not strictly transactional. Sometimes they took a lot of footfalls civic individual of made with him. What's important is, is what we think is, is the bonds between the dome. So you this individual is the main provider of the female than the ability that they made. That means that offering free lunches, no guarantee for an Emmers male. But it does up his odds. And unlike human males that boys clearly learned that it's in their romantic interest to chew with their mouths open. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Tel Aviv University Egypt Yossi Ellen Bill Sixty Seconds
Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

60-Second Science

03:26 min | 2 years ago

Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin the microbes in our intestines. Help keep us healthy strengthening our immune systems, and promoting metabolism, but they may also give us a leg up when it comes to moving our legs up and down again, rabidly and repeatedly. Because a new study finds that mice that are fed bacteria isolated from elite athletes. Log more time on the treadmill than other mice that are treated only to 'Bacterial found in yogurt the results appear in the journal nature medicine Alexander caustic microbiologist at Harvard, Medical School was initially interested in hell, the gut microbes of people with diabetes might differ from folks without the condition. The idea being that tweaking the microbiome might help to treat the disease, but the question of enhancing overall health and fitness can also come from the other direction. But here, the question was more. What's unique in the microbiome with someone who is? Supremely healthy? And can we use that feature of the microbiome to transfer into other people to potentially make them healthier and handy window into the gut is poop so caustic, and his crew asked fifteen runners, who completed the Boston marathon in twenty fifteen to provide daily stool samples from a week before the race to a week after they also collected samples from ten people who were decidedly more sedentary and they tell you the bacteria present in each? And when we looked at this data, there was one thing that really jumped out at us, and it was this genus of bacteria that isn't, so, well, studied vinyl, we found that it was very significantly higher in abundance in the gut after the marathon, but not only that it was found much more frequently in elite marathon, ROY. Owners than in the general population to see whether this microbe might provide the athletes with any benefit the gave some to mice, and then let the little rodents run and they found that the mice loaded with via nila spent more time on the treadmill than those that got lactobacillus and this was an increase of thirteen percent. I think any endurance athlete Ernie athlete in general. We'll tell you that thirteen percent increase is pretty significant. Now the interesting thing about viola is that they thrive on lactate, which is a chemical produced by fatigued, muscle, the bacteria, consume lactate and converted into a fatty acid called proprio Nate, then mice that were treated to proprio Nate, which was delivered via teeny tiny Animas to mimic. It's released by gut bacteria. Similarly extended their treadmill time. And so this creates a kind of positive feedback loop and helps us to understand why vinyl might be enriched in elite athletes. And I. Place, exercise produces lactate, which feeds by Annella by Annella produces proprio Nate, which somehow promotes endurance, at least in treadmill trotting mice, which means that, gut microbes may hold the secret to extending that workout without getting hooked. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Nature Medicine Alexander Boston Nila Harvard Viola Medical School Thirteen Percent Sixty Seconds
Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

60-Second Science

02:10 min | 2 years ago

Monkey Cousins Use Similar Calls

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin in the wild monkeys need to keep their eyes peeled. For all sorts of dangers like leopards eagles, and snakes, but the green monkey studied by Julia Fischer, the German primate center, an additional challenge. They also have to scan the skies for drones. Why did we find drone off? Green monkeys. One may ask one may indeed. The answer is that Fisher and her colleagues are interested in how primates communicate then a classic study back in the nineteen eighties. Scientists showed that East African vervet monkeys produce alarm calls that are specific for the predators, they encounter. So, for example, vervet monkeys hearing a leopard alarm might scurry up a tree. Whereas the eagle call sends them running for cover under the closest shrub. Now, the green monkeys that live in Senegal share a similar system to warn of leopards and snakes. But they aren't known to raise a ruckus in. Two birds of prey. And so, therefore, we decided to Adrover them the researchers treated eighty green monkeys to show of drones, how did the animals react to this unfamiliar aerial intruder, the monk is digital spot, and they responded with alarm 'cause, and there is sponsored by running away. But here's where things get really interesting, the calls, the green monkeys made after spotting the drones were different from the ones they used to signal leopards or snakes, but even more intriguing to not clinic analysis these alarm, 'cause they're almost eerily similar to the ones of the East African verdict. The findings are described in the journal nature ecology and Evelyn, the fact that the two monkey species seem tube, speak the same language if you will even though they diverged from their last common ancestor some three million years ago suggests that the vocal warning system is hard wired. So if you hear a monkey go watch out for a hungry bird or check. To see if you've got a package delivered. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Julia Fischer German Primate Center Senegal Fisher Evelyn Sixty Seconds Three Million Years
Bonobo Mothers Supervise Their Sons' Monkey Business

60-Second Science

02:18 min | 2 years ago

Bonobo Mothers Supervise Their Sons' Monkey Business

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all some parents. Get overly involved in their kids. Personal lives. But Bonaparte mothers take this tendency to the extreme they fix up their adult sons with a female of their choosing. And they even keep other males from getting near their future daughter-in-law, the behavior may seem overbearing, but it boosts the odds that they'll be surrounded by grandkids. That's according to a study in the journal. Current biology researcher studying wild bona bows, in the Congo notice that some females behaved a bit like males finding over fertile females and fending off some of the males who come according that observation struck Primatology Martin sewer back as odd. So I just wanted. Hey, what is it actually of their business? No intent most of their mammals. It's just an MA of business this competition over access to females to get to the bottom of this. Unu-. Activity, sore back who is currently at the max plank institute for Evelyn canary anthropology got DNA samples from the players in this melodrama. And so it became more apparent when we did the paternity as the turned out, these females were maters of some males and Indies, female dominated society of Bonaparte, the Motors, ex kind of like social passport allowing their sons to be more central India group, and therefore, having more Oprah -tunities to interact with other females and after the moms introduce their sons to the most desirable, ladies, they make sure the couple won't be interrupted. As a result, we found that may have about three times, higher likelihood to sire offspring by their mom was still alive in the community in contrast mothers of the closely related chimpanzees. Don't chaperone there? Sons. In fact, male chimps are less likely to sire offspring when their moms around seems that chimps prefer privacy for their monkey business. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Max Plank Institute Bonaparte Primatology Martin Congo Researcher Oprah India Sixty Seconds
Unread Books at Home Still Spark Literacy Habits

60-Second Science

02:45 min | 2 years ago

Unread Books at Home Still Spark Literacy Habits

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. We know that reading is good for children and presumably for adults as well. Now, a new study suggests that just being around books has its benefits even if you don't make a point of reading them, a lot, a team of researchers in Australia finds that growing up in a home with a sizable library, enhances literacy, number sense, and even technological know-how in later life, you can read all about it in the journal social science research, the researchers were exploring the advantages of scholarly culture in particular. They were interested in a curious observation that some call, the radiation affect the effect is the situation what children grow up around books, but they don't read books, but somehow books benefit them, even though they don't read them as much as maybe the would like them to Joanna Sikora a sociologist at the. Australian National University. She and her colleagues, parse data collected between two thousand eleven and two thousand fifteen by the organization for economic cooperation and development. The survey assess the literacy, numeracy and technological competency of more than one hundred sixty thousand adults from thirty one different societies and it included a question about how many books participants had in their homes during analysts able to. Was that people who grew up around books on had better literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills than people who have fewer books growing up, but head signal education levels similar jobs. Any similar adult habits in terms of reading are engaging in various numeracy enhancing activities. In fact, teens who only made it through high school, but were raised in bookish environment fared as well in adulthood, as college grads who grew up in a house bereft of books now. How might mirror exposure lead to intellectual enrichment. So if we grow up in house, in a home parents, enjoy books, were books are given as birthday presents and cherished and valued. This is something that becomes the part of identity, and it gives us this lifelong incentive to be literacy, oriented to always kind of still towards books and read. More than we would otherwise to keep those shelves stacked with books, your kids will not only be grateful. They'll be more likely to be able to spell grateful correctly as well. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Joanna Sikora Australian National University Australia Sixty Seconds
Chemists Investigate Casanova's Clap

60-Second Science

02:49 min | 2 years ago

Chemists Investigate Casanova's Clap

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all Cazenove the name is synonymous with a reputation for romantic. Let's say excess but a new study suggests that the real Jacome Cazenove may have exaggerated his sexual exploits none in terms of their sheer volume, but in their infectious aftermath because though Cazenove claim to have suffered several bouts of gonorrhea, researchers could find no traces of the responsible microbe on the pages of the womanisers handwritten memoir. The findings will appear in the journal electro freezes casanovas memoir completed in seventeen ninety eight fills twelve volumes and its English. Translation, runs to thirty five hundred pages in this tell-all casanovas tally some hundred twenty two lovers then confesses to recurring gonorrhea relapses to investigate these claims. Researchers turn to a technique they'd previously used to. Positively identified the bacterium that causes plague on the pages of death registries from seventeenth century Milan. Thus we thought we would be able to detect the gun Opoku on Kazan Avas pages. CC candidate meted in use memoirs have been been infected by gonorrhea in his first sex intercourse at the age of eighteen and having suffer from relapses of the sex Peja his lifetime as a gun lover. Giorgio Righetti, professor emeritus at Milan, polytechnic Righetti and his colleague glib Zuber Stein. Who has a company called spectra fon in Israel developed a hand held device that allows them to capture characterize protein, fragments and other macromolecules from the surface of historical documents such biological materials. Can get stuck to a manuscript when say someone licks his fingers to more easily turn the books pages leaving behind traces of potentially infected saliva, but in the case of Kesse. No. Ova that goes not racist caucus could be detected. They did however find traces of cinnabar a red pigment containing mercury sulfide at the time that chemical was used to treat these sexually transmitted diseases. Do your including syphilis gonorrhea quite likely that cousin Alvin been using macrey suit, find to cure relapse, his taraji. So it could be that as infection was in remission when Cazenove pen the three or four pages of chapters one and two that the researchers were able to examine and that in addition to his way with women Cazenove also had a deft hand with eighteenth century pharmaceuticals. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Gonorrhea Karen Hopkin Cazenove Milan Jacome Cazenove Relapse Giorgio Righetti Israel Kesse Zuber Stein Opoku Syphilis Professor Alvin Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:22 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"Imagine the orange glow of a sunset over the ocean. Or the look on your daughter's face when she met her new baby, brother. Now, imagine what these moments would be like if you couldn't see them our site is a gift won that series. I disease could compromise. But yearly exams from an eye. Doctor can detect them before it's too late. Find an eye doctor today at think about your eyes dot com. Sponsored by the American up to metric association. This is scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. Few things are more satisfying than sleeping late on weekends. But though, the extra Z's may improve your mood. They do not appear to improve your health because a new study shows that so-called recovery sleep cannot reset the body's metabolic clock, and may actually lead to some serious health issues, flip loss can impact a range of physiological systems can increase risk for cardiovascular disease can cause weight gain can decrease insulin sensitivity so increase the risk of diabetes. Christopher Deppner and assistant professor in the department of integrative physiology at the university of Colorado boulder, and this can happen depending on what you're looking at this as quick as just one or two nights of not getting enough sleep a lot of shut off the alarm on Saturday and Sunday, but we go right back to burning the candle at both ends once the workweek begins. So we were really interested in how the sort of psycho between insufficient sleep, we can recover sleep insufficient. Sleep can impact. Or risk of obesity and metabolic disease Geffner and his colleagues invited volunteers to a nine day snooze Ifan one group was allowed to get a full night's sleep. The next was kept just five hours each night. And the third group went back and forth restricted to five hours of shut during the workweek allowed as much sleep as they wanted over the weekend and then back to five hours for the last couple of days the results or he finds from two studies show that when we maintain insufficient short sleep schedules, during a typical worker school week, we find that this leads people to eat more than they need and this leads to weight gain. And when they're eating more. They actually eat more of predominantly after dinner snacks, and this altogether. Also leads to reduced ability for us to regulate our blood sugar levels, Ken Wright, professor of integrative physiology. You see boulder he senior author of the study which appears in the journal current biology. So it seems a loss of sleep leads to a spike in snacking, but even more surprise. Housing sleeping in on the weekend doesn't help. And even makes things worse. We found that after the weekend when they went back to getting insufficient sleep during the work or school week. We found that their liver and their muscle and insulin sensitivity, our Bush deregulation was reduced and this is not something we had found in people who maintain chronic insufficiently schedules. So it's possible that yes, this is a worsening of the body's ability to regulate blood sugar for this specific tissues after the weekend. So make a date with a pillow and treat the sweets for sweet dreams every night. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Geffner metabolic disease diabetes university of Colorado boulder assistant professor Christopher Deppner Ken Wright professor five hours sixty seconds nine day
Grandma's Influence is Good for Grandkids

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 2 years ago

Grandma's Influence is Good for Grandkids

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all living with your parents has its benefits at least when it comes to raising your kids their grandkids because two new studies and to the evidence that grandmothers can enhance the survival of grandchildren that is unless grandma's too old or lives too far away the results appear in the journal current biology, humans are unusual in that the females live long past the age at which they stop having babies. We don't really see that in nature. Most of the organisms will reproduce up to their very last moment. Patrick version, professor of biology at bishop's university in Quebec this increase in post reproductive longevity is often explained by the so-called grandmother affect because family members shared their genes. There could still be a benefit for postmenopausal woman to increase their genetic footprint by helping their daughters to rear larger families to explore. The grandmother affect hypothesis version. Colleagues examined nearly two hundred years worth of French Canadian population records from the seventeenth eighteenth centuries. At the time life was tough in some years thirds of the kids were not even making it to one year of age. But the researchers found that having a grandmother still alive was a definite plus families grandmothers live were larger by about two and survival of these children to age fifteen was much improved. This beneficial effect was only seen when the matriarchs live nearby which suggests that grandmothers help by playing an active role in their grandchildren's lives. Unfortunately, that rolls tougher for them to fulfill as they get older, which brings us to the second study, researchers at the university of Turku Finland us records from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. They found that the benefits associated with having a grandmother on hand depended on her age once nanna hit seventy five the grandchild survival benefit disappeared hen Denham. In other words, it was grandchildren's have no living. Grandmother a toll that it was to live with an old one or one who was in poor health. Simon Chapman a doctoral student biology. This was almost certainly due to some form of indirect resource competition though, rather than wickedness on the parts of resident grandma's so healthy grandma helps make for a healthy grandchild. If over the river through the woods to grandmother's house isn't too long trip. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin University Of Turku Finland Patrick Version Nanna Simon Chapman Bishop's University Quebec Professor Sixty Seconds Two Hundred Years One Year
Human Diet Drugs Kill Mosquitoes' Appetite Too

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 2 years ago

Human Diet Drugs Kill Mosquitoes' Appetite Too

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all believe it or not mosquitoes don't bite out of spite female mosquitoes of the species agent tie. Need the nutrients present in your plasma to ensure the proper development of their eggs? Then though there I may seem on quench people. The ladies actually, take time to savor your blood once they've sip their fill after female bites she'll double her body weight. And then she'll actually completely lose interest in biting people for several days. Laura Duval postdoctoral researcher at the Rockefeller University in New York City, the insects post-prandial recovery phase may divall in her colleagues wonder, whether they could essentially trick mosquitoes into thinking already eaten divall works in the lab of Leslie Voss hall who studies genetics neuro science and behavior. Here's fossil our idea with that maybe the same drugs that would turn off human appetite might actually. Work to turn off mosquito. Appetite turns out that when the Rockefeller researchers fed mosquitoes a drug that's used to treat people for obesity. The insects were indeed less interested in hunting for their next human meal ticket. But the problem was that we needed to figure out how the human diet drugs were actually working in the mosquito. So the isolated the receptor protein with which these diet drugs interact, the receptor, which they dubbed NPR L are seven looks a lot like the receptors that regulate hunger and people the researchers knew they had the right receptor. Because when they knocked it out in some mosquitoes, the drugs, no longer dampen, the insects appetite a finding they describe in the journal cell. In fact, the mutant mosquitoes were all around insatiable said the are seven mutants behaviorally strangely. Even after they take a huge blood meal. They remained thirsty for human blood next divall says they'd like to explore exactly how these drugs act to curb. Females bloodlust does she become less sensitive to the clues teller that humanist nearby? Or is this more like smelling a hamburger app you've already eaten three either way the approach could provide a novel method to limit the spread of diseases that are transmitted by mosquito bite like Dunga and yellow fever and give us a new way to tell mosquitoes to buzz off. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Rockefeller University Leslie Voss Hall Obesity Postdoctoral Researcher Laura Duval New York City NPR Fever Sixty Seconds
Elephant Weight Cycles with New Teeth

60-Second Science

03:19 min | 2 years ago

Elephant Weight Cycles with New Teeth

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin elephants don't diet as far as we know. But their weight does fluctuate at least for the ones who live in zoo. Now, researchers have found that this gain and loss in an elephants mass appears to hinge on their jaws more specifically be unusual way these animals replace their teeth the results appear in the journal mammalian biology, researchers at the university of Zurich's clinic for zoo animals, exotic pets and wildlife were exploring how elephants mass tracks with its overall physique whether the animal is jumbo sized or spelt for an elephant. So they gathered data on the entire population of captive elephants throughout Europe the clinics. Mark is Klaus is a professor of comparative digestive physiology. This was due to the commitment of a student. I had at the time was called Christian Shiffman who is the driving. Force behind all this because Christian visited AC Kate every European zoo. That keeps elephants he returned with records revealing the relative half of the resident pachyderms at first glance. It's operations were not so surprising. As in western societies also zoo, a lot of beings tend to be less than deal poor condition and a little bit more on the obese site and elephants of just the same in that respect. But a deeper dive into the data turned up something curious, and that was that once the elephants reached what you would call adult age and adult body moss. There seemed to be something like assistant Matic cyclicity the data body must going up and down up and down over age. They yellow effect didn't sync with seasonal changes in the animal's diet. And it wasn't because some of the females were getting pregnant and then giving birth. Because the researchers saw the same thing in both breeding and non breeding animals so Christian came up with the idea. Maybe it's related to the tooth cycle and elephants for most mammals us included. Baby teeth are replaced by full-sized adult set. But because elephants are so big, and they're just have to grow to keep up. They go through six sets of chompers each bigger than the last and the new teeth. Don't wait for the old ones to fall out. They push them out from behind during the process there at times when both sets our president wants it's not that the extra teeth themselves way so much it's more like more teeth means more food processing, and that means either they can eat more during those times they can chew better during those times. UT more evidently gives energy chewing also gives Mina g because for more the final the to the more energy. They can get out of this food the ultimate. Formation of a connection between molars and mass may require the cooperation of veterinarians who can ask their elephants to hop up on a scale and say. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Christian Shiffman University Of Zurich Europe Mina G Professor Mark President Trump Klaus Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:25 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all pain, it's unpleasant. But what if pain could be rendered less painful, emotionally, speaking such uncoupling might not be entirely far fetched because researchers of located a set of neurons that seemed to encode the feelings of heard that accompany pain pennies, both a sensory emotional experience. Gregory sure a paint expert at Stanford University much of the resort so far in the pain field as focused on the sensory aspect of pain. Perception in the house, sells, you know, nerves are able to detect stimulated we perceive as painful, but less is known about why most of us find pain so distressing. So sure and his colleagues set out to first dentist, those brain cells that are active when an animal experiences paying the researchers used a miniature microscope to look at the brains of living mice that technology was developed by Mark Schnitzer. Who does neuro science and applied physics at Stanford? There's microscope is small and light enough that it can be born on the head of an adult mouse as the animal behaves in the natural manner. When these microscope wearing mice were poked with a pin or exposed to mild, heat or cold sales in subregion of their Migdal is lit up. So this indicated that there's a type of cell even region of the brain that seemed to specifically encode the percent of fame, but are these sales responsible for sensing pain or interpreting that sensation to find out the researchers shut the cells down, and they poke the animals again. And so when we did that what we observe is that what animal were still withdrawing from the stimulus indicating that they could detect it. So this sensation aspect of pain was intact. They didn't seem to care about the stimulus that is. They didn't make any effort to avoid the place where they experienced discomfort, which is how mice usually to pain. The findings are in the journal science a future part of treating pain could therefore involve targeting these particular neurons, you'd still have the physical part of the pain, but the negative perception of the pain could be diminished, which means still paying but also gain. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Stanford University Mark Schnitzer Stanford Gregory sixty seconds
Targeting Certain Brain Cells Can Switch Off Pain

60-Second Science

02:24 min | 2 years ago

Targeting Certain Brain Cells Can Switch Off Pain

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all pain, it's unpleasant. But what if pain could be rendered less painful, emotionally, speaking such uncoupling might not be entirely far fetched because researchers of located a set of neurons that seemed to encode the feelings of heard that accompany pain pennies, both a sensory emotional experience. Gregory sure a paint expert at Stanford University much of the resort so far in the pain field as focused on the sensory aspect of pain. Perception in the house, sells, you know, nerves are able to detect stimulated we perceive as painful, but less is known about why most of us find pain so distressing. So sure and his colleagues set out to first dentist, those brain cells that are active when an animal experiences paying the researchers used a miniature microscope to look at the brains of living mice that technology was developed by Mark Schnitzer. Who does neuro science and applied physics at Stanford? There's microscope is small and light enough that it can be born on the head of an adult mouse as the animal behaves in the natural manner. When these microscope wearing mice were poked with a pin or exposed to mild, heat or cold sales in subregion of their Migdal is lit up. So this indicated that there's a type of cell even region of the brain that seemed to specifically encode the percent of fame, but are these sales responsible for sensing pain or interpreting that sensation to find out the researchers shut the cells down, and they poke the animals again. And so when we did that what we observe is that what animal were still withdrawing from the stimulus indicating that they could detect it. So this sensation aspect of pain was intact. They didn't seem to care about the stimulus that is. They didn't make any effort to avoid the place where they experienced discomfort, which is how mice usually to pain. The findings are in the journal science a future part of treating pain could therefore involve targeting these particular neurons, you'd still have the physical part of the pain, but the negative perception of the pain could be diminished, which means still paying but also gain. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Stanford University Mark Schnitzer Stanford Gregory Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. So I never really thought I'd study Pena size, but I sort of stumbled on this topic Mark lider, a biologist at Dartmouth College light travels to Costa Rica to study hermit crabs a species called sina Beata compresses. These land crabs do some interior remodeling of their adopted shells, the extensively hollow them out removing Streit's called spiral cholula to give themselves some extra elbow room. The renovation renders. The shells more precious to their owners and two other covetous crustaceans as well. These more valuable shells, though are also more easily stolen since without the spiral. Kolya Mellon signed the shell to grip onto individuals are pretty liable to have their property snatched from them, particularly when they're engaged in other activities like copulation which requires coming part way out of the shell despite his work in the field. It wasn't until lighter was wandering through Ziam that he noticed something about his favourite crabs the really striking thing. Was that scene? Evita compresses the one who social behavior I've been studying for so many years headed unusually large penis, in fact, bigger than any other species the observation gave him an idea, which he dubbed the private parts for private property hypothesis in a sense, the hypothesis posits that in large private parts can be an adaptation extending amounts sexual reach and thus enabling both him and his partner to remain safely tucked away inside their shells, while they copulate thereby protecting the private property of their shells from being stolen during sex Darwin proposed a similar idea to explain why barnacles which are stuck in one place are so amply Dowd did test his private parts for private property hypothesis light or sized up more than three hundred male museum specimens, including hermit crabs that live on land. And it's see any found that crabs that carried custom coverings head the most impressive Kornel equipment at the same time species that got their shells off the shelf had bigger geared than did crabs that walked around with. Oh, shell at all is results revealed in the Royal Society journal open science, it's intriguing to think that this high posses might have greater generality beyond hermit crabs. But like a hermit crab encountering a humdrum. Shell Lantra says he's going to leave that one alone. For me. I'm much more curious about how forms of animal architecture and remodeling in the environment impact social behavior. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Shell Lantra Kolya Mellon sina Beata Streit Mark lider Pena Kornel Dartmouth College Costa Rica Royal Society journal Ziam partner Dowd sixty seconds
Intimate Hermit Crab Keeps Shell On

60-Second Science

02:30 min | 2 years ago

Intimate Hermit Crab Keeps Shell On

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. So I never really thought I'd study Pena size, but I sort of stumbled on this topic Mark lider, a biologist at Dartmouth College light travels to Costa Rica to study hermit crabs a species called sina Beata compresses. These land crabs do some interior remodeling of their adopted shells, the extensively hollow them out removing Streit's called spiral cholula to give themselves some extra elbow room. The renovation renders. The shells more precious to their owners and two other covetous crustaceans as well. These more valuable shells, though are also more easily stolen since without the spiral. Kolya Mellon signed the shell to grip onto individuals are pretty liable to have their property snatched from them, particularly when they're engaged in other activities like copulation which requires coming part way out of the shell despite his work in the field. It wasn't until lighter was wandering through Ziam that he noticed something about his favourite crabs the really striking thing. Was that scene? Evita compresses the one who social behavior I've been studying for so many years headed unusually large penis, in fact, bigger than any other species the observation gave him an idea, which he dubbed the private parts for private property hypothesis in a sense, the hypothesis posits that in large private parts can be an adaptation extending amounts sexual reach and thus enabling both him and his partner to remain safely tucked away inside their shells, while they copulate thereby protecting the private property of their shells from being stolen during sex Darwin proposed a similar idea to explain why barnacles which are stuck in one place are so amply Dowd did test his private parts for private property hypothesis light or sized up more than three hundred male museum specimens, including hermit crabs that live on land. And it's see any found that crabs that carried custom coverings head the most impressive Kornel equipment at the same time species that got their shells off the shelf had bigger geared than did crabs that walked around with. Oh, shell at all is results revealed in the Royal Society journal open science, it's intriguing to think that this high posses might have greater generality beyond hermit crabs. But like a hermit crab encountering a humdrum. Shell Lantra says he's going to leave that one alone. For me. I'm much more curious about how forms of animal architecture and remodeling in the environment impact social behavior. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Shell Lantra Kolya Mellon Sina Beata Streit Mark Lider Pena Kornel Dartmouth College Costa Rica Royal Society Journal Ziam Partner Dowd Sixty Seconds
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

02:13 min | 2 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin all when it comes to Saturn. It's the rings that render the planet instantly recognisable, but it turns out that Saturn was not always so elaborately adorned data from the final orbits of the Cassini mission indicate that Saturn's rings were relatively recent addition forming scant one hundred to ten million years ago, the findings are in the journal science during what's been called the grand finale phase of the Cassini mission. The spacecraft repeatedly go through the gap between the top of Saturn's clouds and the innermost edge of its rings these fly bys allowed researchers to separate the gravitational effects of the planet and its excesses which led to a more precise measurement of the rings mass. They demoss was the missing piece of the parts to that win. They arrange Danieli Durante a post doc at Sepe university in Italy who analyzed the data videoing automated up most of your. Vice with us more action of impurities about one or two percent of the total rings mass. These impurities consists of rocky Mattie coming from other space since these impurities are cumulated over time. These allow us to relate the total mass of the rings we day rage Durant and his colleagues found that Saturn's blank has a combined mass of about one and a half to two times ten to the nineteenth kilograms that's less than half the massive at smallest moon. And when they crunch the numbers the data suggested in age of no more than one hundred million years to put that in context. Remember dinosaurs roamed the earth from about two hundred million years ago until sixty five million years ago and Saturn itself like planet earth formed early in the life of the solar system about four point five billion years ago, therefore fittings formation came long after that of the planet, the shiny new coutroom all might have come from a captured comet or pulverized moon. But no matter how they were made. The rings really do make Saturn a solar system standout. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Danieli Durante rocky Mattie Sepe university Durant Italy sixty seconds one hundred million years two hundred million years sixty five million years five billion years ten million years two percent
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:19 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All monogamy. What makes one species pair off while members of a closely related species? Play the field. The answer may lie in their genes. Researchers at the university of Texas at Austin, we're interested in how complex characteristics arise during evolution. We chose to investigate. This question using anonymous mating systems because animals listening systems are available in all of the different vertebra Clayton's Rebecca young a research, associate and evolutionary biologists. Who led the study able to find species that had independently evolved monogamy in each of these lineages Young's colleague, Hans Hoffman professor of integrative biology ads. So we decided early on that we didn't just want to study a particular group of animals, like mice or fish, for example, or particular group of birds. In compare between monogamy and nominal there. But instead take very broad look across the prince across four hundred fifty million years of Lucien when these fish birds, and frogs and us she at the last common ancestor. The researchers chill is five pairs of species and look to see if they can spot a signature pattern of gene activity that was shared only by the animals that were monogamous and they discovered a set of twenty four genes whose activity in the brain is strongly associated with monogamy, including genes involved in rural development, learning and memory and Coug nation the results appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. And again, this is surprising because they've evolved monogamy independently. And the species have diverse for hundreds of millions of years from one another. So we might expect because of this distance evolutionary distance that gene, expression brain will be quite different. But in fact, we find this share signature that. Seems to be related to the mating system of the organism. No, those chains may not be setting up entirely new patterns of behavior. They may just be building on underlying mechanisms that all species share take. For example, pair bonding Herrmann. One has to tolerate another individual for a long period of time, yet even members of the most intolerant species have to put up with one another at least for as long as it takes to get the meeting done shrews, great example, they tolerate each other for one day year into those mechanisms already exist in in very aggressive species that they just happened for short periods of time. And we think potentially what's going on is as modifications of these conserved pathways that exists in different kinds of mating systems. Get elaborated or modified in the volition of monogamy in principle young and Hoffman and their collaborators could have extended their study of monogamy to humans perhaps comparing. Our gene expression signature to that of one of our less monogamous relatives say chimps the results could suggest whether we should pick up a few extra cards for Valentine's Day. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Hans Hoffman Rebecca young Lucien university of Texas Coug National Academy of sciences Austin Herrmann Clayton professor sixty seconds four hundred fifty million yea one day
"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

60-Second Science

03:19 min | 3 years ago

"karen hopkin" Discussed on 60-Second Science

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All monogamy. What makes one species pair off while members of a closely related species? Play the field. The answer may lie in their genes. Researchers at the university of Texas at Austin, we're interested in how complex characteristics arise during evolution. We chose to investigate. This question using monogamous mating systems because animals systems are available in all of the different vertebra Clayton's Rebecca young a research, associate and Evelyn canary biologist who led the study able to find species that had independently evolved monogamy in each of these lineages Young's colleague, Hans Hoffman professor of integrative biology ads. So we decided early on that we didn't just want to study a particular group of animals, like mice or fish, for example, or particular group of birds. In compare between monogamy and nominal there. But instead take very broad look across vertebrates across four hundred fifty million years of Lucien when these fish birds, and frogs and us she at the last common ancestor. The researchers chill is five pairs of species and look to see if they can spot a signature pattern of gene activity that was shared only by the animals that were monogamous and they discovered a set of twenty four genes whose activity in the brain is strongly associated with monogamy, including genes involved in rural development, learning and memory and Coug nation the results appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. And again, this is surprising because they've evolved monogamy independently. And the species have diverse for hundreds of millions of years from one another. So we might expect because of this distance evolutionary distance that gene, expression brain will be quite different. But in fact, we find this shares signature that. Seems to be related to the mating system of the organism. Now, those chains may not be setting up entirely new patterns of behavior. They may just be building on underlying mechanisms that all species share take. For example, pair bonding Herrmann. One has to tolerate another individual for a long period of time, yet even members of the most intolerant species have to put up with one another at least for as long as it takes to get the meeting done shrews, great example, they tolerate each other for about one day year into those mechanisms already exist in in very aggressive species that they just happen for short periods of time. And we think potentially what's going on is as modifications of these conserved pathways that exists in different kinds of mating systems. Get elaborated or modified in the volition of Minami in principle young and Hoffman and their collaborators could have extended their study of monogamy to humans perhaps comparing. Our gene expression signature to that of one of our less monogamous relatives say chimps the results could suggest whether we should pick up a few extra cards for Valentine's Day. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Hans Hoffman Rebecca young Lucien university of Texas Coug Minami National Academy of sciences Austin Herrmann professor Clayton sixty seconds four hundred fifty million yea one day
Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

60-Second Science

03:18 min | 3 years ago

Monogamy May Be Written in our Genes

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All monogamy. What makes one species pair off while members of a closely related species? Play the field. The answer may lie in their genes. Researchers at the university of Texas at Austin, we're interested in how complex characteristics arise during evolution. We chose to investigate. This question using anonymous mating systems because animals listening systems are available in all of the different vertebra Clayton's Rebecca young a research, associate and evolutionary biologists. Who led the study able to find species that had independently evolved monogamy in each of these lineages Young's colleague, Hans Hoffman professor of integrative biology ads. So we decided early on that we didn't just want to study a particular group of animals, like mice or fish, for example, or particular group of birds. In compare between monogamy and nominal there. But instead take very broad look across the prince across four hundred fifty million years of Lucien when these fish birds, and frogs and us she at the last common ancestor. The researchers chill is five pairs of species and look to see if they can spot a signature pattern of gene activity that was shared only by the animals that were monogamous and they discovered a set of twenty four genes whose activity in the brain is strongly associated with monogamy, including genes involved in rural development, learning and memory and Coug nation the results appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. And again, this is surprising because they've evolved monogamy independently. And the species have diverse for hundreds of millions of years from one another. So we might expect because of this distance evolutionary distance that gene, expression brain will be quite different. But in fact, we find this share signature that. Seems to be related to the mating system of the organism. No, those chains may not be setting up entirely new patterns of behavior. They may just be building on underlying mechanisms that all species share take. For example, pair bonding Herrmann. One has to tolerate another individual for a long period of time, yet even members of the most intolerant species have to put up with one another at least for as long as it takes to get the meeting done shrews, great example, they tolerate each other for one day year into those mechanisms already exist in in very aggressive species that they just happened for short periods of time. And we think potentially what's going on is as modifications of these conserved pathways that exists in different kinds of mating systems. Get elaborated or modified in the volition of monogamy in principle young and Hoffman and their collaborators could have extended their study of monogamy to humans perhaps comparing. Our gene expression signature to that of one of our less monogamous relatives say chimps the results could suggest whether we should pick up a few extra cards for Valentine's Day. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Hans Hoffman Rebecca Young Lucien University Of Texas Coug National Academy Of Sciences Austin Herrmann Clayton Professor Sixty Seconds Four Hundred Fifty Million Yea One Day
Simple Sugars Wipe Out Beneficial Gut Bugs

60-Second Science

02:02 min | 3 years ago

Simple Sugars Wipe Out Beneficial Gut Bugs

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All we all know that stuffing our faces with sweet treats is not good for us in part because it's bad for the health promoting bacteria that inhabit our intestines. Now, researchers have figured out how simple sugars wipe out a particular strain of beneficial gut microbes the on the line assumption that existed in the literature was that simple sugars such as fructose and sucrose which are prevalent western diet are not good for humans yell professor of microbial pathogenesis at Werner Grossmann. Who led the study simple sugars like those in high fructose corn syrup or the table sugar? Formerly known a sucrose we're thought to be absorbed in the small intestine. So a lot of our good bacteria would never actually spoke to them because fiber in complex carbs made of long chains of sugar molecules are harder to digest they make it all the way to the large intestine where they promote the growth of good bug. Dhs like bacteria these data Yoda own Micron microbe found in individuals who are healthy and lean. But now what are works from his shows is that both fructose and sucrose do make it to the column or the microbiome exist and sacond that these sugars impact good bacterium. Even though nutrition is not involved. In other words, the bacteria are not using fructose and sucrose as food instead the sugar service signals that shut down the production of a protein that beneficial bacteria ladies need to colonize the intestine the findings appear in the proceedings of the National Academy of sciences. Grossman says he'd like to explore whether complex police polysaccharide can save bacteria's from this sugary death sentence because then maybe we can eat cake and have our gut bugs too. Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Werner Grossmann Grossman National Academy Of Sciences Professor Sixty Seconds
"Hunger Hormone" Ghrelin Aids Overindulgence

60-Second Science

02:00 min | 3 years ago

"Hunger Hormone" Ghrelin Aids Overindulgence

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All TIs the season for over eating, but it's not just your lack of willpower or the omnipresent holiday treats. No, you can lay some of the blame on guerrillan because new study shows that gremlin the hormone that makes you hungry also makes food and food smells irresistibly appealing. The finding appears in the journal cell reports grill in is produced in the stomach, and it's levels rise before your habitual mealtimes. And after you have an Eaton for an extended period. So the hormone reminds you to put something in your belly. Injecting rats with grilling encourages them to eat and people who receive a dose of Groen, grab extra helping the buffet. But how does the hormone induced overindulgence defined out researchers at McGill University trained volunteers to associate random images with the smell of food. For example, every time they saw a tree they might get a whiff of. Freshly baked bread at the same time, some of the subjects received gremlin others got only sailing the volunteers were then ushered into an FM Mariah machine where the researchers watched their brains to see which parts got turned on by different images. Seems that in subjects under the influence of Gretl in the brain region involved in pleasure and reward lit up only when the volunteers viewed the images they associated with food aromas, their brain pleasure centers were disinterested in images that had not been paired with food smells, also one. Participants were then asked to rate the pleasantness of the images, the ones who'd been exposed to grill in gave higher grades to the food associated pictures. Then did folks who got no grilling. So when visions of sugar plums or the smell of apple pie, get your stomach growl. And you can think or blame your grilling as you reach for a fork, thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Karen Hopkin Mcgill University Gretl Eaton Sixty Seconds
Bone Building Needs Bit of Breakdown First

60-Second Science

02:32 min | 3 years ago

Bone Building Needs Bit of Breakdown First

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. Exercise builds muscle, but it also strengthens bones. Exactly how exercise boosts bone strength is a matter of debate and a subject of scientific scrutiny. Now, a new study in mice shows how a hormone secreted by active muscle cells triggers, bone remodeling, physical activity stimulates the release of multiple molecules from skeletal muscle take Iran, for example, this hormone named after the Greek messenger. Goddess iris is produced by running rodents and by us humans when we do high intensity Arabic training once it's generated iris and improves bone density and strength to find out how Bruce Spiegelman and his colleagues at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School took cultured bone cells and located the receptor to which Iran binds, this receptor protein is particularly abundant on cells called osteo sites. These cells of the master regulator of. Bone remodeling and the most abundant cell type in bone. What we found interesting in. This paper is the magnitude of the effects, we get in terms of iris and acting to stimulate osteo sites and preventing their death in culture. Also their ability to make a key protein sclera Sten under the stimulation of iris scores. Ten is a protein that actually stimulates the breakdown of bone that Iran, which builds bone would promote the production of sclera Ston which destroys it may seem counterintuitive but Spielman says that this bit of bone breakdown that signals the body to engage in some skeletal renovation the results appear in the journal cell boning up on the actions of Irishman could help us work out. How we can derive the most from our workouts and possibly keep our bones dense enough to keep us dancing in our dotage. And the new work identifying the receptor. Also allows us to really a much more easily identify. What are other target cell types for IRA Sinn with particular reference to neural cell types, where there is suggestive evidence by us and others that iris in may play a neuro protective effect in disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and a LS? Thanks for listening for scientific Americans, sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

Iran Karen Hopkin Dana Farber Cancer Institute Bruce Spiegelman Sinn Alzheimer's Disease Harvard Medical School Spielman Parkinson's Disease Sixty Seconds
You Gotta Scratch That Itch

60-Second Science

02:16 min | 3 years ago

You Gotta Scratch That Itch

"This is science Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkin. All everyone knows what it's like to which and the sensation can drive you mad or if you're Yengo son of the Chinese Academy of sciences. It can drive you to explore how the brain tells you it's time to scratch. Our study is aiming to understand the burn mechanism data promote that you just quieting cycle. Itching can be caused by a number of irritants from allergic reactions and abrasive textures to bug bites skin conditions infections or drugs, the usual solution is to simply scratch, but this cycle of scratching if it continues unabated connection damaged tissue like if you scratch yourself, raw and sun notes that effect to treat them for chronic h is still lacking this is largely due to our limited knowledge about the enormity of age over the past ten years. Scientists learned a lot about how the ignore is carried from the skin to the spa. Final chord in contrast when the were little about how the information is processing the brand and how the bring can dynamically modulate the processing of each son in his colleagues focus their attention on the Perry. Akwa ductile gray a brain region known to be involved in handling the closely related sensation of pain. They started by exposing mice to histamine or the anti malarial drug chloroquine both of which trigger scratching, and they found that this issue inducing treatment activates a particular set of neurons within the Perry AC with Dr gray neurons, the produce neuro chemical called Tak one when the researchers eliminated this set of neurons scratching was significantly diminished. And when they activated the neurons, even in the absence of a chemical irritant, the scratching resumed son, thus thinks of these tech one expressing neurons as the ignorance and the brain getting these neurons firing makes animals itchy and gets them to scratch his findings appear in the journal nor on physician yards in the burn can be a potential central therapy. Target for breaking the wishes issue squatting cycle associated with chronic age, which could be a big relief for many irritated people. For scientific Americans sixty seconds science. I'm Karen Hopkins.

Karen Hopkin Chinese Academy Of Sciences Karen Hopkins Perry Histamine Chloroquine Sixty Seconds Ten Years