20 Episode results for "Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology"

The Surprising Power of Compliments

Here's Something Good

09:00 min | 4 months ago

The Surprising Power of Compliments

"At seneca women. We know a great way to advance. Women is to support. Women led businesses and one concern for moms who run businesses is child care especially during this pandemic so we were delighted to hear that p. and g. and its brand secret. Deodorant are partnering with the ywca to help pay for childcare services and programming for more than a hundred thousand women and their families to learn more. Listen to this week's by women. Podcast on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Welcome to this episode of. Here's something good. A production of the seneca women podcast network and iheartradio each day. We aspire to bring you the good news the silver lining the glass half full because there is good happening in the world everywhere every day we just need to look for and share it. Here's something good for today. After a year of kobe many of us are finding that our social skills are a little rusty. We're finally getting more opportunities to meet others. But we've lost some of the social niceties and techniques that make human connection so meaningful. The good news is there's a simple thing you can do to rebuild your social muscle and to raise your level of happiness. The answer is compliments. There's power and giving them and getting them to learn more we talked to lindsey liben psychotherapist and licensed clinical social worker. Here's what she had to say lindsay. Thanks so much for joining us. Thank you so much for having me so let me start by asking. Why are compliments so important in our lives. And why are they so important right now. Compliments allow us to connect with the people around us and really bring people together in a lot of different ways. And i find it. It's a really easy and disarming way of forming a connection. That's especially great because you can use it if you're just meeting someone as an icebreaker or few already know them you can use it to deepen the relationship i find you know. This episode is really coming at such an important time. Because after a year of being told the isolate and keep our distance we're experiencing a social inflection point. I think a lot of people are finding that as immunity rose. and we're unmasking. We're now faced with the possibility of returning to in-person contact and what that might be exciting. It can also be intimidating and leave us feeling unprepared. Actually the american psychological association just released a study that said about half. The people surveyed were actively worried about adjusting to in person interaction. So i think to the audience if you're having a little bit of social anxiety please know that you're not alone. I think it's important to acknowledge that after a year without regular active socialization your social skills will start to weaken interactions might not be as dynamic or is electric as we buy them to be and when wendy's hills there's sort of like muscles they need to be worked and conditioned to the strong when you call up on them as almost like if you signed up to run a ten k race. But you didn't have the opportunity to train of you'd be feeling uncomfortable because you're out of rapids so i find instead of just accepting the discomfort anxiety one of the best ways to alleviate it is to give yourself options and that's where the compliment comes into play because it's one of the strongest and most versatile tools in the well-being toolbox to help you navigate social exchanges. That's great before we get into the specifics of complements what are the positive effects of giving them and receiving them so when you give a received compliments it's actually not just about making the others feel good. It directly improves your levels of happiness in your own relationships. There's actually a really good article from the journal of personality and social psychology. That concludes that when you express appreciation for your partner. Both people become more responsive to each others needs. It allows you to work through the hard times a little more effectively. And i think we can all use a little more happiness and resilience and meaningful engagement in our lives. And i understand. You have a specific technique forgiving complements. What is that i do. That's called the sage approach s. a. g. e. and it stands for specific authentic grateful and empower. And how does that work so it works by starting off to make your compliments sincere. I encourage people to zone in on a specific task or quality or attribute that they admire in another person. I really encourage you to keep it. Simple really skip. The hyperbole over the top planes tend to discredit the compliment. So for example. When you hear people say oh my goodness. That's the best thing i ever ate. Well you probably know. It's not the best thing they ever eat. So don't undermine yourself this leads me to the next part which is authenticity after you have a focus. Try to weave in a personal an action express the compliment from your heart and you strong. I contact if you can really just try to be as authentic as you can. It doesn't matter if it's the highest praise someone has ever received. If it's sincere it will have a much greater impact. The g. in sage stands for gratitude. And this is one of my favorite parts because it allows you to reflect on the goodness in your own life and then express the appreciation for these gifts. It's what's most valuable parts of a compliment because it can also allow you to deepen your connection with the receiver. There's a lot of research. That's out there that connects gratitude with higher levels of happiness and resilience and meaningful connection double win. Because as you start to feel more connected and comfortable the positivity bubbles over into other areas of your life and that actually leads me to the e which is for empowering and this last bit of advice is to direct your compliment towards empowering actions. I encourage people to celebrate the confidence boosting behaviors like if someone didn't awesome job spearheading a presentation or modeling. Courage reflect that back to them because when someone exposes a vulnerability. they're more to authentic positive responses. So if you feel moved share it. I also really just encouraged giving sage compliments whenever the opportunity strikes. Make the morning of the person who you're lot at you know. Or if you catch the eye of an unassuming stander who thinks their head in the clouds the more opportunities you have to practice a more natural it will feel and then when you find yourself in that really important opportunity your skills will be ready and your emotions will be all warmed up. That was incredibly helpful and i have to compliment lindsay for her advice. So here's something good for today. As we start to emerge from our cova cocoons and reconnect with other people. Now the time to discover the incredible power of complements complements. It turns out not only make others feel good. They can also raise your own. Happiness level and strengthen. Your relationships lindsay has a memorable technique forgiving effective compliments or four key elements are sincerity authenticity. Gratitude and empowerment and as lindsay says the best way to get good at giving. Compliments is to do them often in other words. Never miss an opportunity to say something. Nice thank you for listening and please share. Today's something good with in your life. This is kim. Azariah co author of fast forward and co founder of seneca women to learn more about seneca women go to seneca women dot com or download the seneca women app free in the app store. Here's something good is a production of a seneca woman podcast network and iheartradio have a great day for more podcast from iheartradio. Check out the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows what if you could learn from one hundred of the world's most inspiring women. Now you can listen to seneca's one hundred to hear a podcast brought to you by seneca women and i heart radio in partnership with. Png i'm milan. Revere we're bringing you the voices of a hundred groundbreaking history-making and game changing women from around the world. Listen to seneca's one hundred women to here on the iheart. Radio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts.

lindsey liben seneca lindsay ywca american psychological associa journal of personality and soc apple wendy fast forward and co Azariah kim app store seneca milan
The Resource That Showed Me I Have What It Takes (And You Do Too) | Ep. #11

Moving Mountains

12:48 min | 2 years ago

The Resource That Showed Me I Have What It Takes (And You Do Too) | Ep. #11

"I'm christine welsh. Welcome to moving mountains. This is a space for those who wanna climb mountains and for those who don't it's a place for the dreamers who long to scale and possibilities and it's further discouraged who dread the disasters in their way life elitist the edge of both kinds of mountains and sometimes times are every day yes as to god will lead us to the edge of a steep cliff and we're gonna need a little nudge to jump. It's my hope that today you'll feel a little more inspired equipped whipped and challenged to just keep climbing. We will end each episode with a challenge. I'd love to hear your thoughts your dreams and even your disasters and how you're overcoming. We're coming them. One step at a time share your thoughts using hashtag moving mountains and tag. We are that family and mercy house global find me at we are that family family this moving mountains episode eleven. If you've ever read anything i've written you might have picked up on a theme of adequacy or an overwhelm tone. Well you would be right. I wrote these words several years ago on one of the many days i felt i couldn't face the mountain in front of me. I used to think my greatest fear was inadequacy. I believe these words for a very long time. You could never do that. You aren't good enough. You cannot make a difference and this one especially you will fell but the data said yes to something bigger than my capability. I discovered being an adequate not having all the answers not being successful not being enough. These actually weren't my deepest fears my deepest fear. It was rooted in the unleashing of my yes. I realize the unbelievable unspeakable power of that little word with thrust me into an unknown world of faith walking and desperation for jesus and not friends terrified me because i'm still inadequate no matter what i do you what i learned. There will always be something. I don't know we cannot rescue or save or even. Get our kids to listen half the time. How dare we have the audacity to help help another human. I live in that place but when we hush voice and step out anyway we quickly learn. We aren't depending on ourselves ourselves. We are trusting the god of the universe to act through us and that's where our fear allies. What if he asked me to do something that's hard. What if i have to give up something i love what if he uses failure instead of success to reach others and change me me. I love these words by marianne williamson. She says our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light not our darkness that most frightens us we ask ourselves. Who am i to be brilliant. Gorgeous talented fabulous. Actually who are you not to be. You are a child of god. You're playing small does not serve the world. There's nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine as children. Do we were born to make manifest the glory of god that is within us. It is not just in some of us. It's in everyone and as we let our light shine shine we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same as we are liberated from our own fear our presence automatically liberates liberates others incredible words. We were created to shine we were born to make his glory known. We were fashioned to unleash unleash the power of god and we were made to move the mountain in front of us. Being inadequate is scary yes but never obeying in god is far more terrifying standing at the foothills of an overwhelming enormous impossible mountain is frightening but never having the courage to take the first step. It's far worse for years. I felt like god should've asked someone annouce to climb this mountain to start mercy house global to rescue teen girls to fund babies being <music> born in uncertain unlikely circumstances surely they were better equipped more qualified people god a had other women out there who were smarter wiser braver i would wine and complained and my husband and he would listen and he would always always say honey this this inadequacy this overwhelm billing this is why god ask you because you're becoming the person he wants you to be and he is shining and your weakness more recently got his us a practical tool to to show me me in a completely new way before i tell you what this resources. I want to offer a disclaimer. I don't think we should lean too heavily on personality tests. I think that resources like any graham and myers break can be helpful but we should not let them tell us who we are but instead dead hold up a mirror to show us our reflection and gives us a closer look in the mirror after doing some research i i love this quote by pamela rutledge the director of the media psychology research center she said so. Why are we so eager to receive this this kind of information that let's say personality tests offer us about ourselves. She says in spite of the relative sophistication of society today people remain main mystery to themselves as well as others and they are always curious to get a bit of insight as to what they're really like. She goes on to say people like confirmation. Confirmation of their qualities particularly strengths in spite of the frivolously we have all have an existential craving living to be validated and seen and according to a study in the nineties published in the journal of personality and social psychology it revealed three major motives leaves behind self about valuation self assessment which is the pursuit accurate self knowledge self enhancement the pursuit of favorable rable self knowledge and self verification the pursuit of highly certain self-knowledge and that is exactly what strength strength finders a tool created by gallup has done for me. A podcast called five leadership questions summarized strengths binders as a tool so that helps you manage what you're bad at but develop what your best at if you read about the tests or the accompanying book it will tell you that this resource will help help you learn how to develop your greatest talents. Use the customize assessment results to live. Your best life gave you improve proved self-awareness. Show you a new way to explain who you are to others and offer proven ways to improve your performance author. Tom rath who explains a lot about strengths. Finders says from the cradle to the cubicle. We devote more time to our shortcomings than to our strings six months ago. I took the strengths finder tests online and it told me my five strengths immediately. I loved the positivity of this resource because the focus wasn't on my weaknesses i mean who else does it want to talk about those. I'm in no way an expert in any of these tests but i thought by telling you you how one has impacted encouraged me at also might inspire you. I've learned so much about myself through the strengths finder resource yes so my top five strengths strategic a problem solving skill number two belief which is believing in core values number three. I'm an activator which means i'm impatient for action number four command which allows me to take charge of situations agents a number five. I'm an achiever which means i'm driven to achieve. I'll share in the show notes the easiest way it to find this test but in this podcast one of the things that they say is talent a natural way of thinking feeling or behaving times investment asmant which is time spent practicing developing your skills and building your knowledge base equals strength which is the ability to consistently provide near-perfect perfect performance. That's basically a definition. I took the test after a friend and business owner suggested it and she encouraged me to have our staff at mercy mercy house global ticket to because she runs a business and said it had been such a great asset in tool for their business and so we did that and it has been truly enlightening for our staff as a team and as individuals to better better understand how strings play out in the workplace my friends suggesting having a coach come in and talk about their strengths with our are staff the coach volunteer to come in and chat through the results with us as a team of course i didn't know him. He didn't know who i was yes and as we sat around at the table and he read through the combination of strings on the papers in front of him he said i wanna talk about this person and their are unusual combination of shrinks. He read them off and ask. Who does this belong to. I looked around and realized he was talking about me. I raised my hand. I and i said that's me those are my strengths and he said what do you do here and everyone kind of laughed and i said i started mercy house. Global <hes> uh he said that makes perfect sense. You saw a problem with your strategic strength and the activator part of the had to do something to solve it. You possess commands so you could get people to join you as he talked my eyes filled with tears because it felt like for the first time that maybe chesa. Maybe i am supposed to be doing this. It might sound strange that a simple online test could validate me but it really helped me understand that god created did me to do exactly what i'm doing. I've thought about that moment sense in my most vulnerable and weakest moments and god is used it to encourage me me. It has helped me not only understand my staff but also my children as a family. We took the test and it's offered my older kids. Some career guidance based on how god created them in morgan crone who wrote the road back to you an- any graham journey to self discovery says we must find find our real self in all its elemental poverty but also in it's great and very simple dignity created to be the child of god and capable of loving with something of god's own sincerity and his unselfishness so i don't know if you love personality tests or if if you don't but god created you uniquely you the strengths that he's given you the mountain fountain in front of you that is waiting for you to climate you were created a climate not because you're talented ed or capable but because god is going to shine through our weakness but he also has given a strings thinks that will help us on the journey but we have to take that first step so the next time you hear that voice say you could never do that. Ah you aren't good enough. You can not make a difference. You will tell it to hush because it doesn't know how strong you are <music>.

graham mercy house christine welsh journal of personality and soc mercy mercy house marianne williamson Tom rath morgan business owner gallup pamela rutledge director myers six months
2013: The Most Important Contributor to Happiness According to Science by Jay Harrington of Life and Whim

Optimal Living Daily

10:01 min | Last month

2013: The Most Important Contributor to Happiness According to Science by Jay Harrington of Life and Whim

"This is optimal living daily. Twenty thirteen the most important contributor to happiness. According to science by j harrington of life and wim dot com. And i'm just a mollica personal narrator reading to you every day including holidays from the best blogs or articles can find a real quick thanks to anchor for hosting this podcast. Anchor is the easiest way to make a podcast. They'll distribute your podcast for you. So it can be heard everywhere. Spotify apple podcasts. Google podcasts and many more you can easily make money from your podcast to with no minimum listenership anchor gives you everything you need in one place for free which you can use right from your phone or computer creation tools. Allow you to record in. Eddie your podcast. So it sounds great. Download the anchor app or go to anchor dot. Fm to get started and without further ado. Let's get right to our next article and continue optimizing your life the most important contributor to happiness according to science by j harrington of life and wim dot com in the summer of twenty seventeen i spent months in a state of inaction wrestling with myself about a problem is facing. I had an idea for a book. Wanted to write browse worried that a publisher wouldn't be interested in it. I wrote and rewrote book. Proposals research literary agents and wade pros and cons on worry that the book wouldn't be good enough. I feared being rejected by the traditional publishing industry around labor day and the piff anne and came to a resolution. Just right book after all house. I to know whether the book was good enough until there was an actual book in existence to judge six months later the book was published. But i didn't go the traditional publishing route. Shortly after i started to write the book. I decided to self publish with action. The right decision became clear. I wasn't going to put my dream into someone else's hands. I didn't want to relinquish creative control to a gatekeeper. I decided to succeed or fail on my own terms by assuming control. The weight of the anxiety owes feeling lifted the inertia of inaction eased and was replaced by the joy of autonomy. The happiness of freedom ours is a happiness obsessed culture by enlarge. This is a good thing. We should optimize for happiness. Problems arise however when we fail to understand from where true happiness derives for example before making the decision to self publish. My book i was unhappy. Because focus solely on the end result a traditionally published book. I thought that having a publisher seal of approval would give the book in me by extension. The imprimature of higher status therefore unless and until i had a book. Deal outsourcing my happiness by placing control of the outcome in someone else's hands. This led to inaction. Because as long as i didn't actually write the book there is nothing in existence for someone else to evaluate and reject. I could cling to the idea that i had a good book inside me and daydream about the happiness would bring to me once completed but never moved forward accomplished was to make me miserable what i fail to understand. Was that true. Happiness doesn't flow from the results of taking action but rather the taking of action itself indeed according to a recent report by the journal of personality and social psychology. The highest predictor of happiness is not money. Good looks or popularity. It's autonomy which the report defines as quote the feeling that your life it's activities inhabits our self chosen in self endorsed and quote researcher angus campbell explained that quote having a strong sense of controlling. One's life is a more dependable predictor of positive feelings of wellbeing than any of the objective conditions of life. We have considered end quote a university of michigan. Nationwide survey of adults backs up these findings. It found that fifteen percent of americans who claimed that they felt in controls. Our lives reported having extraordinarily positive feelings of happiness. When i was unhappily weighing the pros and cons of how to move forward on my book house waiting around to get picked it was only after choosing to pick myself then. I summoned the motivation to move forward and during the process. My frustration evolved into a happiness and contentment. I focused on the actions within my control specifically getting my butt out of bed early in the morning and writing the book rather than outcomes that someone else could determine. Don't wait to get picked too. Many people export their happiness to the whims of external forces rather than empowering themselves by being independent actors. They chase approval instead of autonomy. This takes many forms from obsessing over social media likes to worrying about being accepted into the right social circles in a business or professional setting it may involve worrying about things like awards. Accolades entitles focusing on these types of outcomes is a recipe for unhappiness precisely. Because they're out of our control people who wait to get picked exhibit. What is called an external locust of control people who pick themselves exhibit an internal locus of control. Someone with an internal locus views themselves as the master of their domain. Who makes things happen while someone with an external locus believes that things happen to them. Start taking small actions like most things in life that matter. Living in autonomous life starts with small consistent forward movement as oxford university psychologist. Michael argyle explained quote for unhappy people. Their time is unfilled. open and uncommitted. They postponed things and are inefficient for happy. People time is filled and plans. They're punctual man. Officiant and quote when your life feels out of control the challenges. You face often feel insurmountable. You need to seize back control. But changing what happened all at once it only happens slowly as quench by taking action momentum will build. You'll feel empowered. You'll start to feel autonomous. you'll sees more control. And the virtuous cycle of autonomy will set an. You'll be more purposeful and intentional with your time. The feelings of listlessness and helplessness. Over outside circumstances will subside. He'll procrastinate less and take action more most importantly you'll be happier. You just listen to the post titled the most important contributor to happiness according to science by j harrington of life and wim dot com so my days have been pretty busy especially recently and one of the last things on my mind is taking a supplement though. I know it's good for me to make sure i'm getting my vitamins and minerals is not enjoyable experience that i look forward to daily in the end the only habits that lasts or the ones. I enjoy that something we've talked about on this show before that's why town on created a range of instant beverages packed with the benefits of six functional mushrooms. These delicious drinks are made with potent fruiting body extracts and are not only pleasure to consume but provide a wide range of wellness benefits including in miss to your immunity gut health energy and mental clarity. There are seven different flavors to choose from and all their drinks are. Usda or ganic vegan gmo free gluten free and sugar. free visit their website at tayo. Non dot com. That's t. e. o. N. a. n. dot com and use the code old to get fifteen percent off your first purchase. That's town on dot com with code. Oh l. d. to get fifteen percent off your first purchase and i have that linked to in this episode description. They could say this is not at all. What i expected is going to be even after narrating over two thousand articles for you many about happiness. I thought it was going to be all about relationships yesterday. I talked about my personal experience of tracking my income and expenses every day for over ten years. And the other thing i track during much of that time that i didn't mention yesterday was what i did that day. Really really short description of events and then also my mood that way. After some time and enough data i could go back and sort spreadsheet by my best mood days and then see what those were. Those days spent with other people saw my conclusion at the time was that happiness for me was making sure i got enough of those days and spent with family and friends now. Too much of a good thing is usually a bad thing. Plus many of us would go crazy. We spent all our time with other people so moderation is key but you get the point all that to say. This article was about something else entirely control. My brother talks about this optimal health. Daily that we often think many things are out of our control and sometimes that actually is the case. For example he has a chronic disease in the actual fact of having it is out of his control at this point but what is in control is managing it so we can take apart those things i feel out of control and make the best of those cases and for everything else moulders so much in our control that we often don't even think about so they get ajay for the reminder. Think about how you can take control of your own destiny today. Man all see you in tomorrow. Show where optimal life awaits.

j harrington mollica angus campbell journal of personality and soc Michael argyle Eddie wade wrestling apple university of michigan Google oxford university Usda
The Surprising Power of Compliments

Here's Something Good

08:57 min | Last month

The Surprising Power of Compliments

"Here's something good. From the seneca women podcast network and iheartradio is a great way to start your day on the positive side of life brought to you in partnership with don and swiffer. Did you know that. When couples share household chores their relationships get better. It's called closing mature gap and to find out why it's so effective. We talked to psychiatrist. Dr gals salts for her great advice plus tips on how to make chores easier. Listen to the. here's something. Good podcast on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Welcome to this episode of. Here's something good. A production of the seneca women podcast network iheartradio each day. We aspire to bring you the good news. The silver lining glass half full because there is good happening in the world everywhere every day. We just need to look for in share it. Here's something good for today. After a year of covid many of us are finding that our social skills are a little rusty. We're finally getting more opportunities to meet others. But we've lost some of the social niceties and techniques that make human connection so meaningful. The good news is there's a simple thing you can do to rebuild your social muscle and to raise your level of happiness. The answer is compliments. There's power in giving them and getting them to learn more. We talked to lindsey liven psychotherapist and licensed social worker. What she had to say lindsay. Thanks so much for joining us won't get so much for having me so. Let me start by asking. Why are compliments so important in our lives. And why are they so important right now. Compliments allow us to connect with the people around us and really bring people together in a lot of different ways. And i find it. It's a really easy and disarming way of forming a connection and that's especially great because you can use it if you're just meeting someone as an icebreaker or if you already know them you can use it to deepen the relationship i find you know. This is really coming at such an important time. Because after a year of being told to isolate and keep our distance we're experiencing a social inflection. Point and i think a lot of people are finding that as immunity rose and we're unmasking were now faced with the possibility of returning to in-person contact and what that might be exciting it can also be intimidating and leave us feeling unprepared. Actually the american psychological association just released a study that said about half. The people surveyed were actively worried about adjusting to in person interaction. So i think to the audience if you're having a little bit of social anxiety please know that you're not alone. I think it's important to acknowledge that after a year without regular of socialization your social skills will start to weekend and interactions might not be as dynamic or is electric as we bite them to be and when these skills they're sort of like muscles they need to be worked in conditioned to the beasts. Strong when you call on them as almost like if you signed up to run a ten k race but you didn't have the opportunity to train. of course you'd be feeling uncomfortable. Because you're out of practice so i find instead of just accepting the discomfort anxiety one of the best ways to alleviate it is to give yourself options and that's where the compliment comes into play because it's one of the strongest and most versatile tools in the well-being toolbox. Help you navigate social exchanges. That's crate before we get into the specifics of complements what are the positive effects of giving them and receiving them so when you give and receive compliments it's actually not just about making the others feel good. It directly improves your levels of happiness in your own relationships. There's actually a really good article from the journal of personality and social psychology. That concludes that when you express appreciation for your partner. Both people become more responsive to each others needs. It allows you to work through the hard times a little more effectively. And i think we can all use a little more happiness and resilience and meaningful engagement in our lives. And i understand. You have a specific technique forgiving compliments. What is that i do. That's called the sage approach s. a. g. e. and it stands for specific authentic grateful and empower. And how does that work so it works by starting off to make your compliments sincere. I encourage people to zone in on a specific task or quality or attribute that they admire in another person. Really encourage you to keep it simple. Really skip the hyperbole over. The top lanes tend to discredit the compliment. So for example. When you hear people say oh my goodness. That's the best thing i ever ate. Well you probably know. It's not the best thing they ever eat. So don't undermine yourself this leads me to the next part which is often tizzy after you have a focus. True weaving a personal connection. Express the compliment from your heart and you strong contact if you can really just try to be as authentic as you can. It doesn't matter if it's the highest praise someone has ever received. If it's sincere it will have a much greater impact. The g. in sage stands for gratitude. And this is one of my favorite parts because it allows you to reflect on the goodness in your own life and then express appreciation for these gifts. It's one of the most valuable parts of a accomplishment because it can also allow you to deepen your connection with the receiver. There's a lot of research that's out. There that connects gratitude with higher levels of happiness and resilience in meaningful connection. Another double win because as you start to feel more connected and comfortable. The positivity bubbles over into other areas of your life and that actually leads me to the which is for empowering and this last bit of advice is to direct your compliment towards empowering actions. I encourage people to celebrate the confidence boosting behaviors like if someone didn't awesome job spearheading a presentation or modeling. Courage reflect that back to them. Because when someone exposes vulnerability they're more receptive to authentic positive responses. So if you feel moved share it. I also really just encourage giving sage compliments whenever the opportunity strikes. Make the running of the person who brewed your lot. You know or if you catch the eye of an unassuming bystander who thinks their head in the clouds the more opportunities you have to practice more natural it will feel and then when you find yourself in that really important opportunity your skills will be ready and your emotions will be all warmed up. That was incredibly helpful. And i have to compliment. Lindsay heard vice. So here's something good for today as we start to emerge from our covid cocoons and reconnect with other people. Now's the time to discover the incredible power of complements complements. It turns out not only make others feel good. They can also raise your own. Happiness level and strengthen your relationships lindsay has a memorable technique forgiving affective compliments her four key elements are sincerity authenticity gratitude and empowerment and as lindsay says the best way to get good at giving. Compliments is to do them often in other words. Never miss an opportunity to say something nice. Thank you for listening. Please share today something good with others in your life. This is kim. As a rally co author fast forward and co founder of seneca women to learn more about seneca women go to santa dot com or download the seneca women app free in the app store. Here's something good is a production of a seneca woman podcast network and iheartradio have a great day for more podcasts from iheartradio. Check out the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Here's something good from the seneca women podcast network and iheartradio is a great way to start your day on the positive side of life. Brought to you in partnership with don and swiffer did you know that. When couples share household chores their relationships get better. It's called closing mature gap and to find out why it's so effective. We talked to psychiatrist. Dr gail saltz for her great advice. Plus tips on how to make choices. Easier listened to the. Here's something good on the iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your podcasts.

Dr gals seneca lindsay american psychological associa lindsey don journal of personality and soc apple Lindsay kim app store Dr gail saltz
#11: Weird ways to de-stress. Water like a plant. Shave your face. Table time.

4 Things with Amy Brown

36:06 min | 2 years ago

#11: Weird ways to de-stress. Water like a plant. Shave your face. Table time.

"Hi, my name's Joshua, David Stein. I'm the host of the fatherly podcast here with my co host Jason gay eight refute heads with questions questions about what legal cannabis means for our kids who designs. Awesome playgrounds. Why are we don't think we're funny? True. We talked to a daredevil about managing risk and Gardner from Brooklyn who went to fight ISIS and Jamie, Oliver about failure. I learned a lot me too. So listen, you might learn a lot to thanks dad. Subscribed to the fatherly podcast on the iheartradio app, or wherever you get your podcast the mail. Never. Okay. Little life. Pretty he was pretty beautiful. Because he. Kick with four with Amy Brown episode eleven here, we are. And Kerry at Nashville beauty girl. She is for sure gonna be on this episode talking about face shaving so super pumped about that. And then I have my son Stevenson on his well talking about something super simple. But also something really important that I think we all need to pay attention to and then oh, hey, buddy ours. You're talking about you, you want to come say hi to everybody and tell them that they need to listen to your segment. Yeah. Okay. Say listen to my segment listen to Smick in segment state-linked segment. Good job. You got it. You know, you've had your own segment before a lotta times Stevenson or my daughter stature, they'll just be in the intro, but you've had your own segment before with your protein pancake recipe. Yes. Yeah. People liked that one. And then you're going to be on today's episode with your own segment, and you wrote a song for the segment, which I think people will appreciate because it'll help them remember to do what we're. Going gonna talk about. And then personally me I've just been feeling a little bit stressed lately about some stuff. I don't even really know why. But I've got weird things that can make you less stress. So if you're feeling stressed like me, I I know when I'm getting stressed because I do things like pull out my hair or I start to pick it my face. It's like I want to torture myself when I'm feeling stressed or something. Oh, which speaking of picking at your face, just a reminder the TLC is taking on the Super Bowl this weekend with a six hour marathon of Dr pimple Popper it's going to air on Sunday. February third the same day as the Super Bowl from five pm to eleven pm. And that's on TLC. We're going over to a friend's house for the Super Bowl. So I'll be watching the game. But I may have to sneak into another room and watch this like, Dr pimple Popper marathon Stevenson, do you have anything you want to say to people before we get started. Yes. Oh, what do you wanna say? Hi. Hi. That's it. Okay. How about you say enjoy the episode in the episode? I love you. Hi five. Okay. Let's get started. If you're feeling stress than I've got some weird things that can make you less stress. Now, this isn't your typical like find a corner in your room. That's quiet and be alone. And breathe. I mean, sometimes we just gotta get some stuff done. And this stuff will actually help you knock some stuff maybe off your to do list, but you'll walk away from it less stressed. So here you go five weird things that can make you less stressed number one washing dishes. So a study found that people who practice being mindful while washing the dishes, you know, like smelling the, soap and feeling the water temperature being in the moment. They felt more inspired and less nervous after they were done. Number two, decluttering your home research suggests that having a cluttered house can cause increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol throughout the day whenever I'm feeling nutso. My husband knows that. If we just do a ten minute P you which is. I got that for my sister. She's got four kids, and she does like ten minute to us all the time. If you just do it ten minute pickup session. That's what the p you stands for I instantly feel better. So yeah, really work on that. It will help your stress level. I can speak to that. Now. Number three. This one's a little odd. But y'all I have read this multiple times from different sources, and it is sniffing your partner's laundry. A study last year in the journal of personality and social psychology found that just smelling your significant other's clothes can make you feel calmer. Now when I read this awhile ago, it said that it had to be there thirty close like not they're clean laundry. But maybe they've worked out, and then they have like some of their sweat stuff on there. I don't know. Anyway, this isn't the first time I've heard of this. So I'm passing it along to you guys. And if you're feeling stressed, then go to your dirty clothes and sniff your partner's laundry. See if it helps number four exercising and a group. According to a study exercising with a group reduced. Dress about twenty five percent better than working out alone. And I really feel like maybe you get energy off the people that you're working out with I know that that happens to me at times, and then I ended up having a better workout, and then that releases all kinds of Austin things 'cause you know, working out releases endorphins and endorphins make you happy and happy people don't kill people. I don't know the exact quote, but that's from legally blonde. Pretty sure that's close enough number five dwelling on your failures. In a study last year. Researchers found that writing about previous failures help people to be less stressed when they encountered another difficult situation later on and I feel like that's true. We learn from stuff that we haven't done the best stat like when we failed we hopefully grow from it. And I think when you take time to reflect on that, and how you've grown it'll help you handle better situations in the future kind of makes me think of bobby's book, so I'll go ahead and shout out fail until you don't right here written by Bobby bones. So check out that book if you have not. So there you go by have weird things that can make you less stressed hope at least one of those. We'll help you guys out. If you're feeling a little stressed out these days. For this next thing. I brought in Stevenson my son to help me talk about it. Now, we're talking about something that's fairly simple topic. I feel like it's something easy. It's something we all do, but we all struggle with at the same time. And Stevenson, you wanna say hi to everybody. I have. And do you want to sing your song? That's going to introduce the topic. Okay. Ready? Go. Have. Okay. So thank you for that intro song, buddy. Those really good. What do we talk about at home all the time that you need to drink water? Yes. Into make your P clear. So something that we struggle with in our house with Stevenson ashira, is is hydration. Sometimes win their mood is certainly I'm like, you know, what I feel like maybe they just need water because it really can't affect your mood just sort of like a plant when you water a plant comes back to life. I feel like we're the same way in the doesn't just have to do with kids. It has to do with adults as well. But it's something I noticed in them in particular. So we have really upped our water game. Right. Stevenson. We're trying to drink a lot more water because we don't want your P to be yellow, right? The other yellows bat. Yeah. Man. Okay. You want to be clear. I think that what what is another thing we talk about too. 'cause you're like why is water? So important will our bodies need it like high percentage of our body is made up of water, and we've got to hydrate, and I've told you before too you can go weeks without food, but you can only go three to five days without water. That's how important water is. Do you wanna sip of water? Yeah. Oh, we'll go. Grab it go grab your bottle. So I think that we can get busy with our day, and we can drink coffee and think we're doing good. And the next thing, you know, we've had like five cups of coffee and not that much water, which coffee's fine, but it can dehydrate you, and you just gotta make sure getting enough, and I used to think I just needed like eight cups of water, but I really been upping my water game. And I probably drink ten to eleven cups, and I was doing a little bit of research before I came on here. And it says now women should drink ninety ounces a day, generally speaking, I mean, your height and your weight they play a role, but generally women ninety ounces which is eleven cups of water, and then men should drink one hundred twenty five ounces, which is sixteen cups. I mean, it seems like not too long ago. We were just saying you needed eight cups of water. And so now, it's eleven for me. And then sixteen for my husband, which is a lot. And I know my kids are barely even getting that. But now that we're monitoring your P colors too. We're making sure that it's clear, right. You can play it. One more time. Guilty ease. Okay. Yes. So I know it sounds crazy to be checking the color of your P. But if it's clear that means, you're staying hydrated. So I thought I'd run through some of the benefits of drinking water just as a reminder, and again, this is so simple. But sometimes we need that reminder of. Oh, yeah. Like if you really sat down and thought about how much water you've been drinking, the past few days, would you fall into how to gory of hydration and you've had enough? Or would you be really volley into the category of like you need to go grab water, and you need to be carrying around water with you all day long as you're clearly dehydrated. Okay. So here are the benefits of drinking enough water. Versus increases brainpower and provides energy it flushes out toxins. It promotes healthy weight management and weight loss improves your complexion. Hello, we all want. That maintains regularity. If you know what I'm talking about boost immune system prevents headaches prevents cramps and sprains helps regulate your body. Temperature prevents backaches improves, your heart health prevents bad breath. Takes the edge off hangovers, and it just. Fought out put you in a better mood, which is funny because that's something that I've noticed with my kids too is when they're kind of in a bad mood, if I just water them like a plant. I make sure he'll put one Stevenson. I don't ever put water in your eyes. I put it in your mouth say, buddy. Go make sure you're having your water can put water on my face. When I go to sleep. It doesn't work that way. I wish someone would just water my face and that worked because sometimes you just really don't feel like drinking water, especially in the wintertime. It's hard in the summer. It's definitely a lot easier. But anyway, I know this was like super simple. But sometimes I need the reminder, and maybe you guys did too. And then Stevenson you wanna close us out with your song. So people can remember your little jingle to drink water. Do you have to make? Okay. Everybody dream water say by Stevenson. Bye. Do you know what I love meeting friends after work at a local brewery, maybe gathering around an old barrel or something sipping a well. Crafted juicy IP awhile discussing personal finance, Matt, buddy. You're totally speaking my language, except I'm pretty sure most peeps in this scenario aren't talking about money with their friends because that's a super awkward topic. Why does everyone make it so weird, dude? I know right. It doesn't have to be that awkward, and we'd like to talk about personal finance, especially weekly in my dining room over a craft beer on our podcast how to money whether we're talking about ways to cut your grocery Bill creating side hustles or traveling the world on less. We're having conversations about personal finance and how it relates to normal people who want to enjoy life in also be money smart. That's right. We're all about making these topics relatable and enjoyable, so it's something you'll want to talk about the next time you meet up for drinks. So if you wanna level up your personal finance game, then beard, listen and subscribe on apple podcast, the heart radio app or wherever you get your. Podcast just search for how to money. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts. I love all of our four things items that we have but pretty obsessed with our latest one it's an all for love pool over, and it's so cute. It says love just four times in a row. Really simple. Love love love love. But it's in pink brace. So it starts like pink fades into like this hot pinkish purplish and then into red. It's so adorable, but it's super limited edition. In fact. I mean, you should go and see if your size is still available these shot, Ford dot com under a spa because spa means hope in Haitian Creole, and you can feel super good when you wear this knowing that it went towards spreading hope in Haiti. So check out the four things all for love pullover at the shop, floor dot com. So I think I started shaving my face about five years ago. So Kelly who I have on here from velvet said, she does fashion stuff. She got me shaving my face. And I remember the first time I did it. I was so nervous. I was freaked out. I was ashamed. I didn't want anybody to know. I remember Bobby, and I were in New York for work. And I think I said to him have something to confess, and he looked like a what is happening. And I just said I shave my face. And I I wanna talk about it on the show. So I'm super embarrassed. I don't know how to handle it. But I wanna go I think people need to know about it. So what did he say? I do too big deal. Yeah. I don't really know what he thought. But we did it. I came on air. I think we've been teased it like you're not going to believe what Amy's doing he probably built it up for few days. And then I came on and confessed, I shave my face, and it just. I honestly I can't believe I went so many years without shaving my face. But nobody had ever told me about it. I knew I had all this little peach fuzz, but you hear these rumors like if you shave then it's going to grow back thick, and, you know, obviously, learn that nonsense. So all this being said for starting that face shaving segment that I've been talking about. And I've got carry with me. She's at Nashville beauty girl. She's been on before. And she's going to talk to us about maybe what you've heard about face shaving. And then why it's like really really good for us. It does sound strange. I mean, it's definitely like oh shut my face. Like you're saying earlier, and it's doesn't have to be like shaving cream and a BIC razor in a mirror type of situation. I mean, although I have a big razor before my husband said, I I don't care if you shave your face. I just don't want to hear you talk about shaving your face. And I don't ever wanna walk in on you, shaving your face on you say that because with. My husband because it's kind of like twice a week. My little beauty routine. I do at night, you know. And and so I kind of hear split steps. And I'm like God, I wanna get my mirror and do this. But he's gonna come in. And what if Nick myself, and then if he sees that? And it's just I don't know. I ought out attractive, and I mean, we're like skin medical people. I don't understand. But yeah. So well, first of all, you we you have another name for it. So I think of other like prettier names like scalpels facial, or, you know, facial razoring, you know, I'm like, oh, yeah. Scuffle facial. It's basically pretty much reality. What it is. So in the office are used a medical grade mechanical tool, it has a handle on it in a scalpel it's blunt ended in so I can get a little closer in office by doing it. I believe in doing a wet Dermot plane in so a wet Dermot playing just means that there's a cleanser or something on your skin. So that it. Actually, I teach my patients to do this at are doing it at home. So it prevents you know, as many chances of getting little nicks and things like that Dermot play into something that is next billion is pretty much seeing the peach fuzz off your skin. So your products at home, penetrate better or in the office for doing it with the treatment in Kelly situation doing make up it makes your makeup go to a whole next level. You know, because you don't have that peach fuzz kind of in the way. And so it makes for good canvas for makeup. It's something that doesn't take a lot of time. But it just makes a big difference. And it's not going to grow back thicker. No. So what I are tell patients, and I personally think myself too is you know, when you're used to your skin me and really smooth, and it starts to grow back a little bit. And you're not used to that. It's like, oh, what's what is that in? So it kind of makes coming back thicker, and it's not. It's not. No, I can I again, I've been doing five years and it has not come back thicker. Yeah. And again, it's so scary to do it the first time so. You could get some your girlfriend's together. And y'all could have a we're not calling face shaving. You have. What are we calling it? Carry scuffle facial y'all can have a scalpel facial party and shave your faces basically, and you know, you mentioned the BIC thing. So sometimes if I've been a odds on that too. Yes. In a bossy see in the in the shower, and I'm like, I feel something. I didn't get that area will grab it. Yeah. Just grab a razor and go for it. But there are these handy. Little facial hair. Raiser things that we're have I seen my daughter goes to hair world because of their hair or hair world herald. Okay. I mean, I don't know in Nashville, we have all these places called hair world in. It's where I go to get stuff for my daughter's hair. And they have the facial array was there. But Amazon also have them in one great strange names. It's called tinkle. Yes. They also have flamingos a left-wing goes in the teen goals. And then I brought you some today. These are the ones I get at Walgreens Revlon makes. Some and they're actually called a called facial defender. Let me see that name. I know what are you doing? I'm defunding that sounds better than shaving and maybe has been like four dollars in. So honestly, they're not going to be as, you know, sharp for as I might have in the office to get like a really close Dharma plane. But I mean after one, you know, and if your extra fuzzy, you might have to go through to and then tall, some, you know, and right, but like I like to use them I feel like when I when I use these at home. I definitely will do it twice a week. Okay. So twice a week and the new at night. Well, I mean. Yeah. Now, if I'm like right now, I'm peeling 'cause I just did a chemical peel two nights ago. So I'll use it this morning to kind of get some that dead skin cells off, and then put, you know, little bit hydration on my makeup on. So just kind of helps kind of get through retin-a peel if you're peeling from from from doing at home retin-a or doing like a chemical peel in you're starting to feel a little bit. So, but if I'm not doing anything my favorite way to do. It is yet night when I have my own minute. You know, like the bath be running and shut the door and maybe glass of wine there before I started planning, obviously. But I'll have facial steamer which can get those on Amazon to okay. Yeah. Tell me about the facial seamer because I don't have one you said live twenty bucks on Amazon. There's a great one. I'll send it to. You can also get there's they go to a hundred bucks, but you can put your face over a stove if you want to before it sure in so just to get a lot of hydration under skin. So that your skin's not as dry when you're Dermot planning or when you're pointing yourself makes for less just cuts, and it makes for easier glide. And so when I usually put my facial steamer on and then I'll do my cleanser. And then I'll be you know, shaving my face. And then when I'm done I might put on like a sheet mask or a mask, or I'm definitely putting on like, my vitamins or buck. Like a vitamin serum or even retin-a night because those products are going to penetrate down deeper, you don't have this layer of just outer layer of dead skin, and then some peach fuzz, they're so well, I will sometimes do it around my crow's feet area. Have no idea if there's if this is true or not in my brain. I feel like it's helping lessen the wrinkles that are there. So is that is there any truth? I think it's totally fine of. Yes. I definitely think that if you have just I mean, as we get closer to forty you know, you know, you've got a little bit of crows feet normal. I so if you have skin that accumulates in those it just gonna Larry us, dry dock legally in your products, your cream will work better to okay, and I just pulled up on Amazon right now. And there's like three or four different facial seamers. They all look like the same. They're all different brands, but they're all in twenty to thirty five dollar range. I'm sure all of them work equally finds if you just type. In to Amazon, which is what I just did face steamer. For facial something awesome will come up, but then on Instagram, I'll try to link whatever carry since me, I'm radio, and then she's at Nashville beauty, girl and no joke. Carey literally brought a mirrow in her and cheese on shaving her face while we're talking so. No, if you hold your skin taught tell like around your quick if they have the the facial raise, and this is the razor. That's the Walgreens, but tinkle tinkle. Yeah. So tell people to do you go upward motion or down. So like it's starting to area when it kinda hold my skin taught. And I'm just gonna do look at a forty five degree angle in an I'm going to go up with it. And then also gonna go over to the side with the too. You can go different angles here there to see that layer of dead skin impeach. I mean, that's that's like you pump. It a pimple. It is pretty satisfying. You see the skin on the little rat or saying, you're kinda like, okay? This is awesome. And I like to get around I lip area has around the mouth when you open like I'm the corners. That's the trick. So before I did this. I thought was walking around with this little peach fuzz mustache and in. The sun is totally obvious thing with peach like us is that is that it won't be you use laser hair removal for that has to target like a fair skin and dark hair the laser just loves you. And you know, we might get a little couple those hormonal ones, which you can have I had a hormonal. What is it hair comes out of my chin, and I need to go get zapped. It idealimage because it's so embarrassing. Sometimes I don't notice how quickly it grows, and they don't we still long and I get mortified like oh my gosh. Did anybody see it? But I always have to take a tweezers to it. And I ended out. I know I'm saying I'm the same, but yet being fair haired girls, and then also just having peach fuzz, I mean, this is like the best. To do it. And you're getting two and one satisfaction expulsion. And then in the peach fuzz, also. Yeah. Okay. Awesome. Well, thank you for coming on to talk about facial sculpting already forgot full-face. Scaffold facial. I'm just calling it face shaving. I'm shave my face. And you know, if if you're nervous to do it don't be just I'm gonna do it to Tori, all and post on Instagram page. Okay. So head on over to national beauty girl. She'll have to to'real up and you're not alone. There's nothing to be embarrassed about can't believe I was so embarrassed about it for so long. And now, I really don't care obviously, doing whole gas on it. I shave my face. I have to pluck hairs outta my chin like whatever it just happens. I guess the older you get the less you care because and you just wanna share with other people what what's worked, and I think when do good work. Good. How's it gonna cost when you do? Good. You look good. And you look good. You feel good. When you feel good you work backwards last. I love it. We have a saying that we're not very good. Sorry, bobby. You look good. You feel good. You feel good. You for me? I work better. I work. Good. I continued get paid. We're really good motivational speakers here me in Kerry. Okay. Well, thank you for coming on. And we're gonna have carry back on she's our Goto beauty girl. So anyway, get your Tinkle's out and start shaving. So this last Sunday at church in the message eating around the table with family and friends came up and just how important that is. And I mean, there was way more involved in the message. But that was a huge takeaway for me and my husband because I feel like we have noticed that our kids really enjoy being around the table. We just aren't very good at always making it happen. And like before we came became parents in the last year leading up. I mean, we were trying to be parents for years and years when we talk about having a family, we're like, oh, yeah. We're gonna eat around the table every single night. But life is just a little crazy kids stuff works stuff. It's definitely more difficult to get around the around the table. Now. My husband he grew up eating around the table with his family pretty much every night. My mother-in-law will cook a meal, and they would gather around, and that's just how it was my circumstance was a lot different. I grew up with. My mom. I mean when I was in junior high I had my sister. She was in high school, but she was really busy in on drill team and very active, and I don't remember us all three of us gathering around the table together and my mom worked. And then by the time, I was in high school. It was just me, and my mom, and she was working. And I just remember like, you know, we would pick food up or if she cooked something we weren't necessarily eating together or we eat in the living room. And I just don't remember mealtimes family, even my dad was at home like he moved out when I was eight eight or nine years old. So the I still don't remember family time around the table. And my dad loved food food was his lovling, which he would cook. My I will say my sister and her family, they are really good at mealtime around the table, and they've got four kids and she's done a great job with them. And I don't know if some of that is credited to them always making a point as much as they can to have meals together around the table. I don't know. Maybe there's something to it. But all know is over this last year of being a mom and dad to Stevenson and stuff sheera. I have noticed when we gather around the table. They may they thrive off of that something in their personality really comes out, and they share more about their day. And we laugh, and it's just it just really good. But again, you kind of forget the weeks go on and then you're kind of we have a bar area in our kitchen where they can sit on barstools, and I can be cooking and cleaning and talking to them, and I can knock out other stuff. Maybe I'm not really hungry, but they can eat, and it's just not the same feel, but they're getting food, and we are together. But it's not like when we're gathered around the dining room table together. So my husband, and I after we left church like, okay, we have got to start doing this. This is what we wanted to do when we got kids, and we just not been good about making it happen. So, of course, Sunday night made dinner, and we all sat around the table. And we had the best time almost confirmed everything. And of course, I was really observant of every little detail because I was like is this really worth it some fantasy. I have where I think they're better around the table, and we bond more. But no it really was. I was in tune with what was happening, and they are different people. And I feel like afterwards they were different and we felt closer. And there was so much laughter. And my daughter was like can we play a game? Like when we got done. She wanted to to play game together as a family. So it led to more in. I will confess that that was on Sunday. And we haven't been able to gather around the table since then, but our new goal is to at least try to make that happen to two three times a week in it's hard because my husband's schedule, and then sometimes my work schedule is a little bit different. And honestly, some mornings I have to wake up so early that I like to eat dinner at four o'clock, and my kids are ready to eat dinner. But we've just got to make it happen like. I don't know how we're going to get those two to three days in every night. Just because scheduling, but we're going to try to commit to it. And that would be my challenge all too, and I'm right there with you is that even if it's just one night a week or one night every two weeks. I mean, 'cause I know things can be nuts. But let's just try to gather around the table with our families. And and have that time together. First of all, I think eating meals around the table like other things that are good for you. Besides the the fellowship with your family is it slows us down. And even digestive Lee. Speaking digestive is the word, but when it comes to your digestion like when you're slowing down and you eat slower, it's better for you. And then Secondly being present is really important. And that's what I was focusing on Sunday. I was like, okay. Well, I'm really in this. Nobody has their phones out the TV's not on were all here. There were sharing stories like were in the moment. It just felt really good. And then Thirdly that leads to connection connecting with others in an archaic. So I was connecting with my husband and my kids, and it was really good for us. So those are three little things that I think, you know, observed when that was happening as I ate a lot slower, which I know is good for me. I was present in the moment. And then we had a connection we were connecting with each other. And maybe you're listening to this. And you're like, well, I don't have a husband and kids or wife and kids will maybe there's some friends or friends with families that you could hop in on some family meals and get that get that fellowship that you're probably craving to you. Just don't know it that would be really good for you to have. And then if you are a family, and you have single friends in your life. Then maybe you do the part where you invite people over and have them gather around your table with you that something that our pastor was challenging us to in the message on sun. Day was you know, inviting people in and especially people that are maybe they're your friends, or maybe you don't know them that while you need to get to know them, or maybe they're totally different than you. It's good to have that diversity at the table. So I don't know. This is something that was on my mind, though, I thought I would share with y'all too and see how you felt about meals around the table. If there's any tips you have for me for organizing this or making it happen. I will gladly take them because I know that a lot of you out there are wiser than me, and maybe have more life experience than me. And I'm open to that. But yeah. Eating around the table. Let's try to do it more. Whether you got a family, whether you're single whether you got friends, whether you got whatever just gather around the table together. That's a wrap on today's episode. I really appreciate Carey at Nashville beauty girl on Instagram for stopping in to talk about face shaving. I love when I get to have guests on and they're taking time out of their day to come chat with us. So I really appreciate it. And we'll Stevenson he was on hope you'll like everything else that we talked about. And then I've got my Email shout out here. This one's from Aaron and I chose this one because it's got a tip in here for anybody else. That's listening and trying to write things down in case. I'm sharing something that you want to remember. So it says, hey, Amy, I'm absolutely in love with your four things podcast Thursdays. Are my new favorite day of the week? I was listening this morning to the most recent episode and wanted to jot down the recipe for your deodorant. I'm sure you can do this with other podcast listening apps, but on apple podcast, you can slow down or speed up. You're listening. Pace. I've used the time in half speed when I've been away without WI fi. And I'm behind on my daily dose of the Bobby bone show. But today in an attempt to get your recipe written down without having to press. Pause. I used the halftime feature. I was laughing hysterically in the parking lot of the elementary school. I'm a nanny so shout out to all the nannies out there. If you need a good laugh. This is a must you sounded like you had a little something extra in your glowing green smoothie, thanks for all that you do and all that you are already eager for next Thursday, Aaron and Virginia. So I chose this again because it's tip. So you can speed up podcasts or slow them down. I think is pretty amazing. If you're in a hurry and trying to get through something I listen to things or from listening to an audio book. I listen to it on the faster pace. And sometimes the summit of I can't listen to it too crazy to I don't know what they're saying. But speeding it up definitely helps. But I never thought about slowing it way down. If I was trying to write down a recipe. Easy. So I don't really know what she was implying when she said sounds like a huddle something extra might glowing green smoothie, but may be that. I was uncomfortable and needed to go to the bathroom on route. So Aaron thank you for that tip. And it's a good one. I will share recipes from time to time on here. And I'm sure yeah. A lot of you were driving multitasking or doing other things when you're listening to this podcast. Oh, you may not necessarily be able to stop and write it down, which sometimes stuff that. I talk about I've got recipes up on my Instagram. Maybe I'll make a highlight page, I'm at radio Amy on Instagram, and then speaking of radio, Amy, we do have radio, Amy dot com. Purchase the website trying to get that worked out. So that way I can use that as a place to send y'all and then you won't have to write anything down. You won't have to listen to me talking really really slow. So you can jot it down the Aaron thanks for the tip because I'm sure a lot of people didn't even know they could listen to podcasts on a faster speed to help you get through faster. Sometimes I don't want a podcast to end. So I want it to be the full Inc. Like because it's entertaining me while I'm doing something else. But audio books for sure or have Steph. I'm really trying to get through. But I want to absorb the information. I'll just listen to faster. Okay. So hope everyone is having an awesome day. Hope you enjoyed this week's episode. If you want to subscribe to this podcast, if you haven't already please do it. If you want to write a review that would be amazing to we really appreciate that a big shout out to Elizabeth and Mike d forgetting this up on itunes, and I heart radio and then shot out Walker. Hayes for the song. Joy. Little. Pretty pretty beautiful thing. Back a little. Kick with. With Amy Brown. This is Ron burgundy telling you to listen to my podcast. Here's a little something to whet your appetite right now, I'm a little terrified because I don't know what a podcast, let's take some calls. Caller, number one. You're on with Ron burgundy what's on your mind? Callers. No callers. No because people aren't listening in real time. Schick got it. If you are listening to this and have downloaded by mistake. Please turn it off. Now, turn it off. We have some the crews here. Okay. All right. Okay. You're torres. Your horoscope is come on pull you together. You defecate? It was reduced to my basic angle. Rumba? Vailable whatever podcasts are found.

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Compulsive Eating & Weight Gain

Dishing Up Nutrition

43:50 min | 2 years ago

Compulsive Eating & Weight Gain

"Welcome to dishing up nutrition with license nutritionists and dietitians from nutritional weight and wellness. We explain the connection between what you eat and how you feel. Stay tuned for practical real life solutions for healthier living through real booed nutrition down. You got to make the mom and last just kicking down the cobblestones fun crew. Hello. Lamppost what election know account to watch you? Good morning. Welcome to dishing up nutrition. I'm darling Kevin. I'm a certified nutrition specialist, and I am the founder of nutritional weight and wellness. You know, twenty five years ago. I started nutritional weight and wellness with one small office located over a pizza place. And only one very part-time helper and myself, you know, over the years, no, Trish weight and wellness has grown to seven different locations. That's amazing. Well, you know what? Amazing. It wasn't all planned. It just happened. So you know, now we think about what we're doing that nutritional weight and wellness. We have our radio show dishing up nutrition. It's fourteen years we've been doing this now. Yes, and we have an online presence. We have podcasts, addition of nutrition, we're on social media. There's some of these things that I don't even know what it means. Of course. You know, we have numerous corporate accounts where we provide nutrition education at lunch and learns, and I know joy you teach a lot of those. Yes. You know, our staff includes club dietitians or nutritionists and over twenty nutrition educators teaching a variety of classes. And one of those dietitians is JoAnne right out who is joining us today as our co host, and we're talking about compulsive eating and weight gain. Yes. JoAnne. What do you think about opening up the phone lines today to take calls from listeners who are really frustrated with their lack of self control? You know, they end up compulsively overeating and of course you know, they gain weight because they're eating things that right goal right into the fat cells, right? Make making the wrong choices then yes course. So you know, I think if if you're brave enough this morning eight. And we get anyone a call in and say, why? Why am I doing this? What's going on? Yeah, we'll try to explain it to people. That'd be great. And first of all, I'd like to say good morning, Dr grades and being here with you today. We were trying to remember how many years it's been since we were together many men a few, yes. So that talking to the listeners this morning sounds like a great idea. We are taking only taking callers who have specific questions about compulsive eating or or examples or questions. Our number in studio is six, five one, six, four one one. Oh, seven one. And I However, I wanna share a recent study reported in drug and therapy perspectives. This study found that thirty percent of women who sought treatment to lose weight, have a binge eating disorder. So is interested in when you say that the thirty percent of women. It's kind of kind of the way you said that it makes me think if you've been on a diet. Yeah, per thirty percent of those people turn into compulsive overeaters could be. I mean, that's my interpretation. Yeah, or have a compulsive eating problem. Yes. But an another interesting statistic is at seventy two percent of women who are alcohol IX also have a binge eating disorder. Interesting. Isn't it? Those numbers are very interesting. Yes, seventy two percent. That's very high. That's high. So before we talk more about research and take calls, I want to share a little more about how nutritional weight and wellness came to be. You know, back a few years ago quite a few years ago. My first degree was in psychology in my second degree was in education, so I actually taught school for twenty years. And then what happened is. I got this passion for nutrition in a directed me onto the path of understanding the power of food of real food. So understanding it from the point of view of how it affects our bodies in how it affects our brains. And you know, at that point in my life, I was about fifty five years old and I was starting this new adventure with very little financial support. Right? But I knew I just knew intuitively that that low fat high carb plans that were being recommended in medical offices in schools in hospitals, you know, in diet clinics was basically wrong for most people, right? You know and just was wrong when I was training for this company. I remember some of the initial reading that we that we, I, I went through. I think it was Gary tubs had said that even in eighteen hundreds, they knew that yes, very high carb diets were wrong. Right? So why did we go back to it? We certainly went back to it. I don't people still have a hard time, believing the fat isn't the truth. Right? It's true. And so Dr I know you enjoy reading research really liked to think about what makes sense. That's what we're talking about. That's what I like. I like, what does it what makes sense? Right. So back twenty five years ago while you were starting this company, I was working as a dietitian at courage center, and I remember we had clients who needed good nutrition to support the healing of both their bodies now for an injury, and also their brains after brain injury. Sadly the popular process, carbs and low fat diet was not very healing for those clients. But unfortunately. Early that was clinically recommended at the time. And so you had to do that, didn't you? Yes. And our regulations really monitored that. So just kind of think about this for minute research indicated that that high sugar process carb, low fat type of diet is one that leads to inflammation one that leads to diabetes weight gain and compulsive eating. Definitely. And so that that I think we need to repeat that. Uh-huh. A high processed carb and low fat diet often leads to compulsive eating, and that makes so much sense because when we know when we eat carbs, we want more right. So I was a mastered following a low fat eating plan, but I also remember being hungry all the time, especially in the evening. And so many of our clients have that evening snack issue. So I remember once I did start snacking, it was difficult to stop. So now I still at times my blood sugars off balance. I may grab too many nuts in the evening when I'm not thinking, but at least I making a better choice. Yes, a lot better choice than the sugar used to grab or the I used to grab handfuls a serial. But of course, that was just sugar, which was actually, of course, probably almost worse than the sugar for sure, yes, which is hard for people to under. Stand, right? They don't realize that you're getting kind of tacked by two things. Right. And I remember taking great pain to read all the labels and try to find the best serial, which is just a joke. Right. You don't as an attrition of this, you know? And that's I, we have interesting conversation before we went on air about some of this we did and how it affects us personally. Right? You know, blood sugar affects most people. Absolutely. So it affects us to? Yes. So so you know, as Patricia us when working with a client, you know, I try to figure out why my client is struggling with compulsive, binge type of behavior. And my first step is always, and my first question is always about sleep. That's right. I'd say. So how's your sleep? That's right. How many hours do you sleep each night? Because you know, extensive research has been conducted about sleep and weight gain. The bottom line is if you're short on sleep, you'll gain weight. So what does that mean short on sleep? Well, you know what comes to my mind is four or five hours asleep, which is we see a lot of clients like that. Don't we? We do so it isn't that people are eating more because they're awake more. It is what is happening to your hormones when you don't sleep? Yeah, that's right. We actually have to hormones controlling our appetite that are affected by our sleep. Leptin is the hormone that tells us we are full when we lack sleep. The concentration of lepton is decreased. So less lepton equals more hunger. So you are never really feeling satisfied, and you always feel the need to. Eat more so Joanna, I know you're going to say we need to take a quick break, but let me finish my sentence there. Yes. Think about that listeners when you don't sleep enough, you don't make enough left and and then you're hungry and but it's more it's a different kind of hunger. You're just not feeling satisfied, right? So, yeah, that's so now it's time for our first break. You are listening to dishing up nutrition and today we're discussing causes of compulsive eating. We found a very interesting article to share with you about self control. It was published in the journal of personality and social psychology, and is titled self control relies on glucose as a limited energy source. Willpower is more than a metaphor. This article takes a look at self control and its findings show that the brain relies on sufficient glucose as its energy source to give. Self control. We always talk about balanced blood sugar. We do has exactly the same thing. Yes. So be sure to stay tuned because after this break we're going to share a technique you can use to have more self control. Yes, and we'll be right back. There are some things we wish for you to do what everyone else can do hop in your car. Go to work slip right into a movie seat. Now there's a perk by key genes right off the rack dance at the next wedding to love shack, play tag with your kids and hear them say that was the most awesome day walk your dog jog or both. Just 'cause he can comfortably fly coach all the way to Japan be there on graduation day, especially if it's yours and you got your MBA meet your greatest love and ride off into the sun. This is your life. Go live it. You've only got one. If you think you've tried everything to lose the weight that's keeping you from your best life. Think again, learn the new science of weight loss in the nutrition for weight loss program at nutritional weight and wellness onsite or online. You can do this. We'll help you. You're not alone. This is a promise not just upon join us at weight and wellness dot com. Back to dishing up nutrition. You don't before break. Joyon was sharing an article about self control. The authors of the article described self control as the -bility to control one thoughts. Emotions urges n. behavior and I, which made me think much of that self control behavior today is focused on eating behaviour, especially out of control eating behavior, which is compulsive eating, been shading, can't stop with one behavior white, right? You don't after reviewing nine different research studies, the author phone that self control relies on your brain having the civic energy source. That's right. And that's right. And I think of it this way. So for our cars to work properly, they need a specific particular energy source. So for most cars today, that energy source is. Gasoline. You put gasoline in your tank. You turn the key. The engine turns on and then you drive off. So going back to that article according to the article, self control also relies on a particular energy source and that energy source that our brain needs to function is the correct amount of bull glucose, right? You know, as I said, this article looked at nine different research studies from these nine studies. The data indicates the lack of self control is often caused by low glucose or low blood sugar rate for, let's talk more about that on, right. And as a day Titian, I certainly understand low blood sugar and the out of control eating that can occur occur when I haven't taken the time to eat. It happens to us all to have to all of us in also to have self control. We need a steady supply of glucose tour brain. So low blood sugar or low brain glucose leads to lack of self control and compulsive eating. So then the question becomes, what can you do to make sure you have adequate levels of blue Koss we don't want to much right, and we don't want to little right. We need a steady supply of glucose. So to end that compulsive eating, our first recommendation is to eat in balanced every three hours. Easy to say, right, but hard to do it is it can be. So if your goal is to help self-control, then follower suggestion eat real food every three hours. That's right. So you have to be, you have to kind of think, okay, how 'bout going to do this, you know? Right. And so that's that's what we need to think about. Exactly. So we were talking about. How much lepton is produced. When we sleep. And you you, we're going to talk a little bit more about sleep. Aren't you Dr Liam again, when we lack sleep, that concentration of leptin is decreased in less lepton equals more hunger, and you never really feel satisfied. So when we think about eating every three hours, probably gonna our next recommendation is to sleep. Yes, seven half eight hours. Isn't that amazing? Yeah. And how many people do that? Right? Exactly. Not very many. Not very many. So again, you know, some of us you may be thinking. So how much do I need to make sufficient amount of hormone of of that leptin hormone and again, seven and a half to eight hours. Good sleep most nights, right? But what happens if you only get five hours a night, you know, I think look think about who that might be. It might be a night shift nurse. Sure. And we hear this story all the time. We do night shift nurse and a parent of two young children, and you come home, you get the kids off to school. You go to bed at nine thirty in the morning. Yeah. And you sleep till two thirty? Right? Because you know, you wanna get up because the kids are coming off the bus. Sure. So nine thirty two to thirty five hours asleep in a when you write that die in nine th out nine thirty two to thirty. It feels like that's a lot of sleep, right? But if you do the numbers, right, it's five hours exactly. So most people sleeping only five hours per night. They won eight sugar nonstop because their leptin level is low. That hormone level is low. Yep. It's what we call. It's a hormonal biochemical response to the lack of sleep. That's right. It's the hormone that says, stop eating. And it just isn't doing its job. Right, because there isn't enough of it. That's right. And and there never will be when when you continue that schedule? Yes. So we have also another hormone affected by the amount of sleep we get. And that hormone is called growling. So the lack of sleep increases the level of the hormone Gretl in which tells your brain that you're hungry and not satisfied. So again, when your leptin is low and your grill in is high, it makes perfect sense that you are totally out of control with your eating. Exactly. Yes. How many people realize that we are? Actually, our sleep mix too, and portent hormones while we'd actually. Yeah. Yeah. So you know research on sleep from the university of Chicago, and you know, the university of Chicago has done just tons and tons of research confirms our findings that with the lack of sleep, your appetite increases and you're not satisfied? Yes. You wanna eat more and more and more. You just can't get satisfied even though logically. You look at how much of eaten and say, I should be feeling satisfied, but I'm not want more. Yes. Let's see. You might be asking, how did I get into having too much growling and not enough lepton. So remember both of these are hormones and when they get out of balance that that happens because you're not sleeping enough. So we need at least seven and a half hours at least, ideally we need eight to nine hours of sleep most nights to have balanced, appetite hormones. Exactly. I think that's the other thing is if you're going from five hours and you know that you need pay nine hours, you're going to have to probably do it and steps until your body gets used to sleeping that much. Right. But it does make a difference. Right? And it's like the nine hours gives people that healing. Time for their body. So if you're not sleeping enough. What can you do it about it. You know, maybe you're a person and we know people like this. They have poor sleep habits. I call it. They're busy doing nothing for two or three hours before bedtime there per cast donating procrastinating about going to bed. So then you stop back and say so, okay. What do I need to do to change that behavior? Right? And a lotta times I'm working with clients, you know, when they're describing this behavior and a lot of moms say, it's the only quiet time I have. Oh, so they just sit there and be just because to get things done, but not very successfully. Right? But if that is you and you struggle with compulsive eating, let me suggest meeting weekly with one of our dietitians or nutritionists until you have formed a new bedtime habit. You know, join unite both at worked with a lot of people. Yeah, I had that. I have just poor sleep. Hygiene is what. They call it right people the. Sleep becomes the last thing that they are concerned about, right, but in they need guidance, right and commit con consistency in a commitment remains those changes. Exactly. This sounds really simple, but the reality is you need to be in bed at least eight hours to get eight hours of sleep. That's no brainer, right? And so as dietitians, nutritionists at nutritional weight and wellness, we help people form new sleep habits and reduce that compulsive eating right? Exactly. So lack of sleep puts a blanket kind of over your control button. You know, it gets muffled out so researchers at the university of Chicago sleep center discovered that after just two to three nights, a being short on sleep hunger, pangs rise and there's an increase in your appetite. Wow. So just think about that couple nights you start losing control over your eating, right? Yeah, that that's, I mean, John McCain, isn't it? It is. It is definitely. So it's time for break and you're listening to dishing up nutrition brought to you by nutritional weight and wellness. I'd like to remind you of our menopause survival seminar coming up Saturday, November tenth that's coming up quick. Yes. If you're struggling with menopause symptoms and want solutions come spend a day with us, join Dr and Chris and myself for a day of finding the solutions to your menopause symptoms. So you can call six five one, six, nine, nine, three, four, three, eight or register online at well, weight and wellness dot com. And we dig into a lot of different symptoms during that we do a lot of times people say, oh, I'm through menopause. No, but I always say, no, this is really about a women's health. It is class though. It's very helpful. And so sometimes we have people that are like in their thirties, all the way up to ninety five come to that class. Anyone in Perryman Apollo's. Yep, Yep, also. Good. Okay, we'll be right back. Okay. Well, welcome back to dishing up nutrition. You know, next week we have a highly anticipated show for many of you. Yeah. Yeah, this request so many times nutrition for hair growth and how to prevent here. Life hair is an important one for people. It is. You know, last week I read a study that found that we need to eat at least twelve owns a protein daily to maintain hair Rothe. We need protein redo so. So this is we know is very popular topic. So, hey, tell your friends to tune in with you. That's right. So if you wanna sign up for or if you want to know more about this, just check us out on nutrition for weight loss or weight and wellness dot com. Right. That's right. That's a great topic. That when you said that always reminds me of nutritionists kinda share stories about how how much better their hair is. Oh, yeah. After they follow her eating plan, so there's another motivator. That's right. So here's some other facts back to sleep about the lack of sleep. So researchers have found that a lack of sleep affects the functioning of your prefrontal cortex. That is the part of your brain that helps you make thoughtful decisions. So that lack of sleep correlates with the lack of good decisions that interests that is very interesting. So actually lack asleep equals lack of self control. No compulsive eating is typically not an emotional or not. 'cause from some bad childhood memories know rather, it is often caused from a lack of sleep very often. It's hard for people to wrap their head around because the haven't heard that for years and years and years and years. No. And and in our society, we have minimized our need for sleep. Yes, exactly. For so many years that people have a hard. Time at just into the idea of eight hours. They really are shocked to hear that. Not maybe not shocked, but thinking, how am I gonna do it? Exactly, right. They sort of discount it as being that important, right. So we have said, lack of sleep can cause hunger and that always looking for food behavior. So now we're going to shift our focus from sleep to looking at medication. There are a couple of common medications that also lead to overeating and to wake gain actually more than a couple o- we're only going to talk about a couple of many of them to be talking to a whole hour. Gab a Penton. So you may have heard of this gamma Penton is a drug commonly used to treat nerve pain. It's associated with weight gain. Generally people will put put on at least five pounds or so. And I find that it puts a lot more weight on five. Researched on and we and we see otherwise, right. So often people who have fiber myalgia or neuropathy take Gabba Penton to control nerve pain. And I think it does do that very well, but but I wanna share a success story of one of my clients who has five Royal jer. She was able to reduce the dose of Gabon. She was taking when she started eating the weight and wellness way with real food. That's great after reducing her dose of gamma Penton, she actually lost thirty pounds without even trying. Yea it because you know what? She's no longer binging on those cookies in the middle of the afternoon, right. And honestly, her hunger level has returned to be normal. Right? And she's picking real food over sugar. So she's taking the stress off of her nerves, right? I think for anyone with fibromyalgia, it is so critical to eat real food, get rid of the, the sugars and the flowers, and all that. Right. That causes irritations to those nerves. Right. And often I find with people on a medication like Gabba Penton they may be sleeping okay, but but still having that oughta control eating because of the medication? Yes, in, I think the sleep is different. It is than just real sleep. Absolutely. It's a Medicated sleep. Yep. Wouldn't. We know that's not as. D-I-N-O-V-I-T-E sleep? No, it's a sedated sleep, but not a real sleep. Right. So that's a great success story for your client. Yes, it is. There's also a lot of research that indicates many antidepressants increase hunger, many, many of them. So that leads to weight gain and some of our clients who take anti-depressants complain, they're hungry all the time. Exactly. And for some of them once they start eating, they just can't stop. I actually don't him just another client story actually had a client a few years ago that was put on an entity depressant and she would actually get up in the middle of the night drive to the convenience store to get her load of junk food because she was having such incredible cravings in the middle of the night. As soon as they changed her medication that all went to s stopped. Yeah, she didn't have to get up and make the less sugar run. Thank goodness. That's exhausting to hear about. So you know, there are several reasons that people fall into compulsive eating, but let me share some good news. I that about compulsive eating, you know, many of our clients follow our weight and wellness way of eating and they're compulsive eating goes away. So if compulsive eating is from an emotional problem, which we hear all the time we do. Why would compulsive eating go away when the person changed his or her diet? Right. Could it be when people stop eating the high carb high processed food diet in followed the weight and wellness way of eating, such as with protein vegetables and healthy fat. Every three hours compulsively goes into remission. Right? And I think that's the goal. I hear that from clients all the time. Exactly. They can't believe it. So when you eat. Are waiting wellness balanced eating plan. Your brain has the ability to make logical decisions and your emotions and stress. Don't spend you into compulsive eating because you know, we all have stress in our lives, right? But if we're eating so that we've got that controlled. Good. That's right. You want to do a clear. We have a caller. Okay, sounds great. Hey, barb, are you there? Yes, I am. Hi, barb. Good morning king morning, I I'm calling it's funny just hit a little bit on the subject that I'm calling for. Okay. My daughter is twenty three and has been suffering from night eating syndrome for, I think at least five years it, it got to the point where she actually went to a facility to try to get help with it. And that didn't really help the problem. We're still experiencing the problem today. She eats well, she eats the nutrition for wellness way for the most part t. too much healthier than I do and tries to eat organic and clean. She doesn't eat sugar. She doesn't eat processed foods. Her oils are very, she's very particular. She'll eat avocados and and the healthy way. The problem just does not seem to go away. She is on Gabar Penton. But this problem started way before Gabba pinton she takes it for degenerative disk disease. So we've had it's been a very, very stressful existence for her because she is trying to eat. Really clean and well. And at night after she goes to bed, she wakes up and she's, she describes it as being half asleep and half awake. So she knows that she's eating, but she's not awake enough to tell her. So you're not hungry, go back to bed. So what we've resorted to before she moved out was we put an alarm on her door and she said, mom, Amy do to help me with this because she's really stressed out because she was gaining weight. I think we've dealt with that, but I, you'll matter how many times I would meet her in the kitchen. After the alarm went off in our room, she would go back to bed, but the problem hasn't stopped. She thinks it might be just a bad habit. Well, recently moved out in the last couple of months and she was pretty good at the start. But now she's telling me that the night eating is full on only this time. She's eating junk because there's well. You know what? Her boyfriend's junk food. Because when she gets up, she eats high carb stuff that she would never eat. I know we're getting a signal from the producer that we have to take a break, but I think you can even their say on line or we can kind of talk about that when we come back some possibilities and I, you know, as you're talking, I have some possibilities in my brain, and I know JoAnn does too. So let's go ahead and we'll take our break to go ahead and yes, and you're listening to dishing up nutrition now through November fifteenth, were offering five different ninety minute classes for only ten dollars each. These classes are very popular. We're offering five steps to boost metabolism and also nutrition for better digestion and many more check it. Our class often. Things on our website. At weight and wellness dot com. And we'll be right back. Well, welcome back to dishing of nutrition, nutritional weight and wellness. We say the more, you know, the better you can do. So that's why we're doing these ninety minute classes for ten dollars eight. That's he plays. We want people to know so that they can do better. So we encourage you to take this opportunity to know more about interesting ways. Nutrition can support your energy, your moods, your memory, your wellbeing, your digestion, how you're going to get through the holidays, right? With all the junk food that's out there. That's right. So if you've taken our classes before, you know, we really thank you for doing that. If you want to refresh her sign up for a couple of the classes, if you're nude a nutritional weight and wellness people tell me all the time how much they appreciate these classes and what great teachers we have. That's I hear that all the time. We have great teachers. So all six, five one, six, nine, nine, three, four. Four, three, eight, or you can go online at weight and wellness dot com to sign up. And I know the classes are filling fast. So do it now they are rather than waiting. That's right. So we're going to answer this lady's question by question about night eating and run you. You have some ideas. I know, right barb. Asked the question about her daughter and problems. She's having with night eating. And the I thought I had was, you know, kind of what we're talking about is balancing your blood sugar because even though if you're eating really clean, if the timing isn't right, or the balance isn't right for your body, you right? And so getting the right amount of protein, the vegetables, the healthy fat altogether in balance in the right portion and about every three hours. And I have noticed myself that even though I eat really clean that if my span of time in I miss my break in the afternoon or the dinner is to earlier too late depending on my schedule, my blood sugar balanced can get off and that would lead to losing control with eating. Right? And then I feel like I'm ready to snack in the evening even though. I may not really need a snack. So I think there's something to that length of time and the balance with the protein, the vegetables, the healthy fats. That's what we teach. But the other thing, the other idea I was thinking about is if she could enlist her boyfriend support in having those snacks out of. Reach or out of her area that she might the bath, her food, the bad, nah. Okay, right. The bad snacks, the junk food that she doesn't want to be heating. If those could be in a different place. I've asked my husband to keep them in his car or in his truck. Yep, because sometimes just if I'm having a bad day, I don't want that right in my reach. So just so listeners can understand a lot of times and joy in and I, I've talked about this before, is it when we're working with clients? For some reason, our clients become I right, and we don't take care of our own snack in our own Hilty eating as well as we need to. And the other thing that I've noticed that some of us have very, very sensitive blood sugar roblems that I know joy. You've talked about in the past. Yeah, no, actually having since birth? Yes. Having this blood sugar control problem. Right. And I. Think I mean, I know that that's true for me too, and to really understand how sensitive people's blood sugars are. You know, for instance, I would really encourage this young woman to come in and see you because you know exactly. Exactly. Yeah. How she's feeling right? And you know, she might need a lot more fat to stabilize blood train. And even though she's eating the right foods, they might not be in the right proportion. Exactly in the right place during the day in, you know, one of the other things that we say on our weight and wellness plan is at lunchtime you eat two servings of fat, right? And but some people need three, four to balance that blood sugar. We also say we need to have a concentrated carb, which means something like carrots or sweet potatoes. Right? You just can't do spinach and broccoli because that. Might not be enough glucose right to keep your blood sugar balance. It's technical, right? And we need when you see someone that person that professional needs to be really listening in detail. Yeah, to get this. Yeah, but it's possible. It is. It is. He'd be struggling every day with this right on definitely is. That's off my soapbox. Okay, that's all right. That is so true. So I've also back to our topic I've noticed about eighty percent of our clients who are compulsive eaters are have blood sugar issues just like what we're talking about. So perhaps they're diabetic or pre diabetic or just insulin resistant, or they actually were born with a very sensitive blood sugar? Yes. So you have to say, what causes most of the blood sugar problems? Why are so many people developing. Beatty's or prediabetes, you know, I think would we know that the rate of diabetes in the past twenty years has increased considerably, you know, back in the nineteen thirties and even into the forties people ate meat or fish, vegetables and real fat butter, lard, bacon, fat, and fewer people had type two diabetes. That's right. And very few people were overweight then either I and they were eating, you know, butter lard or eating the way we the way we teach right, including lard organic. Join the people are shocked when we say, yeah, you can cook your eggs in the vacant fat that you've cooked your bacon end. Yeah, and it's okay, right? So right. So maybe food companies are to blame for your food compulsive eating. Those companies have known for years. The people will eat more of their products. If they add large quantities of sugar, salt and other additives, like MSG food out chemists, understand that eating refined manmade food causes cravings to intensify. And as a result, people have less control. They just can't stop at one. So therefore they start eating compulsively. You know, one thing we know for sure is when people fell, the weight wellness way of eating their fewer cravings. That is, we hear it over in overdue in our classes on individual with people, right. And even p people with history of compulsive. Eating for years and all of a sudden it will stop, right? It's like a miracle. So it's kind of magical actually for people. So you know, as we a think about what we've talked about today is first of all, we've got a couple of hormones, don't we right? We want to kind of recap on hormones a little bit right. We had, we need the leptin leptin and we need the gr- in. Okay, and so we need those imbalances well, and we need to sleep eight hours for seven and a half, minimally. And that's only order for those to work, you know, and that's how we develop those two major hormones in one cuts off our desire to eat. Yes, in one increases are desired eight, right? So we want to sleep so they need to be a up. That's right. Our goal at nutritional weight and wellness is to help each and every person experience better health through eating real food. It's a simple yet powerful. Message eating real food as life changing. Thank you for listening and have a wonderful day. Yes. Thank you being on today. No mom. Thanks for listening to dishing up nutrition. If you enjoy this podcast, please share your favorite episodes with a friend or leave a review on. I tunes Stitcher or iheartradio the content in opinions expressed are those of the hosts or presenters, they're not intended to diagnose, treat cure or prevent disease. Product statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.

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From the Vault: The Halloween Costume Made Me Do It

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

1:12:58 hr | 2 years ago

From the Vault: The Halloween Costume Made Me Do It

"Hey, everybody, whether you're shaving your face or legs, various other bits, you wanna make sure you have the correct technology to use against your own flesh. I use the Gillette mach three and really there's no excuse for anybody out there to use anything less than the correct blade. And now our listeners can get Gillette quality blades at the best value inconvenience with Gillette, on demand with Gillette on demand, you can get blades delivered directly to your door subscribed to Gillette on demand today and get five dollars off your first order with special offer stuff fifty. That's stuff five zero at checkout. Enjoy free shipping. And every fourth order free with subscription visit Gillette online at Gillette, on demand dot com and use stuff fifty that stuff five zero for fifty percent off your first order. Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormack and Saturday time to venture into the vault this time we're going to be going back to an old classic October episode that you did with Christian a few years ago, right? That's right. This is the the Halloween costume made me do it. This is the this is basically a study of what happens when we put on Allen mask. How into what extent is it change who we are and how we behave is a child wearing a Halloween mask more likely to get into mischief than one that is not wearing a mask. It's a fascinating area of discussion gets into stuff like enclosed cognition, etc. This was originally published on October eighth twenty fifteen. We hope you enjoy it today. Welcome to stuff to blow your mind from how stuff works dot com. Stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb and I'm Christian Sager, hey, it is Kober. And we, if you haven't noticed are covering a lot of topics that are around kind of the October theme, horror and how the weaned, but also things like being dead or burials are for today, we're going to get real literal with it and talk about how lean costumes, but we also want to let you know towards the end of the month, we're going to be doing to kind of special things. We want our audience about the burst that we're gonna be Paris, coping, our listener mail starting on October twenty third, which is Friday. So if you're on periscope or if you're not a sign up for it and you can check us out responding to our listener mail and kind of interacting with our audience in real time on that platform. Yeah. And if you don't know what periscope is, don't worry. I didn't know delay weeks ago. Yeah. So we'll put up a blog post as well at some point here that will give you the details on what exactly we're talking. We'll be pushing the information out on our social media channels as well, which include Facebook, Twitter, and tumbler. On all of those platforms were known by the handle, blow the mind, and we don't just post our own stuff. There. We curate content from all the kind of weird science. He stuff that we find across the internet and if you want to be included in that listener mail, don't forget that you can always reach us at the Email address, blow the mind at how stuff works dot com. The other thing that we have coming up at the end of October is the return of our video series. Monster science, Robert, you wanna tell them a little bit about this. Yeah. Join doctor Anton Jessop kind of a daytime. Horror host VHS era basement creep, who's going to walk us through the real world science behind some rather outrageous, monster movie nasties. Can you give us a preview of what kind of monsters we're going to see in the? So yes, you're gonna, you're gonna look at shambling mushrooms. You're gonna look at where wolves. We're gonna look into big trouble in little China. The creatures from that as well. That's exciting as well as a certain character from mortal Kombat, so. Oh, cool. Cool. So what's great about that is you've got to wear, we'll episode coming up with that. We just published that beset on wolf's bane. And so you know, we're trying to tie things together a little bit here. We also have an episode coming out about addiction mummification and we have a mummy episode of monster science from the first season. So October, you can see our favorite month. Which brings me to today's episode, Robert, what are you going to be for Halloween this year? We'll see. This is a. This is a complicated question with me because I have the boy boys going to dress up and and and and my wife have done kind of like combo costumes in the patch or now we have this this weird extra actor in the scenario. Like last year we did a twin peaks thing where I remember that the picture. Yeah, where I was the comic Lakhan character. She the log lady. Yeah. My wife was low log lady, and we dressed our son up as the dancing little guy. And my my father-in-law played the tall man. Oh, yeah. Yeah, I do remember seeing that passer. Yeah, that was a great idea. Yeah. So that one worked, but now he's he's a little more insistent like he wants to be a giraffe and how it's hard to work giraffe into a team costume. Yeah, absolutely. I only thing that comes to mind is like, what's that elephant children's story Babur. Yeah, see, I don't want to dress up like, yeah, you're not. You don't strike me as I would love to do a mummy like him, or we all dress up as different takes on on mummies. He could be a draft mummy. He could. Yeah, there's no reason why they wouldn't have mummified giraffe. That would have been an interesting process in bombing Mr.. F organs? Yeah, I would think so. Yeah, maybe mommy draft. We'll see how about yourself. I haven't nailed down yet, but I have this old prison outfit that used for video. I shot one time, so I'm kind of considering doing a Hannibal Lecter thing, but it would involve me having to be str-. Wrapped onto a Dali and being pushed around by somebody, and I don't think it can talk anybody into being, you know, the orderly Barney from the from the asylum that animals in. That's the thing about us about certain combo costumes. They're not all even-handed. Sometimes they require somebody to be something kind of boring. Yeah. Well, some people are into that. I don't think it. My wife definitely wouldn't want to be Barney, so we'll come up with something. Maybe she can be wilt Graham. Yeah. So the reason I ask is because today we're going to be talking about Halloween costumes and how they really to our culture, but also to our identities and how we form and change our our identities in conjunction with what we're, you know, costuming ATMs. Yeah, it hard. It's really it's really fascinating topic because when you put on a mask when you put on a costume, you're engaging in in a very, very powerful act here. You are becoming somebody else not only externally, but internally as we'll discuss and it's been, it's played a vital role in traditional religions throughout history. It's you can. You can see both positive and negative, very negative aspects of of mask and costume usage throughout time. And yet today we often is relegated to just sort of childhood silliness, right? Oh, the kids are going to put on masks and go around parading through the community when you stop and you think about it, let's it's terrifying. Yeah. And I think that there's an argument to be made to, and we're going to get into this. The, it's definitely over the last thirty years or so, maybe forty years or so. It's started to become an adult thing, at least in American culture and that the rise of costs play in sort of a nerd culture. But you know, I think it's gotten to the point where cost play is is beyond nerd culture. Now I was in the grocery store the other day, and there's a magazine dedicated to cause play that you can buy a local supermarket. So I feel like that sort of elevated past, you know, just just for geeks when you can buy it like on the shelf there. Yeah, and it's good to hear that, especially looking back at, definitely remember a time when I was still trick or treating. But among my peers, I was probably too old for such nonsense. Occasionally you would run route you would trigger treat her to house and you'd see somebody your own age in. They're not in cost him in the coming at you, like, what are you doing? But then you know they weren't doing having fun. Exactly. Yeah. In fact, the dude in question I'm thinking about, I looked him up on Facebook. And he's still not having fun day. So I'm proud that I wore my cost. But the thing is, is that guy and I'm I'm sure anybody listening to the episode right now can identify with costuming and that sort of role play identity change element, and there's a science to this to this is going to be us riffing about what it's like to wear Halloween costumes. There's been a ton of studies on this way more than I thought we would find actually, yeah, there's a new would be a tie to the topic of enclosed cognition that we'll talk about the longtime listener to the show might remember an episode in the past. The dealt a little bit with enclosed cognition, but there's a number of studies that deals specifically with Halloween costumes and how Halloween costumes impact both children and adults yet. So they're there to specific things that I want to sort of start off with maybe like thesis statements for this episode and we'll see if they're proved by the evidence that we go through the episode. The first is that there's this idea that Halloween is a and the costumes that we see in the acts that we see during our reflection of what's happening in our culture. At that. Point in time and that it sort of is also a transgressive element right that there are batteries within our society that are some of them are asking to be pushed and Halloween is the time when that happens. And in, you know, in some degrees that can lead to social change and other degrees as we'll talk about, it's maybe a kind of social regression as well. But so I want us to keep that in mind that it it seems to be this period of time that reflects kind of hate using this term, but the zeitgeist of what's going on in American culture at the time. And I understand that it's becoming more popular in some European nations as well. So you know, perhaps they're seeing that as well. Well, you know, just over the past ten years, you can look to one particular Halloween costumes playing a significant role in in social movements. That being, of course, the for vendetta mask which is win costume mass. Based on them, the motion picture. That's always fascinated me. From the perspective of, you know, and I'll talk about this later, but you know, in my outside life, I write comic books and I attend a lot of comic book conventions throughout the year. And so I see a lot of costumes and when the movie came out and all of a sudden I started seeing a lot of people both at these shows and at Halloween wearing the Guy Fawkes mask. It really struck me as being ironic because there's such a as you just brought up there such an association and symbolism of rebellion associated with that mass that I don't know necessarily that the the costumers themselves even knew it necessarily even the movie sort of presents that as a as a a symbolic point. Yeah. Yeah. It's it's been a fascinating transformation with that particular math particular character yet. So before we start talking about these studies which you know we're going to be working our way from one thousand nine hundred seventy six up until present day. There's been so many studies. I want to just throw out this fact for you. Okay. In twenty. Fourteen one point. Four billion dollars were spent on Halloween costumes in America alone, and that's according to the national retail federation that is a tremendous sum of money. And I guess I never really stopped to think about it before, but of course, like I don't know what it's like an other parts of the country. But here in Atlanta, we have these. These pop up Halloween stores where like there used to be a, you know, like a department store like a Macy's or something, and it's since left and for just the month of October, these Halloween stores move in and all they sell their costumes and Halloween knickknacks and things like that. And I always it always struck me as like, wow, like can you turn a profit just in a month like that. And obviously if there's that much money going into it, and it's especially interesting to to see that just doing that kind of business after all those kids melted in the silver shamrock mass, your stat was shame that was shame. I was young when that happened. But yeah, I can't believe in the snakes came out of their eyes and. We are, of course, are ferring to Halloween three colon season of the witch. One of our favorite movies here at stuff to blow your mind. In fact, last year, Joe super producer knoll, and myself got together with our partners and watch that movie. I don't know if it was on Halloween, but it was like the week of Halloween and it was great fun. Yeah, I think I watched it for the first time last year as well in at night by myself while the the family was sleeping. But yeah, I think it's a very flawed film, but some sun has some various just fantastic elements in it from the wonderful soundtrack by John carpenter now and Haworth to the weird mix of like androids an occult, magic and big, scary corporations, like on paper. It's it's a fabulous film, right? We were saying before the taping, it would be it's ripe for remake, but it probably will never get remade like the idea of. So the central conceit of the movie is that there's an evil. Magical corporation that is producing, is it three Alouine, massive, three, a witch, a skull, and don't Jack lantern once this, the other and and their children's masks. And if these children wear their Halloween masks and watch a like evil, magical commercial simultaneously, they will all die. Yeah, they will die and serve as some sort of a child sacrifice and they ancient ritual. It's bizarre movie, but it's this was before the basically. The idea I think was that the Halloween movies before they were dominated by Michael Myers, we're supposed to be like an anthology series kick start anthology. Allah Wayne. So each year we'd get a different Halloween film on the different plot. And sadly that didn't happen because nobody liked Halloween, three until it had time to to cure sure. Over over the years. It's like a fun. It is. It is a fine wine of that. Not everyone's palate is going to be. Susceptible to. But at heart Halloween, three season of the witch is about masks changing children. As now in the the movie, it changes them into a pile of goo and snakes and whatnot. But in reality it does seem to change our children into something else. Yeah, I wonder if well, I wonder if those screenwriters of Halloween, three were inspired by this I study or maybe the first two studies we're gonna talk about because the I was in seventy six. The next one was in seventy seventy nine. Yeah. So the whole time when I'm reading these, I'm picturing the sort of idyllic nineteen late nineteen seventy setting of the at least the first to Halloween, right. Yeah. So this is one thousand nine hundred seventy six study effects of de individuals. Ation variables on stealing among Halloween trick or treaters. This was published in the journal of personality and social psychology again, seventy six February. So this is what happened. The psychologist involved couvert Lee observed the behavior of about a thousand trick or treaters at twenty seven different Seattle homes. So each each house has the same setup, right one bowl filled with candy in an additional bowl filled with pennies nickels because you know, you're going sugar treating you wanna get some penny the nickel. Yeah, that's strike struck me as weird, but I was also born a year after the study conducted. Maybe it's something I missed out on. So the researchers answer the door when the Halloween trick or treaters show up. And sometimes the researcher asks the man, the costume children, what their names are, show your delightful looking, which what's your name? Oh, it's Susie. Other times they let the children retain their anonymity. They can continue to be where wolves in mummies in which is right. And that's important because it helps to reinforce the identity. Right. Okay. Are no longer soon. Yeah, they are broom Hilda, the witch, Oscar, the mummy or whatever. Okay. So at this point the researchers say, all right, I have to go deal something else inside the house. I'm gonna shut the door only take one piece of candy, and then they shut the door, but they're watching through the people the whole time. Okay. Nice scientific use of the people. They didn't have like a nest thing that they could mount on their wall and watched through their smartphone. Yeah, they're just going around like peeking through curtain in scribbling, and I know pet. The results though were kids who were allowed to remain anonymous, stole money, extra candy, roughly three times as often as knows who gave up their names and kids who came in groups. So just to complete pack of short little gremlins. Those who came in groups, both named and anonymous were more than twice as likely to steal as those who came alone. Wow. Okay. So I guess the the findings of. This aren't all that surprising knowing what I know just from living life and having costumed before and knowing other human beings so that the idea of the city, this is pretty social media too. So I think that that has something to do with it as well. Right? We now know that an image leads to people doing things that they think that they won't have repercussions, right? But then the the group factor as well as the really interesting one Penney's come into play, do they steal those as well? Nichols, okay. And my, my reading of the study, they didn't even say, okay, also, you can take a certain amount of coins coins. They just left him there. This is just for decoration, these kids crapped. Yeah. It's also interesting to to read this thinking about my own interactions with granite. These are like three year olds, but watching them feed off of each other's energy. Like you get to three year olds in a room, and they'll suddenly just start feeding off each other and displaying behavior that individuals. They wouldn't do, but they just they just like there's a heightened susceptibility to group think and imaginative. The association. It's it's interesting. We're going to talk about this throughout this episode in there's a study that was coming up that specifically refers to it, but that is like that zone that age around between three and five is sort of that zone where you're still you understand, sort of, you know, when people say like you're a boy, or you know your your from Atlanta Georgia. Whenever like you understand those words. But the actual identity part hasn't really like all glommed together yet. So the group think kind of thing seems to happen a little easier. I mean, you are observing it right now. Oh, yeah. Like my my son and his friendly out, they had a time at the playground the other day where all they did is just March around and chanted. We are daddy elephants time, so yeah, and they don't do that on their own, but together they engage in that. So I feel like it's the same sort of interview at work. Now I miss that. We need. Bring that back. We'll have after this we're going to have. We are daddy elephants session. Now there's a one thousand nine hundred ninety nine study that followed this up in the researchers here set out to replicate the results of the seventy. Eighth study in this one is titled Halloween masks and individuals ation and this was published in psychology reports April nineteen, seventy nine. So this time they looked at fifty eight costume kids ages nine through thirteen. And all of them in this case is our unaccompanied by adults. They're adults there to, you know, to to inflict rules and regulations on the the Halloween traditions. They this time, the researchers tell the children to take two and only two pieces of candy from a bowl, then they shut the door. Same situation takes place peak around the corner through the people is what they found mass children were significantly more likely to violate the instructions grabbing a healthy fistful candy sixty two percent of the time versus thirty seven percent for unmasked counterparts. That's interesting. Especially because the age difference. So we're talking nine to thirteen year olds here instead of the much younger children in the first study also that what I'm noticing is that they're completely different authors for both studies. So this wasn't the first team rep trying to replicate their efforts. It was an entirely different TM probably in a different part of the country. Well, I think it's worth us explaining what they mean when they say de individuation here. Right? So that is a psychological process by which a person's identity is subsumed. This doesn't my language, obviously. Obviously, I don't throw subsumed around a lot, but it's subsumed by the identity of a larger group. And in this case, the the mask thing can can play into it. Right. I wonder if the kids were masked and they were by themselves, if this, you know how this would play out. Well, in this this particular study they were. They were unaccompanied by dolts. So there were no adult? No. I mean, no other children to what creepy kid goes around all by themselves trick or treating at nine years old. Hey, Robert. It has been so long since I shaved my face. I don't remember what shaving is like, but you're looking very smooth today. So maybe you can tell me the story of shaving, oh, we'll shavings grade provided you have the right razor to do it with. And I've had some bad experiences in the past where I've either end up having to pick up a really cheap razor, you know, bite at a gas station or something on goal, rusty's discount razors not a good deal, or I've let myself run out of razors when I'm like, I got to replace that blade. I gotta replace that blade, and then I go to shave and look for the new blade and realize that I've let myself run completely out and then it's a choice between, do I go to this interview or or what have you with either a Hobo SCRUFF or do I go with a bleeding face? It's a, it's a tough choice. Nobody should have to make far better to simply subscribe and have Gillette razor blades come to your door because that's my brand. I use the mach three. Oh, and now. You can get Gillette quality blades at the best value inconvenience with Gillette, on demand with Gillette on demand, you get blades delivered directly to your door, subscribe to Gillette on demand today and get five dollars off your first order with special offer stuff fifty. That's stuff five zero at checkout. Enjoy free shipping in every fourth order. Free with subscription visit Gillette online at Gillette, on demand dot com and use stuff fifty that stuff five zero for fifty percent off your first order. Willing. The first study, they did find that kids who came in groups were more than twice as likely to deal with those who came along. So yeah, there's definitely one is potentially a problem, but you get to together and they're just going to fall into that that group identity the trick or treating fiends, so. Okay. So the first thing that we're establishing here is that. Costuming especially during Halloween, provides a certain amount of anonymity and that within a group it provides the potential for this d individuation in which you divorce yourself from your day to day identity and allow yourself to be absorbed into the identity of this larger group. Yeah, it's almost like a cult type. Yeah. I mean, it's instantly it makes me think of various in often vile scenarios where you have individuals writing about and doing things. It's it's the same energy. It's the same mechanism, but entrusted to children as opposed to take an adult. Well, let's let's speed it for a little bit too. Maybe maybe a period of time that I'm sure everybody can relate to the the being a child and dressing up in gym and maybe grabbing a fistful of candy, but nine hundred ninety three. There was a study in this was cited. I don't know if you noticed this with this particular study was cited across the board and all the studies afterwards as like a sort of foundation. Outsource. Yeah. So it's called dressing in costume in the use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs by college students. So no surprise they did this study looking at twelve hundred college students. I don't remember what area of the country it has. They might have. They might have split it up actually and Noda. They found those that were in costumes were more likely to consume alcohol than those that weren't right. And they were also more likely to use drugs over the course of the night. Now anybody who you don't even have to have gone to college. Anybody who's been over the age of eighteen minutes, gone to eight dealt Halloween party where people are in costume. I think this will probably be a common experience. Yeah, I have to admit that during college and in the time period following college, the the most hung over, I ever managed to get a both times resulted from a Halloween party. Oh, yeah. Yeah, I definitely. We saw some crazy stuff at Halloween party is when I was living in Boston area. One time I went to a Halloween party of these people lived on the grounds of an it was an abandoned. This is going to sound made up, but it's a real thing. There's an abandoned mental institution on the grounds of cemetery, just outside of Boston on top of an Indian. I don't know if there was a burial ground, but they definitely had a Potter's field next door where you could you could see, you know what I mean by Potter's field and they just had like the bricks with numbers on them and. The people that I knew who lived there. They were basically paying rent to the town to live in this thing and make sure that people didn't come by vandalize it. So they through this crazy Halloween party. And I mean you you went into the basement of this place in they had gurneys and straitjackets and like all the files on the patients were still there. That was the weird part to me. Like the privacy element was not at all thought about essentially at a session, nine thing. It was very much like that. Yeah, yeah. And I decided to go is apex twin. Okay this. Yeah, that was that was my twenty incarnation of the window, liquor twin. I I had, they actually made masks or that you could print out that were that I was gonna ask how you maintain that smile? Yeah, I had the mask and I had a white suit on the whole time. But yeah, I some crazy stuff at that at that abandoned mental asylum. So I believe this. Thousand Ninety-three study. I think most of us do. I wouldn't qualify this as a study that would blow your mind. This isn't stuff to blow your mind, but it this definitely adds more fodder to our principal here, right that like, oh, yeah, the costuming element allows your identity to sort of be more fluid and flexible. Yeah. I mean, you know, studies like this, they're not necessarily saying, hey, here's this crazy thing about a life that you never noticed before, but saying, hey, here's some science to back up that thing that we've all noticed because sometimes the thing that we think we know when you apply the rigors of science to realize, all right. This doesn't actually work the way we were thinking on surface level. So studies like this are just as important. Yeah. And so there's also, this is one things start to get dark too. So. No surprise. You know, I think the older that we get the the costuming element brings along, like I said, at the top, right? It's a pushing of boundaries. So it brings along some taboo elements to it. So there's a study done in two thousand seven about basically race and other ring in Halloween costumes, and it was specifically focused on college students. So again, this is a, you know, isolated to the college student area. Although a lot of the examples that they came up with were not necessarily isolated to that group. So this study is called unmasking racism, Halloween, costuming, and engagement of the racial other. And it was published in qualitative sociology and basically the authors of this piece they they present at the top in their abstract. They, they say that they think of how lean is being a constructive space where people have the opportunity to engage in different identities, which includes racial concepts and. There are some people who argue, not necessarily these authors, although I think there's something to this that Halloween is what we would think of as a tension management holiday. It's different from Christmas or thanksgiving, which probably create more attention and they compare it to like New Year's or mardi gras in that it allows it's sort of frees us up from societal Moore's and gives us an opportunity for rebellion. It's as they call it a ritual of rebellion that permits possible counter cultural feelings, right? And in this case, you know, they, they say, well, you know, usually these holidays or the idea behind this reversal of social roles. So for instance, like subjugated groups, groups of in a lower position are able to assume positions of power, and they connect this to explain this theory a little bit more later, but there's a Russian theorist name Miquel bacteria. And he has the kind of the big thing that he's known for theory wise is the carnival. Lisk and they connected up to that theory. This idea of medieval Europe. Carnivals thing was people are in mass parading about creating mischief? Yup. The the, the shift of power that takes place where he often you have a fool king or the leader of the festival. Yeah. Yep. But they also say, you know, there's this idea about Halloween in particular that's connected to this. The reason why in the US we give it such national status is because it fosters that kind of social inversion, right? So while holidays like Christmas and thanksgiving, for instance, or more institutionalized and focused on tradition and family and things like that, how lean people think of Halloween as being that one night of the year where they can let go and they can enjoy degree of license that they could that would otherwise never be attainable. Right, right. Basically, they can get away with things that they wouldn't be able to get away with normally. So these. The authors of this piece, though they say, okay, that's good and fine, but there's a racial element that's coming into play here. That's displaying some some disturbing patterns of how white costumers are using that opportunity to not identify with other races, but to sort of make fun of an insert of reinforce stereotypes of other races. They have. Yeah. In this, I think you, you see varying levels of this. So it's easy to imagine a straight up racially offensive costume right now where you're just you're just basically dressing up like the worst kind of stereotype for particular racial group. But then on the other hand, you see, and I've definitely seen people do this before where you are, you're going after certain cultural icons you want to. You want to be that cultural icon and you either don't realize, or you're a little numb to the to the realization that. To try to become that icon as a white individual. You're, you're engaging at least in some light racism, you know, like if you you decide, oh, well, you know, I'm a big hip hop fan and I really like this particular artists. That doesn't mean you can necessarily dress up as as him or her. In fact, they noted that stuff like that happened at such parties. One example that they had was there were apparently in the way that they studied this was that they had six hundred sixty three, three college students across a believe it was southeastern America, collect journal entries about their costuming experience over the course of Halloween and this isn't just what they cost him to that is. But what they they saw the party is that they went to and what was reported that there were two white men who went and black face as Venus and Serena Williams. So this is two thousand seven. So not that long ago. And then there was there. Three women, all of different ethnicities who wanted to do the Charlie's angels, the the movie version of Charlie's angels. And so a Caucasian woman ended up doing the Lucy Liu character and was you know, like a painting on makeup to make our self location. And like you said, not really understanding it, but on the reverse side, they reported that there was a black male college student who went as Eminem. So there's a lot of this playing around with race and gender, and sort of, you know, trying to explore identity, but at the same time, like some some of these instances. As identified by the authors weren't necessarily experimental, but we're more reinforcing ideas that they already had. Yeah, and implicit racial bias. Definitely playing into a lot of these where it's it's not even happening at a at a conscious level. You're not really thinking about it, but then these various. Implicit bias sees rise to the surface. Yeah, I think this would be one of those situations if and they talked about it a little bit in this study, but the like if you called out somebody for something like this, they would probably be shocked. Right? They would go, well, I know I'm not racist. That's not what I was intending it. All right. And in fact they the whole idea here is that they thought of Halloween is being a safe context for exploring this kind of thing, but also that it's it's a time when the potential for any kind of insult is completely suspended. Right? Like, I think I just saw like not that this would be insulting, but it's just kinda stupid like like a week or two ago that like one of the most popular costumes this year is a sexy, Donald Trump. Like you can. You can buy that off the rack. Yeah. So it's like I think that that's the kind of thing going on here. But at the same time, as the authors are arguing that it's reinforcing racial bias in stereotypes yet reminds me to believe it was the first Halloween immediately following nine, eleven in which a picture made the rounds of a couple who addressed like somebody addresses the twin towers and the other person address does an airplane, and it's funny that you say, go ahead because I have a personal story. Oh, I'm just saying it made the rounds and quite clearly they were approaching this from the standpoint of it's a safe zone and an outrageous costume is allowed even if it is really too soon for that particular joke at that given point. And this was this was the month afterward. Yeah, this was very soon. So I specifically remember that Halloween right afterward. A guy who I knew went to a Halloween party as a dead pilot. And he thought it was the funniest thing ever and that he was he wasn't. He was trying to be offensive, but he was also just trying to kind of like again, like push the bag. Switch people's button, right? Get a rise out of people, and I remember him thinking it was like the super clever funny thing in it just did it fell real flat with everybody at the party. Yeah. Now, on the the racial side of the situation, I have to admit that I'm I'm a big fan of some terrible movies and one terrible movie that I really enjoy is nothing but trouble. Okay. The I know what you're talking really, really bad and hacker all sorts of really cool like horror elements sorta tales from the crypt type thrown throughout a great scene where digital underground perform. So it's Humpty hump. And so part of me is always wanted to be Humpty hump or does. Yeah, but but I but I can never be Humpty hump. I can never take that on as a costume because of the racial aspects of of doing it. And I'm comfortable with that. I'm not complaining about it. That's an area where the voice that says, wouldn't it be cool to dress as something hump and the? The other part of me has to say the aerobically it would be cool, but you would probably be dry. You would probably be crossing the line and ultimately it would not be comfortable scenario. Well, exactly. So I think that what the the authors of the study would argue that right? Is that like your preconception of race is that you understand that that would be crossing the line that you know is a not necessarily appropriate, whereas the Caucasian male who is in college and decides to go as Humpty hump maybe already has some preconceptions about what that means right affect like that's the kind of rapper outfit or like the other one that they talked a lot about was you can buy prepackaged sort of. Like ethnic folk outfit from these Halloween stores, or at least you could at the time they were doing this that enhances your perceptions, your stereotypes of things, right? And that it doesn't necessarily allow them to have the opportunity to to find the new believes or to learn in change. I don't know. I'm kind of interested like I wonder if if you do something like that, and then you're sort of performing this other, this imaginary other that you have of like what it would be like to be digital underground like like. Does that afford you the opportunity to sort of like put yourself in somebody else's shoes? I, I don't know. Yeah, it's the authors of this piece certainly didn't think so. But I like the digital underground. Example, I the thing is I can definitely imagine someone approaching that and say not even thinking about Humpty hump as an African American man and thinking, it's just it's ridiculous character with a funny nose for a coat. And he talks funny voice and got busy in a backstage bathroom. Yeah. And. Lost his nose and a horrible accident. But. But but in doing that, you you glide right over the racial connotation, so. Yeah, absolutely. So I mean, like. I'm sure like I know I've definitely seen stuff like this at parties I've gone to before. I'm sure a lot of people have that. They provided some very concrete examples outside of the six hundred sixty three college students who reported for this study. And one of them was, I didn't know about this apparently in two thousand and three Louisiana state district. Judge Timothy Eleanor went to Hellene party in black face and he had an afro wig on an prison jumpsuit. I think I remember seeing. When they called him out on it, he said, oh, what it's a harmless joke. You know, in the new, think about the connotation of the sky whose job it is is is to decide whether or not people go to jail or stay free like this is like hugely inappropriate. But then there's also like, you know, just dominated in the media reports of people wearing black face at Halloween parties in in such outfits, enacting images of police brutality cotton picking and even lynching. So I mean that again to it's like clearly showing that like you don't really have all that much of an understanding for what it means to be of a different ethnicity. You know, those are the things that you associate with it like like. So anyways, that the third thing that I thought was really interesting where they talked about these prepackaged costumes to, in particular, they pointed out from two thousand to one was called. The vodka loco which was this stereotyped mask of a Latino thug. And then the other one was called the kung fool, and it was like a caricature outfit, like kind of like a karate. What do you call gay like outfit? But that also included like a mask that major is look slanted and like buck teeth that you would insert in your mouth. So it was like this real like racial physical stereotype of being Asian. And this is two thousand and two. This isn't like nine thousand nine hundred sixty two this right? This is just like thirteen years ago. So you know, they, they point out like. The the, they think that the Halloween is sort of been thought of as a cultural space in which they can. They being the people wearing these costumes can sort of let this racist ghost out of the box. That's how they put not me. It's there. They get a little metaphorical of their language and the Halloween themes and stuff in this article. I wonder would racist ghost be an appropriate Halloween costume though. If it were carried out with enough ghost of a racist, it wasn't thought out on American horror story and the witch one I didn't watch that sees it was if I remember correctly, I think like one of the witches was was black, and she was able to use some kind of spell that summoned the zombies of like racist farmers from around the area or something. Somebody correct me out there if I'm wrong on this. But I remember there being very strange Halloween themed episode where they, they did this. It was like the punishment for these guys being slave owners was that she was able to like. Summon their their spirits up again later. So I mean, think about that. Right? Like that's on national television and. That's not reinforcing stereotypes necessarily, but, but you know what I mean? Like there's these roles and identities people are trying out and trying to understand things that are different from themselves uttering, you know, they all kind of play hand in hand. I have to admit that I after reading enough researching enough about which craft persecution I'm I'm a little weirded out when I see like Netflix, which costumes, but also like you know, the new VIN diesel which hunter movie the hero of this picture. And and it's it's kind of unsettling when you think of witchcraft persecution in in the in how these these stereotypes were used to send so many innocent people to their to torture and death. Yeah, absolutely. I mean. I, yeah, I one hundred percent agree with you, and especially when you think about it in the context that like these prefabricated which costumes are being sold and you know, people are making, what what did I say? One point, four billion dollars of this costuming industry, celebrating the persecution and torture and death of this. Again, it's a subjugated group, right? Yeah. I mean, you know, it's not. It's certainly not one to one with some of the the racial issues we talked about earlier in. It's a lot more complicated because you have you have various, you know, myths and folktales weaving their way in their popular media springing up out of equal parts fiction and history. So it's it's a convoluted topic, but I, I have to admit some of the witch costumes at least Cuza little light to go on for me. Yeah. Yeah. Well, you know, maybe that's again back to that whole taboo thing that. That the symbol of the witch, both in the guilt that we kind of feel when we look back at the history of it and also the the which is being like outside of the community, right is like the perfect kind of boundary pushing taboo for Halloween. In fact, you're a one of the articles that I'm about to get into talked about how during Victorian time the Torian time, you know, does all times the American women specifically with drips dress either as a gyp shins or gypsies because those were the two like most taboo kind of exotic other costumes that they could wear. And I guess you still see people varying races dressing up his ancient Egyptians. It'd be enough time has passed that. There's like less don't think of ancient Egyptians as being a contemporary race, but is more of like a almost like dressing is an elf, right, right, dressing as a character from you or something. Yeah, exactly. All right. We're gonna take a quick break. We'll be right. Right. Hey folks. These days you can get practically everything on demand, like our podcast, you listen when you want when it's convenient for you. 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Go to stamps dot com before you do anything else. Click on the radio microphone at the top of the homepage in type in my in DB l. o. w. n. mind blown that stamps dot com. Inter mind blown and start mailing things. All right. We're back so, okay, we've, we've spotlighted the, the masks and the costumes allow children to sort of feel like they can get away with certain things that they get subsumed into a group. We've spotlighted how it sort of can change. We think about identity and race and and how it can also serve for us to get more drunk into do a lot of drugs during Halloween, but then there's obviously a gendered element to it as well. Right? Any buddy who seen over the last again, like thirty or forty years. There's definitely being an element of sexiness that's brought into a female attire. And in fact, I do want to point out like one of those sources that I'm going to us when we're talking about this is from our sister podcasts stuff. Mom never told you Kristin and Caroline have done at least two episodes on this topic. And Kristen has a really great post on the term slut Aline and what that means in the history behind it. And I, I don't really wanna bring that into it, but that there's, there's things connected to it in that post that I think have to do with our conceit in this episode which is the costumes allow you to perform a different identity. Okay. I mean, it it matches up with a lot of what we've been talking about already and that you you take on this, this cost him. You take on this different identity and you have a little more license to be sexier than normal more ailing than normal than we'll amorous than normal. Yeah, absolutely. And in fact, there's a history professor that is named nNcholas is named his name is nNcholas Rogers, and he actually says, you know the the costuming tradition of how Lemass goes all the way back to being both a prayer for the dead. As we sort of think of it. With the Halloween connotation, but also a prayer for fertile marriages. So there was already an element of kind of gendered sexiness to it, not as such, not as we would think of it today. But like for instance, boys in choir used addresses female virgins for Jala mass. So cross dressing in sex in virginity fertility were all elements from the start. Okay. Well, that's good for anybody that is planning a kind of sexy costume this year, and if somebody calls you on it. Yeah, at a Halloween zombie. Why are you dressed up as sexy Egyptian or something you can say? Well, actually I'm tying into some of the the original themes. Old school. I'm doing some history. This is my history project. So he talks also, this is where I got the thing about the Victorian costumes was also this nNcholas Rogers guy, and he said that that at that point in time, just like as we were just talking about the Halloween was thought of as a night to do something that they wouldn't ordinarily do and have people look at them right? So that's why they're addressing Egyptians or gypsies then in the nineteen seventies. The interesting thing happens where the sexy costume both for men and women emerged and Kristen's research. And then this article that I found in time called the definitive history of the sexy, Halloween, costume. Both point to this that there were a lot of Halloween parades, enga- neighborhoods in New York, West Hollywood, and San Francisco, and out of these big kind of raucous Bucknell. Yep, parties came the. The sort of Genesis for what we think of now is like the modern sexy. Girl. Costume right. So you get that that event happens. And then just like with anything businessman and marketers see that, and they say, well, that seems like it's something that would make a lot of money. So they start designing these costumes, selling them and targeting adults. And so that's when we start to see sort of towards the late seventies this emergence of the adult Halloween experience coming back. It's not just for kids anymore. So you and I were just talking about this earlier, like when we were kids in the early eighties, there was sort of that weird stigma of like, well, at a certain point. Yeah, shouldn't be out trick or treating anymore. You know, like I definitely remember there is a point where like I was out and like a apparent would answer the door and say, like, aren't you a little old for this? You know? And I'd come up with some excuse local, you wearing costumer. I was the thing. I mean, if you're if you're not kid and you're showing up at the doorstep and you have know you're asking for candy. Yeah, that's you're kind of breaking the rules. Exactly. I don't. Care old you are, but you put put put some sort of mascot. See you find the. So there's a two thousand six study on children's costumes done by sociologist named adding Nelson, and she found that not only were they distinctly gendered, but that for women, the costumes that you know, these are off the rack costumes and not necessarily what people are coming up with on their own. They're usually princesses or beauty queens for the girls choices. And then there's also in two thousand six. There was a New York Times article quoting a costumer. And he said that since the early two, thousands, the sexy iterations of costumes have compromised ninety to ninety five percent of the female costumes that he sells at his store. So Kristen, our colleague basically makes the point. Okay. Well, what's the reason behind the sexy costume? Boom will it's because they're popular because both women and girls are buying them and you know the, there's marketing behind it. There's money. Be had there. So yes, it's a cultured identity thing, but it's also an economic thing as well and also point this out for Kristen. Because if any of you out there I've ever watched Kristen's of video series for stuff. Mom never told you, you know that she likes to get into costume Harris. And she speculates that we're moving now from a period of just these sexy Halloween costumes to the ironic sexy costume. So I think what she means by that is like I see this a lot when I go to lake pop culture, conventions like like sexy Darth Vader. Yeah, I definitely seen a trillion this people sex, a finding a key characters or costumes that you wouldn't traditionally think of as being sexy. I saw a sexy version of what's the name of the the main villain from fury road. Oh God, I know what you're talking about. Yeah, a thank you super producer. Noel just told us that it was a Morton Joe. I saw a picture of that. Yeah, he, of course, that on its own is an interesting character to to see so embraced among costumers and cost play because it's a horrible guy. He's just a horrible individual that I mean to embody any aspect of them. I can thinking, you know. Deep about it is traveling. I can top that. My wife just showed me the other day that a friend of a friend got a sleeve tattoo of a Morton Joe on her arm. Kids are movie just came out like what? Three months ago? Yeah, great movie, but like don't over yet. What are you saying about the idea that you're like a really like that? Warlord rapists? Yeah. Who keeps women locked up as like a concubine sickly, and that's not just a for those of you? Haven't read it. That's not just a subjective read of the film like that is that's the plot of the plot of the movie, portrays him as such in the the, the harem that he keeps these are not, you know, sexy doll lied individuals. These are abused and traumatized individuals based on their treatment. All add to that. Another thing that I see very often at conventions that I don't understand and forgive me. Maybe you have an ultimate reading on this watchman costs play. When people cost play as the comedian and the golden age silk spectre together. So if you've seen if you've read the book or if you've seen the movie, you know, I guess spoilers for it, but like those to have an abusive domestic relationship that involves sexual violence. And you know, I see that a lot. I see a lot of people couples wearing those costumes together and kind of, you know, walking around like, isn't this fun isn't as cool. I don't. I don't get it. Yeah, but clearly it has something to do with with what's going on here. I mean, this costuming experience is outside of just Halloween, right? So I imagine, and I'm sure there's studies if they haven't been published already are being written right now furiously by some graduate student about pop culture, conventions, and cost play that. They also allow for exploration of identity for other ring for all these kinds of things that we're talking about here. Right. So what do we have next? What what's. Next on the the, the plate of city. So sticking with the gender theme, there's two more studies I wanna talk about in one thousand nine hundred three. There was a study published in the journal of psychology called age and gender difference in children's Halloween costumes. So we're bringing it back to kids, but we're sticking with the gender thing here and the the people who wrote it, predicted that Halloween costumes for first and second graders would be less gender-stereotyped than those for preschoolers and children in kindergarten. So again, remember when I was talking earlier about that, that zone of three to five, the zone that your son isn't right now, that this is an area of of time that the authors speculate is is when identity is still in flux. Right? And so there's an idea that gender really needs to be reinforced. Okay. So this is a scenario where the the toddler of or not a toddler really. But the the young child three, four year old, they say they want to dress as the Princess and you say like, hell you are, you're dressing as a cowboy says, I have. Says, I have a lot of expectations for your your gender preference there. Yeah, exactly. And their findings confirmed this. So they found actually that older boys. So when they're talking older boys, they're talking about, like, I think over the age of eight, they tended to prefer less masculine and more feminine costumes than the younger boys did. And the older girls preferred more masculine and less feminine costumes than the younger girls did. So there definitely was like a between the ages of three and five like reinforcing gender thing. And then there's like a period of time where they play or maybe not play. I don't think there's like cross dressing as much as it's sort of like they're less concerned by that, right, but then it evolves by the time we get into high school and and college as we've seen in the sexy, costume stereotype. Right. We know that makes more sense. Imagine either a boy or girl, and they're having a lot of expectations. Placed on them in the way they dress every day, as well as some of these specialty costumes comes a point where you're going to say, you know, I would like to maybe wear something that's not pink, or, you know, I would like to wear something that's colorful and flowing, and you know, without engage in that possibility without all of the adult baggage that the parents are possibly right. Exactly. How much of the is the parents saying? I think you should be whatever. Yeah. I mean, like in your case, you bastion giraffe really how leather face. Yeah, it's it's not gendered. You just want him to. Yeah, yeah. But no. I mean, like I do see this kind of gender openness and curiosity, even in my own son, you know where he likes somebody playing in addressing. It's like, I'd like to run on a dress and you without the adult baggage we place on it scenario. Why not? I totally remember that period of time. There was a point when I in my, you know, upbringing wasn't particularly like conservative or I think of it as not being gendered. But of course it was and saying, like, you know, I wanted a Barbie doll to play with because the the girls in my kindergarten class, I'll have these Barbie dolls. So I, of course, I wanted one and I was discouraged from that and and it was really like, I couldn't make sense of it at that age because you know, they couldn't explain to me, well, if you do that, that's going to say a certain thing about you and people are gonna make fun of you, and that's gonna subsequently reflect back on me. Right? So it was. It was an interesting kind of thing to look back on its at Nettie euthanise siblings. I do. Yeah. But they're ten years younger than me. Okay, see because I, I have younger sister, so there were always Barbie dolls in the house. So they were. They were there and you know, I would play with the Barbie house. Sometimes they had a lot of cool stuff. Yeah, sure. Everything but a toilet in there. Right. Exactly. And if you, you know as as a kid of that age, if you're using your imagination with your toys, the gender element is probably not something you're even thinking of, right, but anyways, so that ties back into what we were talking about earlier with the the, the sort of preschooler, Halloween mentality. So it's it's gendered and then it's not gendered and then don't forget it also, Kurt. She's you to steal Steeler. Take a lot of candy, and there's one more study that is called the pink. Dragon is female, and it was published in two thousand in the psychology of women court quarterly. And basically what they did was a content analysis of all the children's Halloween costumes that they could find that were available. And they saw it as a categorization. They broke up into three categories here. Rose villains and fools, and they wanted to see whether or not these these costumes. Very, very much like the last study we were talking about reproduce or reiterate conventional messages of gender and what they found was the yes, the female costumes were clustered around examples of femininity, like we talked about earlier with the princesses and the beauty queens, but also there was a higher ratio of animal costumes for girls. And I've maybe I'd just never noticed this or maybe it's because of my age food stuff costumes. So if girls didn't wanna have gendered costumes, they could, I guess, be a strawberry or something or or I what would well, this one, one of the costumes from Tacoma bird right was addressed is food items. I don't remember that. Well, you know, even with animals, you have these gender stereotypes. Right. We've been kind of with my son's favorite animal is the draft, and then you go and you try and find shirts for boys with drafts? Yeah. You don't find you find the the boys shirts have Tigers and lions. Boys are not suppose. To like herbivores for some reason, to wraps can be pretty brutal tough when the draft can look after after itself in the neck around throwing him out kick well. Okay. So we've got the animals and food stuff seemed to be the compromise for young girls for young males. The costumes are likely to feature villains, especially those that are symbols of death, which I don't know necessarily that how much I would read into that given Halloween and the symbolic of death that you know floats around that holiday thing. But. They did find in this content analysis that less than less than ten percent of the costumes in two thousand, we're gender neutral. So the the food stuff items, I'm assuming those were the only ones you know and that more often that male costumes had occupational roles, right? Like I'm doctor, I'm a welder or whatever. I'm podcast or in the female costumes were usually based on what their appearance was in their relationships. So. All right. So to summarize, we've got the howling costumes, build gender, they are way that we construct race and identity, and then there's also a moral element that we've talked about including both stealing and intoxication. Yeah, allowing you to engage in behavior that you otherwise wouldn't engage in or wouldn't engage to that degree. You know, in one of the crazy things about this topic is that it's, it's not just at Halloween. It's not just. When we actively engage in the the wearing of masks, the it for fun, or as part of a religious ritual or what have you, but he needs time. We put on clothing, we're in, we're engaging in this kind of powerful rebe coming. It's, you know, a form of communication. Yeah, how we dress the things that we own, the things that we wear even down to like what kind of car you drive or what kind of pencil you use or whatever. Like all those things, whether we're conscious of it or not, our us communicating something about ourselves and identity to other people yet one invasion that I keep coming back to whenever I did my toe into this, this topic. Comes from a fabulous book by Virginia Smith titled clean history of personal hygiene impurity, which deals mostly with with that very concept. The idea that there's the physical cleanliness and then society of spiritual cleanliness and the to just become irreversible in interwoven throughout history and many amazing. And sometimes very, you know, miserable ways. But. She points out that modern cultural sociologists described the human body as an unfinished body, a body created by nature, but finished by humans. And so each of us calls upon various bodies at various times. So there's a cybernetic element to this. We're inherently augmented biotechnology, be that a wristwatch or an implant, or just the clothing we wear to tweak who we physically are and therefore tweak who we are inside. Yeah, that's interesting. Especially because like a topic that comes up on this show a lot is transhumance Zimmer post humanism and just thinking about it that way like like we think of that as being very kind of scifi thing that's coming down the road, but just think about it like my dog doesn't wear clothes other than the color that I put around his neck so I can walk him right. He doesn't need to express his identity within clothing. We're not the kind of people that do this, but some people put their dogs in little outfits, right. In order to sort of do that. Same thing to project identity through that when you look at the most primal example possible, imagine you know some sort of a cave person right in prehistory kills a wolf skins it, where's the wolf hide? And so on several different levels, I got one level. It's it's an augmentation of the body for purely to stay warm or even to provide some level of protection in combat. And then on on another level, though he that individual is taking on the hide of the beast, the being of the beast which we touched on a little bit in our, we'll Spain episode. One of the models for where we'll transformation is you wear a magical hide. Yeah, or the right? Exactly. Like the kind of barbarian wearing hides or even like wearing like the for over their head or something like in taking on the role of the beast in combat. Yeah, yeah. Yeah. Yeah. So in this we get into the idea of embodied. Cognition, which is a philosophical model in which an agents cognition, the way you think the way you engage, will you interpret the world is strongly influenced by aspects of an agent's body beyond the brain itself. So that entails, you know, not only how you feel about your body and how you appear, but then how you augment it through clothing. And to reiterate to there is an episode of stuff to blow your mind from a couple years ago that you that you guys did specifically about enclosed Coug nation? Yes. So if you know we're going to touch on it here, but if you really want to take a deep dive, go back and check that out, and I'm sure we'll link to it and we'll have a link to that one on the landing page for this this episode. But yeah, you see this idea of the body as a constraint, like your body is holding you back from being who you are inside the bodies, a regulator. So in this case, the the, the body's functions are are regulating cognitive activity. You get into this whole mind, body problem with it pretty pretty quickly. And this leads into. To an additional take on embodiment that deals particularly with garments. And this is enclosed cognition. And this from three initial studies by Haizhu Adam and Adam Lansky from Northwestern University, and they've been examining the psychological performance related effects that wearing specific articles of clothing have on the person wearing them, and they actually coined this term in clothed cotton ish in. Okay. And this is where we get the sort of Dr Koss play experiment, right? Yeah, yeah. So in fact, their their primary experiments dealt with the sewn in in one experiment, they, they found that people visit physically wearing a lab coat, and that's key, not just looking at it not just thinking about if they physically put it on, it increases selective attention compared to when they're not wearing a lap cut. Right. So it's like putting on a thinking, cap, thinking cap powered entirely by the symbolic nature of the cap. We think of the doctors dang who serious in an observant. And then when we put it on, even though we have no allusions. We are becoming a doctor, but we are like we're wearing the height of that wolf were wearing the height of that doctor and in doing so becoming them a little bit cognitively. Yeah, there's a lot going on there just in that one small experiment in that it speaks to the kind of human nature. Adherence to cultural narratives and imagination. And again, thinking back on Halloween in this idea of like, is it for kids? Is it for adults? We is adults every day are imagining and playing these games scenarios in our head as we dress up the way we do. Yeah. And they found in some follow up experiments that it that it specifically had to be a doctor's code if they, it was the same lab coat, and they said, oh, it's a painter's coat. Didn't have the same effect. And in all cases, it was the symbolic meaning of the the outfit, plus the physical experience of wearing it. So I think that's key to pretty much every model we've looked at here that you're taking on, not just the appearance of the monster or the sexy Egyptian, or what have you you taking on some aspect of at least what you presume to be the mind of that individual that racial group of that type of person or that destroyed. Up monster. Yeah. And again, I think that that explains the surge in popularity of costuming cost play in American popular culture right now. It's that has a lot to do that in maybe hallowing that one day or isn't enough for that kind of experimentation. People want to have more occasions in which they can do that and not have it be taboo. Right? So, I mean, that's why you see more and more that these days you see, just you're in Atlanta. We're going to talk about cramp is a little bit. Maybe we'll do a cramp is episode later on there. There's a local cramp this. Pub crawl? Yes, yeah, goes on people dress up like this hornet Germanic monster parade about. They've got this thing here in Atlanta too, like they probably have it in other cities now as well. But it says ambi- walk. Oh yeah. And it doesn't really. I mean, I think it's during October, maybe, but I think it has more to do with the Walking Dead is shot here and it has to do with Halloween necessarily. But I mean they get like five hundred people like all marching down the street through the city in zombie garb. So the rest of the year you go to, you go to various carnival situations Orleans. You go to diverse cons and dress up as these individuals. So so, yeah, we're kind of creating more and more opportunities for for adults to engage in costume. Play in in costume recreation. Yeah. I think it speaks to, like I said, at the top again, like so Halloween is like a way to sort of reflect back. What's going on in culture at the time in our sort of need for more opportunities to costume and play around with these identities seems to be a reflection of that as well. Right? That there's more fluidity and flexibility an acceptance of playing around with identity then AB was when we were kids. Yeah, back then they were still into you taking on a particular identity, but it was the one United to keep for the rest of your life. Right. And everything else. Yeah. Yeah. So so, yeah, I'm all in favor of donning those costumes. Yeah. Well, that's why Tober is my favorite month of the year. You know, I love. I love October, not just for Halloween, but for all the things that kind of come along with it, the the autumn, the corn mazes, hey, rides, all that stuff. Apple bobbing, and the podcast episodes and the related blog posts. Absolutely. Nice segue. So again, to remind you, we're going to be doing podcasts. All month that are fairly tied into the month of October and Halloween themes. But also we've got coming up at the end of October. We'll be answering your listener mail on ten twenty three during our first periscope session. And and you know, as I said before, we haven't periscope yet, but I believe you can interact directly with us there too. You can type in questions for us and you know, we'll try to answer them and monster science. So we're big monster fans around here, and we've got four brand new episodes of monster science coming up at the end of the month, all through the month. We're going to be posting the first two seasons of monster science to our social media accounts, Facebook, Twitter, and tumbler where you can find us with the handle below the mind. And finally, if people want to reach out to us and let us know about their costuming experience and whether what, what kind of affects tat on their identity or what they've seen with other people's identity, where can they reach out to us at? And maybe we can respond to that during the periscope session. Oh, did reach out to us at blow the mind. At how stuff works dot com. For more on this and bows of other topics, visit how stuff works dot com. When you're hiring, you don't wanna waste time. You want an efficient way to get to your shortlist of qualified candidates. That's why you need in the dot com. Used by over three million businesses post a job in minutes, set up screener questions than zero in on qualified candidates using intuitive online dashboard, and when you need to hire fast, accelerate your results with sponsor jobs, new users contri- for free at indeed dot com slash stuff that's indeed dot com slash stuff, terms conditions and quality standards apply.

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Explanations That Are Often Wrong Part I

Global Optimum

37:59 min | 2 years ago

Explanations That Are Often Wrong Part I

"Uh-huh. Optimum the podcast dedicated to making you a more effective altruistic. I am Daniel gamma Korda. We're gonna start off today with Groner. Did you know that when Nick Bostrom drinks he doesn't get drunk? Yeah. When Nick boss from drinks, he gets astronomical wasted. Come on guys, Allen's pretty good. One is pretty good. You gotta give me credit that didn't make you groan. Nothing will. This episode will feature two segments unapplied rationality in which I will talk about types of bad explanations. And check this wreck in which I will provide you with a recommendation of a book article podcast that perhaps you are not familiar with. Let's get into it. I'm going to talk about bed. Attractors in explanation space, what are bad kinds of explanation, and what makes them bed. When somebody tries to explain something. What are some common pitfalls? What ideas are seductive but often wrong? I'm not claiming that all of the kinds of explanations that I talk about are always wrong. But rather they're often wrong yet common. Nonetheless, going to be numbering each explanation type in order to have some kind of structure, let's get into it. Number one fake explanations. A fake explanation doesn't explain anything. It doesn't let you make predictions. You couldn't make before. It's just scienc- words strung together to make it sort of feel like something has been explained. Common example in psychology is the use of the word brain people use the word brain to give off a science vibe. But they don't actually tell you things you didn't already know to find an example of this. I googled social media brain, and I found a CNN article titled teens, this is how social media affects your brain. In the article, the author mentions a study in which the researchers measured how people's brains changed after they learn how to juggle the author goes on to explain quote time spent on social media could therefore also caused the brain to change and grow and quote. The implication is supposed to be that. Social media is changing us by changing our brains. Which doesn't explain anything? Because of course, if something affects our psychology, it's affecting our brain whenever you learned something that learning is a change in your brain. What else could it be? So whatever affects social media has on us. I'm sure the brain is involved somehow to say that social media changes us by changing our brain is a fake explanation. We haven't learned anything we didn't already know. If you went on and said, what particular changes were going on in the brain that could be new information. But to just say that social media could change the brain doesn't really explain anything number two ladling. Labeling is when you give a phenomenon name and you call the day. You don't talk about why the phenomenon occurs. You just label it and act like your job is complete. There's lots of examples of this in psychology. I'll just talk about one study. In this study, participants took part in the tree or social stress task in this task for dispense have to I give a speech to a panel judges, the judges are instructed to not give any positive feedback whatsoever than right after giving the speech, the British been has to count backwards out loud from two thousand eighty three in increments of thirteen. The point of the task is to stress participants out which it does I actually helped out in a study that used this task I played the role of one of the judges I had to observe the participants and pretend to take notes so that the participant would feel awkward and comfortable, by the way, lots of college students can't count backwards in increments of thirteen at least not in front of a panel judges, and whenever they would mess up. We'd have to tell them start over again. All right back to my example of labeling so participants complete the stress task then afterwards, they have their cortisol measured cortisol is a stress hormone. It's used as a measure of how stressed somebody is before taking part in the stress task all participants. I completed a survey in which they had to rank order different personal values. So things like. Religion social issues politics aesthetics after doing that participants in the first condition where assigned to answer questions regarding their top ranked value, whatever they said was the most important value to them, amber dispense in the second condition were signed to answer questions regarding their lowest ranked value the manipulation is supposed to be that one group is reflecting on something they really care about something that's important to them. And the other group is reflecting on value. That is not so important to them. The researchers found that the group that spent time reflecting on a value that was important to them had lower cortisol levels after completing the stress task compared to the group that spent time thinking about a value. They didn't much care about. This is meant to be evidence for the idea that if you reflect on important personal values, you will experience less distress in response to something that threatens you. So this is an interesting finding with psychology where it is today. I'm not sure how likely I would say it is to replicate. But for the sake of our discussion just going to assume this is true. This finding and others in the same ballpark have been explained by using self affirmation theory. According to Wikipedia self affirmation theory, contends that if individuals reflect on values that are personally relevant to them. They are less likely to experience distress and react defensively. When confronted with information that contradicts or threatens their sense of self. In the experiment. I've discussed the participants sense of self whatever that means was threatened by the stress task and the participants who reflected on values. They cared about seem to experience less stress as measured by cortisol levels. The issue with self affirmation theory is that it is not a theory. It does have the word theory in it. But it is not a theory. It doesn't explain anything. It's just a restatement of the finding the finding is that reflecting on important values protected from stress and it supposedly explained by self affirmation theory, which contends that if you reflect on important values that protects you from stress. So we're not getting an answer as to why thinking about your important important values. Buffers you against stress self affirmation theory is a label it refers to findings, but it doesn't really explain them. And it's fine to have a label for things if you have an interesting finding and you don't know how to explain it. It can still be useful to have a label for it. But self affirmation theory as a theory. Is very shallow. I'm not going to claim that it's useless. As theory much has been written about it. It does add some detail above and beyond just describing findings. But I think at best. It's ten percent explanation and ninety percent label number three equating correlation with causation. I know you've heard this before. But I still think it's underappreciated when we see that two things are related to each other. We are often too quick to conclude that one thing caused the other as opposed to both of them being caused by third variable. Lots of new stories that cover correlation research presented in a way to make it sound. Like there is 'cause -ality for example. A study came out that reported a correlation between per-capita chocolate consumption within a country and the per-capita number. Or of Nobel prizes. One by people. From those countries a strong positive relationship was found between how much chocolate country eats, and how many Nobel prize winners come from those countries. In other words, countries that eat more chocolate have more Nobel prize winners, the author the paper argued that there might be a causal connection because chocolate contains flavonoids which can improve cognitive function. This was reported on the time dot com website with the headline secret to winning a Nobel prize. Eat more chocolate. Now, given that this is country level data and also kind of ridiculous on its face. You may be suspicious, and I think you're right to be suspicious. A follow up paper investigated the claim further. One alternative explanation is that both chocolate consumption end producing Nobel laureates are a function of wealth. Maybe wealthy countries or chocolates and produce more Nobel prize winners. Follow up study confirmed that wealth strongly correlates with both of these. The authors also tested to see if there was a correlation with other consumables that have a high flavonoids concentration things like, tea and wine. They test to save. There's a correlation between per capita Nobel prize winners and tea consumption. They found no correlation. They did the same for wine. They found no correlation. So I do not think you can expect to increase your chances of winning Nobel prize by eating chocolate. I think mistakenly deriving causation from correlation is commonplace it pops up in lots of everyday decisions. People have good luck. Charms somebody might have a lucky shirt the reason that it's lucky is because something good happened. When they wore it. I think the supplement industry benefits from our tendency to see correlations as causal. I think lots of supplements do nothing, but someone will try supplement. They will feel a bit better than usual and conclude. It was due to the supplement then keep buying it. Aside from placebo effects. This can happen. Just due to chance there's natural variance in how you feel and you might just happen to feel a bit better. When you start taking a supplement. If you're trying a supplement that has a small fact the effect of the supplement could easily be dominated by normal variants, and you would have to do a proper experiment on yourself to be able to detect where the supplement was actually doing anything. I know of one person who does this the writer known as Guarne when he tests supplement hill, create placebo pills hill, organize it. So each day. He doesn't know whether he's taking the real supplement or the placebo, then he'll take measurements of himself. Like, how will he sleeps measure his mood, then he'll find out on which day. He was actually taking the cell phone or the placebo, and he could analyze the data. Collected on himself to see whether there was any difference in his measures between days retook, the supplement and days when he took the placebo. This sounds like the way to go. If you're going to test something that has a small fact, though, of course, basically, nobody does this which I think is fine as long as you only care about big effects, and as a final example, these days, social media and smartphones get blamed for lots of cultural changes. People notice that social media has gotten more popular smartphones have gotten more common, and that people today are different than they were before they conclude that these differences are due to social media smartphones. These damn kids today. In their dog on ipads and helicopter phones. My spaces. The psychologist Jean twenty has a book, titled Jen, she uses that term to characterize the generation born between the mid nineties and mid-2000s that grew up with smartphones. Twenty argues. This generation is less rebellious more depressed, the hang out with friends less. They drive later. They date less. They have sex later. They're lonelier they sleepless and she attributes this to smartphone usage. I like her book, I recommend you check it out, but one cannot help but feel skeptical that the correlation between smartphone usage, and these various trends doesn't tell the whole story. If you want a short version of her argument, she has an article published in the Atlantic titled have smartphones destroyed a generation, which I have linked in the show notes. Number four, supernatural ISM. I'm not gonna spend a lot of time on this. Because I think if you are listening to this you are already skeptical of supernatural explanations. But if you're going to talk about bad explanations that humans come up with he got include this on the list. We humans have a long history of observing something not being able to come up with a naturalistic explanation, then immediately jumping to God's magic energy ghosts. And the like. If you can't explain where lightning comes from perhaps a God throws the lightning. I'll just add that supernatural ISM made an appearance in academic social psychology, not long ago in twenty eleven Daryl Bem published a paper on psychic powers in the journal of personality and social psychology. The journal of personality and social psychology is the top journal in social psychology and to the great embarrassment of us, all they published a paper that purported to show that the future can affect the past. In one study them ran. He had participated study list of words. Then he gave participants a recall task where they had to write down as many words from the list as they can remember. After the recall task a random selection of words where shown to the dissident again. Ben found that participants were more likely to remember the words that had been shown to them after they finished the recall task he found that studying the words after the test may participants more likely to remember the words when they completed the test. If the sounds like it doesn't make sense. That's because it doesn't make sense he found that studying particular words after the test made participants more likely to remember those words when they took the test as if studying for a test after the tests could somehow cause you to have done better on the test. So the top journal in social psychology published a paper about the future changing the past via some supernatural mechanism. And of course, supernatural explanations still very common in the journal public number five evil. When people disagree with you. It's because they are evil. There's something fundamentally wrong with them a darkness that resides within their hearts. They wish sickness and famine upon the world they yearn to hear the screams of widows and taste, the tears of the downtrodden. Yes. When someone has a different opinion from you. What else could explain it? But the corruption of their very soul. Of course, evil does exist. I don't think it's useful to define it out of existence. I'm comfortable saying that people do evil things. Sometimes. But evil is certainly overused as an explanation for behavior, especially in politics. Defined examples of this idea. Gold abortion evil, you could imagine it took me all of ten seconds to find something I found an article in the guardian authored by Barbara ehrenreich and Elissa court Barbara ehrenreich is pretty famous read one of her books for a sociology class in college. Anyway, the title of their article is let's call the pro lifers what they are pro death. Yes. People who are pro-life are in favor of death. They twirl their mustaches and cackle as they imagined all the death their favorite policy can bring about now to be fair to the article, the authors don't actually argue that pro-lifers are pro pro-death. They argue that lack of access to abortion is associated with greater maternal mortality, but the title of the article, certainly evokes. Evil. And of course, the title is optimized to get eyeballs by appealing to what people wanna hear. And to balance things out. I'll include an example on the other side of the issue. This next quote comes from someone writing a letter to the Longview news journal. They write quotes I find it ironic that the liberals are so concerned about all of the children being separated from their parents upon illegal entry into our country. These are the very same liberals who approve abortion and killing thousands of innocent babies every day, and I would like to add that many of these liberals also prove of late term abortions. Oh, but excuse me, the liberals do not see it that way. It's about mothers right to choose to kill her baby. Why do the liberals care more about a legal immigrant children than unborn American babies end quote? I think this is similarly unfair to the people who actually hold the position in question. I do not think people who are pro choice fight for the mothers right to kill her baby. I think it'd be pretty hard to find many people in favor of baby-killing. Although you can find sophisticated thinkers who argue that killing a baby isn't as bad as killing an adult because babies lack consciousness or don't have much of it. Anyway, just a little tangent there evil aside. I also think that incompetence is overused as an explanation if somebody does a bad job, it's because they are bad at their job. Often when you think you are seeing incompetence you're actually seeing mollusc which is say people are trapped in equilibria where in order to succeed. They have to throw some of the things they care about under the bus. We have to sacrifice what we care about in order to effectively compete with other people. And if you don't make the sacrifice, you will lose. So you are under a lot of pressure to make the sacrifice. For example. When I was going to college. I remember being puzzled by the fact that a non trivial minority of professors are bad at teaching. Like most young people. I didn't really understand that professors had other responsibilities. I knew they had to spend an extra five plus years in graduate school to become a professor. I thus reasoned if somebody is so dedicated they're willing to do that. And they have all this extra training that they got in graduate school. How can so many of them end up being bad at their jobs? Part of the explanation comes from the incentive structure that professors operate under in universities professors are primarily judged by their publication record. How many articles did they get published in scholarly journals? And what is the prestige of the journal teaching is often an afterthought, and I don't think most universities put in any real effort to evaluate teaching. They mostly just look at teaching evaluations given to students at the end of the semester, which of course, doesn't measure a lot of what you might care about when it comes to evaluating teacher. So teaching doesn't have much influence over whether professors get tenure or get promoted within that system. A professor who spends lots of time on teaching at the expense of publishing lose up. They're more likely to get fired so predictably lots of professors throw teaching under the bus, at least to some extent. When I was a teaching assistant in graduate school. I worked under one professor who would always leave class after five minutes and just have me help students with projects during class time. I'm pretty sure the professor did this. So they can spend more time on research. So for professor seems like they are mailing in the teaching it isn't necessarily because they are unable to teach will indeed they might want to be able to spend more time in proving their class. But they're stuck in equilibrium where they have to sacrifice teaching at the altar of research if they're going to succeed. When other related phenomenon is attributing incompetence to the wrong person. Because you don't see the layers of bureaucracy they operate under institutions can have several layers through which decisions pass. And I think it's not uncommon to blame whichever layer is just above you for any bad decision. Here's an example, which is inspired by a true story. Near the end of the semester. A professor tells her students that they'll be taking an extra exam that wasn't on the syllabus. The students are upset and they think it's unfair to take an extra exam that was sprung upon them at the last minute. They think boy this professors bed the students blamed the professor what they don't know is the professor is giving this exam because a committee just told her that it's a new state requirement and she has to give this exam, and yes, it's late in the semester. But it has to be done. The professor thinks boy this committee is incompetent. So the professor blames the committee with professor doesn't know is the committee was just told about this requirement by the department head. So the committee Lindsay department head, but the department head was just told about this by the dean, the department head blames dean, sewn and so forth. I think there's a bias towards blaming the layer that is just above you for any incompetence that was likely to have been introduced earlier in the chain, given how long chain is. Number six mono causality. One flavor of this is explaining some complex event with a single. 'cause even though they're plausibly many causes at play a good, recent example of this is the election of Donald Trump after the election. Everyone took to the internet and explained his election using their one favorite explanation. Be it Facebook, sexism, racism, fake, news, political correctness Komi, or because Trump is a master persuader. I'm definitely skeptical that last one. I think if you explain Trump's election by pointing to only one thing, you don't have the whole story, which of course, doesn't mean there's anything wrong with just focusing on one. 'cause but honestly after the election there, plenty of people saying Trump was elected because of this one particular thing, and that one particular thing was typically a hobby horse for that person. The other flavor of Monaco -ality is claiming one big idea explains. More than it really does. The pattern that you see in scientists. They will have a big idea apply it in some domain to great success, and they will go on and say, my idea doesn't just work well within this domain know, my idea explains everything and then they kind of go off the rails. In a previous episode. I talked about filter it locks research into political forecasting. He had hundreds of experts make political predictions over twenty years and looked into what factors influenced who made correct predictions. He found that being conservative or liberal didn't have much of an effect education and years of experience and have much of an effect. What he found was that some predictors relied on one big idea to make their prediction, while others, drew on lots of little ideas. He called the predictors with one big idea hedgehogs and the predictors with lots of little ideas. Fox's. One of the main findings of his research was that FOX's were better at making predictions than hedgehogs. The FOX's were more comfortable with nuance more flexible. They're more skeptical of their own ideas, the hedgehogs had one big idea, which they were expert in and they saw their big idea as explaining a lot more than a really did. The moral of the story is don't be a hedgehog. Unless you are blue and really fast number seven top down fallacy. When we see some complexity we are biased towards thinking that it must have been designed. I think we intuitively overweight top down explanations. That things are the way they are. Because somebody wanted them that way. Lots of complexity in the real world is actually bottom up. It's not orchestrated. There is no one running the show. It is rather the outcome of lots of little simple processes. One example of this is the existence of complex life. We look around the world, and we see lots of life, lots of diversity of life. The reason why we have a diversity of complex life is evolution evolution. As theory has been around for more than one hundred fifty years. And yet we still see a shockingly large proportion of people who believe in creationism. Gallup has been pulling American since nineteen eighty two asking the following question. Which of the following statements comes closest to your views on the origin and development of human beings. One human beings developed over millions of years, but God guided this process to human beings developed over millions of years, but God had no part in this process. Three God created man in his present form. In nineteen eighty two forty four percent of Americans said God created man in his present form in twenty seventeen. Thirty eight percent of Americans say God created man in his present form. So bit of a dip, but not much thirty percent is very very high for a question that has such a strong scientific consensus. The US is particularly bad when it comes to belief in Evelyn, lots of other countries do better, but still the data looked quite bad overall. So what's going on here? Obviously there's different things at play including religion. I think part of what's going on. Is this top down fallacy the sense that complexity must come from a designer that wanted the complexity I think, this is a reason for the intuitive -ness of the creationist view. It comes naturally to us that to get something as complex as ourselves. Somebody must have wanted that complexity this is related to how were biased toward seeing agency and purpose in the world. In one study, researchers asked adults and preschoolers to decide whether several things had a particular purpose, whether they were made four something adults and children agreed that jeans were made for something. They agreed that a ring was made for something. The researchers also included natural objects like clouds and icebergs. Here. Most children insisted that yes, these natural objects have a purpose. For example, clouds are four raining. However, most adults did not agree that clouds were made for some particular purpose. The idea that things in the world were made that way for a particular reason seems to come quite naturally to us and emerge early on. I think the top down fallacy is also what drives the appeal of a lot of policies to regulate the economy. I don't think regulation is necessarily bad though. I think there are plenty of instances where it can make things worse, but it remains popular among the public, regardless. One example would be rent control rent control refers to the government deciding how much can be charged for rented housing, for example, making it illegal to charge more than a certain amount. I think this has a lot of into the peel if rents are high, and it's a big strain on tenants than just pass a law saying the rents can't be high. I think the appeal of this policy in part comes from seeing the economy as much more top down than it really is people see the economy, which is fantastically complex, and they figure it must be the way that it is because somebody at the top wanted that way what a landlord charges for rent is just an arbitrary decision made by the landlord. So the rent is high. That means the landlord is, greedy. Therefore, if we can force landlords to charge less more people will be better off. Alas? It is not so simple. Economies are largely bottom up. They are the product of lots of people making lots of decisions. And when you look at it from a bird's eye view, it can look like it is coordinated it does seem to work strangely. Well, but it doesn't work well because there's a committee behind the curtain making all the important decisions in the case of setting the price of rent landlords. Can't arbitrarily the side charge more because they are competing for tenants with other landlords. And if they raise their prices potential tenants will go rent somewhere else. So given that landlords find themselves in a competitive market. They have a lot to consider when deciding what to charge for rent. It's not just one person making an arbitrary decision. It's a decision based on lots of other factors that are all interconnected when rent controls have been enacted. It has led to all sorts of negative side effects. They Connie is like a balloon when you push down one part. The other parts will burst out in the case of rent control, leads to housing shortages, hasn't quality goes down landlords can discriminate more because there's so many people desperate for rent controlled housing. They have more freedom to pick and choose who they rent to. There's a pretty strong consensus amongst communists that read controls. Don't lead to good outcomes. The economist Asir Lind Beck has said quotes rent control, appears to be the most efficient technique presently known to destroy a city except for bombing and quote, rent controls persist nonetheless. When it comes to both creationism and rent control. It's easy to say that these persist because of lack of knowledge, but what I'm getting at is why the requisite knowledge remains lacking. Even though it's not hard to come by. I think creationism and rent control both run parallel to our intuition. So they are hard to break out of in. Both cases the top down fallacy is play. We see the world is more designed than really is. That is as far as I'm gonna get in covering types of bad explanations. This episode, but tune in next episode for the exciting conclusion to this two part series for now let's head on over to check. This wreck. And this segment I recommend some bit of media that you are perhaps unfamiliar with this episode's wreck is the YouTube channel, titled science technology and the future. I believe the name of the channel used to be Adam Ford, Adam has videos of events as well. As interviews the videos on this channel feature some people you may have heard of like Peter singer. Stuart Russell Robinson Nick Bostrom and Julia gala also there's videos from an effective altruism conference held in Melbourne in two thousand fifteen so if you have a sec check this wreck. That's it for this episode. The sources I've referred to throughout the episode including this week's wreck can be found in the show notes. Now.

Nobel prize professor Nick Bostrom journal of personality and soc cortisol Daniel gamma Korda Groner CNN Allen Donald Trump journal of personality Daryl Bem YouTube Peter singer US Atlantic Wikipedia sickness Facebook
Gratitude Can Save Your Life! (TAW011)

The Apprenticeship Way with Marc Alan Schelske

18:04 min | 2 years ago

Gratitude Can Save Your Life! (TAW011)

"Well, a new year has just begun. And that means we're all thinking about goals and hopes and resolutions, honestly, most of that useless most resolutions fail. But if you really want to change your life for the better this year. There's one thing you could do that would have a massive impact. Hey, friends. I'm Mark Allen Chelsea and this is the apprenticeship way a podcast about learning. How to live life with Jesus the Sepah sewed eleven gratitude and save your life. We're in the first few days of a new year. That means the holiday seasons finally over. We're probably down to the last few crumbs of Christmas desert on the kitchen counter, thanksgiving leftovers are long gone for a few days there. It was the cultural thing to think about gratitude, maybe at thanksgiving your meal, you even went around the table and everyone named off things they were thankful for. But then the rest of the holiday season came like a runaway train black Friday and decorating the house in the near infinite number of invitations to Christmas parties and Christmas performances. And finally, we were all off to celebrate Christmas. And then new years, and in the rush of all of that, we left thankfulness behind most of us don't think deeply about gratitude when we were kids we were taught right say, thank you. You know, when somebody helps you or serves you or gives you something. It's just part of being polite to say, thank you something. So basic doesn't need much further thought, right? That's too bad. Because gratitude is the cornerstone for healthy, spirituality, not only that it's incredibly good for us. I mean that in a literal tangible measurable way, I mean, if you were to adopt some gratitude practices today, it would literally change your experience of this new year. It might even save your life. Now, maybe this comes as a surprise, but clinical studies are beginning to document the positive impact. Gratitude has on our day to day lives in two thousand and two journal of personality and social psychology published. A study wrote it up in an article called the grateful disposition a conceptual and empirical topography great name, right? You'd pull that off the shelf. But what happened was they conducted a simple survey of their participants to determine these people felt and expressed gratitude regularly, and then they scored the statements of their participants to create a gratitude index, and then they compare that number with a whole bunch of other data that they gathered that measured psychological. Health physical health religious, practice, spiritual beliefs and relational connectedness. So what did they discover let me read you just a little bit from their findings, quote, we found that compared to their less grateful counterparts. Grateful people are higher in positive emotion in life satisfaction and lower negative emotions. They appear to be more socially oriented, more empathetic, forgiving, helpful and supportive than their less grateful counterparts. In addition grateful, people are less focused on material goods, finally, they tend to be more spiritually and religiously minded they score higher not only on measures of traditional religiousness, but also on nonsectarian measures of spiritual experiences such as a sense of contact with the divine power. That's all from their paper reporting the results pretty impressive right gratitude directly linked to higher life satisfaction more positive emotions more positive relationships who doesn't want those things. I do if practicing gratitude could bring me more of. That more positive emotion were greater life. Satisfaction. More sense of contact with divine will be time. Well, spent right now, of course, you could say that if people have more positive life experiences, then of course, they'll be more grateful. I mean, maybe they just have more gratitude because they got a better hand. I mean, I'd be more grateful to have better things were happening to me. Are you thinking that will more and more? Studies are asking exactly that question is gratitude just the result of good experiences or can it in some way, actually bring about good experiences. One study from the psychology department of bowling green university looked at gratitude and mental health. They found that both Christian and Jewish subjects who engaged in regular practices of gratitude like recording things they were thankful for an journal were less likely to develop anxiety and depression. Now, that's true. Do you understand what that means means something as simple as writing things down that you're thankful for can literally change our brain chemistry. That's amazing. And then in two thousand fifteen the American psychological association published a study from the university of California called the role of gratitude in spiritual wellbeing in asymmetric heart failure patients. All right. So here's the situation. Everyone in this study was developing serious heart disease. Most of them had recently gotten their prognosis, and it wasn't good. And the question of this study was what impact would regular exercises of gratitude have on the course of their disease. Here's one statement. From this study after reviewing the results, gratitude, and spiritual well-being are key positive factors to consider in this population. We documented that gratitude is related to better mood and sleep less. Fatigue. More self efficacy in treatment and yet this lower cellular inflammatory index. Okay. The skeptic in me can write off things. Like better mood is subjective. And you could say that things like higher self efficacy in treatment. That's participating in your treatment that could just be temperamental. Right. Some people's personalities. They're better at participating in that stuff, but lower cellular inflammation, that's objectively measurable so here. Gratitude not just the emotion, but the tangible practice was shown to reduce cellular inflammation, which we believe is a significant cause of disease that blows my mind. Are you ready to sign up yet? The most well known gratitude, researchers amending robber demons. He's been stuck. Seeing the effects of gratitude gratitude practices for a long time more than a decade in ongoing studies involving more than a thousand people tracked overtime. This guy's the expert. His studies have shown tangible results, the honestly stop me in my tracks, stronger, mute system, less reported aches and pains. Lower blood pressure higher motivation to exercise take care of one's body deeper longer more effective sleep higher levels of positive emotion. More mental alertness, more reported, joy, pleasure optimism and happiness. Not to mention dramatic improvements in relationship and less reported feelings of loneliness in isolation. Okay. So as gratitude the miracle cure for nearly everything that ails us. I mean, clearly, this is something we ought to be taking seriously being grateful and practicing thankfulness a recurring subjects in scripture. They occur in hundreds of verses in both the old and New Testament being thankful to God is one of the most frequent themes of the psalms thinking God and giving thanks is mentioned in your. Every one of Paul's letters. In fact, the instruction to be thankful or give thanks shows up in scripture thirty seven times total, and that's maybe surprisingly one more than the number of times scripture tells us to be holy why does it come up so often probably because we need it. The world we live in a culture that has formed us is at its core, ungrateful. We continually measure others by some standard of merit. Who deserves what we ask constantly, right? Who deserves God's grace who deserves guts forgiveness who deserve that promotion at work who deserves a million views on YouTube who deserves healthcare and citizenship. We want the world to be America Crecy. Well, actually, that's not entirely true. We want the world to function as America Crecy where we get to help define the standard of merit merit. Is so compelling because it's a way to document and validate worth we're all desperate to establish our own worth. So we turn all manner of measurable things into standards of merit. If you have a certain number of dollars in your Bank account or followers on your social media platform or books to your credit, you pass the standard if you perform according to the purity rules of your religious group, or your political tribe or your family culture. Then you meet the standard essential. We live like we believe this do the right thing. Look the right way have the right stuff, and you deserve good things to come your way. But here's the insidious consequence of this belief this way of living. If we can prove that we deserve the good that comes to us. And we have no reason at all to be grateful. I suspect this is why sometimes we're a bit uncomfortable with gratitude, we don't like to be in debt to other people. We don't want to acknowledge that whatever we've built is contingent. Whether it's a business or reputation or retirement account, or even a perspective, we've come to through hard study in mental work. We don't like to accept that. What we have is dependent on other people one of the most precious myths of the modern American culture is the bootstrap over not personal pull themselves up by their bootstraps. Maybe they started their business in their garage all by themselves without depending on anyone else and rose to power and influence and wealth. That story is a myth every time. It's never true. You never did the whole thing all by yourself without needing the support of others or without needing work that others had done before you. Sometimes what we built is dependent on the generosity of others people who've just shared with us. Sometimes what we built as dependent on the exploitation of others. Sometimes we actively exploit by taking advantage of other people just because it's the common business practice or the law allows it sometimes we passively exploit by participating in systems where we benefit at other people's expense. Sometimes what we built is dependent on collaboration or access given to us by someone like a mentor. Sometimes what we've built is dependent on learning from someone else who did the hard work or the hard thinking before we even came along. We're just building on their shoulders and most of us don't like to acknowledge this stuff. We don't like the reality that our entire lives come to us as a gift our profound need to feel worthy. Drives us to believe that we build all that ourselves to our hard work, and our ingenuity and because we put in the hours or. The pain or the effort will we deserve all the good that we have. Or maybe we feel bitter because we believe we haven't gotten what we deserve. So gratified can be tough thing for us. Because real gratitude requires acknowledging that the good we have came to us from outside ourselves real gratitude is an acknowledgement of grace now, we're to the heart of things this is precisely why gratitude is such a crucial part of spiritual growth because gratitude is the fundamental awareness that we depend on grace. We live because our parents sacrifice their lives their time their money, sometimes even their dreams to protect and provide for us. Let's grace we get to do. Good work in the world because other people trained us or mentor us or shared their experience with us when they didn't have to that's grace. We know the things we know because before us other people have explored in wondered experimented in written. None of us had to invent fire or the wheel or how to remove a burst appendix. Thank god. That's grace. We wake up every morning because a new day dawns completely outside of our control. Our lungs breathing air, our brains process, chemicals, intellect trysofi, our hearts pump blood and all with no regard for what we deserve that new day entirely grace, and then add one more thing to all of that the story about God and humanity that we find in the life and teaching of Jesus is a story entirely about grace Grace's God's posture towards humanity. Grace originated in the trinity in exploded into creation it defines. God's longsuffering patience. Motivated, the incarnation. It was embodied in the life. Teaching and death of Jesus Christ grace rescues. Us from away of living defined by self centered. Self justifying selfishness in sin, and it plants us in a new kingdom new way of living defined by other centered co suffering love following Jesus has led me to believe that in Christ. God sees us as beloved as included welcoming us into the Trinity's never ending never failing eternal dance of love. That means Grace's everything. It means grace is the nature of reality. So answer me this when we encounter grace unmerited favor. Like I've been describing and let it seep into our minds and hearts. What's our natural response? Gratitude of course, crowded tude, grace flows to us, and we respond with gratitude gratefulness is simply seeing what's true. That's why gratitude is the best marker of spiritual growth spiritual maturity is about coming to live more and more alignment with. What is ultimately true? When we begin to see that reality is funding. Italy grace, it rewrites the story that shapes us is that a finding ourselves defined by the stories of lack or alien nation or fear or insufficiency that are merit panicked world inculcates us with something. Unexpected happens grace bursts in from the outside of that system and upenn's it grace undermines in contradicts. Our meritocracy grace tells us that all of life is a gift and our response to that has got to be gratitude that means gratitude is how we align ourselves with reality. And it turns out living in alignment with reality has the power to make your life better. Even when it comes to things like blood pressure, and sleep and cellular inflammation. May you step into the new year profoundly aware of the gift you've been given? And may you discover an engage the power gratitude. So that this can be the. The best one news live yet. Thanks for listening. This podcast is a relatively new thing for me, and I'm really enjoying it. I haven't put a lot of time and effort into marketing it just been focusing on learning how to do it. But even so I'm so thankful for the encouragement that you've been to the feedback that I've gotten on the topics and on the presentation and all of that you've been hugely encouraging. Now this month, we broke thirty five hundred downloads now in the podcast universe. That's not a lot. But for me just getting started. It's unbelievably exciting that thirty five hundred people have downloaded this or watched it on YouTube. That's really cool to celebrate that I wanna do give away. Here's how it's going to go. I've got two books out presently discovering, your authentic core values, which is a little step by step guide for braider focus in your life, and the wisdom of your heart, which is about the crucial relationship between emotional maturity, and spiritual growth both books that can help you live a better life. I'm gonna give a signed copy of each of these books to the I ten people who share this podcast with their friends on social media. Here's how down. If you're on Twitter or Facebook, that's the two places all check. If you're on Twitter or Facebook make a post sharing this podcast. You can share any episode of the podcast or you can share the podcast page from my website, pick one and share it. And in the post, tell your friends why you think this podcast is worth checking out. And then tag me in the post on Twitter, I'm at shell Chelsea and on Facebook. I'm Mark Allen shell steep Taghi. Thou let me find the post that'll help me to see that you did it. And then I will reach out to the first ten of those that I see on Facebook or Twitter, and I will have to sign books on the way to so this'll be a fun celebration of our first thirty five hundred downloads and a great way to kick off this brand new year two thousand nineteen inviting other people to listen in if you'd like to talk about this episode with me or with other people on the same kind of journey or if you'd like to find encouragement for growing in your intentional spiritual life, I want to invite you to consider joining the apprenticeship lab member community. This is a very concrete way. You. Can prepare your heart for growth this year. This is a private and safe community. The I lead for the kinds of conversations that lead to spiritual growth, and maturity, it's just eight bucks a month that small contribution gets you access to a private small community of people on the same journey. Get access to me. I'm there. We talk about the journey life, questions, spiritual and scriptural questions. Plus you get a bunch of other stuff thirty short videos for daily inspiration to kick off your year. Right. Monthly spiritual life to a access to some online courses for spiritual growth, and I'm always adding new things designed to help you learn how to live your life with Jesus. And honestly, it's also a great way to support the work that I do which allows me to make more material like this. And of course, you'll find the show notes for today's episode, including all the scriptures in the links. I just mentioned at WWW dot Marc Allen shell ski dot com. Forward slash TA w zero one one episode eleven so until next time remember this. This in this one present moment, you are loved. You are no you are.

Grace Twitter Facebook journal of personality and soc YouTube Jesus Mark Allen Chelsea anxiety America psychology department of bowli Mark Allen American psychological associa Marc Allen Paul
How fraud, bias, negligence, and hype undermine the search for truth

Inquiring Minds

54:57 min | 1 year ago

How fraud, bias, negligence, and hype undermine the search for truth

"James. Is a Weirdo and I. I don't exactly know what his whole deal is but his podcast James Alter show has guests like Richard Branson Tyra, Banks Andrew Yang Coolio Danika Patrick and six hundred others. He asks them weird questions and even though they tell him the secrets of their success and I want to point out that he approved this. Even though they tell them the secrets of their success he seems like a complete loser anyway. The James Ultra show that's eight L. T. U. C. H. E., R. James Ultra show, and again he approved this copy if you like bachelorette crazy. Set to take place during a global crisis. November's vote will have far reaching consequences and not just at home, but around the world. The Financial Times are journalists are examining the impact of the election on America's response to the health and economic emergencies at faces? What will this mean for business? Steer from crisis to recovery with the Financial Times. Read More F. T. dot com slash new agenda who am betty and demand season bills at Joe's Jane's will find in the study of science a richer more rewarding life. Hey, welcome to inquiring minds I'm Indre Visconti. This is a podcast that explores the space for science and society collide. We want to find out what's true what's left to discover and why it matters. We Love Science. On this show we talk about it all the time, but we are also aware that signs is done by scientists who are flawed human beings like all of us, and so once a while we go back to the scientific method and questioned whether it can be improved especially in specific domains on several episodes of podcast, we've covered the replication crisis the fact that sometimes scientific studies which have become part of the Canon which have been cited thousands of times turn out to not be replicable. What does that mean for the original findings? What does it mean moving forward? Well, on this week's interview, we talked to Stuart Ritchie who was one of the pioneers in the replication crisis in psychology questioning some of the major findings when it comes to understanding how human bias sees misunderstandings and deceptions can undermine science stewart has been thinking about this and working in this area for a long time. He's recently come out with a book called Science Fiction's how fraud bias negligence and hype undermined the search for truth. Stuart Ritchie welcome to enquiring minds. Thank you for having me on. You actually start your the preface of your book with a quote from the seventeenth century which I found shocking. The fact that the confirmation bias we've known about for four Hundred Years I mean it was like sixteen twenty I think isn't it? Remember that I think yes exceed twenty. Yeah. So from Friends Bacon and yeah. So I've got here I can read the book. Is Peculiar and perpetual error of the human understanding to be more moved and excited by affirmative by negatives. We've known to four hundred years and yet here we are still. The same errors over and over and over again even scientists who know better and I think that when a lot of people think about the current regulation crisis in science, which we've talked about a fair amount on the show. I think there's this kind of sense that there's a number of different forces at play. But that confirmation bias especially when a person has a theory, a theory that they really want to prove I think that that sort of is is a way that a lot of people think about why science goes wrong But what I liked about your book is that it it sort of says yet. The existence of the confirmation by but really lays out a systematic bias that that makes it almost seem impossible for science to get it right under the current circumstances. Yes. The it's the the incentive system I talk about the incentives of science and and how they push researchers not towards discovering things about the world towards. Just publishing papers, publishing papers constantly am, and of course, then that's where the confirmation bias in because the type of papers that people went to publish are, of course, ones that have nice. Positive, results so were. We have this kind of confirmation bias towards. This ignificant results since so that's where you see the biases coming in and all the hacking stuff that talk about when you're trying to get that peeve allieu below zero point zero, five and and. That's for other kinds of biases coming like like you mentioned the theory. Type of bias you know there's room for political bias. There's room for just wanting to discover something to help that service at an at. An, all these biases would be. Would almost be fine. You know it would be the part of human nature that if we had a system of peer review that really. Stop these things from getting into the journals that stopped bias pay person gains the journals that at that a loads. Papers that maybe doing to have a positive result or don't have an exciting new finding and just have robust normal goring science if it gave him a fair shake. But unfortunately, as you say, the is is really no sale to work like that. Yet I remember in two thousand when I was a graduate student I really felt like it was incredibly rigorous that in order to get published like you really had to make. Sure that your data we're not flawed that your design was excellent. You know that you had sort of accounted for all of these biopsies and I remember when so just GonNa Delve into a little bit of a personal story and then I really want because it does tell so much what I think probably lead you to write this book, which is the Daryl Bem experience that you had so in two thousand and eleven. I was actually a co host of a show on the Oprah Winfrey, Network Bear with me called Miracle Detectives and my job was to be the scientific foil partnered with a true believer in miracles journalist and so we were we were traveling around the country trying to investigate whether people's claims of miracles that they experienced were in fact true or whether they could be explained more simply in another. Way. and. So there I mean that was a it was an amazing experience. There are a couple of things I that I sort of came out of that experience knowing or thinking and one was that people at least the ones that we a the vast majority of the people that we talked to just genuinely wanted to know the truth they were not trying to fool us they were not trying to. Make money off of you know some some fraud they genuinely thought that that what they had experienced was a miracle and they were curious to find out if that was true. So one of the was about pre cognition this idea that somehow there's a actually not not one a couple of them. So that this idea feature that we can actually either see the future or see things that we can't see with our eyes like For example, there was this one woman that I interviewed who had this technique that apparently was was actually pioneered by the Department of Defense, where you know during the Cold War where it was like you were spying from your couch, you know like you could just think really hard and and On Russia sounds sounds ridiculous but you know she. So one of the things that she did is she we had a bunch of photographs and we put them into a Manila envelope and then she would with just not seeing the photographs but just looking at the envelope, tell us what was on those pictures. So she would. To blissed out all these different. Aspects of the picture and it was kind of kind of kind of. Pre cognitive ability of hers which even she says, she doesn't understand how it works and then. Basically, it's the same as a cold reading technique where it's a lot. She puts out a lot of information and you as the observer tend to pick out the things that are in line with what you're seeing. So it's confirmation bias. But in any case, there was another one where was a woman who had a dream that she was going to be in a car? Crash and then the car crash happened. So a lot of these things we've talked about and I remember like in each case I felt pretty confident that I could explain what was happening on the basis of understanding the confirmation bias on understanding sort of how the human mind works, how we're really terrible at remembering things and then right around that time Daryl bem paper was published. And my co host was delighted. So why don't you tell us? About this paper and how it left me gobsmacked and you know really out on a limb on this reality TV show well, left everyone goes back and actually I don't think maybe shoot have left everyone goes mad because if you look through the psychological literature and mainstream psychological district, you can find a lot of examples of parapsychology. So like ESP research am but this was one that was particularly prominent it was in A. Particularly Mainstream Journal the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology which is like one of those journals where if you get a publication there, then it's your one of your star CV items. It's a career maker. I mean I think that shocking to me it's one thing to you know he would. He would give me all these citations from journals that I knew weren't that high quality but this was Jape p like this is. A career making journal like POPs up too often this. In in good journals, I mean, even you know just just recently just a couple of years ago. There was one in the American psychologist paper that was a that was saying that came to the conclusion that psychic powers real. They pop up every so often but anyway, the in two thousand and eleven, this one was particularly. Particularly Prominent I. Think it was particularly prominent because it. It was really simple needs to understand. He had just taken very simple psychology lab experiments and like reverse the time. Sequence of those experiments. So am there was one where the that we tried to replicate, which is who has started book. The goes like this. So normally in in a psychology experiment, you would. In. America memory experiment you give someone a list of words to to to to them rise, and then you would show them. You know maybe you you show them half of those words again. and. Then you give them the task and then low and behold you would find out that they would remember better. The words that they'd been shown again right that makes perfect sense. The what he did this experiment was he showed them a list of words. Then immediately give them a test. Then he showed them afterwards again. So he likes shifted time sequence of the experiment rind and what he showed apparently in this paper was that the participants remembered the words that they were a boat to see better than the ones they. They'd only seen once and only ever see once. So as I say in the book, it's like he study for an exam and then you sit the exam and then after you leave exam hall, you like go and pick up your Brooke again and read. Study even more and that studying like goes back in time and helps you on the exam itself, and so they're willing nine experiments like this, all of which were quite straightforward and simple but with this kind of mind-blowing kind of. This shift in the same sequence. So the cause had to come. After the effect. You know even Stephen Colbert was interested in one of these. Right HE DARYL BEM on. To talk about time traveling porn, which is the one where people were more likely to randomly choose. Curtain on a screen that was told there was a picture buying one, and if there was porn buying the picture they didn't get it fifty fifty they got it like fifty three point one percent of the time and that was the daily significant and so on and so they they m they that causal of. So on and the idea was that you have this like since the sort of them that sort of the psychic erotic. Perception of Lake something that's about to happen to you. That's going to be Roti or and the opposite was that you would be more likely to avoid clicking on the the picture that would turn out to be a violent picture. So you have this pre cognitive sand for bad violent things that are going to happen to you in. And so there were nine of those experiments in the paper. So that's another reason that it was really prominent was because it wasn't just one little experiment. It was a whole suite of experiments that he had been working on for you I think most of most of the decade previous to the publication. With Hundreds of participants, Cornell graduate students over many years and. That's the the over conclusions paper was. Yes. There's evidence here I bills. And? So. What we thought we would do in in our. LABS SO IN MY I was just a PhD student Italian managed to look some lab base than we thought. We would replicate that one of the words, the memory experiment and then. A couple of my colleagues, Richard Wiseman and Chris French who are at their respective universities. They say the same experiment again, and we did exactly the same tests because to give him his daryl. Bem The statistical programme that he used to run the experiment online. So we could run exactly the same thing again, using the same words the same presentation absolutely everything. So it was like a direct replication attempt to his of his paper. and. Or that one experiment in the paper should say and we find we found nothing. We didn't find any psychic effect. We found that the words that we're about to see were remembered just as well as the ones that weren't about to see. So there wasn't any like time reversal phenomenon happening in our sample, and that's over well like even if it was real. You might expect the euro some people would not replicated but the point I'm trying to make in the book that we sent this to the journal that that it was originally published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology JP. and. They said, no sorry. We don't even consider publishing replication attempts. We're not going to end. This is up for review can have on principle we don't we're not interested in replication attempts and that was my first introduction to like how. Obsessed with novelty and excitement people are like even if it's a really bizarre thing like Esp. The journals are interested in publishing that. Won't even consider publishing a study that comes along and says, well, we ran exactly seem experiments who it's methodologically just as rigorous. But. We didn't find any all probably ESPN is not happening in sample. You think they would. They would have considered if you had found that you had actually replicated or already. Say They. They said to us in the in the email we're interested in replication attempts posted warnings. So just that's just not interested in that same experiment again, they want to move on onto something else onto something new and exciting and shiny and not. Just check whether that works. And I think that's an important point because we don't want to say that this is just entirely due to publication bias that only positive or only significant results are being published in that journal. That's not true. It's just that they don't want to necessarily publish in this case they at least in two thousand and or how however how long does I guess what I'm asking is Have, they changed their tune sin-. Hasn't yeah. Yes. They have. In the last I can't remember when they made this change, but it was in the last. Maybe last five years or so. So this was in two thousand and eleven. But in in the last five years they have 'em knows on their website that they actively say we will consider replication studies. So I think the whole series of events that were kicked off by the you know the the Bam Story and A whole bunch of other. Things that can have happens to happen roundabout at same time. So there was like a big fraud case Dietrich's Dapple on case, and there was the the the framing replication failures well, one of the big framing studies and all that. Do Yeah. Well, that's that's that paper that we. were. All taught Undergrad I remember being taught as an Undergrad psychology student. And this isn't a power clean. It's all it's knowing with that, but it isn't like an unconscious psychology claim and some of US would would Some. People may argue that some of the weird they're priming effects might be may be actually. Put into the same brackets parapsychology because they seem so implausible on their face but there was for a while this whole thing in psychology of of of what has been called Social Priming. Some people don't agree with that title, but the idea was that unconscious influences have this massive effect on our behavior and our perceptions and our feelings towards other people and all sorts of stuff like that. and. So this particular study was one where. People were participants were sat in a room and it was again it was just like words on a computer screen and they had to. Fill in the word and in an incomplete sentence and In one case, they got lots and lots of words that were all really to older people. So we were like gray and. Zimmer and. I, think one of the words was Florida because in the US Harley that's associated with older people. Like. To me that doesn't give me that association but apparently at us. So the words and and the control group just had completely random words. And the. So the the idea was that the people who had been exposed to the words to do with old people walked more slowly of the lab after they finish the experiment than the ones who had just seen random words and they were timed by the experimenters on Stodgy than. More slowly than the corridor and until the was this. As part of this whole research program where lots of 'em. Weird and. All these all these weird unconscious can happen like. If you're if you're holding a cop the, that's fool of warm. Liquid rather than one that's cool liquid you're more likely to feel warmth towards your. Towards your friends so you'll be Riga friendships as more fulfilling. Because it activates the concept of warmth and it's this link between my literal warmth and the metaphorical warmth in remains, and so it must give has never been to a pub. Very, true. So in this idea, it was like the link between it like. The concept of being all in your head, and so you walked more slowly and anyway in two thousand twelve was a study that came out that really. Threw that into question and in particular because they had instead of getting. Their experiments to measure the walking speed with a stop watch they had infrared beams that people broke. So it was a more objective way of measuring the speed of walking over the door and. They found the they didn't find any effect in that experiment. And weirdly you know this was the first time that anyone had sort of directly replicate Dan. There had been lots of kind of what what working in a slightly. EUPHEMISTIC way called conceptual replication studies that kind of did something similar but no, exactly the same. So there'd be a whole research program of this kind of stuff, but it was never exactly testing whether this particular study replicate and so because of that and because of Daryl Bam because of this fraud case also came up at the same time. I, think that was what was the kind of the initial spur of the whole reputation crisis idea and since then and things have changed a lot in psychology I think it would be unfair to argue that things are just the same. I think we've still gone an awful long way to go and the law of other fields are realizing that they have these problems to. It's just not investigated them as systematically as we have in in in in psychology not as much soul-searching. As we have in the priming replication, you have a very kind of clear idea of how the first study went wrong. Right? There's or at least as as far as we can tell that the the method of using a stopwatch builds in potential experiment or bias or at least more noise than something that is more objective and so you could argue, well, maybe that's why they found this spurious affect. What do you think is wrong with the Bam studies well. That's that's an interesting question because again to give the journal Personality and social psychology there, they weren't interested in publishing replication study but they did publish statistical critique at the same time from some basin authors who were interested in like reanalyzing the M study in a statistical difference disco framework. So they ran busy and statistics, and they said you know overall produces can just very weak evidence and there's a bit of argument there because they had kind of. Beijing statistics, you can start with the different prior. So you can say, well, I'm a skeptic. So I'm going to need a lot more evidence to to overcome my previous skeptical beliefs about cy. Is the ESP and. So they came up with that. So it was the best objectivity volt there. So you know their argument would be the standard way that psychologists analyze data using p values and t tests. The standard frequent tests statistics is inadequate and comes up with lots of false positive results and doesn't give us a good. Idea of what research is is is really convincing and compelling and what research is just kind of his just kind of them. No no better than new better than than just kind of an anecdote. Really. So that's that's their answer to it. That's the busy and answer I mean the other the other answer would be to look at the actual. The data that Bamut gathered, and there was kind of strange unexplained inconsistencies in. The sample size for instance. So in some experiments, there's fifty participants in some one, hundred, hundred and fifty, and it's kind of consistent with someone who runs sets of fifty participants. So runs fifty then checks the statistical significance doesn't find anything. So runs another fifty injects again runs another fifteen checks again and eventually then. Stops when they get the significant results. And this is something you can do complete unconsciously this isn't a. Fraudulent, we're doing it. It's just something people people can do if they're not paying attention and they haven't like presets their sample. So that's one suggestion for how there might be a false positive results discovered discovered experiment. and. Ben says that he didn't avoid publishing any other any other result so it's not like or at least. Taking him as word it's not like there's lots of other negative studies out there. But it is a bit against other people pointed out that it is a bit odd like I think all eight of the nine experiments in his study were statistically significant and that that's a bit of a a in a world where there's this kind of small effect of of Si-. You would probably expect something to you probably more of those findings to be non significant even if there really wasn't a fake just because of the noise of all this kind of data that you're bringing in. So there's a kind of indication there that maybe you know some of this analysis were. Were not as as says stronger. Supporting that a lot of the studies used an us. A one tailed. T test. So our one P value. So they're. So, essentially they're. Kinda, stack deck in favor of getting closer or you're being a lot more liberal about the result of your gang. Rather than. For, something which is implausible theoretically as as Sei is you probably want to be as conservative as you can with your statistics and he was kind of being the opposite and various other reasons. With if you look in the specifics of data and nothing, but that's the point right nothing that would count as fraud or manipulation or fabrication or that this is all just normal stuff psychologists do did and did and do with their with the research data, and that's another reason Dan papers. So fascinating is you know Anyone can come along and say well Luke if you just carry on with what you're doing then you get results that see that undergraduates psychic and is that really a situation that you'd think I called you should be in I. Mean to me at. These these examples really strike me as. A vestige of how psychology was conducted when we just didn't have a lot of tools. So for example, we didn't you know this is a pretty uncomplicated. We didn't have the ability to test thousands if not hundreds of thousands of participants fifty participants in a study like this was considered actually a pretty decent sample size and nowadays were were applying the ability that we have to. Use bigger data sets but we're still sometimes using these old psychological statistical tools which aren't appropriate for those new conditions you absolutely and that's another thing that's come in the replication crisis is that you know we we've we've realized that we need to have. To Guar- hosts in order in terms of running. Adequate statistics registering them beforehand. So you're not just. You know, I often say this I often say if you if you just bumped into random person on the street and sets them, do you think that a scientists just plan on everything? They do beforehand they write down the you know the analysis they're going to do. Then they collect data, they test that analysis and then and then see if it works or be. They just gather data and they kinda decide when they get your data, what they're going to do they sort of. Let Kinda muck around with statistics and do a few different things until they find something that kind of makes sense to them, and then the publish that I think obviously everyone would say, well, it's a surely it's not be really sloppy if it'd be. But I think most scientists do I. Think most scientists basically, we have a vague idea head of what they're going to test before they test it and then they get the data and they kind of muck boat with it and I don't mean that again again I don't mean that. In. A fraudulent source saying I'm not saying muck about with the in a dishonest way or anything but they just don't really have a plan and they just of come to the and they have a look around. And I think that is. Underrated bicycle as a way of producing. False positive results and not something that we've realized in the in the replication crisis and in the discussion about P. Hacking wherever you want to call it questionable research practices. which are called questionable because they're not fraudulent they're just they're just things which. Isn't honest researchers do but they kinda fool themselves that they're. Okay. And I mean you mentioned that small sample sizes? Well, that's another thing with having low statistical power having whole field that's based on studies that are really small have lost. This girl power is going to lead to lots of. False positive results and as well as negative results to I. Mean, it has a kind of double edged sword effect where you're you're in the face, you do find are probably way too big a fluke findings, but you also miss on lots of lots of smaller effects. So you have this kind of bias towards and that's what we want. Right we've talked to this very bizarre. You have this bias towards big saying effects, but they might be completely Louis So. All the kind of standard ways that people do this kind of research have been questioned and that's what you're seeing. Not. Only larger samples with kind of Internet collation of data, but also collaborations across different universities, putting together samples and trying to do these. Many labs style experiments where you're you're testing essential research question across lots of different labs which I think is really really positive really excellent development. But again away from this thing that you describe where you know they're just these old school research techniques which everyone thought were was was absolutely fine but we've realized you know since Bam and since all these other things happened the whole framing thing. That we really need to do better and you know the whole fishing expedition that you describe in terms of data mining I think is especially. Tempting when it costs a lot of money to collect your data, and this is actually one of the reasons why that in the case of neuro imaging particularly in functional MRI, which you know has exploded in terms of it's popularity in cognitive neuroscience at least and in how the media thinks about the healthy brain it's so tempting you spend thousands of dollars, tens of thousands of dollars scanning the brains of. Your participants and you don't necessarily find an effect but then you think or or you get some hint of something else going on and so you continue to mind those data and as a result, we now have a lot of problems especially when it comes to date and their interpretation because you know that there's a lot of subjectivity that gets inserted into this process. Yeah. It doesn't help, but there were also. Every every. So often there's a new revelation of something in your imaging lake cat there was a big paper just a few weeks ago talking about the test retest reliability. So you measure the same thing twice. In terms of F. Mariah and and. It doesn't look the same. The test retest reliability is low and new release statistical packages that had errors in them in their default that. One. Estimate was about ten percent of papers were affected by this this problem where the default statistical package and if Moore I had this. Full which again increased false positives. But yeah and another thing to add to what you said another thing is that with these. Types of deregulation am Conga, Muir imaging being one. But also when you look at feels like epidemiology, you look at some of these big samples that we get. No. So we have the UK bio bank in the UK where get thousands and thousands of data points have been collected on every participant, not only other thousands of participants, but there's endless data on them to what we've eaten loads of different health measurements lose different questionnaires by every aspect of their life, and so the temptation is just a jump in and find something that relates to something else and you can always. Convince yourself you find some finding, you find correlation between verbally and variable be. A. Variable A and verbal h time you've tested everything. Do, tested it over and over again. And you can convince yourself that that was interesting. It was worth looking for and that actually in fact, you were kind of looking for that along and that's what a lot of in your imaging stuff producers, well as loads and loads and loads of different measures of the brain. And so if you're testing. Interested in exploring the data, then you can find, you can find anything and. Don't get me wrong. There's nothing wrong with exploring the data, and in fact, that's a really useful to tune to map out what's related to what is again a really important thing because it helps us helps future researchers come up with also for one thing, but the problem is that. It's not just that scientists can stumble around on fishing expeditions and of come up with with analyses on the goal. It's that van right up those analysis as if plan them right from the star that's the fundamental problem. It's this. It's this thing which is often described as like the exploratory research versus confirmatory research distinction, and then again, there's about exactly what counts as confirmatory in exactly what kinds of exploratory. But clearly, there's a difference between having everything planned out on one hand and just kind of just going along with the leading the date league where they where they do on the other and I think the problem is when you do an exploratory fishing expedition and then. Claim to the world in your scientific paper that this was what you plan all along. Nowadays Managing Your Mental Health is essentially a fulltime job from one wellness trend to another. It's hard to know what to do or even where to start, which is why San Velo has rethought how you manage your mental health no more waiting rooms no more switching between APPS and no more having to go at it alone. San Velo has therapy coaching meditations, peer support goal tracking, and step by step guided journeys based on cognitive behavioral therapy all in one place and most importantly, San. Velo is totally customizable to you San Velo checks in with how you're feeling. 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You think masterclass hooked us up with an accountant to try out and I've already signed up for like twelve courses in the last week I've gone from deciding that my calling is film scoring after watching Hans Zimmer's classes that I should probably be a writer after watching Margaret Atwood's class that I'm definitely meant to be Gardner after watching Ron Finley's class. It's so good. There's so many different classes from people that are actually interesting to listen to and I think you should check it out. The way it works is it's accessible on your phone, the internet or your SMART TV an annual membership to access. All of that is one hundred and eighty dollars a year and I actually do think most enquiring minds. Listeners would be into this. I have loved it so far. You can get on the mid access to every masterclass and as an enquiring mind listener, you also get fifteen percent off an annual membership. You just have to go to masterclass dot com slash minds. That's M. I N. D. S.. So it's masterclass dot com slash minds for fifteen percent off masterclass. So of exploratory data and the bio bank, I wanted to talk to you a little bit about a paper that you published cerebral cortex back in two thousand, eighteen on sex differences in the adult human brain. So. This was. And I of want to talk about this because I feel like it's a good example of how open science should work. So you I did a preprinted on bio archive. Do you just walk us through like the process of sort of? How how this study came to ultimately be published in the way that it did the steps that happened between yeah. I've started doing with this study. No is is using pre prints, and of course, physicists and economists will you hear of psychologists in your imaging people in all that? They'll. They'll hear US talking about Prince and go. Why are these people? So excited we've been doing this since literally. Physicist doing it since Nineteen ninety-three, they've had archive, the printing website and economists have been. Using working papers forever. But the idea is that you up version of your paper, which is kind of almost ready for publication you put it online and you. Make available to the whole world to to to to read. And in certain fields that's been enormously useful and enormously. Increase the efficiency of the research because. You can put up, you're saying you've developed a news physical technique or new way to analyze the data you can put up online people can start testing start using it. The whole world can start checking whether it works. I can iron any flaws in it way before it gets to final publication because of course, if you just made it to journal, nobody would see it for months. Nobody would see it for months or maybe even years. Before appears in the Journal. So in in many fields particularly in in in in genetics actually in in my experience also neuro imaging to some extent. pre-printed vastly accelerated the speed of doing scientific research in our case with this paper on on on on sex differences, which we thought would be an interesting thing to do because nobody at that point I mean it's been. It's actually since been superseded even bigger paper by Lara, we Ranga and her colleagues. But back the end into those in the eighteen or whenever doesn't seventeen probably when I was doing the doing the research. There had never been studied as biggest that. So we're talking about five thousand brain images of five hundred people and. Just. Just mapping out just seeing what are the differences between men and women let's try and or people who say that they are men and women new report that WANNA on Forum. What the differences and let's just do a descriptive paper. It was actually quite quite interesting to do that because normally my papers are you trying to some hypothesis about how something relates another thing and really in this case, we're just saying we have a lot of data here. We got this variable of sex which seems to know. It's a controversial topic of course, but it's but it's one where this data can be. Fairly definitive on answering the question. So we just we just linked Sex with lots of different structural Brenham. She's so not the functional stuff that we're talking about before. There was well, it was a small minute functional stuff on the resting state connectivity but it wasn't an effort Marai focus paper. It was an MRI focus paper generally and we put up when we run the study and we Matt's all these good relations between and the brain we put up online. As a pre prints and two things happened one positive in one worrying. So the first thing that was positive was. Loads of people saw on twitter and then be you three or four two or three people. Semi emails saying I've noticed this in table. One do you want to have you want to check it? That's correct and you think this is ray maybe you should test this maybe looked. So basically, we were getting pure review. Way Before we never even considered what journal descended to. So that was really nice and. Thank those people in the acknowledgement station now. Extremely grateful for those just. The goodness of their hearts. Coming up with. Some some pointers. So that's great. The slightly worrying thing was I also got journalists emailing me saying we'd like to write your paper. Well actually, they didn't see with your paper. They said, we are going to rise to about your paper. Do you WanNa talk to us and so I remember talking to a journalist? I remember. I remember having A. Really, really worrying about it I'm thinking what should I do because it's not reviewed It makes it clear on the website that it's not peer reviewing. It says at the top of the pre-printed page nothing on this table peer-reviewed treated as provisional. But. The the the journalists had said to me I'm reading this story anyways. So I thought at that point that the best option to do would be to would be to talk to the journalists to make sure that it was correct. Right that was my thinking a time. Nowadays I might because I think journalists are more aware of the difference between pre Prince and and published research I think these days I might say to him. We'll wait until it's published before we talk and but it did sound as if he was just about to publish an article. So you know we we published A. Are the. News of the Study Chemo in. A couple places and it was fine nothing like massively misrepresented. Articles this reprint that's not peer reviewed and Eric Case. You know when eventually it did get published record and it did get peer reviewed and so on. It didn't change much I. mean the the broad findings of the paper were not that different from the from what we're in the pre-printed but the the possibility was there that Wayne are preprinted review that someone would discover major flying it, and that's kind of what, for, of course. I'm skeptical of Peer Review General but it's barreling is better than nothing so I did have that kind of agonizing thing of shootout speaks this journalist this you know what your thoughts are on. Whether we should be publicizing this in in in the press. Obviously, we need to publicize among scientists because of the first thing I mentioned because it's great to generate debate and discussion and get science moving in accelerating and so on. But you know what should we do about journalists and of course we're never in the world of Kuban nineteen murders reprints. Being press released in fact by by some researchers. which is. Clearly. That's. The wrong thing to do because you haven't you haven't actually had the process of scientific scrutiny but if a journalist comes calling or do you do I actually don't have a really good. Answer to that question yeah I think. I think when it comes to reprints I think as long as you make the point that this is a preprinted, it hasn't been peer reviewed and you're okay with potentially you know being being scooped or some of the other negative follow that can happen if you talk about your research before it's been published. I think that's that's up to you. I think. In this case, it was interesting to me because it got it came out of time when there was this whole controversy about whether Mel and female as people identify themselves brains are the same or not right and came out of the and I think that the the press. Reprint got to me was really interesting because people picked up on very different aspects of it. Some people highlighted the fact that you do find differences and some people highlighted the fact actually fewer people but you know both the pre-printed cerebral cortex paper like you know, make a very clear statement that there is lots of overlap. In fact that that's almost when you look at all of your figures, that's the the pattern that jumps out at you right as how much overlap there actually is. I think in in the common sort of them perception of. Sex Differences, people talk about here's a term which I am I. Actually, I'm going to stop using and I actually had it in the original draft of the paper and I removed it because I realized that everyone defines it differently and is sexual day morphism. That comes up a lot in when you're doing you're You're reading the selfish gene and you're doing can socio biology stuff and I remember Gangnam Undergrad and the example given is like elephant seals where the male is vastly bigger than the female and they're just like this, there's just nothing nothing in common birds, of course, where the females are Brown and drab and the males are peacocks with massive tales and all that. So there's clear massive huge differences like they're almost in different categories and like the way you think about the genitals like they're just different categories of things. Of course, there are similarities in the kind of development so on. But they're very, very different. And people use the term sexual their morphism to refer to the brain as well. But I think those people are the we there. Are morphism is. There are there are differences right. There are statistically significant if you want to say that are just. Moderately sized to large sized effect sizes that is. The distributions. Are Not fully overlapping right that's what they mean. I think when you when you learn the term station, she has sexual morphism and you think of it in terms of two different categories of things altogether, and so I actually I remember I did a little twitter pool ambrose's what do you mean? To choose which of these definitions you would use for sexual their morphism and is it? Just that there's some degree of non overlap like. You know just a small difference as long as it's it's reliable and. Efficient. And does it have to be a large difference defined in some way or? Does it have to be that there's overlap whatsoever and they're completely different polls entirely different things. And there were like of those three options, a third people reach one like this new. There's no agreement on them on on what this term means. So I think there's a great deal of confusion about what we mean by that, and that's why I put that in the abstract that there's there was a great overlap on basically every single measure because even know there are large differences in some things. Always overlap and it's not like these are two different categories of things whatsoever. And so the whole the whole. Debate I think is is not helped by people using terminology in in ways which I think they know what they mean, but it's just not shared doing the community. So I think that's that's when we just have to take that term social dome offers the back and just just deal with it and just get rid of it and start talking about. Star illustrating I mean that's what we what we tried to do in that papers illustrate those differences by showing those kind of those kind of them graphs of where. The mail distribution female distribution can have overlapped. So that's what we just tried to be as transparent as possible about it and I just want to make. Two. Small points. One is that it is important to study differences because we know that males and females react differently in terms of their susceptibility to different mental illnesses and also to the drugs that we use to treat them and so forth. But also that we can't just because we find differences in the adult brain does not mean that those differences. We're not at least in some part product of development or of culture. So you know it's I think I think that's just I just WanNa. Make. Sure. You agree on both one hundred percent agree with those points and you know those with our points that are made in the paper and. I think it's it's extremely important to study this stuff, and in fact, there's been pushback in the neuroscience community against the idea of only studying one sex and treating males as if they are like the default particularly research on on might, for instance, there's a huge tradition if you look through the kind of the scientific literature of only focusing on. of On male mice. The idea being that females are like hormonal and so they change a lot. So it's difficult to it's difficult that make the phone during your experiment. But of course, meals are subject to hormone hormonal differences as well, and in fact, especially in like dominance hierarchies. Testosterone can can can have effects on the way mice behave and so on. So that's just not the correct way of thinking about things. And no thing funders like the NIH in the US. No actually require you to use your both sexes of mice in your in your experiment that they fund, and there's been this move to ensure that people are actually looking at sex differences because you don't want to just have a whole biological. Field of research that's only all its conclusions are for meals, and then you want to try and apply those to drug development for feet for you. Drugs that are using meals on female. So it's a, it's an absurd. Situation again too. But yes, you're absolutely right. Not only does it not mean that you know if you find a brain difference that does not mean that somehow inbuilts are neat and in in some sense. But it also doesn't mean anything about how those relate to. Psychological characteristics is there right. We're interested in how these things we have. These things might be linked to differences in behavior or psychological traits, but it doesn't actually The. Mere fact founder. Difference. Doesn't doesn't mean that it's related to differences. So basically what I'm saying is we know that there are differences but we don't know other causes or the consequences are at this point and that's going to take more research. So I want to remind our listeners that Stewart's Book Science Fiction Fraud Bias negligence and hype undermine the search for truth is now available at Booksellers Everywhere I want to sort of end with a question about diversity and how it relates to some of the thoughts that you have on on how science should move forward. So you know you suggest that. Really whether it's journals or universities or granting organizations that they should prioritize the most rigorous studies rather than the most flashy ones. and. Sometimes, that makes me worried that it's just going to be more of the same in the sense that you have these principal investigators who have a lot of funding who are able to do twenty five experiments because they have these huge grants and they're just going to continue to take along on these little. Tiny tiny improvements on their current body of work and that that that actually makes it really hard for people who are trying to break in whether there are people of color or women just traditionally underrepresented groups who don't hold positions of that kind of level in labs at currently. So I was wondering if you could just kind of address that fear of mine and how you still how that might play into. How. You see the future science moving forward yeah, I. think that's a that's a very valid or not Christian, but it's a valid thing to bring up at this point because replication is one thing and making sure that we get our our findings replicated is is kind of fundamental for having any confidence in in the findings that we that we discover. But of course, if you're replicating something that's extremely boring or extremely. Useless or. Whatever it happens to be. Then that's not much use you want to be. Making sure that you have enough replication but also enough space for new ideas to come in new people to come in and and you don't WanNa just end up as just replicating minor variations of the same thing forever never I've seen in critiques of these replication. Initiatives where people have all banded together and across different labs to try and replicate finding because it's like. Well, who cares if you can replicate that I think that's a crap experiment. Why? Why would I want to replicate that and I think that's a that's a perfectly valid criticism of the replication attempts not. necessarily. Doing them but they should be expanded on the things which we really think are advancing science in some ways. That's a that's a fair point I think. In terms of the funding. My one of the suggestions I make making the book and it's not. I didn't come up with this idea by I. Find It. Intriguing idea is that instead of Its particularly at say particularly to. Address this issue of diversity and kind of the old guard blocking sitting on all over all the money essentially. Is that we introduce an element of randomness to the a grant funding situation. So instead of a situation that we have now, which is where everyone spends loads of team hyping up their their research and. People knew each other and new. People who work at a funders no. The scientists a little bit in the kind of new WHO's WHO and they have an idea of WHO's going to do what and and there's this kind of quite kind of cozy atmosphere and a lot of cases, and as you say, there's this matthew effect thing where those who already have continued to get more and what this grant lottery idea would be is that you make sure that grant applications are. All of a sudden quality standard and you could set quite high and you can make include things like open science. We will make this data available we will use pre-printed we will. Collaborate with people or whatever it happens to be you could say your ideal level minimal openness or whoever is minimal quality standards. And then you just. After that point. Award. The money by lottery into incompletely random and because it's been said that the current grant system is essentially a lottery because. The peer reviewers of grants do necessarily agree with each other on what? What research is good, and in fact, they're pretty poor at predicting which research will turn out to be the stuff that gets aided in future. It's essentially a lottery, but it doesn't have the advantage of really being a lottery and really being random and thus being. Removing these issues of them of of can of inertia in the system and people sitting on piles of money as you say so that I think would would go some way to addressing the problem that you have. About the these ideas of of kind of. More replication and so on. Because I. Think it. It basically gives everyone a fair shake at once they meet the standards that we all can agree and obviously seeing scientists all agree on one thing is unrealistic to begin with. We would get point where we would have some kind of. A minimal standard, and then were the money by by lottery and there that's one idea I mean. There are other ideas in the book about how we should change the way we think about funding but that's one potential way. I think that would address the concern that you there. Yeah. I. Think. That's actually a really great idea. There's a there's a nice episode of glad wells podcast history three in season five powerball revolution that actually talks about this exact Su suggestion because there's been evidence that. You know the ranking system at the NIH. Not Effective at at predicting who's going to be the most cited and anyway people interested in learning more about that. They should also listen to that episode. We'll start. Wishy. Thank you so much for being on inquiring minds. It's really great to talk to you agree pusher. Thank you so much. If we're going to be true. The scientific method we need to continue evaluate how we are using it, how we are applying it to the work that we do and to ensure that we overcome our biases and remain objective insofar as that's possible given, that were human. So that's it for another episode. Thanks for listening and if you WanNa, hear more, don't forget to subscribe. If you'd like to get an ad free version of the show consider supporting us at Patriotair Dot com slash enquiring minds I want to especially thank David Noel Pairing Chang Shawn Johnson Jordan Miller Kyle Hala Michael Goule Eric Clark. Yushi Lynn Clark Lindgren. Joel dip in. And Charles blow our longtime supporters enquiring minds is produced by item Isaac I'm your host Indra Santus and I'll see you next week. Keep your whole home running like clockwork from the office to the game room with xfinity. 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Making Love Last and Dating in the Digital Age (SOP66)

Speaking of Psychology

42:12 min | 3 years ago

Making Love Last and Dating in the Digital Age (SOP66)

"The. Hello and welcome to speaking of psychology podcast. Produced by the American psychological association. I'm your host Caitlyn, Luna. I'm joined by Dr Benjamin Karney, a professor of social psychology at the university of California, Los Angeles and co director of the UCLA marriage lab. Dr Carney is a leading scholar of social relationships and marriage who studies change and stability in intimate relationships with particular emphasis on minority populations, including low income couples, military families, welcome Dr Carney. Oh, thanks for having me happy to have you here today. So you're a co, author of a study that was recently published by the journal of personality and social psychology that examined what's known as demand withdraw behavior. And so to summarize that that means one partner in a relationship asks the other to change something and the partner who's asked to make that change basically shuts down withdraws. And in the study, you looked at how that behavior is impacted based impacts the couple's relationship satisfaction based on their. Income levels. So what did king explain what you found? Sure. What we're building off of is an existing literature on the negative implications of the demand withdraw patter. So that's been a lot of research on marriage that shows that when one partner seeks change and the other partner is invested in the status quo, he get this negative cycle where the person wants change has to turn up the volume and ask more and ask more and the person who loves the status quo, which is often the male partner not always has to withdraw to maintain this as quo. And then that means that the person who wants change has to get louder and louder. The person withdraws get worse and worse. And a lot of research that's been done shows that this pattern has negative occasions for marriage, but couples that fall into this sort of negative cycle of demanding and withdrawing experience lower barrels as faction experience declines. Meryl's has faction experience higher rates of divorce. So that's the conventional wisdom. The limits, the problem with that conventional wisdom is that all of that research. And I mean, all of it has been conducted on class or more affluent, mostly white college educated couples. Okay. So the advice that's available for all couples is based on research on a very narrow range of couples. And the assumption is, well demand withdraws going to be equally bad for everybody. So it doesn't matter that we actually have never studied it in anyone except for a bunch of college educated white couples. Our work questions at assumption and says, well, wait a minute. What if we think about couples that are not effluent that might not have gone to college that might not have the same options that affluent college-educated couples have? What would the locations of that cycle in that other context? And what we were thinking is that what makes demand withdraw? So negative for affluent couples is the presumption. The implicit assumption that people can change things if they want to in their lives. So if I'm asking you for change, I'm saying you could change if you wanted to, and so you're not wanting to. You're not changing me to your want to baby. Don't love me. You don't care about me right in non affluent couples in lieu in couples that might be poor or disadvantaged. That assumption is true. You can't assume that people who don't change would don't. They don't want to change. Couples don't resources might not be able to change. So let's say I'm a spouse, amass my partner, hey, you know, you should make more money should get a better job. She should work harder for this family. Well, if I'm offline couple like, well, your failure to do so means you don't care of, but if I'm a poor couple, your do so might mean that you can't. I might be asking for something that you cannot do. So for a poor couple, withdrawing in the face of that kind of demand might actually be adaptive. That was the idea, an adaptive, meaning it's it might actually help the relationship that that might be a the best available way of dealing with your demand would be to withdraw because I can't address it any other way. Okay. So we tested it. We were one of the first study ever that got a diverse set of couples and actually use observational data on poor and affluent couples. Most operational research on marriage took place only with the affluent couples, but we had diverse. We went out of our way to sample couples in low income neighborhoods and couples that were more affluent. So we had a range of couples. We videotape talking about problems, and we identified the demand withdraw pattern, and here's what we showed. We show this in two different Steph samples that the couples who were more affluent, the more they did this demand withdraw cycle. The worse off they were, but the couples who were less affluent, the more the demand withdraw, the better off. They were demand, withdraw that era. Every advice column says, don't do this. You know, don't fall your door. Allow yourself to fall into the cycle. That advice would have been bad advice for the low income couples. The poorest couples, our sample actually benefited from engaging in demand, withdraw pattern. As that's the news here that the broader lesson is the advice that we give to couples has to be tailored to their circumstances. The same advice that applies to couples that have a lot of resources might not apply might even be counterproductive for couples that do that. Don't have a lottery sources, and that's what we found. And a lot of your research is, I mentioned I was introducing. You does include Cup minority populations. I would say not Ness racial ethnic minorities, but income I is military families. So why do you think it's important to include such diverse sample in your research? What can you explain your your commitment to that inclusivity? Absolutely. There's there's two ways about for me personally, it's. It's an sort of an ideology that says. Science has not done a good job of representing the broader population or diverse populations. It's easy for a scientist, and you know, I have to have empathy for social science, which is a hard thing to do. To try to make it easier by studying conveniently available samples. 'cause boy scientists hard. So at least I can do is study an easy sampled again, promised the sample to get is white people is people hang out around universities who tend to go to college. It's a lot of extra expense an extra effort. If I want to try to find people who are different that who are somewhere else. It's only okay to look at convenience samples. If the conclusions of that research apply broadly to everybody. Here's a probably they don't. So my thought is that to be a good scientist, you actually have to directly examine whether you're finding generalized diverse populations. And now there's a political reason to do this as well or a policy-based reason. Especially for me a family researcher. This is about about fifteen years. The early two, thousands. There were policies put into place by federal government to try to promote low income families and and promote the health of low income families. And this was noticed the healthy marriage initiative, and it was developed in the second Bush administration to with very noble goal. Let's help poor families. They're struggling. The question is what kind of hope was offered. And the answer is the help those was offered was helped based on the research. Again, very admirable. Only problem is that research would only been conducted on affluent white middle class couples. So millions of dollars, I mean is hundreds of millions of dollars. What I really mean is almost a billion dollars was spent over the next ten years on programs to help low income families based on research on high income families, you can imagine what might what, what, what the risk is for that is that that that the advise at all that money got spent on programs that proved ineffective. And the the problem, there's real consequences like a billion dollars worth of consequences of not knowing what's really going on in those low income couples. That is what motivates my commitment to studying the couple that haven't been studied and going back to the results of that other study is in those low income couples is too much, withdraw, demand, behavior, unhealthy. Did you see how you know how this prolonged believe the study was over eighteen months, correct period time. It wasn't going to two different samples there, and we found the same general pattern in both. We did not see what would you suggest? He is a curve, a linear effect, an effect, a little bit of tomato. Withdrawal might be good for those couples, but too much would be bad. We didn't see it, but that doesn't mean it's not. They're just beans that one of the things is true in that in both of these samples were studying younger couples, and it's quite quite possible that the couples that we're seeing. Worked the most distressed couples. It might be that that if you really studying may be coupled together longer or couples that were really struggling with distress, that the the extremes demand with Ron might be bad or you're too much withdrawal might be bad for for a lot of couples, but we didn't see it in the younger couples. The couples who were still together who were moderately satisfied and committed to each other. We saw that a modest level of the demand withdraw pattern was okay by the way to be clear. There's an effect where we looked at it. There's defective. Withdrawal withdrawal generally isn't a great thing, but withdrawal in the face of demand turned out to be an adaptive thing for the low income couples only. Yeah, sort of giving that partner who is withdrawing chance like save face if you will, as you say, maybe not face the reality the, you know, the very basic realities dealing with the beautifully said that's beautifully. So in a condition where you cannot your face, the demand that you cannot meet. Withdrawal might be the best of a bad set of options. Think of what the other option. The other options are disappointing you directly or denying your demand, or confronting you're getting mad or getting defensive. If those your options withdrawal starts a look better. Right. That makes sense. And you mentioned also too, in the bottom of the study, you know, at the end of it usually concludes saying where future research could go. And you did note that the future research could possibly be on same sex couples or could be on older couples to see how it would play out in different. You know, maybe not necessarily from the UCLA marriage lab for from other researchers exact. Are. Ten or habit, and our expertise is on the earlier years of marriage. And in the same way that I very reluctant to generalize to diverse couples from the only from the Cup of been studied, I would be reluctant to generalize from what I know about the earlier marriage to studying the later years of marriage. You could easily imagine that demanding the demands, the meeting of demand, and the meaning of withdrawal might evolve over the course of relationship together, twenty five thirty years. What does it mean to withdraw in the face of a demand? Then if the demand is something like, oh, yeah, I've heard this hundreds of times and it's not gonna change that my withdrawal might be interpreted differently. It might have different applications, right? And that's a future direction that we pointed out at that paper. So what can couples, what what can couples do with this information? So they have the study saying that, you know, sometimes this behavior is helpful. Sometimes it's not helpful, but what can. N- the the average person in a relationship reading this, what might they take away from it and their own lives. There are implications of this work for couples, which is, but I think the strongest implication of this work are policymakers. I think the real audience for this paper isn't couples themselves, but policymakers because for too long, policymakers have said again, admirably, let's find the research and base our policy on the research. Unfortunately, the question they haven't asked is, is there vailable research that applies to the population we want to target so policymakers the the audience for this papers to say to policymakers. You can't assume that a program that might work in an affluent couple is athlete population is going to work in a low income population. That's really the lesson of this. So the -plication is if I suppose he maker what to improve target a particular population, I need to research this explicit population because. This paper shows that relationship spite function quite differently in those two different contexts. So I think that's really the the primary audience at the primary value of this paper for making the world a better place is that we might have hopefully be able to start developing policies that are more targeted and based on more specific research that colleges the real differences in the wave. These intimate relationships play out at different levels of socioeconomic status. Hey, great. And up, moving onto your general research with with the marriage lab, how do you advise couples to deal with the inevitable conflicts that come up throughout relationship? So right. A big issue in this is true. In all the couples, we studied low income, middle income in Hicham is conflict. Now the way social psychology, social psychologist, the way social psychologist defined conflict really generally is any time that my pursuit of my goals gets in the way of your pursuit of your goals. So whenever that happens, we've got a conflict and if you define conflict that way, it follows that conflicts inevitable. That's always gonna become this. We're always getting way and the closer we are the more we get into this way. Think about, you know, dance. If the closer we are the more we're going to separate each other's toes. This is gonna -nology. So the issue in relationships isn't, why do we have conflict? Because conflict part of the game that we're not going to want the same thing at the same time all the time. We're gonna have different desires for when to be on the couch and how often have sex and what we have for dinner, and whether what time we have kids and all of that, the issue for couples is how, what, what do we do when we hit those conflicts? What do we do when we encounter those conflicts? And our research has talked a lot about what the what a couples do that makes. It makes those couples bigs, those conflicts easier to manage and what a couples do that makes them harder to manage. So there's a lot on this. We could go on and on, but there's one big issue that's come up. Is. There are different structures of conflict, and we distinguish between vertical conflicts and horizontal conflicts. Okay. What's the difference? A vertical conflict is a conflict where one side is objectively right? And the upside is objectively wrong. Let me give an example if you and I start arguing about what the capital of Portugal is. I don't know what the capital Portugal is, but let's assume that we disagree disagreed about. One of us might be right. The other one would be just wrong and we could discuss until we convinced this is the right answer. That's the wrong answer. Now, the problem with vertical conflicts is that were almost never in them. Our conflicts are not typically vertical conflicts conference. A relationship partners have are typically horizontal convicts at a horizontal. Conflict is a difference in values or preferences, whether isn't it objectively right or wrong answer. Both sides are valid. His example of a horizontal conflict. Let's go to dinner. I wanna go to Chinese. You wanna go to talion. Yeah. Okay. That's a conflict. We want different things, but you're not wrong wrong to want to tell. You know, Chinese is just objectively better. We want different things right? Almost all conflicts. Are horizontal conflicts in relationships, but people approach them as if they're vertical conflicts. So couples disagree in where. What religion should we raise our kids, you know, one person's like, well, I, I'll religions, right and yours is wrong. And maybe if I see, I think I'm right and you're wrong or how, how often should we have sex? What's the most appropriate time like, well, we should have sex, the amount that I wanted and you're wrong to want it your amount. You're like weird for too much or too little like that's wrong. Yeah, that's what I think. I'm gonna vertical conflict. I'm going to try to get you. Try to convince you that you're wrong. I'm gonna try to instruct you a teach you. None of that works. Yes. I going to get you anywhere get you anywhere. Nobody wants to be convinced by their partner or debated by their parter or instructed by their partner. And yet if I think that there's a right answer and I've got it, that's what it leads me to do. So the advice that we often give couples is remember that you're in a horizontal conflict. Remember that you can disagree and both sides are still valid you just want. Would you want your partner wants something different? If you start from there now you're into Goshi ish. If you start from there, you're not in a debate, but you're just, okay, we want you what now we're gonna to can be compromise. Can we take turns its, you still might not get what you both want, but it feels a lot better to start from a position that both of our positions valid. And that's what thinking about horizontal conflicts does. So that's one thing that couples can do to dress. The inevitable conflicts kind of sounds like politics, two, I guess even that could be released. Most likely horizontal conflict and not of article, even though we try to paint it as radical conflict. I know we're going off in different territory, but soon you said that what I thought of is like, is it really once I. Right or wrong. It's more so different values and how do you compromise. So absolutely, it's it's it's a little of the topic of couples and it's not. But there are social psychologists who've been studying the deep structure of political conflict. And of course it is a values discussion that the two havoc one side says the most important value is, let's say, equality and other side says quality. I'm not against equality, but the most important value is security. You're not wrong to like security. I'm not wrong to value quality. We're just valuing different prioritizing different things, but that's not how it's the thog plays out in the political played on the vehicle. Not that we want different things. How are we going to go? Shit, this plays out as I'm right and you are evil. Sate, trusting. Same thing happens in couples, bring it back offering. Back to the relationships, but there's a lot of parallels human interaction. Unhappy couple, they don't just say, oh, we want different things. The unhappy couple say, why do you want? How dare you what? What you want? You're wrong and and mean and malevolent for wanting something different than what I want, which isn't that it's not a road towards compromise. That's not a road towards towards connection. Thinking about it as a different Savell us allows you to say, I'm not going to debate. You try to convince you, let's just negotiate, which always feels better. Even if it's still hard is this advice. You give two couples to her how to stay together for the long haul for a long period of time as to how to navigate these these conflicts and see them in a different light. Yes, that generally we're by lab is a research lab. I'm a social psychologist on a clinical psychologist. I'm not really in the advice business that said, I do do research, I think, matters for people, and I think has implications for how we live our lives. So we, we always give the advice with very light, a light touch because it's basically saying this is location of observations we've made in our lab. A second observation we've made in our lab around conflict. Also has to do with the psychological framing of the conflict, and it is you can frame a discussion with your partner or even disagreed with your partner. As a specific problem or a global problem. A lot of times we have flexibility in how we do that. And so you know, if we're arguing about the toilet seat. It could be, I want it raised and you want it lowered or it could be. I think that I've asked for something and you don't care enough to give it to me. So the fact that you aren't lowering the toilet seat is actually a sign that you don't love me. You don't care about me. You're not paying attention to me. Yeah. Well, that second one is more global and has a lot harder problem to solve. Right. It's not as simple thing. It's applied to much larger issue. Exactly. The happier couples, the couples that manage conflict effectively are the couples that keep it specific. We were prodigious problem. It's a dishwasher. I'm not gonna link this to. I'm not going to say that the problem is you're selfish bastard because if how Gonzalvo one, let's just focus on the dishwasher keeping. So another piece of advice that sort of comes out of this work is the more that you can keep your specific disagreements specific. The better fear relationship containing the disagreements containing conflict is a good skill to practice and shifting gears a bit, but you also have studied the health in relationship, not health of the relationship of being healthy together as a couple, and you and your co-director put wrote a book, a love me slender which is very cute plan words, but key explained the importance of for couples for being healthy and how that helps a relationship. I mean, we're, it's Burs that correlation. Sure, that's that's a book. My co director and collaborator is a guy named Tom Bradbury who's a clinical psychologist at UCLA. And and Tom, I wrote this book several years. Ago called love be slender, and it came out of work that we had done on how couple support each other and. We'd stay for years, what makes couples more or less effective at supporting each other's goals? And it was until some years later that we asked, hey, what are those goals? What are they supporting each other in doing? So he went back to, we had thousands of videotapes. We went back and said, what are in those discussions where they're given opportunities support each other, what are they supporting their with? And what we found is that over half of the couples were asking for support about one issue and that was health and fitness, a diet and weight nother words thing. Their bodies couples when they looked for support, half the time are saying, I want you to help me be healthier, either lose weight or to beat better or to go to the go to the gym more. So we looked at those tapes we said, are couples doing a good job at helping each other? Do this thing that they really want help with. What we noticed in the tapes was. On one hand, all these couples we, we tend to study younger couples who are pretty happy they're committed to each other. These couples wanted to help each other. They wanted to your. You look at me here, like I want to be healthy goal that God I'm committed to you. We're going to be married for years. I want you to be healthier. I wanna help you with your thing and yet it turned out to be very hard thing to do, providing effective support around health turned out to be fraught with difficulty. Let me give an example fi say to you. Do you think I look fat? Do you think I need to go to the gym? What? What? What's the helpful response now you look great. Yeah. No, you're fine. Yeah, I don't go to the gym. I don't get healthy. Yeah, here's another option. Yeah, yeah, you do. You are getting some way. Yeah. Go to the gym. Yeah. How's that feel? Yeah, it's it's tough. Yeah, it's tough. Yeah. It's so that's why we wrote the book like, man, it's not easy. Even the couples who love each other, it's not easy. So we started really looking into it. And what came out of the book was a couple big sites at one is health is not individual. If you're in a relationship. There's no such thing as individual health does those things. I'm just going to be healthier because so much of our lives are interdependent if you if you have a spouse or or if you live with somebody, how many kitchens does average house have cows has lots of bathrooms only one kitchen. So you're gonna be eating from the same fridge. So there's no way that you could just say, I'm just gonna have my fridge over here. You have your fridge over. That's just not how couples work and cooking meals, and you know go to grocery store and everything. Yeah, absolutely. These are social events. These are. And so when somebody says, I want to eat differently, it affects their partner. And yet this I'll have died books written. That's not how Di books, rich bar Dr bags arenas. If you change make a change, you can't make a change. That doesn't have a partner. Yeah. So I went to acknowledge that like, wait a minute. I'm not going to be successful unless by parts part of it. And that's a big part of the book. Another thing that we pointed out is that providing support is thorny because people want help, but they don't want bad help and there's lots of help that is the kind of help we all can do without as my childhood books at. So in the book, we have all sorts of examples from our tapes of couples that are trying to be helpful in kind of failing. And one way is is exactly what you came up with, which is no beautiful. You don't have to change a thing aren't aren't being loving. I am being loving, but I'm not being helpful. Yes. So you know, we talked about how you can thread that needle and say, hey, I love you, but did you say you wanna do something? Well, if that's what you wanna do, I'm going to help you not because I think you need to change, but because I hear you saying that you think you need to change and I'm validating your goal. And we've seen couples do that. The example that we talked about in the book is a wife who says to the husband. She says it with real sadness. I, you know, I feel bad about my body and I, I don't feel attractive. And he says, oh, that's a big problem. It's a huge problem that you don't see the beautiful woman that I see when I look at you. That's terrible. What can we do about that together? How can we work on this problem? So he and that's a real deft move that he did because he's he was able to say, that's a serious problem. I'm totally on on board with helping you solve that problem at the same time through saying, I don't share the opinion. I don't. It's not a problem for me. That's skillful. And so the wrote the book, sort of try to, I take you late that skill and share with others. That's what that book was about. Great and eve. So switching gears a dating show, dating dating. You know, many people are looking for for law von apps today, like Tinder, bumble. Okay, cupid and unite spoke about about this, and you said that how reved Howard eating has changed. So we're not. Maiming necessarily meeting someone bar or at work as often perhaps using apps. But you said Howard ings change, but the actual dating and dating actions dating it self has not changed. Can you explain that? Sure. Seems like I think it would people say, oh, it's totally different now than it was twenty years ago. You know, different people folks, you could focus on continuity and you could focus on change and there's a lot that's changing. There's a lot that staying the same. So what's changing. So as as technology, what's changing about in the domain of how people find it at partners, this is interest to us. We study intimacy so interested. How do people find into it partners? And clearly the technology available to do that is changing and is changing a lot. Whereas before defined it to twenty years ago, twenty five years ago before we had smartphones, if you wanna find into partner, you had to go somewhere where people were likely to be talked a lot of people and hope that you find the available people. But nobody is wearing a t shirt saying, I'm available. Some people might so we will might good for that. But for the most part they weren't, you'd have to sort of like say, hey, hi, are you interested like? No, I'm I'm gay or no. I'm married, looked at my ring or whatever, but now with apps, you have a way of identifying people who are definitely available and local. And willing to talk all before you get in the room. That's basically convenient. That's that's for some people life altering. Yeah. So if you were, if you are to job or circumstance where you meet, a lot of people may be, doesn't make that much difference. But if you're a modern person that works allow long hours doesn't meet people at work, but you wanna meet someone socially. How do you do it? The old advices join a club and that's still good advice. But now there's a new way which is I can actually go online and multiple apps will give me a long list of people who are interested in dating me who are relatively my age and who are within a short drive of my house. That's a staunch. Immoral technology. Absolutely. Astonishing fact like an order on Amazon something in the morning, and it will be delivered to my house at night. If I live in a major city so it this is incredible earth shattering the convenience of it. That's the good news. The bad news is that some things haven't changed and the way the establishing of romantic chemistry. Well, that's not anything that hasn't changed at all, and we haven't discovered any magic bullets for that. And now tro there was a period where the dating apps were promising a magic bullet that didn't really exist. You had dating apps like chemistry dot com and e harmony dot com. That were advertising very heavily with the promise that they had a magic algorithm that could select partners from the pool better than you could buy yourself that they say, we're gonna ask you some questions, do a magic mathematical equation and spit out people that you are guaranteed or at least have a high likelihood of matching with that turned out to be snake oil that has now been very well established to be bunk. But it was it was a persuasive idea was an appealing idea. Let's be paid a lot of money for it. And the reason they paid a lot of money for it is that there's something compelling about the idea that if I give you a list of what I want in a partner, I want someone who votes like me who likes Chinese food who joys watching HBO limited series, and you know, like modern jazz, and I find that great. I'm probably gonna like that person that assumption turns out to be false. Yeah. You said that doesn't necessarily mean you'll hit it off because you have the same interests at all. Yeah, it doesn't. And the reason it doesn't is that we have fuss thousands of interests and anyone you meet if it's not that if I share by the right interests with you, I'm gonna like you if the opposite. If I like you will gravitate towards the interest that we have in common, I will gravitate away towards the interest that we don't have it come within a broad circle. I want someone who's nowadays who generally shares my politics. Nowadays, it's, it's it's being of the the opposite or being the wrong political party is more stigmatized in dating than being of a different race or religion. Wow, that's that's new development? Yeah. How how long has that been happening? Do you think in in our in my lifetime to the last twenty years, I kind of polarization people have said, I wouldn't mind if my child came home with a partner of a different race, but I would never want my child to come home with a partner of a different party. Wow. So it's not super recent, but that's said that is two seconds, but not necessarily in the past like two or three years, speak to the to the divide divisions in the country. But there's lots of people who share your political persuasion in the world unless people share your religion within that. It turns out that a list of things you like the list of your hobbies doesn't predict who you're gonna like romantically because it turns out the romantic attraction is not about these sort of stable characteristics or or interests. Romantic attraction has a lot more to do with behavior interaction in the moment. Romantic attraction arises from how the exchange of behavior makes me feel. And if it makes me feel, you know, understood in the moment and your capac- to the haven away. That makes me feel understood and excited and interested has to do with what you do not. You know what food you like to order in from. Once you that feeling arises of chemistry, then people look for, well, what are we have in common? We have this coming. Great. Let's go do that thing. And people are complicated will find something we haven't come. So that's why Notre how much you work on your profile. Wonder how many hours you study the other person's profile. You're not going to know what's going to happen when you meet until you meet me. Yeah. So dating apps can do something great and there's something they can do. They can find people who are available. Which is how office -ly very amazing. But they can't tell you who you're gonna. Like only interaction can tell you who you're going to like. So how was the baps great. Use them find people and then get in front of them so that your advice today, ding and two thousand eighteen moving forward. It's still get away from your phone. Yes, meet in person. You or your or even Skyping. This interaction the face to face the face time as it were, but but I wouldn't spend that much time workout at profiles because profiles or not where it's happening. Well, there anything else you'd like to add and other research on talk about or other topics back to the policy issue? The things that that I'm interested in pursuing are one or the other hidden ways, invisible ways that public policy affects intimacy. Interesting, because this is not something that gets discussed a lot. Would we talk about public policies like healthcare like tax increases or decreases like the minimum wage, all of those big public policy discussions. Are discussed in terms of how will it affect income Howlett affect employment, Howlett affect, you know, debt. The implication of some of the worker doing lately is that all of those policies should affect intimacy as well. See the decisions. People make it marriage, but I have a kid. Am I satisfied with you. Are very much affected by the policy environment in which it takes place in which these decisions take place. So one thing that we're interested in pursuing is looking at the very private, intimate implications of his very public plausible policy changes. And so that's something that will that were pursuing now and were specifically doing analyses on what happens to marriage divorce in states that raise the minimum wage. Interesting. You'd think that for poor couples there might be an affected seems like there is, but that's, that's really, you know, I shouldn't talk too much because that's still work working now. Occasions it follows from the paper that we started talking about, which is if you want to help couples. You can help them by trying to teach him stuff. You can help poor couples. We're trying to teach him stuff or you can help them by making their lives easier. And it turns out there's some evidence that if you make people's lives easier, intimacy improves, even if you don't teach people anything. That's very interesting. It's much you think of relationship is just a small thing here, but it can obviously expand out more to include a lot of other factors. You've heard the expression. The personal is political, political, dotty, personally. And I actually just off the top my head, I read an article recently about how the divorce rate from Molyneux's is going down. Yeah. Yes, this, you know. Noon information shared, but you know, basically it was saying, people are choosing to marry later, you know, changing their habits and that way, so that that's interesting as well as many thoughts on that. Yeah, I read that same article and the analysis showed very clearly that divorce rates are declining former Lenny's who went to college. Okay. It's not true of couples who didn't go to college. And so here's the point is that nowadays, people who have access to education and have access to good careers are delaying marriage until their education and careers are in place. So people who get married once threat -cation careers are in place, have more stable merges. Makes perfect sense. Yeah, people who don't go to college are delay are marrying less, but marrying earlier. And when they marry, they don't have Curzon place, then their lives are going to be harder. And they struggle and their marriages struggled. To makes perfect sense. That's really fascinating. Interesting. Interesting to see what comes of that and more studies are done or what news comes of that. As we move absolute. I'm very interested as well. Thank you so much for joining us Dr. Carney's really fascinating. Talk Caitlyn. Thank you for having me. I have this chat with you anytime. Speaking of psychology is part of the APA podcast network, which includes other great podcasts like AP journals, dialogue about the latest and most excited, psychological research and progress notes about the practice of psychology. You can find our podcast on itunes Stitcher or wherever you get your podcasts. You can also visit speaking of psychology dot org to find more episodes interview resources on the topics we discuss. I'm your host Caitlyn, Luna for the American psychological situation.

partner journal of personality and soc UCLA Dr. Carney Caitlyn American psychological associa Dr Benjamin Karney director Meryl Los Angeles Portugal scientist university of California professor researcher Ron Hicham Molyneux Lenny
Let's Make a List

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

1:15:37 hr | 2 years ago

Let's Make a List

"Everyone has experienced heartbreak. And that's why I started the Harper compiled cast. I'm Fallon, I host the heartbroken podcast were real people share real stories of heartbreak, listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Now amuses dwellers in the mansions of Olympus, tell me for you or goddesses in our in all places. So that you see all things while we know nothing. But by report who were the chiefs in princes of the demands as for the common soldiers, they were so that I could not name every single one of them though, I had ten tongues in though, my voice failed. Not in my heart were of bronze within the unless you Olympia and muses daughters of aegis bearing Jove would to recount them to me. Nevertheless, I will tell the captains of the ships and all the fleet together. Welcome to stuff to blow your mind from how stuff works dot com. Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormack. And today we're going to be talking about lists. So that opening was from the Samuel Butler translation of the Iliad in. Proceeds a section of the Iliad that's often known as the catalogue of ships. If you remember Elliot has a lot of sections where it kind of lists things. This is like the most famous list in it. It's this long list of the ships and the leaders of the akiem expeditionary force called the DNA ends in that passage. And so to get a sense of the mini items of the list that follows I think maybe we should we should read a couple more of them. They've got a lot of tricky Greek names. We'll do our best with me. I'll take the first one. Okay. Okay. A scallop office and e almanac. Sons of Mars led by people that dwelt in Asplund on and or communists, the realm of Minnie's a stocky and noble maiden, bore them in the house of actor son of Assiut. S for she had gone with mar- secretly into an upper chamber, and he had lane with her with these there came thirty ships. It sounds a bit gossipy doesn't. Yeah. Naming ships. And now you're having to tell me who's sleeping with who is well, well, they're naming the captains and the numbers of people and where they came from. But they also got a slip in a little bit of like divine rumor. Yeah. All right. It continues. The fierce Abban taes held Evie with its cities calculus irritation history. Rich in vines Carinthia's upon the sea and the rock purse town of dealing with them were also the men of Kristaps and steer Aleph enor- of the race of Mars was in command of these. He was son of Kawkab Don and chief overall the abound taes with him. They came fleet of foot and wearing their long hair behind brave warriors who would ever strived to tear open, the corsets of their foes with their long ash and spears of these there came fifty ships, and they held the strong city of Athens. The people of great erect Theus. Who was born of the soil itself. But Jove's daughter Minerva fostered them and established him at Athens in her own rich sanctuary there. Year-by-year the Athenian youths worship him with sacrifices of bulls. And Rams these were commanded by NS Theus son of pettiest. No man, living could equal him in the marshalling of chariots footsoldiers Nestor could alone rival him for he was older with him there came fifty ships. But there are a lot of these in the poem this passage in the Iliad is interesting because there's a lot of debate about its origin and authorship like is it part of the original poem is at a later insertion is it may be a gradual accretion as audiences of the epic song and every locale wanted to hear their own local tribe and legendary hero incorporated into the story. But it's also something that calls attention to itself simply because it is a list. It's a list of it's a listen accounting of things. List of numbers of ships of their commanders of the numbers of soldiers. They brought an his right in the middle of a poem. And we might not often think of like a list of forces having a very like literary or poetic quality. But I guess they're they're also scholars who disagree with that. For example, Umberto eco the medieval assed and semi Titian and author including the name of the rose which just read for the first time this year, and I loved the marvelous book. Yeah. But echo loved lists. He was a pretty much obsessed with lists. And he clearly considered them not like a deviation from poetic form, but a really valuable form of art and object of study so much so that in two thousand nine when echo was invited to curate an exhibition at the Liuw the subject of the exhibition. He put together was the lists. I wish I could have seen that Umberto eco curated exhibit on lists. But he was interviewed that year by their Spiegel and ended up talking a lot about his fascination with the power of lists in the. View one of the central examples. He talks about is the catalogue of ships from the Iliad so echo says in the interview, quote, take Homer, for example in the Iliad. He tries to convey an impression of the size of the Greek army at first he uses SIMI's, and he quotes as when some great forest fire is raging upon a mountaintop, and it's light is seen afar. Even so as they marched the gleam of their armor flash up onto the firmament of heaven, but echo continues. But he isn't satisfied he can't find the right metaphor. And so he begs the muses to help him then he hits on the idea of naming many many generals and their ships. And then later in the interview he says, quote, homers work hits again. And again on the to- posts of the inexpressible people will always do that. We have always been fascinated by infinite space by endless stars and by galaxies upon galaxies. How does a person feel when looking at the sky he thinks that he doesn't have enough tongues to? Scribe what he sees? Nevertheless, people have never stopped describing the sky simply listing. What they see lovers are in in the same position. They experience a deficiency of language a lack of words to express their feelings, but do levers ever stop trying to do. So they create lists your eyes are so beautiful. And so is your mouth, and your collarbone one could go into great detail. And I think there's something interesting in what echo says there what he says makes me think of other poems like the song of Solomon in the Hebrew bible. And like, you know, Elizabeth Barrett Browning. How do I love the let me count the way? I love you in the morning and in the afternoon love you in the evening underneath the moon. Oh, yeah. I will not eat it go on a boat at cetera. Well, even in San Miami and the green eggs and ham. I think there's something going on there with the use of a list to try to convey, what cannot be expressed in simple language, the idea that like ones disc-. Bust is without bounds. You know, you have infinite disgust for the idea of green eggs and ham. And so all you can do is start listing. All the ways you would not eat it. Right. But then alternately like each one is is is each argument against trying the green eggs and ham is just as ridiculous as the last because the whole argument is we'll try it. Give it a try and eventually he does. Yeah. There's a there's a lot of listing in that particular. There's a lot of listing. I guess in kind of lyrical. Fiction lyrical children's books, especially another example that came up. We'll probably bring up again as the is the night before Christmas and the naming of the reindeer the reindeer must be named and listed as part of this. There's almost kind of a magical spell quality to it. The absolutely. Yeah. The the restitution of figures of qualities of another one, I think of a great list in in poetic form that sort of conjures a magical environment of inexpressible quality is the goblin market by Christina Rosetti. Yeah. That's a fun when we actually helped record a reading of goblin market for move. It was then food stuff now known as a saver the podcast hosted by Lauren Vogel bond in any Reese to include a link to that on the landing page for this episode. That was a really fun episode. But it it what what what is what happens in that poem. So the basic plot of the poem is it's about some a pair of sisters who are corrupted by these guys. Publians who are selling sort of supernatural fruits at market. But there there are these long sections where the goblins are just listing all of the fruits, and it goes on and on and on more and more fruits, and it eventually has this cumulative quality where it suggests that the fruits are infinite. Yeah. Yeah. They're they're kind of this a lot in rich descriptions of places and settings. Where where the author will just dive in head first and just describing one thing after the other just really really list, the sights and sounds of particular scene. Yeah. Exactly. And so it's interesting that there's a the use of lists in literary since I feel like has completely opposite usages in which it works. Both ways. One way is an author can use a list to sort of suggest Infinity and inexpressive -bility like qualities that are beyond measure and beyond counting can be suggested by listing. But at the same time, you can use a list to start to make understandable and make manageable something that otherwise is is completely chaotic and doesn't make sense to you like another quote of Umberto echoes in. That interview is he says, quote, the list is the origin of culture. It's part of the history of art and literature. What does culture want to make Infinity comprehensible it wants to create order, not always but often and how? How is it human being does one face Infinity? How does one attempt to grasp the incomprehensible through lists through catalogs through collections in museums and through encyclopedias and dictionaries? But certainly if you you begin to list, something, and it gives you the ability to then break up that list into consumable parts like, for instance, the list of all organisms on the planet is an ongoing list. It's not yet been finished we continually add new species to it. And yet by subdividing that list, we have a really good idea of what the the basic shape of life on planet earth consists of. Yeah. Yeah. You can construct an Evelyn canary tree by making lists of organisms and then listing their characteristics, and then comparing your lists. You know, I think of making a list is often similar to there's a process at the beginning of cleaning a messy room, you know, or at first a mess is sort of a. Singular quality is just like a thing that you are faced with and it has this unified evil magic and aura that cannot be penetrated and the best way to deal with the start just sort of like making a catalog of. Okay. What's actually here? And sometimes you'll make piles of things and stuff essentially, you're sort of physically making a list out of individual elements from what was originally just a mess. Oh, absolutely. With with a proper list of a task that would otherwise seem insurmountable can seem beatable be at something that does have a definite into it say like a like a long legal process like San adoption process. Yeah. That was my experience. It was a very very long process to reach the point, but divided it up. And indeed the first step is just like, well, let's look at the list. Yeah. Likewise, though, we also take this. Same thing that we apply to such situations as say human mortality, and if you take just the bucket lists. Yeah. Well, not just that. Would say Aubrey degrades approach. Oh, you to actual mortality like how can we beat death? Well, we can well let's start by dividing it up into winnable avenues like winnable battles. Yeah. In even though. So Aubrey de grey if you're not familiar, he's like, a gerontologist and general smart guy. But he he's tried to address the problem of aging and said, hey, let's not treat this as an inevitability. Maybe we can scientifically beat aging and stop, you know, death from old age from happening and the way he approached it. I think though, a lot of people disagree with his confidence in his prediction that we can beat the problem the way he approached his let's break death in aging down into a list of all of the things that go wrong. And that's a that's a brilliant way of looking at it, even if he's wrong about what we can do just seeing the like actual number of problems in aging enumerated and name. Gives you suddenly this feeling of power over the problem that you didn't have before. Yeah. You start thinking. Well, maybe this wizardy looking guy does have a point. Maybe we can beat death death. In isn't isn't that big of a deal? He does have a magnificent beard. He's like he's like a rescue and of life. And so I think maybe this should lead us to make a distinction. That's an important distinction. When it comes to lists. I was thinking about like finite versus infinite games. There's also a big difference. In in the way, lists play roles in our lives, depending on whether they're finite or infinite lists. Okay. Like we make finite. Lists of things I think in order to better understand something say like a list of organs in the human body. And then meanwhile, you make an infinite list in order to try to be gin to address an infinite problem like, you know, how do you express an unbounded feeling of love for somebody you start listing the ways or how do you live your life while one way to do that is to try to make it to do list? Ideally to do list is not something where you're like. Okay. I'm done with all my tasks, and I can just stop living. Now is just something that you're trying to prioritize the whole future. You have in front of you. I have to admit that the the idea of infinite lists here is is maybe a little confusing to me because I'm thinking like is it really an infinite number of reasons that once they love their spouse. I mean, there's there's probably a finite list of things. I mean, the the human experience is only so varied right? Well, I mean, you could keep breaking down reasons into smaller and smaller sub reasons I guess. Yeah. That's right. You could sort of foot race with achilles. Yeah. You could pull that number of. I mean, likewise, you could say the stars in the sky right to a certain extent, the human experience, there's sort of a small eye Infinity there, though, of course, there is there is there is a definite finite number out there. Right. So I mean, the same way you could say there is no such thing as an infinite game because eventually we'll have the death of the universe and nothing can go on forever. But the things that are things that are for your purposes, infinite like, yeah, you never to-do list is something you might cross all of the items off of. But that doesn't mean you've run out of things to do. All right fair enough fair enough. But then on the other side of lists one of the things that I often think about is how how funny it often is to me just how funny listed goals are to me. We've both worked in web publishing and oh, man. There is a period. I mean, I guess listings are actually still popular like they do well on YouTube and end on you know, on social media and all that. But but back. Back in the day. I remember especially like for Google search homepage optimization trying to make trying to make the how stuff works homepage. Clicky? It was it was listed goals. All the way down. Oh, yes. Yes. And some of them were required. Good. I remember when we were putting on a bunch of towing articles time there was one top ten they spun out of that effort to top ten heaviest things moved by man, which is fun little article. Yeah. Oh, yeah. I mean, I can enjoy a good list. New Robert, I think even the past express your love for for good cracked Listrik. All right. Yeah. I haven't joined some some of those crack logistical in the past. I also really like some of the the Cliquot listed. Those are amazing. I think it's like five or ten signs that your therapist is about to go to six flags after your session stuff like that. I'm always on board for well. That's what click holes great for is. Like, just highlighting the bear absurdity that lies underneath the internet content strategies. But yeah, I remember back in the day like round two. Thousand ten some of the listings going up on discovery and TLC were so funny to me, it was like, it would be things, you know, like ten backyard games, your golden retriever will love. Yeah. I think so there are a few different appealing aspects of the top ten right? I mean, a big one is that it's easily absorbed. The ideas that I'm not I'm in a hurry. Maybe I don't even really wanna read this article. But it's a top ten. So at the very least I could scan the ten items, and I kind of instantly want to know what made the list, and what didn't I think? That's very. Yeah. I think that's exactly right. Scan ability is a big part of it. Right. And especially with things that are. So there are different types of top ten or ten or list based thing sometimes they're a process, for instance, the so many Wicky how articles that are a list of ten steps to do something, including the I found on the other day for faking your own death everything from fixing toilet to to faking her own death. My. My favorite e how article of all time that I ever found. I think it checked recently, and it's not still up, but it was how to pray for money. Yeah. So this there's that area. And then there's the ranking of things like the ten best superhero movies, right or in. So you want to click on that? Because you you just want to maybe you're just a your compassion. And you just want to notice what they didn't include. And and shame them for what they did include. Well, the the top ten ranking thing is I think popular for multiple reasons. Number one. I mean, humans even though we don't like to admit this. We clearly look to other people to form our own tastes, right? You know? We we start to think I I should have my own ideas of what's the top ten movies next category. And then like looking at other people's ideas gives you something to react to either to base yours on there or to react against it or whatever. But it's also popular I think for the same reason that like you're doing it wrong articles or popular it feels like an aggressive opinionated statement. That is highly tempting to argue with right? Yeah. And and certainly sharing like five five films that shaped you or whatever, you know, whatever the the current version of it that's going around on social media is a great statement of self. You know, it's a it's a way of sort of summing up your character. Yeah. In a selection of films or books or albums or what have you? Yes. At the same time that it's easy to share by is easy for audience members to share because you know, it's fun to say I disagree. How could they leave off you forgot ex? Yeah. We we've we don't do top ten episodes. But one of the most common types of emails, we get as I can't believe you forgot to mention X her like talking about, you know, giving a selection of examples of something whenever we do a list. Yeah. Yeah. I mean, sometimes we do really forget to mention things or we, you know, we have them in the notes, and we don't mention the other times, we just don't know about them. Yeah. That's the the the other problem about trying to make any kind of inclu fully inclusive list. Yes. So I think for the rest of the. This episode. We should try to think about what what is the role of the list in human culture, and for a couple of things we're going to focus on I think one should be the to-do list and the psychological power of the to do list. The other one would be the idea of list as type of literature, media wise it so popular why why does it work? Yeah. I think it's interesting to think of lists even just purely entertainment and even outside of the necessity necessity and things like crafting, mixologist cooking and building a LEGO kid. I mean, those things where you you need a series of steps to follow in order to get it. Right. Oh, man. What is the is there like a visual version of ASM ASMAR? I don't know what the when you just get like goosebumps like seeing an image of a toy from your childhood for me. It would be LEGO instructions they go they and they've only gotten better Joe, that's thing. When when I read let current LEGO kit instructions versus older LEGO instructions, they're just. They're so clear and precise. I can follow them so easily. They should do instructions for everything. You're just mocking may like should leave the studio and go buy some Legos play with right now should go buy yourself, a Hogwarts and have at it. Then that one has a lot of steps to it. I I keep saying I think one of the best things about having kids has got to be that you get to play with Legos again. Yeah. And then step on like, I was again. Oh. The the Harry Potter sorting hat, by the way in specially painful to set on there's probably the most painful LEGO I've ever stepped on. Anyway, outside of children's play things, you also find a lot of lists in in in in in say video games for all his all video games are highly acquisitive in nature, you know. Yeah. Cumulates stuff in them. Oh, yeah. Like, the main example, I have right now is fallout seventy six into a game currently playing, and I stopped though to to think the other day is we were talking about doing this episode that there's my man sure are a lot of lists in this game because you opened your inventory, and what is it a series of lists? Like, there's a great. There's a big list, and then you can break down your list into sub lists of the various weapons armor as bits of scrap junk, notes, holidays, etc. So it's just one big list. And then when you would when it comes to the things you're trying to do in the game. There are a whole there's a whole other like wide array of to do you get your like, your main quest items your side, quests your daily quest of? It's just a game. Full of lists story is a list of mission objective. Well, I mean, I haven't played seventy six I assume it's like the other fallout game. Oh, yeah. Basically the same concept. Yeah. And it it's just a list of things you have to you have to get done, which is kind of weird that we we sometimes a retreat from our real life of to do this. And then we go into a fantasy world where we have a, you know, another list that we have to do, and it's not necessarily this simple equation of well, your your your real life list is harder to do. And you have it's it's you know, the video game is a a world in which everything simplified. No, sometimes the to do list is impossible in the video game world as well. Yeah. For for varying reasons, but but yet we we go to it. And we expect it to be now here's another question, though, aside from like internet content type listed goals. I mean, like lists within broader works of fiction, or or something what what is it that makes a list inherently entertaining? Some lists are boring. Another lists are really engrossing. I remember looking at lists of things in my life Star Wars illustrated encyclopedia when I was a little kid. And I was like this is a good list. Oh, yeah. When when it comes to the the lower and the glossary of any kind of created world, and I'm instantly on board for any of that like things like, you know, the appendix to the Lord of the rings or Doon Doon glossary is almost as good as the novel itself. Oh, absolutely doing encyclopedia. Even though it's not technically cannon was one of my favorites when I was younger. Yeah. Pretty much any book that I really get into the second apocalypse saga or. The game of thrones books. You know, like give me a give me an ties list of all the names places and things in a given universe. And I'll just I'll read through it. I'm currently reading the Harry Potter monster book to to my son. Oh, it's an alphabetical listing various magical beasts from the the setting of he does he get done with list to. I will. I don't know if he's down with wis as I am, but he's really into Harry Potter's. So that works, but but yeah. Outside of that though. Like like, for instance, Lord of the rings. Okay. Like, it's kind of built around a whole list, isn't it? I mean, you kick off the whole novel with this list of rings in who has them, and it's vital to the end of the basic setup of the entire saga even better than it's a rhymed list, though. Yeah. Yeah. The whole three rings for Elvin kings under the sky seven for dwarf lords in their halls of stone. It's usually read with some degree of drama. But I often wonder like what if it what if it was just this was just written on like a cock? Tale napkin and Saron just had it on hand. He's like all right. What am I making today? Okay. I gotta make three rings for L into the spies for dwarf lords on nine Gs nine for mortal men dimmed to die. That's a lot. I don't know why I said nine okay. When the one for me on my dark thrown right here in more door, etc. But then of course, because he's the Lord of mortar or the the to do list, just ends up gloating. Right. And in the darkness bind them. Yeah. Yeah. I've never thought about it that way I like that. It's it's our on's to do list from before the rings were made. So I think that should steer us into talking about the power in nature of to do list. But first, we should take a break. And we come back. We'll we'll discuss some of the psychology of to do lists. Hi, I'm Laura vendor. Can I'm the author of several time management books, including the brand new Juliet school of possibilities off the clock and one hundred sixty eight hours and also the host of I hurt media's newest podcast before breakfast. Every weekday morning. I'll be sharing a quick productivity to it will help you take your day from great to awesome. These are strategies that worked for me for people I admire and that I've learned from all the feedback. I've received over the years from listeners like you. I care about time because the life is lived in. And what we do with our lives is going to be a function of how we spend. Our I can't give you a twenty fifth hour and the day. But just like that first Cup of coffee each episode is going to help you feel like you can take on the world. One productivity tip at a time. So start your workday with before breakfast available each morning Monday through Friday finding on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast together. We're gonna feel less busy won't getting more done. All right. We're back. Robert, do you? Find to do lists useful. Yes. To a certain extent. I mean, so sometimes it's a matter of just having the reminder, right? Like on my hand. I have the remnants of a to do list for today that includes picking up two items from from various stores, otherwise I might forget them. They didn't have written on my hand. And likewise, if I have more than two items to pick up at a given store I need a list of those otherwise, I'll forget them. But. Yeah. I mean enlisted ill-assorted necessary for tackling various larger projects, and especially if you're approaching something from a project management standpoint, something like say launching podcast. Let's kind of checklist we see a lot around here. When there's a new podcast that rolls out when we rolled out invention for exist. For for instance. There was a standardized list of things that needed to be done that needed to be figured out the the needed to be started or assigned to somebody else. And you you would not have a finished product until you've finish that list. So I mean, I I have to like to do this because they are one way that things get done. Well, you're exactly right. I think that there is clearly a difference between good lists and bad lists. When you're trying to come up with the to do list, and it's sort of like, you know, it once you're in it like you like this isn't a good list. It's not working for me. But I was trying to think what are the actual characteristics that make a to do list, helpful rather? Than something that just hangs over you like a Wraith that's making you feel anxious and depressed, they need to be things that you can easily check off the I mean, it seems like a no brainer. But they need to be things that are achievable in the short term. So like you can't have a checklist that says like sarin checklist wasn't enslave Middle Earth and check it off. No, he started small building various magical rings to work up to this. In fact, maybe he should have started even smaller, you should maybe should have been thinking about the individual materials he needed for the ring and making the mold and all that. So we'll get into this in a minute. I was wondering like, obviously, there's a million self-help books and productivity seminars and all that about about like how to have better to do lists and be more productive. But I was wondering is there anything that draws on actual psychology research? One thing I came across was a chapter about to do lists in twenty twelve book about willpower by one of the authors was the psychologist ROY bowel Meister. Goes by bow master tyranny. And I thought some of their points were kind of interesting some of them were kind of obvious others. I was interested in the reasoning behind them. So one of the things that they point out in this book is that studies show that often when we get asked to list out, our goals and priorities. A lot of our goals are in conflict with one another and this. This is something that I dunno should be kind of obvious to us. But it's clear that we just don't really think about it this way until we like list things out and realize things are in conflict. Common example is like when you have two different goals that are both competing for time. You don't have. So like your already busy, and you're asked to make a list your goals and your goals include things like, you know, spend more time on x personal project and also spend more time with family. And so like, those goals are obviously income petition with each other for an already scarce resource or things can be like that with money, you know, they're competing for a limited pool of finite. It resources that you have. I can't help be reminded of Cliquot headline. I saw recently titled the only thirty one thing standing between you and your dream. I'm scrolling through it. Now. It's up in entries like your dog. Crippling doubt your pass. See that's a wonderful terrible list. Because you're including some things that are regionally specific. But just also huge vague and totally not actionable. Yeah. So so in this book, a great example of of like win, you know, how our goals can come into conflict with each other. So the authors talk about Benjamin Franklin was obsessed with maximizing his life. He was a maximize IRS sort of life hacker type dude out, and he tried to do this by making to do lists about everything like huge to do list for daily virtues to fulfill so like one every day would have to fulfill like like a frugality and industry, but he found of course, these things came into conflict because he's trying to be frugal. So he's ends up. Having to spend a lot of time like doing things for himself instead of paying somebody else to do them. But then that prevents him from doing work. So he finds these less industrious. So these things are large and general and the goals are actually fighting each other. And so the. The authors point out that like psychology in Niro science research, does not always show that thinking about lists of goals is helpful. It's only helpful in some cases, given certain kinds of lists and goals like the psychologist Robert Emmons and Laura king demonstrated in a series of studies that that quote, the result of conflicting goals is unhappiness instead of action again that might seem kind of obvious, but how many obvious things do we get stuck in a rut over all the time. So first of all they found when pe- when people make a list of goals and think about them if the goals are in conflict, first of all people end up worrying a lot they end up the psychological term for this is rumination. And that's a word that just means like repetitive. Negative thought patterns worrying cycles. The second thing is actually get less done when they think about these lists of goals. People ruminate not only ruminated they ruminate instead of acting to get things done. On productivity on reaching goals decreases, and then finally physical and mental health suffers people report more negative, emotions, more, depression, and anxiety and more physical sickness. So thinking about lists of your goals listing out the things you want itself is not enough to make you become happier. More productive and all that it really matters. What those goals are and how they're formulated and win they're in the wrong format could leave you worse off than before reminds me of a bit of wisdom that I've seen numerous times about New Year's resolutions. Yeah. I know about how you set too lofty New Year's resolution, and you're just you're you're kicking your own self in the pants, right? Like, there's it's not gonna do you any good? You've just you've just gone ahead and made this formalized version of your own impending failure. When really you should you should scale it back more and make something that's again, more actionable and more achievable and fits in with the the other commitments in your life. You know, I wonder if sometimes we. It really am bishops goals for New Year's resolutions. Because subconsciously we want to make sure that we will have an excuse to quit trying sooner. I tell you want. I always hate is. I forgot what it's called. But it's like a challenge to write an entire novel manuscript during the month of November. Yeah. Nanno Remo, which is the width the why can scarcely think of a worse month to try and commit to a daily writing project. Then November you getting right into the holidays thanksgiving, you're trying to get a lot of work done. They should do it more. Like, I'm thinking, it's like an April. Maybe it's a challenge to go swimming outdoors every day of January or setting. I mean, everyone's mileage is going to vary. But that is always my my realization is like I say, oh that things going on. And I'm like, oh, it's no it's November. This is this is a complete waste of my time. I'm just remembering what our November last year was like. Yeah. Somehow, I didn't have time to fit in. Writing a novel while we were also a launching an extra podcast, right? So but anyway, so I if sometimes goals are in conflict, right? Sometimes this just happens and thinking about those goals can paralyze you make you unhappy. How do you resolve this? I mean, you would think one way would be to reformulate your list of goals in order to to remove conflict. So one way to do. This is think about the time. Horizon of your top goals. I think it's probably easier for things on your list to remain in conflict when they're more general. And when they're more long term tie thinking about time helps you think about like, okay? What do I really care about this month? What I really care about this week, right? For instance, come up with an idea for a novel in November. Yeah. You go, and that time horizon thing really does matter in multiple ways. Like some studies show that short term goals are more effective at at causing action and improvement and long-term goals can sometimes be better than no goals at all. One example cited is. This research conduct the psychologist Albert Bandera and Dave shank on kids from seven to ten who are taking this self directed. Math course. So the kids are trying to learn how to do certain kinds of math problems and they're separated into four groups one group gets this set of short term goals. Their goal is to do six pages of math problems in every one of seven sessions. And then a second group has a sec has a different goal. It's to complete forty two pages of math problems at the end of seven sessions. So these two goals if both completed should give you the same level of progress. And then there was a third group that didn't have any particular goals and a fourth group that didn't do math exercises. And the results were the kids in the short term group did a lot better. They completed more problems. They were better at solving problems. At the end of the course kids in the long-term group who were just like, okay, get it all done at the end of the course, did no better than kids who had no goals at all. And if you think back to your own childhood, or maybe your own adulthood, you can you can probably. We see that really rings true. At least it does to me. Like if I didn't have work broken into smaller chunks. I would never get it done know on the other hand at the same time. There's research that's found the particularly in older students around high school age thinking about long term goals is associated with better outcomes. Like academic performance overall, and a common explication here that that might be going on is once you're older it's easier for you to see a connection between your long term goals and your short term work like short term tasks are sort of they're giving a motivation boost when you think about what your long term goals are. So you could maybe think about these two results sort of in conflict. But I don't think they're necessarily in conflict because possible takeaway is it's good to keep long-term goals in mind to help motivate you as long as they're not conflicting. But you also in order to get stuff done you need to to chunk things down. You've got to put your you. Gotta formulate your to do list items in small discrete chunks of work with. Your goals? And that's what we're talking about with sour on earlier. You know, if it's just a conquer all of the lands that that's not gonna work as well. You've got a separate break it into smaller tasks, right? But likewise having having that overall goal of subjugating Middle Earth. Yeah. Probably helped him put even more effort into making that one ring. Really, don't you know, I think so. Yeah. So it's like visualize the end, but focus on what you have to do right now. The very next thing another important inside. They side is just it's important to be flexible like if you try to over-rigid -ly plan out to do lists of things that can that can actually get you bogged down in one example, they cite as research that found that people who made monthly plans for goal attainment did better than people who made rigid daily plans for goal attainment just because day to day things come up, and you get you get sidetracked. You need to have a plan that has has some some wiggle in it. If something comes up today, and you can't do your thing today. Yeah. Yeah. I I guess I can definitely see that with bigger projects. I'm if I'm trying to think on a day-to-day basis something's going to wreck that plan. But I'm thinking more weekly and monthly like by the end of this month. I will have reached this point more or less than that's that's that tends to work. Yeah. Totally though I would say eat like each day within a monthly goal setting thing. It's good to like plan out more minute. Parts of the day as you get shouldn't wait till the twenty eighth right? The ticket into over to right? Then you get into like do your forty two pages by the end kind of thing. Just never do it. Okay. The next big thing that the these authors bring up about to do lists is going back to something. We've talked about it on the podcast before. Which is the Garnic affect. Oh, yes. We've discussed this week discussing our tetris episode. And there was another one too. I'm trying to remember the the incomplete unfinished one. Yes. Yes. About various bits of artwork could cetera literature. In which there is some incomplete aspect to the thing. Right. Well, it certainly applies to that. Because the zygote aren't effect is the brain's tendency to be brought back to incomplete tasks and remember them better than complete tasks. So it was it was a concept originally expressed in studied in the nineteen twenties. I think in nineteen twenty seven by Russian psychologist by the name of blue Volkov knows like our neck who lived nineteen hundred to nineteen eighty eight. And supposedly this came about after she and a colleague were discussing watching waiters in a restaurant, and how the waiters could remember all of the details of the order one of their tables until the check was cleared. And then once the check of that table was cleared. It was like the brains were just wiped they forgot everything. The task is complete in there for the information. The various road signs to completion are no longer necessary. Yeah. Exactly. So to to sum it up in a two thousand eight social psychology textbook by ROY Bom, I stir and Brad bushman the authors write quote Garnic effect is a tendency to experience automatic intrusive thoughts about a goal that one has pursued but the pursuit of which has been interrupted. That is if you start working toward a goal and fail to get their thoughts about the goal will keep popping into your mind while you're doing other things as if to remind you to get back on track to finish reaching that goal. So given this like Garnic effect is often cited as an explanation of what we talked about earlier rumination, you know, Pat, unproductive patterns of recurring negative thoughts design Karnik effect can kind of like just pull you out of whatever you're doing right now. Now and make you start thinking about that thing. You're worrying about the the goal. You have an attained the task you haven't finished, but it's also used to describe more mundane stuff like ear worms in music like few here. Part of a song play your brain may try to keep completing the task of the song until you actually are able to listen to the whole thing and his personal anecdotal evidence of this you ever notice how at least if you're like me, you're more likely to get a song stuck in your head. If you hear it in an unfocused way like playing in a grocery store or on the radio in a car as opposed to a song that you like sit down and listen to. Yeah. Yeah. For sure is certainly it makes for more more of a chance encounter. Yeah. Not a deliberate encounter. But yeah, those will be the times where I I leave the grocery store, and then there's the song stuck in my head. I feel like literally at least seventy five percent of the time. Somebody says to me why are you singing that song? I don't even realize I was singing it. And then what I realize is it was playing in store, but that's perfect because like in a store you walk in and out. You're not really paying attention to the music here. A bit of it. And it just gets lodged in there, and then your brains like trying to play it back in and complete it, but we should note that it appears that the Garnic effect has a sort of mixed replication history like some studies replicate the effect others fail to. So if we assume that it is real and based on experience, I think it does at least somewhat seemed to be real there may be conditional qualities to it that we don't fully understand yet in one complication to the effect, for instance, seems to be related to creating to do lists. So I just want to mention one study by ROY Meister and EJ Massa Campo called considerate done plan. Making can eliminate the cognitive effects of unfulfilled goals in this was in the journal of personality and social psychology in two thousand eleven so this. Paper they recount a number of studies that the authors did test the persistence in intrusiveness of thoughts about an upcoming finish task like an exam in school, and a few examples of how to test things would be like testing how often people became distracted while trying to read something after being made to think about that upcoming task or testing how prime this the subjects where to complete a partial word puzzle with a task related solution words, like if you're given like E X blank, do you complete that as exam or as something else? So they found evidence of the Garnic effect that people who had been made to think about an upcoming task. And it wasn't something they'd finished yet. It did become an intrusive repetitive thought for them. But they found that you didn't actually have to go complete the task in order to find it less intrusively occupying, your thoughts, less likely to cause rumination and distraction. You. Just had to come up with a concrete plan. Basically a to do list of concrete steps about how you would solve the problem. So to quote from their abstract, quote allowing participants to formulate specific plans for their unfulfilled goals eliminated. The various activation interference effects reduction of the effects was mediated by the earnestness of participants plans those who ultimately executed their plans where those who also exhibited no more intrusions. So the there's not just that the people who made the concrete steps did better with eliminating the desire Garnic effect intrusions. Also, the ones who actually ended up being successful in their plans that was correlated with it. So it's like, it's almost like your brain can tell whether you're taking your own plan seriously and to quote more from their abstract, quote committing to a specific plan for goal may therefore not only facilitate attainment of the goal, but may also free. Unitive resources for other pursuits. Once a plan is made the drive to attain. A goal is suspended allowing goal related cognitive activity to cease and is resumed at the specified later time. This makes a lot of sense of certainly when when compared to to experience because I can think of definite time in my life where there's been like some big thing. I've got a start m just by starting it. Yeah. Just by say, for instance, looking at the list of things to do. Yeah. And then calling it a day, you know, which ultimately doesn't really it doesn't really get that much done on the task. But you began the process and just by doing that you can feel better you can feel like you have more control of the situation. Oh, we'll thinking about or or making a list of things to do. I would say that is really getting something done. That's maybe the most important part of what you go. But in another way, you didn't actually do anything. It's like cleaning cleaning the room an essential step. Is formulating a game plan in deciding what you're going to tackle first. So that you can act. Yes. So you haven't actually cleaned anything yet. Yes. But but it's it's a crucial part. And in fact, it's good enough to not only make you more likely to get the project done in the end. But also to make you worry less about it until you get there. Yes. It's a twofold benefit more actual success at goals and less rumination. In the meantime, and I think this also makes sense from a sort of a imagining like cognitive neuroscience point of view, because if you think about it, so like design aren't affected sometimes interpreted as like, the unconscious mind sort of paying the conscious mind with like an outstanding problem. It's like, hey, remember, this you need to get on that. Hey, remember this. And but what it really is asking for is the help of the conscious mind the conscious mind, we tend to think is linked to the part of the mind that has executive control executive control is good for what plan. Banning like the conscious mind is good at coming up with a list of steps of things you need to do to solve a problem. Something the unconscious mind is not very good at and this is where executive time comes in. Right. The among times spend each day in executive time. No, this is the exact opposite. Let's like period time to rope in the conscious mind for for executive action. Yeah. But I think it appears that across this stuff like the very specific concrete plans are more useful in more, psychologically satisfying. So one of the things that you know, productivity experts often observe is that say like if you're trying to like, you know, fix them stuff around your house. Don't have a step in the plan. That's like fix the shower. The step in your plan should be the very specific. First concrete step you need to do to fix the shower. Like go to Lowe's, and by this part that I need have the name of the. Part or you know, and if if you're not at that stage, yet the things should be find out what part I need on the shower by going to by looking it up on the internet, right? I do think that's a useful insight, like if you're finding if you've got a to do list, but you're stuck and you're not getting through it probably one way that you can get unstuck is take the items in the list and try to break them up into smaller parts figure out how they can be subdivided. All right on that note. We're gonna take a quick break when we come back more on lists. And why we love them. Everyone has experienced heartbreak. I'm Fallon and on heartbroken podcast. You'll hear real stories from real men and women discussing their heartbreak we cover so many topics central focus still being relationships, but occasional episodes feature other forms of heartbreak like the loss of a child or a partner or an abusive relationship. Hopefully, when you listen if you've gone through heartbreaker are going through heartbreak, you feel less alone. You can listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app. Or wherever you listen to podcasts. All right. We're back. So clearly as we mentioned earlier on lists are huge in web content. Right. We know the power of lists. This is something that web traffic analysis clearly shows enumerated list type articles have an extremely powerful appeal there clicky why. Well, like, I said earlier, I think a lot of it is ease of absorption and or action. So it was like ten images or names. You know, you you probably don't even have to read the rest of the tax. You can just scan it. But then also like ten steps being a big thing. Like, Tim steps that sounds doable. I can do ten steps. Yeah. What you know? What what's the the offering is at ten steps to a better life ten steps to clean her house ten steps to a better marriage. I mean, these are all put the phrase it like that. I'm like, well, let's let's try it. Well, I mean. Yeah. Ten steps. I think are very popular. They're popular maybe for a different reason than a lot of other kinds of enumerated articles are useful. Because the steps thing is like a to do list. It says this is not an infinitely complex impossible problems as a problem with ten parts, and you can do one part at a time. It makes it seem like, oh, yeah. I could actually begin this, right? In battle own can be empowering, even if you have no intention of following in entities. Just know even just not even reading list just knowing that that process could be broken down into ten steps can feel kind of liberating. Yeah. So nine rings from in doomed die. Okay. So that's one step or maybe that's the third step. I don't remember what order they come in. But Elvin kings are first Joe got to take your cells. I the elves are picky. If you don't take care of them. I asked to see your manager. But but to come back to the scandal maitre list, I think that's big too. Because really important. Yeah. Because there have been recent studies. There was the most recent one just came out in the last few weeks. I think a looking at how we easily overestimate our understanding topic based on say a headline of an article or an article preview in Facebook. Well, yeah. I mean, there's like you remember the the illusion of explanatory debt that Musaed's where that's somewhat different. But it's that, you know, there can be thing that we're familiar with because we are exposed to the concept of it a lot, and it gives us the false impression that we understand how it works. Like, you know, you're you're around bicycles all the time. So surely, you can draw one with all the parts accurately placed right? Or can you it seems so simple? But it turns out a lot of people can and is just like, yeah. You see them enough that you just think? Well, I must understand this. And I think the same is true for more abstract conceptual topics like, you know, issues in politics, you think you understand how it works because you've seen the name referenced in headlines ride or you or maybe you've seen something broken down on a list of talking points, etc. Now, speaking of social media, it's also finding out that something like your Facebook or your Twitter feed is not enumerated. But is essentially a list is also not a finite list because they're designed. To be infinite infinitely scroll of. Yeah. But but these are lists many times a day. We're probably checking in to see what the list is offering us this time. Well, I think that also goes to the fact that lists are repealing list type articles are appealing on the internet because they're easily scandal for content in the same way that your newsfeed is easily scandal for content on Facebook. If you're just sitting there scrolling and letting Facebook ravage your brain, you are not you're not reading everything you're scrolling past, you know, you're just like scrolling until you're I hit something. And you look at that for a second. You're like, oh, there's that. And then you keep going. So I think maybe it's not always the numbered in h you're of listing. That's important. Like, in many cases, I think the numbers don't matter. Maybe what's important is that we know to expect a list to have headers actually headers very important because they help you quickly identify the meat of the content know what the things on the list. Are you don't really have? To read the paragraphs if there are any Iran, just like look at the headers and say, do I want to go deeper on this one knowing scroll past right? And you know, exactly, you know, pretty much how long the articles going to be. It's like ten items. That's it. Maybe it will be some honorable mentions at the bottom. But for the most part, I have a general link in mind. Yeah. And so your relationship with the Listrik type thing is usually pretty mercenary, right? It's less dedicated than a relationship, you might have with other types of written texts. I think it's also appealing because a list promises. Discrete chunks of information. That are desired for some understood reason like they're either practically useful useful like steps in the how to or practically useful because like say ranked products. You know, these are good versions of this product that you might wanna remember and look for when you're shopping or because they're interesting, and you want to have bits of interesting information to remember like the the eleven craziest bathroom at statues. Or there's something else that you feel. Compelled to know like those best of lists that people sort of use to help form their taste. I was reading an article in the New Yorker by Maria Conaco science writer, who is she. She wrote a good book the confidence game. I enjoyed that one a lot one of the things he mentions is the idea of the the lists basically benefit from processing fluency, and we've talked about processing fluency on the show before. But processing fluency is a really underrated influence on our mental lives. Like, we spend a lot of energy trying to spend less mental energy on things. Like a lot of energy trying to optimize. The our information environments for processing fluency, which means trying to make sure the information coming into our brain is not too challenging and it's easy to process. And there are a ton of ways you can look at the world around you and understand that we're trying to shape our environments to favor processing fluency by having these biases for processing. Louis fluency, like remember, the example of the the illusory truth effect? Oh, yes. Absolutely. Yeah. We're more likely to recall something if we've heard it before and even more of it's not true. Even if it's an outright lie exactly heard it before. And therefore, we we echo it. Yeah. We're so we're primed to understand it. It's easier to process because we've heard it before. And so they're scientific backing for the idea for the notion that if you hear something often enough, you start to believe it's true and one possible explanation for this is that it's caused by a bias, favoring processing fluency, you hear something for the hundredth time is just wait easier to process than when you hear something for the first time, and it's new and unfamiliar. Another example, I randomly came across the study by Griffin ater at all which is a great name in social psychological and personality science in two thousand ten there was a series of studies that just revealed when people are grading handwritten essays, there's a strong. Bias in favor of the ones that are easy to read and against the ones that are that are more difficult to read that might not be that's apprising. But even people who don't think they're biased. In fact, are you're biased by the fact that something that is easier to read and it's easier to take in just feels better to you. And so I think this is clearly work with like lists type content because you number one lists are pre categorized. You know? Like, so you don't have to wonder like what what box I'm gonna put this in in my mind. Like, you already know based on the title of the list, what you're going to be getting out of a you're not going to be categorically surprised, you've you've already got a schematic going in for where to put everything. And then also there's just simple stuff like Conaco points out that lists naturally naturally lend themselves to spatial categorization like there's vertical placement on a page, and there's headers to denote placement of information. They're in like lar. Blocks of normal text aren't as clearly spatial is. But that we remember things better when it spatially formatted in a way that's clear like think about the memory palace people. Can remember things better? If what they like imagine a physical space. Yeah. Using these. Yes. Spatial processing to understand something. And they just be a list of numbers even. Yeah. A top ten list is basically taking the concept and putting it in the format of a moral combat challenge tower where you have a list of opponents and at the top you've got a you've got the Xiaokang whoever. And that's the main boss. That's the number. One ranking goes all the way down to the who the easiest person to beat is. So if you can take anything be it global, politics or environmental concerns break it down into a mortal combat challenge tower, and then just about anybody can can at least get unlike the surface level understanding of what you're trying to relate. That's a good point. I mean another way of putting it is. That like a lists. Tell you the they explicitly tell you what's the important part of what you're reading. You know, like this is the thing that's like difficult for younger readers often as like to like read a passage in the identify. What's the thesis sentence or the most important sentence in this paragraph or in this page in like a lot of times? It's it's harder for younger readers to do that to figure out. What's the point a list? You don't have to wonder it tells you here's the point. And that's another big thing about about lists. And ranking as we're often gonna skip to the end like pitchfork comes out with like top one hundred albums of the year. I'm going to look at the top ten. Maybe they intentionally stagger. The pagination to make that harder to do. Yeah. Yeah. You have to like, of course, you have to click through a bunch of pages. That's part of the game. You like can't click to the last page from the first paging only click to the like third last page from the first page, and then you have to click down from there and nonsense. People people get mad. About the but anyway, bringing back to Umberto eco like I think there are some some clear easy reasons to see why like, you know, listed type content on the internet is highly popular. But what about the appeal of the list to somebody like Umberto eco in or in in something like the Iliad one of the things that echo mentions is he just says that lists are sort of a suggestion of immortality. Because he says, you know, we have this discouraging limit on our lives. We know we're going to die. And that we like to assume that things go on without end so list, creating these big lists like the catalogue of ships is kind of a way of scaping thoughts about death because we like to make he says we make lists because we don't wanna die interesting. Yeah. I mean, it comes back, you know, probably one of the most direct things we can think of is a bucket list or or reading list viewing list. These are all the things we're going to accomplish in our lifetime. Yeah. Which of course, I have to sadly, admit that. I still have a Cup. Of Umberto eco novels on my to to read list. A couple that haven't haven't gotten around to just yet. I've only read one now. Oh, yeah. Has some other great ones because pendulum island of the day before bodily? No, those are the those are the ones I enjoyed the most. I've got to check that out naming the rose was awesome. Yeah. It's a oh, yeah. It's like a easily now a top ten book for me. I think really really awesome. And by the way, speaking of name of the rue the name of the rose. Of course, it set in the medieval period with like monks. Who are you know, a lotta times dealing with these philosophical debates about the nature of things and moving with these key insight mediaeval encyclopedias, which is just like the best things that were, you know, Bestiary eary's and all that in that one of the things echo talks about in. This interview is sort of the difference between understanding something by defining it versus understanding something by way of list, and these are different ways of approaching knowledge and of seeing the world when you define something you try. Put into a sentence. The essence of what the the concept or the thing is whereas the other way, I guess is the more like inductive way of understanding a concept, which is making lists of examples of it or making lists of its characteristics. You know, this reminds me of the TV tropes website, then I enjoy using from time to time, especially especially if we have an episode coming out, and there's like a concept in the show, and I would like to acknowledge remind myself of either either sci-fi that I've I've read before or familiar with or something I am not familiar with ties into the concept and go to TV tropes, and you can look at the various tropes on a given property. So in one one level at it's it's it's filling, but on the other hand, it feels very very much like a reduction of these things, you know, like, let's just atomised a film or a novel comic book down to the millier tropes that have appeared. Elsewhere well on the other. Hand I would say they kind of TV tropes that site. Kind of. I dunno validates or immortalizes strange, cliches and conventions by showing you just how many examples of it. There are right. When you thought you see something in like one movie, and you're like, that's kind of odd. But it feels bigger than that to me. It feels like a cliche, and sometimes you look it up on TV tropes and you find. Oh, yeah. This is in thirty things. You know, it's in a bunch of anime in right? If a bit sometimes that thing that has appeared thirty other times, it's it's so well executed over it's executed in a way that feels unique or two or when other elements are creative sufficiently creative that it doesn't feel like one of thirty things it feels like the thing. Well, I think one of the great talents variety, especially comedy writers more than anybody else. But but one of the great talents of a writer who has a good sense of irony is the talent for picking out one example of. A thing that communicates that thing. Well, whereas somebody else would have to write a complex definition or give a list of many examples. You know what I'm talking about? Like, the the the great talent for picking out the one example that perfectly encapsulates the spirit of something. Like if you were to say, don't even sure exactly what this would mean. But who to say so and so is the Highlander to people. Exactly. Yes. I'm not sure what I'm saying. If I would to pass that judgement on someone part of it would depend on of obvious aspects of that individual. But it, but I'm still saying something that seems pretty specific. I don't know if it works for H too. But it's but but yes, you're on track. That is what know another way of thinking about lists is just the nature of list making and list using as its comparible to just how we use language, especially written language. So if we go back far enough in time, we get back to the roots of conform writing which developed around the eighth millennium BC. So this featured a system of clay tokens to represent individual units of various commodities, so like one heap. One sheep would be one sheep token. Yeah, it was that simple. And these were pretty useful for keeping track of of these commodities as we're dealing now with with with cultures that that had a surplus of things, and there was trade going on these tokens remained in use tool around thirty five hundred BC when more complex tokens came into play, and you would have Klay envelopes, which were eventually developed to hold these tokens. And then you would stamp those envelopes to indicate the contents and the stamping would eventually lead to solid clay tablet, writing and Pictographic writing logo grams or word signs and. Sequential writing systems, but written language in this emerges from counting technology from the systems of making lists. Yeah. I've read this theory before I and this is really interesting. The idea that like the first written language emerged from trade originally was more Pictographic but event, but became more symbolic time goes on and this led to phonetic alphabet s- right now. A great deal of what we do with written language is highly successful. Even in the case of say, non linear Garrett is and fiction. There is still is an order to what you're being presented with even if that order is is altered. You know, it's it's maybe not chronological anymore. But there is still an order like there is a sequence the year presented with and sequence. Presumably means something whether you're presenting something in reverse chronological order or you're skipping around in time, etc. And of course, we also alternately experience. I remember an anticipated the universe as a series of sequential events. Yeah. So this is one of those areas where it begins to sort of, you know, hurt the brain a little bit. But like, you know, what comes first right like the to what extent is the is successful experience the linear existence of of life is dictated by our language writing list, making nature or is it the other way around. Well, that is a great question. I mean, the the physics of time is no different for other animals, right? I mean, they their experience of time might be different than ours. But like it's not the case that like chimpanzees live their lives out of order. They also experience an order of events, they might not perceive. It like we do. But yeah, I do wonder about that with language are we like are we homo Albama? So whatever list the list making Abe is that what we are. Well, I'll tell you this. List making apes have have achieved an awful lot. When it comes to making lists, and one of the one of the hallmarks of this that I think we both found kind of independently and are searching is that there is an actual Wikipedia article out there that is a list of lists of lists. It is so good the introduces paid reads as follows this is a list of articles that are lists of list articles on the English with Kapiti. In other words, each of the articles linked here is an index of to multiple lists on a topic. Some of the linked articles are themselves. Lists of lists of list. This article is also a list of lists. You know, it's not surprising. That Wikipedia is where you would encounter a list of lists of lists. Because we could pedia is an example of encyclopedic thinking, which is an attempt, however feeble on our part to impose order and understanding on a world on a world where you know, things do exist in relation to each other. But order is sort of it's it's our attempt to to master the case. Haas of reality to say like, okay, here's how we can put things into categories. It's also sort of the project of Aristotle, right? I mean Aerostat will like to divide things and put them in categories and make lists of lists of things you could say that list making is in one way sort of deep at the core of the scholastic impulse. It's when you're thinking about what it means to be a scholar to study the world, it's still like put things in boxes where they conceptually go and organize the boxes or to wander out into the garden. Name all the animals, right? Yeah. Yeah. Well, another funny thing mentioning the garden is the author's book. I was talking about earlier they point out the Genesis one is essentially list. Oh, yes. On the first day. It is a to do list. It's just like sitter seriously. It is a divine to do list, and then it gives way to like listing animals and stuff and says that the the first task given to man when he was created is to name all the animals. Which is to create a list make more lists. Now. I have somebody to make list with me that was the the major accomplishment there. Well, that is until that somebody broke the only commandment on the list of the Shelton. Not said, yes. Yes. Oh, goodness. Getting into rules and laws though, that's a whole as a whole nother area of list making that we didn't really get into here. Just the the the essential nature of of law like in really, that's that's part of the the same process going on like it's one thing to say you their subject do right over, you know, behave yourself, that's one thing. But if you say, actually, here's a here. Ten steps to not be executed by my high guard here our ten steps to not be cast outside the city gates and consumed by the jackals, and and then you're like, okay, I can probably do these things. Well, it's a way of making like virtue or righteousness. You can divide it in the same way echo does with. He's like, okay. You can give a definition of something or you can give. A list of examples of it. You can do the same thing with like, righteousness or the law. You could say you give somebody a principal like do unto others as they would do unto you or something or you can give them just a long list of rules. Like don't do. This don't do that do this both our approaches humans of used, and I guess they both have their advantages, right? Because like, the the the more like single principle based system feels more flexible and takes into account more of the, you know, the diversity of human life and the different things you'll experience as less, legal, Listrik and intolerant. And on the other hand the list of rules, less ambiguous. You're like if you just follow a gigantic list of rules. You're less likely to accidentally get into trouble. Right. Like, you're more likely to give a list of commandments to say a robot or to or to RoboCop or whoever as opposed to a principal, or at least you give them rules alongside the principal. All right. So there you have it the world of lists. I would say. Sorry. We just ended up like trying to list all the different ways that you can use a list or think about a list, I think that's what this turned into this episode, by the way, one of the top ten episodes. We put out this month. I would say just a patter selves on the back. Obviously, this is going to be a topic that a lot of people have thoughts about out there. You're going to have varying degrees of success with with to do this. You're gonna have varying thoughts on top ten list it cetera. Just sort of the the list obsessed nature of our culture. And we would love to hear from you about it of your top thirty seven reactions episode. Yes, list them rank them share them with us. In the meantime, if you wanna check out more episodes of stuff to blow your mind head on over to stuff to blow your mind dot com. That's the mothership. That's we'll find all the podcast episodes. You'll find blog post you'll find some lists on their from back when we were doing more, text based content. You also find links out to a various social media accounts. If you want to support the show. Oh, there are few different things. You can do you can buy some merchandise. We have a t public store of some cool logos and designs, but the best thing you can do is first of all spread the word. Let other people know about stuff to blow your mind, you know, post about us in your online discussions mentioned to people on the street. Likewise, you need to subscribe to this show as well as invention and rate and review as wherever you have the power to do. So give some stars give us an ice review. It helps out the almighty algorithms that govern our world. Hey, have you not subscribed to invention yet or you seriously? Not subscribed. If you're not go check out invention. Subscribe. It's our other podcast. It's about inventions. If you like this one, we're pretty sure you'll like that one to go subscribe. But anyway, big thanks to our excellent audio producers, Alex Williams and Tari Harrison, if you would like to get in touch with us directly with feedback about this episode or any other with suggestions for the future or just to say Hello, let us know. How you found out about the show where you live. From what your top ten list of lists of lists are list. I think I screwed up the plural there. Anyway, you can Email us at blow the mind at house two forks dot com. For more on this and bathrooms of other topics. Visit how stuff works dot com. Hi vendor. I'm the author several time management books, including the brand new Juliet school of possibilities off the clock and a hundred sixty eight hours. I'm also the host of I hurt media's newest Bod test before breakfast. Every weekday morning sharing a quick productivity. It will help you. Take your day from great to awesome each episode is gonna help you feel like you can take on the world one productivity tip at two. Start your work day was before breakfast available each morning Monday through Friday, finding apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast together. We're gonna feel us busy getting more done.

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229 - 7 Secrets to a Long-Lasting Relationship

The Savvy Psychologist's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Mental Health

13:29 min | 2 years ago

229 - 7 Secrets to a Long-Lasting Relationship

"Hi, everyone and welcome back to savvy psychologist, I'm Dr Ellen Hendrickson, and you know, the drill. Al hope you meet life's challenges with evidence based research a sympathetic ear and zero judgment. And as you can probably hear this week. I am getting over a cold. I feel fine. But my voice insists on doing its best impression of a frog. In the meantime, so hang in there with me. And here we go. So today's episode is brought to you by the new podcast fill in the blanks. You know, Dr Phil one of Oprah's most famous friends and frequent collaborators and now you can hear a whole new side of him with his podcast fill in the blanks. That's Phil PH L. So here all new no-holds-barred conversations with celebrities like Vivica, a FOX Kathy Bates and Steve Harvey, plus expert neurosurgeons and lifespan. There's so listen to fill in the blanks on your favorite podcast app, and be sure to subscribe. So this week. Let's talk about how to make a relationship last. 'cause Melwood may have brought you together. But after the clergyman with the speech, impediment instructs you to treasurer your love what next. Well, whether you're married cohabitating or simply in it for the long haul any committed relationship needs a few tools to make it through the years. So this week here are seven. Science back secrets to make your long term relationship. Feel more. Like our Bruno Mars, Mary you flash mob and less like the theme song from married with children. So let's start out with secret number one, which is be your own person. Okay. So before sharing your life with another adult. It's important to have spent some time adulting yourself, you don't have to have your life cross indexed color coded, but it is important to have separated in a healthy way from your family of origin. So if your alarm clock is a phone, call from mom, or you don't get know how to do your own laundry. Invest the time to get your life on solid footing before merging it with another humans. Secret. Number two is be a team. Now. Some problems seem on solvable a fundamental difference in parenting styles in curable, slobby tude or opposite values around money. But the least constructive approach to sticky problems is to blame each other and fight it out. So instead, try and approach called unified detachment unified detachment is a fundamental shift in perspective that joins you and your partner together against the problem. So rather than approaching a problem as you against your crazy unreasonable partner approach the situation as the two of you United against the challenge. So for example, what should we do to save money for the future or how can we work together to fight less secret? Number three is outweighed the negatives with positives. So a classic study out of the university of Washington asked heterosexual newly. Lead couples to discuss a hot button issue in their relationship for fifteen minutes, and the headline making results found that divorce could be predicted from just the first three minutes of the couple's argument and the key. It turned out was the balance of negative and positive interactions. So in their three minute discussion clips spouses in stable relationships, not careening towards divorce predictably display, the less negative affect like contempt. Belligerence anger defensiveness or whining and more positive affect like validation affection and humor. All right. That makes sense. But interestingly for the husband's examining, the entire fifteen minutes of the argument amplified the ability to predict divorce so over the course of the fifteen minutes, husbands in stable, marriages got a little more negative, but they simultaneously stayed positive always making jokes listening and being affectionate. By contrast, husbands in marriages that would eventually end in divorce got increasingly negative and less positive over the fifteen minutes by the end calling their spouse by cute, nickname or validating. Her viewpoint. Went out the window now later the same research lab developed the magic ratio for a healthy relationship for every negative interaction. They advise you need five positive interactions. In other words, stable couples do argue, but that arguing is filled with joking and teasing and listening and love. Secret. Number four be equal a study in the American journal of sociology found that couples it gala -tarian relationships are less likely to divorce than couples where one brings home the bacon and the other cooks it up. So how do you make things more gala -tarian? It's not as simple as splitting up the chores along traditional gender lines. Because a study in the journal marriage and family review differentiated between low control and high control tasks now, low control tasks are named as such because there is little control or choice in the matter. They have to be done more or less continuously like loading and unloading, the dishwasher at specific times like making dinner or on demand. Like changing a diaper, high control tasks by contrast can be done when it's convenient. And they have a specific beginning and end like mowing the lawn or doing a home repair. So traditionally low control tasks have been designated as women's while high control. Tasks have been labelled as men's therefore to increase gala terrorism. Take a page from many same sex relationships and divvy up tasks by interest and value rather than by gender. So for example, the social butterfly takes responsibility for play dates and social events, the foodie makes dinner or does the grocery shopping, and the tasks no one wants, well, you have three options outsource work around because no one has to water plants if you don't have any or divide them up, and even if the dividing ends up falling along gender lines as long as you decided on those assignments together you'll go a long way towards shrinking resent. Now as a PS in families with kids. There's an avalanche of kid related invisible. Labor scheduling play dates, researching pediatricians ordering soccer uniforms and then returning them when they don't fit and in heterosexual relationships this keeping track of. A thousand and one things usually falls to the woman. So how does this get started? Well, it's been argued that it partially starts with maternity leave. It takes time and practice to gain expertise in task. So when mom's are given a leave of absence, but dads are not mom's gained singular expertise during those hundreds of hours with baby. And then that gap never gets closed. The solution paternal leave. Indeed Pew Research survey found that sixty nine percent of Americans believe fathers should receive paid parental leave which would help level the playing field. So if your job offers, parental leave not just maternity leave take full advantage. And if it doesn't do your best to divide up kid tasks evenly from day one. Annalong gourmet cookware can bring your inspiration to life on the dinner table. Whether you're a gourmet cook or bake off where the Baker they've got you covered with everything from expertly crafted cookware bakeware, cast iron stoneware cutlery, tools and gadgets. So you might try the analog advanced collection. It's twice as hard as stainless steel and with nonstick surfaces. It's easy to clean or you could try out the new Vel copper looks collection with a copper based that looks beautiful and functions perfectly whatever collection you choose you can rest easy. Knowing your gourmet cookware will last for years to come all analog products are protected with a lifetime warranty. So I use analog cookware everyday it heats quickly and evenly. Never sticks and clean up. Is shockingly easy. Perfect for everything from quick scrambled eggs to homemade stock that simmers for a couple of days. So shop an-and at Macy's in store, or at least dot com analog. That's an oh L O N designed for creativity in the kitchen. Today's episode is sponsored by blinking. I the only app that condenses thousands of nonfiction books into the best key takeaways and need to know information. So you can read or listen to them in just fifteen minutes their library is massive and constantly growing with titles, including self help business health and history titles. I'm excited to read like the art of happiness by the Dalai Lama or happier at home by Gretchen Rubin plus classics like how to win friends and influence people by Dale Carnegie blinking makes it easy to get the key essentials from book during a short commute, a workout or while cooking or cleaning. So join the eight million people were using it already. For a limited time blinking has a special offer. Just for you. Go to blinking dot com slash savvy to start your free seven-day trial. That's blinking B. L I N K I S T dot com slash savvy to start your seven-day trial linka stop. Com slash savvy. Next secret number five, expect a lot of your partner. But not what they can't give you. So while fairytale expectations are bound to be disappointing. A study in the journal of personality and social psychology found that marriages stay happy with a magic combination of high expectations and partners ability to reach them. So in the study couples were asked about their expectations of their relationship and next they were asked to come into the lab identify point of conflict in their relationship and work towards a solution. And researchers watched each partner argue and noted when they avoided the topic criticized or faulted, the other shirked responsibility made presumptions or were hostile. So by contrast. Researchers also noted when partner stayed on topic and furthered the resolution now when individuals had high expectations of the relationship and. Their partners could deliver that match of expectations and ability made for a happier relationship, but not everyone can rise to meet expectations when individuals had high expectations, but their partners how lousy communication skills or dirty those same high expectations set the couple up for disappointment. So the take home is expect a lot of your partner. But only what they're capable of. Secret number six is lie to yourself a little. So remember when you first fell in love, and you thought your partner was the greatest the cutest, the smartest keep them on that pedestal at least a little a study in the personality and social psychology bulletin found that harboring delusions about your relationship when along with greater satisfaction love and trust as well as less conflict. Furthermore, the stronger your initial illusions, the greater likelihood of your relationship lasting over the years. So even when he gets bald and paunchy or she's sporting a mud mask and granny panties. They'll still be your prince or Princess charming. And finally secret number seven is commit to commitment itself. Making a relationship last is more than committing to another person. It's also committing to the idea of commitment. Couple therapists and training are taught to pay attention to three things in the therapy room, each partner and also the relationship every couple creates their own little culture, and it's vital to note, if it's a culture of love support and compromise or one of criticism, insecurity and power struggles. So seen a partnership as something the two of you build together every day keeps you in the game much more than simply in the relationship as a way to get your individual needs met to sum it all up, the grass is greener where you water it. So ten to yourself tend to each other and tend to that third thing your relationship and watch your garden grow. And may not always be a rose garden. But together, it will be yours. Thank you for making savvy psychologist part of your life. Savvy psychologist is audio engineered by Steve rookie Berg and edited. By Joe musk Lino as always sevi- psychologist is strictly for informational purposes and dozen substitute for mental health care from a licensed professional. Thank you so much for listening, and I'll see you next week for a happier healthier.

partner journal of personality and soc Steve Harvey Dr Phil Dr Ellen Hendrickson Bruno Mars American journal of sociology soccer university of Washington Pew Research Melwood treasurer Macy Joe musk Lino Kathy Bates Vivica Oprah Annalong Gretchen Rubin
254 - Why Negative Emotions Aren't All Bad

The Savvy Psychologist's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Mental Health

16:02 min | 10 months ago

254 - Why Negative Emotions Aren't All Bad

"The in Dash. Display the Cadillac. Escalade. Has Thirty eight total diagonal inches of color display. So why do we give it a curve to I? Guess you could say we like to bend the rules that twenty twenty, one Cadillac Escalade never stop arriving. Welcome, back to savvy psychologist I'm your host. Dr Jane Woo. Every week I'll help you meet life's challenges with evidence based research, a sympathetic ear and zero judgment. Why won't my brain? Just let me relax why do I have such a short fuse? Why do I feel so sad. I wish I could just pull myself up by the emotional bootstraps and get happy. These are some of the most common questions my therapy clients asked me. And they're all thoughts I've had about my own emotions. What we're really saying is negative emotions are bad I want to get rid of them. and no wonder fear twists our stomachs. Anger makes us feel out of control and sadness is just such a heavy blanket. Sometimes these emotions can feel so powerful that we feel like victims of their relentless grasp. So, why do we have them? Why do our brains place such cruel tricks on us. And how can we avoid having negative emotions? Let's start by questioning our assumptions for moment. Are. Negative emotions all bad. Should we really tried to get rid of them. After all, we figure that thumbs are useful because we evolved to have them over millions of years, and that tales are not because we all to lose them over time. So. If negative emotions have stuck around, this long shouldn't there be some good reason to help them. This week, we will bust some myths about anger deconstruct fear and learn to appreciate sadness. All also give you one golden rule on how to handle these emotions and a healthy and productive way. Let's start with emotion number. One fear. Your stomach clinches your muscles tense. Your heart starts to pound your whole body is on high alert and every hair is standing on end. Your Palms get sweaty and your fingertips start to tangle. In, other words a wave of fear washes over you sudden and powerful like electricity. Why well you're a homo erectus living on the savannah a million years ago, and you've just caught sight of a sabertooth tiger hiding behind a bush. You're thinking brain has no time to say. Oh look this creature seems like it could harm me. So maybe I should prepare my body for an emergency situation. But luckily, the sympathetic nervous system does not waste time. A sense of super-quick alarm through the body to get you ready for fighting or fleeing. Of course, this alarm feels well alarming if it were soothing and sweet, you wouldn't take the danger very seriously. Would you? The increased blood flow an Adrenalin help you to run home to your cave. You survive today. And tomorrow you may be lucky enough to find a mate and pass on your genes. So fear useful. It's literally life-saving. Even in today's human world where there are fewer sabertooth tigers lurking behind bushes. Fear still helps us to survive. We goose pickles when walking down the dark alley night, we think twice about risky decisions. And we back off when someone comes at us with a threatening expression. Well most of us do. A, two thousand twelve study compared psychopaths and healthy people on how they responded to pictures of threatening faces. The pictures were shown on a computer screen and participants could either use a joystick to push or pull the pictures to make them smaller or bigger. Healthy. Participants tended to push the pictures away understandably. PSYCHOPATHIC participants on the other hand did not try to avoid the threatening faces at all. And this pattern responding was associated with their level of instrumental aggression, which means being aggressive on purpose. So being fearless might also mean being cold hearted. Also, most of US learned to fear things if they come with bad consequences. For example, in two thousand and five brain imaging study, healthy participants learn to fear pictures of faces with mustaches not that there was anything wrong with mustaches. But just because each time they saw these pictures, they will get an uncomfortable poke from an air pressure tube. The fear circuits in their brains were activated during process and their bodies reacted with appropriate fear response like sweating. But they're psychopathic counterparts were different. Their skin did not get sweaty. And their fiercer gets showed no particular activation or learning. It seems like fear is not only a useful emotion for individuals survival. It's also an emotion that may help keep the whole tribe at peaceful. If all of us were literally fearless. All of us could be psychopaths and that actually sounds like a pretty dangerous situation. Jean King for Cadillac Escalade when people ask, Regina, do you like to compete I say bring it on. Those are the moments that drive you to achieve more and when you win, You keep reaching higher to me. That's what the Cadillac Escalade represents. It's always evolving in technology and design everything because success isn't the end it's just the first step to what comes next the twenty twenty one cadillac escalade never stopped arriving before I go on I want. To tell you about another great podcast on our network that I think you'll love it's called get fit Guy Gif. Fit Guy is an instructive and clearheaded fitness podcast that will help you get moving and shape up no matter your experience level or body type. You'll learn about the science that makes different workouts work and you'll simple exercises you can do from wherever you are and because fitness for everyone, it doesn't require a membership to a Trendy Jim. Plus you'll learn what areas of fitness you should focus on and which fitness crazes are just passing fads, and for me I haven't always had a good relationship. Let's say with working out it's not always been fun for me but guy has introduced me to creative sort of low pressure low anxiety workouts. Feel good and strong and his Nada Chore So I. Really Really Recommend it. You can find fit guy on apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts or go to quick and dirty tips dot com slash podcasts, and find get fit guy that's get fit guy available wherever you get your podcasts. Fit Guy. Speaking of danger. Let's talk about emotion number two. Anger. Yelling threatening throwing things throwing punches. Is this anger. No this is aggression. The. Biggest mess we need to us right away is that anger aggression are the same thing. They are not. You can feel mad without hurting anyone. You can also bully someone without being mad at them. Anger is an emotion. Aggression is a behavior. If anger and aggression we're one and the same. Then of course, anger will be a bad scary thing. We would want to avoid feeling it and discourage others from having it. But in fact, anger is a perfectly healthy and normal emotion. So, let's think back to our. Homo Erectus. Ancestor. If she worked hard all day together, a bunch of berries and I stole them from her how she feel mad of course. She might feel tense restless and like there's a fire burning in her tummy. This feeling would motivate her to confront me in this case probably by clubbing me over the head. If she didn't feel mad what would happen I will keep stealing from her. After all, they're clearly no consequences to taking advantage of this particular cavewoman. In Modern World, we have more sophisticated confrontation strategies that don't involve clubs thankfully. If someone stole my sandwich out of the office fridge I may express how I feel about that I ask for an apology and promise that the sandwich thief would never do that again. This not only protects my future sandwiches, but also makes my coworkers think more highly of me. A two thousand and one study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology asked people to rate their coworkers on how frequently they expressed various emotions including anger. It turned out that how much anger people showed was positively related to how competent their coworkers thought they were. Not only that the anger also predicted higher salaries and promotion potential as rated by their boss. Of course I'm not recommending that you go around the office yelling at people and throwing their staplers. Remember anger is not the same thing as aggression. Anger, signals to us that something unfair has happened. The someone has wronged us or has hurt someone that we care about. What we do about the situation can include assertive communication, peaceful political protests, problem solving forgiveness, and many other options. In any case, the emotion of anger was not bad. It helped us to know that something was wrong and that it was important to address it. Now. Let's turn the KNOB from hot to cold and visit yet another negative emotion. Emotion number three sadness. This one is tough. Sadness heavy and slow it drains our energy and dampens motivation. How could sadness possibly be useful? Well, when do we tend to feel sad When someone we love dies when we lose a relationship that we cherished when we wanted something badly but did not get it. These are experiences we've all had. What would happen if we didn't feel sad during these situations. We wouldn't have funerals because we just shrug off a loved one's death an probably not care too much about those who are still alive either. We will not cherish relationships because. Losing one doesn't hurt at all. and. We wouldn't know which goals are important to us because not reaching them wouldn't make a dent in our mental space. On the other hand feeling sad allows us to viscerally know in our hearts and in our guts, what we care most about in life. It teaches US lessons from mistakes we may and reminds us to cherish things that we still have. Together, with positive emotions like joy and excitement, sadness allows us to taste a rich array of emotions that highlight our values in guide our behavior. In fact having mixed feelings is good for your health. A study with almost two hundred participants found that those who tended to experience both positive and negative emotions as opposed to just one type or the other tended to have better physical health overtime. This was a small but statistically significant effect above and beyond the benefits of just having positive emotions. In other words, it's good to have mixed feelings. So. There you go. Negative emotions have a bad reputation because they don't feel good and because we think they're useless or dangerous. But they are actually very useful and healthy fear is are trustworthy. Alarm system anger lights a fire to expose injustice and sadness shows us what's most important in life. So, what should we do negative emotions All teach you how to manage difficult emotions in future episodes including next week's episode on how to be assertive without being a jerk. For now, here's one golden rule for handling negative emotions know that it super healthy to feel that way. And then breathe into the emotion. Embrace it and walk yourself through how it feels in your body. Don't try to fight against it because you'll probably lose or at best kick the can down the road. If you just let the emotions sit in your body like a house guest it will tell you what you need to know. And eventually move on. Try it out. If, you want to learn more tips about emotional health subscribe to the savvy psychologist podcast. And don't forget to tune in next week, we'll learn how to be assertive in difficult situations. Savvy psychologist is engineered by Seve Ricky Burg and edited by Karen Hertzberg. As always savvy psychologist is strictly for informational purposes and does not substitute for mental health care from a licensed professional. Thank. You so much for listening I'll see you next week for a happier healthier mind. Jean King for Cadillac. Escalade let's say you make it to the top. What's next relish in the glory of your accomplishments okay. Sure for a minute but then you move forward take the two, thousand, twenty, one escalade Cadillac newest arrival. It was more than just a celebration of iconic lead. It's the most technologically advanced escalate ever because arriving is just the beginning the twenty twenty, one Cadillac Escalade never stop arriving.

Escalade twenty twenty Escalade Jean King Journal of Personality and Soc escalade Dr Jane Woo US tigers Cadillac sympathetic nervous system Seve Ricky Burg apple Regina Karen Hertzberg million years
235 - How to Know If You've Met The One

The Savvy Psychologist's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Mental Health

11:14 min | 2 years ago

235 - How to Know If You've Met The One

"I lock them back to savvy psychologist, I'm Dr Ellen Hendrickson, and helping meet life's challenges with evidence based research a sympathetic ear and zero judgment listener, Anna from Toronto wrote in and asked how to determine whether the person you're dating is the right match for you. And Anna speaks for an entire generation with this question because for millennia, we've partnered within our tribe or village or neighborhood. And if we were lucky the number of eligible partners, we had to choose from reached maybe a dozen fast forward to today. However, and we can connect with untold numbers of people with the right swipe of a finger, but choice can be a double edged sword. It breeds the allusion that we can find our soul mate, if we just sort patiently and diligently enough, and in turn this leads to second guessing high pressure I dates and rampant perfectionism in pursuit. Of the one. So what does the diligent search look like in the twenty first century? And how do we know when we've found the one do birds suddenly appear every time they are near do stars fall from the sky every time they walk by the bad news. There's no foolproof formula. The good news. There are some rules of thumb to follow the you can still find true love, even if you break them all so this week here are six ways to dive into the search so tip number one. Is you found a match if you well match when looking for a mate people are shall we say optimists a study in the journal science advances examined heterosexual online daters across four major US cities. And they found that people have a general idea of how attractive they are. And from there. They tend to punch up the study found that both male and female mate seekers tended to contact profiles who were about twenty five percent more attractive than themselves. Cbs and when doing so strategically compensated by writing a longer message now, despite all this optimism in the end couples tend to match on all sorts of variables including attractiveness, and this phenomenon is called a sort of mating. And it's the overall tendency for all animals from poison dart frogs to black headed goals to humans to pair like with like we humans often, but not always pair up by age education, social class body, Haydn size and many other factors including attractiveness. There are of course, many exceptions to this rule ugly Rockstars Marion supermodels is just the beginning. But in general, your perfect match will be exactly that a match on many different variables. Tip number two shared values. Set you up for a shared life, even more important than matching on physical and demographic stats shared values. Set you up for the long haul again exceptions abound. But agree on for example, the importance of education how you spend money. The place of religion in your lives. Your political leanings and more can create a solid foundation for future together. You don't have to agree on everything. But connecting on the fundamentals means smoother sailing through the years tip. Number three, your partner's personality can hint to whether or not they'll cheat infidelity is a deal breaker for many relationships. And while there's no crystal ball for cheaters you can read your partner's personality with some accuracy. So in personality research lingo, individuals, low unconsciousness, low unagreed, -able nece and high on openness are more susceptible to Chidi. Okay. So what does this meaning? Exactly. Well, people low in conscientiousness or careless disorganized and on reliable. They're the ones who may or may not show up when they said, they would folks low in agreeable nece are unkind distant and uncooperative. They're basically the opposite of kind and considerate and those high in openness can be thrillseekers always looking for something new and different. So together. It's a higher risk mix for cheating and even redder flag is a partner with traits from what's called the dark, triad, narcissism psychopathy and Machiavelli Anisim these folks tend only to look out for number one and make lousy partners across the board. So avoid these schemers liars and manipulators at all costs back with tip number four after the break. The original true body bra by true and co dot com is the bra people are talking about over half a million people have bought it. And swear by it. It's made with proprietary fabric that gives you the support. It you need plus it has no wires. So it's super comfortable and the soft fabric. Smooz you out in all the right places. I tried one out and not only does it have no wires. It also has no hooks. No, itchy labels. And none of those slider things on the straps. And you know, how sometimes you don't realize something is bothering you until it's gone. That was exactly what happened. It was so comfortable and other people agree with me the today show calls it game changing and good housekeeping says the ultimate lounge bra so try the original true body broth from true and co today with free and easy returns. Save fifteen percent. When you go to true and co dot com slash savvy and enter the code savvy. That's T R U E A N D C, O dot com slash savvy and the code savvy. Today's episode is sponsored by blinking the only app that condenses thousands of nonfiction books into the best key takeaways and need to know information. So you can read or listen to them in just fifteen minutes, the library is massive and costly growing with titles, including self help business, health and history and titles. I'm excited to read like start with. Why by Simon Sinek and happier at home by Gretchen Rubin, Lincoln's makes it easy to get the key essentials from a book during a short commute, a workout or while cooking or cleaning? So join the eight million people who are using it right now. For a limited time blink as a special offer. Just for you. Go to blinks dot com slash savvy to start your free seven-day trial. That's blankets. B L I N K. I S T Pelinka st- dot com slash savvy to start your seven day trial. That's blankets dot com slash savvy. And now. Back to the show tip number four. If your background includes significant trauma, take time to heal while you search for the one and keep an eye on your chemistry. We're often attracted to those who make us feel at home. But if home whether family of origin or early formative experiences mistreated us exploited us or otherwise made us feel like garbage or likely to pick a partner who makes us feel that way too. It feels familiar and therefore right matches. What we've been taught to expect from close relationships. Therefore, if you know, your partner picker is mis calibrated don't rely solely on your sense of traction and chemistry when it comes to choosing a mate instead pay close attention to how your potential partner treats you look at their behavior over time. Not just the thump thump of your heart. This is really hard. When you're the one involved, so get lots and lots of outside perspective and feedback from trusted friends, and if applicable your therapist get some distance by asking yourself, if you'd approve if your potential partner treated close friend the way, the retreating you if the answer is no take some time to reflect and rethink. Tip. Number five is take a page from automobile stopping theory listener, Anna writes that in her quest to find a good match. She can get bogged down in over analyzing. And she asks what the best strategy is to assess fit. Well, it turns out there is a strategy a mathematical solution called the odds. Algorithm. Now, the math is over most of our heads. But whether you have several dozen options or several million the rule says to I reject a fair chunk of the options. And then go with the first available option that is better than every other option rejected thus far. Now, it turns out you can use this rule of thumb in hiring staff buying a house and lots of other decisions, including finding a life partner, essentially it boils down to this. Don't settle down to early spend some time looking, but after you've gotten to know what's out there when you meet someone who's a better match for you than anyone you've met thus far. It's. Time to stop and commit which brings us to tip. Number six when you find the one commit in general people prefer to make reversible decisions like buying sweater that can be returned or germane to our topic getting married with the option to divorce rather than a more permanent decision. This makes sense. But a study in the prestigious journal of personality and social psychology found that people are often happier without the burden of choice. Why? Well, it turns out people adapt to events more quickly when they cannot undo them. And this may be why so many arranged marriages workout just fine. Heck and even worked for more than one of the reality TV couples unmarried at first sight, so don't pull up to your partners house with a U haul and thought in the back of your mind that you can keep your options. Open instead jump in with both feet and commit counter-intuitively. You'll likely be happier. If there's no easy way out. All in all while it would be nice to weigh all the options exhaustively, we just can't sort through everyone on the planet, but with input from your head, your heart, your values and a dash of particular mathematical algorithm, you won't have to sort through seven billion people in order to find the one. Thank you for making savvy psychologist, a part of your life. Remember to give us a call at the savvy psychologist voicemail line at eight five seven five two nine five six five. Oh, you can request an episode topic. Leave a comment or just tell us why you love the show. So give us a call. If you like you could hear your voice on a future episode. That's eight five seven five two nine five six five. Savvy psychologist is audio engineered by Steve Ricky Burg and edited by beyond San Torah as always sevi- psychologist is strictly for informational purposes and doesn't substitute for mental health care from a licensed professional. Thank you so much for listening, and I'll see you next week, a, happier, healthier mind.

partner Anna journal of personality and soc health and history US Dr Ellen Hendrickson Toronto Cbs Simon Sinek Steve Ricky Burg San Torah Gretchen Rubin Lincoln twenty five percent fifteen minutes fifteen percent seven day seven-day
254 - Why Negative Emotions Arent All Bad

The Savvy Psychologist's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Mental Health

16:25 min | 2 years ago

254 - Why Negative Emotions Arent All Bad

"Welcome back to savvy psychologist. I'm your host dr. Jane woo every week nick. I'll help you meet life's challenges with evidence based research a sympathetic ear and zero judgment. Why won't my brain rain. Just let me relax. Why do i have such a short fuse. Why do i feel so sad. I wish i could just just pull myself up by the emotional bootstraps and get happy. These are some of the most common questions my therapy clients asked me and they're all thoughts. I've had about my own emotions. What we're really saying is negative. Emotions are bad. I want to get rid of them. <hes> and no wonder fear twists our stomachs anger and makes us feel out of control and sadness is just such a heavy blanket mm kit. Sometimes these emotions can feel so powerful that we feel like victims of their relentless grasp. So so why do we have them. Why do our brains place such cruel tricks on us and how can we avoid having negative emotions. Let's start by questioning. Our assumptions for moment are negative emotions all band. Should we really tried to get rid of them. After all we figure that thumbs are useful because we evolved to have them over millions of years and that tales are not because we evolve oh to lose them over time so if negative emotions have stuck around this long. Shouldn't there be some good reason to have them this this week we will bust some myths about anger deconstruct fear and learn to appreciate sadness all also give you one golden rule on how to handle these emotions in a healthy and productive way. Let's start with emotion number. One fear your stomach clinches your muscles tense. Your heart starts to pound your whole body is on high alert in every hair is standing on end your palms get sweaty and your fingertips start to tangle in other words. A wave of fear washes over you sudden and powerful like electricity why well you're a a homo erectus living on the savannah a million years ago and you've just caught sight of sabertooth tiger hiding behind a bush. You're thinking brain has no time to say oh look. This creature seems like it could harm me so maybe i should prepare my body for an emergency situation but luckily the sympathetic nervous system does not waste time a sense a super quick alarm through the body to get you ready for we're fighting or fleeing of course this alarm feels well alarming. If it were soothing sweet you wouldn't take the danger very seriously. Would you the increased blood flow and adrenaline help you to run home to your cave. You survive today wu and tomorrow you may be lucky enough to find a mate and pass on your genes so is fear useful. It's literally lifesaving. Even today's human world where there are fewer sabertooth tigers lurking behind bushes fear still helps us us to survive. We goose recalls when walking down a dark alley. At night. We think twice about risky decisions and we back off off when someone comes at us with a threatening expression well most of us do a two thousand twelve study compared psychopaths cowpaths and healthy people on how they responded to pictures of threatening faces the pictures were shown on a computer screen and participants dispense could either use a joystick to push or pull the pictures to make them smaller or bigger healthy participants tended to push pushed the pictures away understandably psychopathic participants on the other hand did not try to avoid the threatening faces at all all and this pattern responding was associated with their level of instrumental aggression which means being aggressive on purpose so being fearless might also mean being cold hearted also most of us learned to fear the things if they come with bad consequences for example in two thousand and five brain imaging study healthy participants learn to fear pictures of faces with mustaches not that there was anything wrong with mustaches but just because each time they saw these pictures they will get had an uncomfortable poke from an air pressure tube. The fiercer kits in their brains were activated during this process and their bodies reacted waited with appropriate fear response like sweating but they're psychopathic. Counterparts were different. Their skin did not get sweaty eddie and their fiercer gets showed no particular activation or learning. It seems like fear is not only a useful emotion for our individual survival. It's also an emotion that may help. Keep the whole tribe at peaceful. If all of us were literally fearless. All of us could be psychopaths and that actually sounds like a pretty dangerous situation speaking of danger. Let's talk about the anger after the break. Today's episode is supported by base personalized vitamins. If you're ready to take a more personalized is approach to your health. Then basis for you. Bays is pioneering personalized vitamins using evidence based science to get started. You take a blood sample using their tap device. It's small easy and painless to us based on your blood. Sample bays will create your nutritionist. Miss approved vitamin package and the vitamins will come directly to your door from there every three months. You'll get the chance to retest so bays dynamically namic adjust to any lifestyle changes and the changing seasons that way you can ensure. You're always giving your body what it needs right now. Now bayes is offering twenty percent off your first purchase of one of their products. Choose either the full service impact package the personalized fadiman subscription or nutrient test kit just go to bays dot com and use promo code savvy to get twenty percents off invest in your personal health today and feel the benefits get started at bays dot com with promo code savvy. Today's episode is also supported by talk space. We all need someone to talk to who can support us through the ups and downs of life so talk. Space is therapy for how we live today. It's mobile affordable and available whenever you need it. Just share what you want in a therapist and talk space will match you with one that very same day a whole month of therapy on talk space costs about the same as a single traditional face to face session shen and you can send your therapist on the minute messages from anywhere so no matter what you're going through. You're not alone join over a million in users who feel happier with talks. I personally love that talks. Base is affordable and is very convenient. I know from experience. That's how hard it is to access their be and you know when you're busy. You have a job. You have kids driving through traffic once a week to your therapist. The office may not be possible so that's why i like talk. Space and talk space has more than five thousand licensed therapists who are experienced in addressing dissing life's challenges to match with your perfect therapist for a fraction of the price of traditional therapy go to talk space dot com and use the code savvy to get sixty five dollars off your first month. That's talk space dot com and the code savvy and now back to negative commotions with emotion number two anger yelling threatening throwing things throwing ponchos. Is this anger. No this is aggression the biggest myths we need to bus right away eh is that anger and aggression are the same thing they are not. You can feel mad without hurting anyone. You can also bully someone without without being mad at them. Anger is an emotion aggression is a behavior if anger and aggression were one and the same then of course anger will be a bad scary thing we would want to avoid feeling it and discourage others from having it but in fact anger is a perfectly healthy and normal emotion so let's think back to our homo erectus ancestor if she worked hard all day together a bunch of berries and i stole them from her. How would she feel mad. Of course she might feel we'll tense restless and like there's a fire burning in her tummy this feeling would motivate her to confront me in this case probably by clubbing having me over the head if she didn't feel mad what would happen. I will keep stealing from her. After all there are clearly no consequences consequences to taking advantage of this particular cave woman in our modern world. We have more sophisticated confrontation strategies that that don't involve clubs thankfully if someone stole my sandwich out of the office fridge. I may express how i feel about that. I'd ask for for an apology and a promise that the sandwich thief would never do that again. This not only protects my future sandwiches but also makes it's my coworkers think more highly of me a two thousand and one study published in the journal of personality and social psychology asked people to rate eight their coworkers on how frequently they expressed various emotions including anger it turned out that how much anger people showed was was positively related to how competent their coworkers thought they were not only that anger also predicted higher salaries reese and promotion potential as rated by their boss of course. I'm not recommending that you go around the office yelling at people and throwing their staplers flers. Remember anger is not the same thing as aggression anger signals to us that something unfair has happened the someone one has wronged us or has hurt someone that we care about what we do about the situation can include assertive communication peaceful political critical protests problem solving forgiveness and many other options in any case. The emotion of anger was not bad add. It helped us to know that something was wrong and that it was important to address it now. Let's turn the knob from hot not too cold and visit yet another negative emotion emotion number three sadness. This one is tough off. Sadness is heavy and slow it drains or energy and dampens motivation. How could sadness possibly glebe useful well. When do we tend to feel sad when someone we love dies when we lose a relationship that cherished when we wanted something badly but did not get it. These are experiences. We've all had what would happen. If we didn't feel sad. During these situations we wouldn't have funerals because we just shrug off a loved one's death and probably we not care too much about those who are still alive either we will not cherish relationships because losing one doesn't hurt at all and we wouldn't know which goals are important to us because not reaching them wouldn't make a dent in our mental space on the other hand feeling sad allows us to viscerally know in our hearts and in our guts what we care most about in life it teaches us lessons lessons from mistakes we make and reminds us to cherish things that we still have together with positive emotions like joy and excitement sadness allows us to taste a rich array of emotions that highlighter values in guide our behavior in fact having mixed feelings is good for your health. A study with almost two hundred participants found that those who tend to experience both positive and negative emotions emotions as opposed to just one type or the other tended to have better physical health over time. This was a small but statistically significant ignificant effect above and beyond the benefits of just having positive emotions in other words. It's good to have mixed feelings so there you go negative. Emotions have a bad reputation because they don't feel good and because we think they're useless or dangerous but they are actually very useful and healthy. Fear is our trustworthy alarm. System anger lights a fire to expose injustice. This and sadness shows us. What's most important in life. So what should we do about negative emotions all teach you how to manage banish difficult emotions in future episodes including next week's episode on how to be assertive without being jerk for now. Here's one golden golden rule for handling negative emotions no that it's super healthy to feel that way and then breathe into the emotion embrace it a walk yourself through how it feels in your body. Don't try to fight against it because you'll probably lose or at best. Kick the can down the road. If you just let the emotions sit in your body like a house guest it will tell you what you need to yeah no and eventually move on try it out. If you want to learn more tips about emotional health subscribe to the savvy psychologist podcast and don't forget to tune in next week will learn how to be assertive in difficult situations. Savvy psychologist is is audio engineered by steve ricky berg and edited by karen hertzberg as always savvy psychologist is strictly for informational purposes and does not substitute for mental healthcare from a licensed professional. Thank you so much for listening. I'll see you next week for a happier healthier mind they.

dr. Jane woo tigers sympathetic nervous system journal of personality and soc eddie bayes steve ricky berg karen hertzberg sixty five dollars twenty percent million years three months
Ep90 The Science Behind Gratitude

The Virtual Couch

31:25 min | 2 years ago

Ep90 The Science Behind Gratitude

"Uh? Hey, everybody tuning episode ninety virtual couch Sony over bay license marriage family therapist, certified blabber, coach writer speaker hasn't bothered for ultra marathon runner in creed. Or the path back and online pornography diction recovery program that is helping people reclaim their lives from pornography. Diction if you or anyone that you know is struggling with pornography. Diction please point them to path back recovery dot com. There you can download short e book that describes five common mistakes that people make when trying to overcome pornography diction again, that's path back recovery dot com. Keep those cards and letters come in you, can you can send questions or comments podcast, topics. If you want to be a guest sin those to contact at Tony over bay dot com and please stop by Tonio dot com. You can sign up to find out more about some upcoming programs, including one on how to be happy that I am hoping to launch shortly after the beginning of the year. So Tony bay dot com. There's a place in the middle there. I promise I won't spam. You I won't send you unnecessary emails. As a matter of fact, I am rarely sending emails I gotta get better about that. And I just again, thank you so much for the feedback. The feedback from the gas lighting episode last week. It was just kind of impromptu off the cuff episode has just but the Christine Hammond episode narcissism, the gas lighting there is a need out there. So I'm starting to get a lot of people that are writing I mentioned on the gas lighting up the sewed that I may be starting online group for women who may feel that they are in abusive relationships with narcissists or and they wanna explore a little bit of that. So if so please drop me an Email contact at Tonio Rene dot com. I'm the only one that's going to see that Email and trying to gather some data and see what we want to do with that. But there is a huge need there. So it is thanksgiving week in America. And I remember last year, which is so wild to say in the podcast last year. I talked about some fun facts thanksgiving. And now I realize looking at stats here. We are a year later, and this pike assist goes all over the world. So there's there's a cut off at the top fifty countries that each episode gets to and. They're still even more after that. So I'm just I am so grateful for an international audience, but it is thanksgiving week here in America. And last week. I did our last week last year. I did a little bit of fun facts about thanksgiving. So I want to do that again because I'm just thanksgiving's always been kind of a fun one for me personally. My birthday is right around thanksgiving some years at actually falls on thanksgiving. And so growing up it was always have that four day weekend where my birthday was in their thanksgiving was in there. And so that's just it's it's a holiday that. I love it's a holiday where I feel like there's a lot of rest I feel like there's a typically I run some sort of thanksgiving race and eat a lot of food and families around. And it's just a a good experience. I'm looking forward to that. So just a just a few fun facts from thanks to find anything new sixteen twenty one year, the first thing saving celebration and didn't really know this. I always hear about the Turkey. They gets pardoned from the White House nineteen Eighty-nine first year President, George W Bush officially pardoned a Turkey and to Turkey's are sent to the. White House each year. Four US towns are named Turkey. There's a fun fact, and I love this the where I where dug up this data said that thanksgiving ranks second among America's favorite holidays. I can only guess that. The first one is Christmas. I was gonna throw a joke in there. But I mean, I love Christmas too. So I think that that's it. Here's the here's the tough one, though average number of calories consumed on thanksgiving four thousand five hundred four thousand five hundred even even worse is the graphic down below where I'm reading these this data. This is ten hours. Forty one minutes time, it takes the average male the burn forty five hundred calories. But it shows this guy running on a treadmill or it's just a pitcher of that. And I know that's not the as an ultra runner. Part of the thing. I love about to running. Whether you're doing thirty miles fifty miles hundred miles is you really do have to kind of do the science the math and typically you can burn about one hundred one hundred twenty five calories a mile, and you can cover what five six seven miles an hour. Your stomach can sometimes only process about four or five hundred calories of bringing food in. So you're creating this calorie deficit you're trying to balance your electrolytes and your fluids. And so I guess forty five hundred calories the part where I'm not very good math. Okay. That is a long way. Okay. All right. Ten hours forty one minutes. We'll go with that. Because I am thinking then what my run fifty miler burn in one hundred calories a mile. Yeah. Okay. We're gonna have to go on a long run on thanksgiving morning. That's that's a fact forty nine dollars and twelve cents average cost of ten person. Thanksgiving dinner, twenty five percent of Americans this year Santa my skip Turkey and just processing with some clients last couple of days someone that I know is doing talion for thanksgiving another person or they tamales every year. I think that's kind of interesting one hundred thousand plus questions are answered by the Butterball Turkey hotline each November and December so hundred thousand people are just I mean, I don't know what they're saying. Right. Helen, do I cook it, and then the Butterball folks just are they just saying look on the package look on the package second go to line. Seventy percent of Americans say, it's not a proper thanksgiving meal without a Turkey. Seventy two percent of Americans plan to attend thanksgiving dinner with at least five plus people, America's favorite thanksgiving dishes. Number one Turkey number two, my favorite stuffing than pumpkin pie, mashed potato sweet potatoes and cranberry sauce and just a couple of mortar round this up ninety six percent of Americans say they celebrate thanksgiving. That's kind of impressive eighty three percent of thanksgiving hosts prepare the entire feast with no help I was surprised about that. And even more surprised about seven percent of Americans plan to dress up for thanksgiving dinner. I as a pilgrim is Turkey. I'm not really sure I've never actually heard of dressing up for thanksgiving dinner. If I had Turkey costume or pilgrim costume. I don't know if my family listened to my podcast, I'm actually have to do that. And in dress up. So for all of those who are celebrating thanksgiving. I wish you a very happy thanksgiving in on that note a lot of times for thanksgiving people go around to table. There's a tradition that a lot of people do, and they say that there's something say something that you're grateful for and I think a lot about that that concept of gratitude one of the things that some of the homework. I'm not a big homework there. There's a reason why everything I like to do is kind of around the evidence base. There are a lot of folks that aren't going to do homework, then they're going to not want to come back to you because they feel like they're letting therapist down which is beside the point. I mean, you want the person that come in. And if they're not doing the homework, you want them to tell you why why are you doing the homework, and we'll we'll figure that out. But one of the things I found really effective. I really have. And I need to get back to this is at times in my life. But it is before you go to bed right down two or three things that you're grateful for that day try to him unique individual at the end of that day. And this is one of those kind of interesting things, I don't know. 'cause. Effect anecdotal, but there's a little bit of research out there that says people sleep a little bit better. When they in fact, I think we'll get to that today. I think that's what I'm going to go over. But but anyway, a gratitude journal so I was really thinking about gratitude the concept of gratitude. And so I wanted to see, you know, I think it's it's easy to say that that living a life of gratitude being grateful is definitely a good way to live. But what I was digging is is it an evidence is evidence based. Research around being grateful because of course, it's wonderful to be grateful. And but I really just the things that I get to do for in the podcast in my practice emotionally focused their be EFT. Even if it wasn't evidence based it's a nice way to live. It's a great way to live where you're gonna seek I understand before being understood where you are going to double down on empty. You're going to jump in there in the other person's empathy pit and find out what is going on in their world before you before you jump in and say, why didn't you do whatever? Whatever it was. I mean, I gave an example awhile ago, but I had a actual real situation happen. Someone contacted me after the episode. I did on empathy. And they said that there was a situation where they came into a room and their spouse seemed down, and and they had a lot going on in their lives. The this couple did. And so the husband admittedly, had said that he really had expected his wife to take care of a lot of things that day. And so we came in and he remembered the pike as. The stuff that that just it. It just I'm so grateful to be able to share some of these examples, but so we comes in. And he said he was he was mad. He thought oh my gosh. We've talked about how much we have to get done. They just had a lot going on their lives. And he sees his wife just kind of sitting at the table. She's looking at her phone, he's assuming that she scrolling through Instagram, and he was he said he was ready to be just living. And so, but he said he remembers the podcast, and he said, hey, how are you? I mean, you what's going on here? You look like you're you're you're little bit upset and his wife had shared that someone that she was close to it passed away. And she was looking through just hours and hours even looking through pitchers that she had on her phone trying to find some pictures for the memorial service. He went to or he he knelt down on the ground. He wept with her. He hugged her and any sent me an Email, and I'm so grateful for that. So EFT, it's a wonderful way to live to to kind of try to understand what someone else's going through before you say, why didn't you or I can't believe you that sort of thing? Right. So even if it wasn't evidence base. It's a nice way to live. But the thing is it is. Space nurtured heart parenting, building inner wealth within her kids. It's a great way to live. It's a great way for kids to feel like they can turn to us. And know that we're there for them and and doing so again, we lead with empathy where we don't just try to tell them you need to do this. You shouldn't be doing this where we all of the sudden take on the role of the punisher all the time, you know, but but nurtured heart parenting, it's an evidence based method, and it's a great way to live acceptance and commitment therapy. You're not wrong to have the thoughts. You have because they're based on your experiences all the things that you bring to the table. And so when someone tells you you shouldn't think that way, here's what I do that. I mean, again, that's there's an empathy there. There's no understanding no one likes to be should on. Right. Acceptance and commitment therapy, not just a nice way to live. It's an evidence base modality. There is not enough empathy in this world. No, one likes to be should on simply simply telling you what you should do without first hearing what your experiences are what you've already done about something or what is gone into. This is the decisions that you have made ago. Again, not just a nice way to live and evidence based modality. Shame. What is it? Good for. Absolutely nothing. They'll say again, see what I did there. Shame. Not good for anything. Shame does not build character. Shame does not shape. People for good. Shame can be perpetuated by those in authority. Shame has been drilled into million attempt to get somebody to change to someone else's will. But shame does not get you closer to being and being offended feeling. Like, you are in charge of your life is what helps people avoid or even break free from addiction. Anyway, all of these principles that I have embraced had made a large part of my podcast large part of my practice. A part of my life are not only good ways to live. I feel so grateful to be led to these different modalities, but they are evidence based principles with decades and decades of research behind him. And now I have worked in this in this field now for a long time and it worked with thousands of people. And I know that these principles are true. And again, they're evidence based principles when someone else's shooting on you. They're saying, well, here's what I think you should do based on my reality based on my view of the. Not your view the mind anyway, go on but in all evidence based methods that work, and that's my truth, the whole truth and nothing, but my truth. So I so again on that soapbox. Tangent looking at the evidence around gratitude. So I did the episode on. Yes. Lighting last week. And I found myself fired up halfway through because as I laid out what constitutes healthy relationships. And what I see my office to me. Of course, it makes sense to never tell your partner that they are dumb or selfish or they don't get it. Of course, it makes sense to say to somebody that you care about tell me where that comes from tell me more about that too to have more empathy and to be grateful for them to be grateful for your partner. If there's one thing that I would love to challenge people to do this week is the step back and look at your kids. Look at your your spouse, look at your parents, Lear neighbors and just try to step back and understand things from where they're going where they're coming from not just like, what are they doing to you? But, but, you know, no, one wakes up in the in the morning into says, man, how can I ruined? Everybody's day. And if they are that comes from what's what's behind that? What's the trauma? They've been through. What are they experiencing, but just try to have empathy? So there is a wonderful article on Forbes dot com linked to this. But it isn't article that talks about gratitude, and it talks about, you know, so I it's the by woman named Amy Marin she's a therapist and the author of thirteen things mentally strong people don't do. And I wanted to do I want to do a whole podcast episode on that Amy more in his is kind of blown up as the kids say, and she is a very very big deal, but I've reached out to her while ago to get her on the podcast, but the article seven scientifically proven benefits of gratitude that will motivate you to give thanks year round. So I'm not trying to do a here's a New Year's resolution kind of thing. But you can be grateful year round. You can you can, cultivate, as they say. I hear this talk and church off in this attitude of gratitude. So any Marin said it's that time of year where many people begin thinking about everything that they have to be thankful for and although it's nice to count your blessings on thanksgiving being thankful throughout the year. Could have a tremendous benefit on your quality of life. She says in fact, gratitude maybe one of the most overlooked tools that we all have access to everyday cultivating. Gratitude doesn't cost any money, and it certainly doesn't take much time. But the benefits are enormous. And I love how she lays out then research reveals gratitude can have these seven benefits number one. Gratitude opens the door to more relationships. So think about this not only to saying thank you constitute good manners. But showing appreciation can help you win new friends. According to a two thousand fourteen study published in a motion the study found that thinking new acquaintance makes them more likely to seek an ongoing relationship. So whether you think stranger for holding the door or you send a quick thank you note to that co worker helped you with the project acknowledging other people's contributions can lead to new opportunities. And and I'm just a big fan in. General of a lot of people don't get a lot of thank yous throughout the day. A lot of people don't get a lot of smiles throughout the day. And there's a quote. You have to look this up. So I can say it, exactly. But a wonderful quote that talks about moments or the molecules that make up at Terni. And so, you know, I it matters in that very moment. It matters. Whether you you smile at someone here, we go, you know, what I'm going to read this right now. Honestly, goodness. My favorite quote, Neil Maxwell. It's a book called the promise of discipleship. It says though of themselves. Life's defining moments may see minor are wise responses can gradually increase our traction on the demanding path of discipleship. For instance. I love we inside daily earn instant, and seemingly little things whether we respond with a smile instead of a scowl or whether we give warm praise instead of exhibiting ICM difference. Each response matters in small moment after all moments or the molecules that make up attorney effecting, not only ourselves, but others because our conduct even seemingly small things can be contagious. So opening doors saying thank you, sending a thank you note, writing someone take a moment to shoot an Email shoot a text during the season every every week whatever you need to do. But express that that attitude of gratitude being grateful and say thank you again. It's not just good manners. But a study published in emotion shows that it can it can help you with. New acquaintances and makes people more likely to seek ongoing relationship number two love this. Gratitude improves physical health. Grateful people experience fewer eggs and pains, then they report feeling healthier than other people Cording to two thousand twelve study published in personality and individual differences. Not surprisingly. And this is again, according to Marin grateful people are also more likely to take care of their health. They exercise more often or more likely to attend regular checkups with their doctors, which is likely to contribute to further longevity. So gratitude improves your physical health. So we've got two things. Gratitude opens up the door for more relationships in improves your physical health number three. Gratitude improves like a logical health. This is kind of what I was alluding to at the beginning of the podcast gratitude releases a multitude of toxic emotions ranging from MB and resentment of frustration and regret PHD, Robert a Emmons leading gratitude researcher. I love that. There's a field of gratitude research has conducted multiple studies on the link between gratitude and wellbeing and his research confirms at gratitude, effectively increases happiness and reduces depression. So again, gratitude reduces a multitude of toxic emotions, so and I believe that's part of that at the end of every day, the beginning of every every day, take a moment and just in contemplation and prayer and meditation and just think about things that you are great before don't make it just some wrote exercise of grateful for my family grateful for my wife for the weather. You know mean it be present? And think about things right down things that you're grateful for you can do two or three things each day that are different. That's even better number four. Gratitude enhances empathy there, we go, and reduces aggression. Grateful people are more likely to behave in a pro social manner, even when others behave kind according to a two thousand twelve study by the university of Kentucky study participants who ranked higher and gratitude scales were less likely to retaliate against others, even when given negative feedback. They experienced more, sensitivity and empathy toward other people in decreased desire to seek revenge. So for those of you who might feel like empathy doesn't come naturally. Here's where. You begin take a moment at the end of every day and write down things that you are grateful for unique individual personal things that you're grateful for and in doing so that gratitude will enhance your empathy and reduce aggression. So as a matter of fact, they I do work a lot in the world of anger management with with men in particular. And that that makes me think that needs to be homework. The the gratitude piece the gratitude journal it needs to because it's going to enhance empathy number five grateful people sleep better writing in a gratitude journal says it right there writing a gratitude journal improve sleep, according to two thousand eleven study published by applied psychology health and wellbeing. Spend just fifteen minutes jotting down a few grateful sentiments before bed, and you may sleep better and longer. So for those of you those insomniacs instead of firing up another round of tune blast or one of those kind of things spend a little bit time rain down what you're great before. Right down in gratitude journal, number six gratitude improve self esteem two thousand. And fourteen study published in the journal, the plied sports psychology found the gratitude increased athletes self esteem, a love that which is essential. It's an essential component optimal performance. Other. Studies have shown gratitude reduces social comparisons rather than becoming resentful toward people who have more money or better jobs, which is a major factor in reduced self esteem. Grateful people are able to appreciate other people's accomplishments grateful people so gratitude improves self esteem, the more that you can, cultivate, this attitude of gratitude, the more you can be grateful for the things around you. I believe what that alludes to is the more present you can be in part of the whole concept of mindfulness, which I love is. You're being present you're being you're you're being grateful your only in control of your own thoughts and emotions, and so that starts the cause you to feel like I can only do what I can do with me. So I need to, cultivate, this attitude of gratitude toward my fellow players fun story last night. I I my the varsity basketball team that my my son is playing JV basketball. A freshman. I'm so excited for this year waiting for this forever. The varsity playing back to back games. So the the coach brought up a couple of the junior varsity folks to play in a varsity game. So that the varsity guys fresh for tonight. So my son is a plane. A lot score ten points last night. It was it was one of the coolest things ever. But on the way home he told me of how he said everybody. Everybody on varsity team he said is so nice to him. He's and he there so he says they stack so grateful that he's there and that he's part of the team. And I am so grateful as appearance for the way that team is modeling that behavior. And so, you know, one saying this freshman, you know, what's he supposed to hit a couple threes? You had a great move last night and the bench went nuts for him. And it was the it was the greatest thing to see. And so I am grateful as a parent for those people on that team that coach cultivating this attitude of gratitude being grateful just to be playing grateful for each member of the team. So I'm grateful for that number seven last, but not least gratitude and cruise increases mental strength for. Research has shown gratitude not only reduces stress, but it also might play a major role in overcoming trauma, two thousand six study published in behaviour research and therapy found that Vietnam war veterans with higher levels of gratitude. Experience lower rates of post traumatic stress disorder a two thousand three study published in the journal of personality and social psychology founding. Gratitude was a major contributor resilience following the terrorist attacks on September eleventh, recognizing all you have to be thankful for even during the worst time of your life fosters resilience, and I do want to say when I read that one before going back to that. No one wants to be should on people say, you should just be grateful. You should just recognize the things that are good for you. But you know, that that's that's not coming from an empathetic place. This. That's why loved the concept of cultivating in yourself the attitude of gratitude, and it's going to take work. It's going to take practice. It really is. And then guess what? Here's where we go back to all these nice evidence based modalities if your goal is to start to, cultivate, this attitude of gratitude that goal. So if you go a few days, and you forget. To do the gratitude journal, let's jump into the world of acceptance and commitment therapy. What what happens you start to feel bad? It's like, oh my gosh. I can't can't remember to be grateful for things your brain is trying to tell you what what's the story is trying to hook you to trying to the C. Can't even do this. Right. See you aren't very grateful. Here comes shame to come in there. And yeah, you never will be there. And you can't figure this out and what's wrong with you. Here comes addiction saying, hey, we got this. We'll take care of this. No, none of that the evidence base modality of acceptance and commitment therapy says my goal is to, cultivate, the attitude of gratitude. So when I'm starting to have these thoughts emotions perfectly normal because that's that's your own your own private experiences. But but you don't have to fuse or believe that thought if you've used to that thought of c I can't I just can't do anything. Right. I can't even keep a gratitude journal if you've used it at belief, then your then your brains guy, you're hooked. You're you're locked in your cognitively -fused. Now, you you don't have to do the work. You don't have to now tomorrow try again. Right. So so that's so I love it. So even if you start today, even if you don't stop. Today. And you think I'm going to start tomorrow start Monday. And then you don't okay, no guilt or shame just recognize those motions. What's the what's the story? The brains trying to to it's the you never do anything consistently. True false. We're not that's not were debating is. It a workable or productive thought toward the goal of starting this gratitude journal, so so use those acceptance and commitment therapy skills and began cultivating an attitude of gratitude, I can honestly say that this is something I'm going to do. And I will I will have to report back so ENA Marin again psychotherapist author of thirteen things mentally strong people. Do our don't do. She says that we all the ability and opportunity to, cultivate, gratitude simply take a few moments to focus on all that you have rather than complain about all the things that you think that you deserve developing this attitude of gratitude is one of the simplest ways to improve your satisfaction with life. So before this. I just wanna turn right back to that. That that quote this Neil Maxwell quote, and I used to be really excited about this. Because you know, you find quotes or you Google on the internet. Great quotes motivational quotes. Are those sort of things, and this is one of the first time years ago, where I found the quote, I was reading the book I found the quote, and it just it kind of it didn't change my life. But it, really reaffirmed. What I what I really want to to be the kind of person that I wanna be something break this down again Neil Maxwell from the promise of discipleship though of themselves. Life's defining moments may seem minor. Now think about that in life defining moments may seem minor. So the minor the little things that you do can can be life defining. Our wise responses can gradually increase traction on the demanding path of discipleship, for instance, we can decide daily now think about that daily every day. We have this decision. We can decide in an instance daily or even an instant in seemingly little things whether we respond with a smile instead of a scowl or whether we give warm praise instead of exhibiting, icy indifference, I think about that all the time if I'm even walking through the halls here in my office, building going to the restroom or or getting the mail, and I see. I'm going to say Hello. If they are gonna look away not make aren't contact. You know, say it's their unlucky day. I'm saying hi, that's that's you know, that's who. I wanna be because that person might need someone to say hi to them that person might feel like nobody cares about them. They might feel like they are noticed or unseen. And so just some creepy ball guy. I guess sounds a little weird, right? Some creepy ball guy. Go to the bathroom and saying, hey, how you doing? Right. But it's coming from a good place. Maybe I'm not creepy. I mean, my shirt tucked in trying to look nice. But, but that's my truth. Right. I'm gonna respond with a smile instead of a scowl. So then whether we give warm praise instead of exhibiting icy indifference, sometimes when our kids say stuff that we don't it's not important to us in that moment, or we like our problems are bigger than what they're trying to bring to us. Do we give warm praise or do we exhibit icy indifference those moments? That's when you can, cultivate, that attitude of gratitude Turin toward them and exhibit warm praise because here's the key. Each response matters in its small moment. And this is a love this after all moments are the molecules that make up a turn ity, right? Simply stated. Moments. Those are the molecules small building blocks every moment that we live affecting not only ourselves, but others those those small moments our responses, they affect not only ourselves by again, we go back to if we're going out of our way to put out this this attitude of gratitude of of thankfulness of thanksgiving that affects us we just listened seventy seven ways scientific ways that helps us, but it also helps others because our conduct even seemingly small things can be contagious. When I smile and say hi to somebody who knows maybe they turned the corner and smile and say hi to somebody else, or maybe they now all of a sudden they talked to somebody. They wouldn't before. Hey, does that ball guy smile at you in the hallway now now, they they're talking about something, even if it is about Hayes that is at ball creepy. I don't know. But but think about that so going into this thanksgiving season. Does it have to be thing where we just say, hey, we're we're grateful this Thursday for for all the various things in our lives, and we go back to exhibiting. Icy indifference. Doesn't have to be that way. So I would encourage each and every one of you to whether you live in the US or not whether you celebrate thanksgiving. You're not to really be aware try to, cultivate, this attitude of gratitude, and and try to make that a daily part of your life to be able to point out or look for those things that you are grateful for in life. I here's where I feel like almost like a mister Rogers moment, I'm grateful for you wonderful listener, I really am here. Ninety episodes in a year, and however, many months the opportunities that the pike is brought me professionally and just in the friendships, I bathe with guests and people reaching out to me has just been overwhelming. And I'm truly grateful. I am really grateful for those of you who take the time to listen to download here's I really means to be some sort of plug right to go to the virtual couch Instagram page and follow or the Tonio Bayliss as their Facebook page. And like, I really am grateful, and I'm grateful for those. Read the word the feedback. I get daily now are people who say that. They were they were sent my podcast by someone or someone recommended the podcast when they were having a particularly tough time. And because of that, hopefully, they've maybe found some some light at the end of some- sometimes dark tunnels. And so again, I'm grateful for you wonderful listener and so spread the word have a wonderful thanksgiving. And if you're not celebrating thanksgiving have a wonderful week and just go, cultivate that attitude of gratitude, and we'll see next time on the virtual. Things. Exp. Streets.

journal of personality and soc Turkey America US Neil Maxwell Tonio Rene dot com ENA Marin Tony Christine Hammond Sony Instagram writer mister Rogers Terni basketball university of Kentucky
Psychologists confront impossible finding, triggering a revolution in the field

Ideas

54:08 min | 1 year ago

Psychologists confront impossible finding, triggering a revolution in the field

"This is a CBC podcast. Nah I this is ideas. This would be probably most important research paper. I would say ever published in any field if it were true in twenty eleven and American psychologist named Daryl. Bem proved the impossible. Is this really pre cognition that most violates our Newtonian view of how the world works. He proved that pre cognition the ability to sense the future Israel. His study was explosive. This one paper should the very foundations of psychology. I have trouble differentiating. Like what was was not real. What was real. What could I trust the things I was studying with? April psychology is a science but its critics. Say that it's a pseudo science. It's a science but I think it's it's a proto science. It's a science to make the bombshell and its aftermath became known as the replication crisis. Really this problem with the replica. Ability of psychological experiments should have been obvious for decades. Why should we believe anything that gets published? You know it's it's a wonderful question ideas. Contributor Alexander Be Kim Investigates Psychology replication crisis. His documentary is called. Repeat after me to be honest. I've always Kinda thought that psychology is pretty much baloney. I remember my textbook from intro to psych first year. My undergrad psychology. Third Canadian edition by lepton Brennan Boys and Ogden Chapter. One is called. What is psychology? It's a brief history and survey the field. Chapter two begins with a different question. What makes psychology a science? That's weird I thought. My biology textbook isn't trying to justify itself to me. Bias against the soft sciences is a particular brand of elitism weren't proudly by Bachelor of Science Students. Five years ago I was in Neuro Science Major. No one has to ask what makes that a science right. That's what I used to think. Then I met Daryl Bem before Daryl Bem. I thought he couldn't trust psychology. And now after Daryl Bem I worry maybe I can't trust science. I want you to tell me a little bit about about Daryl. Bem can you give me a sense of of? How respected he was how important he was to the field. How prominent the top paper. That comes up when you google search for him in Google. Scholar is a self perception theory in that paper. Has Six thousand citations just to give you a sense. My best paper has five hundred citations. This is Jeff Gallic. He's a professor of marketing at Carnegie Mellon University where he studies and teaches consumer psychology. This person is is influential. I mean he's set the tone for how psychology was practiced. What do you mean? He's at the tone for how psychology is practiced. He was one of the folks who people look to decide. What the right. Research methodology is. He not him alone. He and the cohort of other successful psychologists and researchers. But he was there doing it. And everybody agreed that the methodology that he and everybody else myself included follows is is what's appropriate and I think his paper on cy absolutely mirrored the norms that were were around and still are around a large part in a research methodology psychology so he had a reputation of being have having really good rigorous methodology. I absolutely yes so first thing. Can I get you to introduce yourself so your name and what you do okay My name is Daryl Bem the EM and I'm retired from Cornell University where I was professor of Psychology Since nineteen seventy eight But now I'm retired as a psychologist daryl. Bem studied public opinion and personality. He's best known for a theory that he proposed in nineteen seventy two the idea that when people are unsure about what they're feeling the decide by observing their own behavior and Turpin. Its meaning this is known as the self perception theory of attitude them has taught at Carnegie Mellon University Stanford Harvard and Cornell. He's given expert testimony to the United States. Senate Daryl Bem was a well respected academic and then he became interested in the weird. What is okay? Sigh is the ability to acquire information. In what we call non-local ways that is to be able to pick up information that's just not available to our senses in any other way and there are three major major phenomena that fall under that the first is telepathy the second one is clairvoyance and then the third one and the one which I've specialized is pre cognition which is the ability to anticipate the future in ways that could be done by just infringe inference or other other means of knowing what's going to happen in the future so as a as a scientist as a researcher do you believe in Psi. Yes I believe it because of the laboratory evidence for it as a psychologist I was very skeptical for many years and then when I began to look at the experimental literature I was impressed and then when I actually got involved in doing experiments and publishing them then that set convinced me professor. Bam traces his fascination with the Para psychological back to a childhood gift. He was eight years old when an aunt and uncle gave him his first magic set. By time I was in high school I got interested in an area of magic known as Mental Ism which is essentially fake side Fakey S. P. That's magic tricks designed to look like you can read minds for example and so I actually developed a routine and I was the stage magician doing that kind of thing from high school on through college and Beyond and even did my performances at the end of a semester as a treat to my students in the psychology courses. I was teaching one day. In one thousand nine hundred five bem receives an invitation to a convention from a group called the Para Psychological Association. They are and I'm quoting from their website now. The International Professional Organization of scientists and scholars engaged in the study of Cy or psychic experiences. The parapsychologists ask Bam. Would you come give a presentation not about your influential self perception theory or your research on template matching? We want you to put on a magic show. And they wanted me to do this. Because they want it to be protected against people who show up at their laboratory claiming these bowers and if they were clever enough they might be able to fool one of these researchers and they said they wanted to know from me. `How I did some of the things or at least show them what to watch out for. So I just WanNa just WANNA pause the story a little bit and I wanna ask you at this time do you believe in Esp as well no I? I pretty much held the view of most psychologists and of all academics. The psychologists are the most skeptical so Bam travels to Medford Massachusetts a little city three miles north of Boston home to Tufts University. That's where the parapsychologist gathered Are you looking around this room of people and thinking what a bunch of fools or what are you thinking about the absolutely not absolutely not? They usually come to their views. By looking at rigorous laboratory experiments that are well controlled so I don't believe that at all after the show a man approaches them and introduces himself Charles Honor Tan director of a para psychological research group based in New Jersey. And because I had also had experienced setting up in performing social psychology experiments Invited me to his laboratory to look over to see if if it was possible to cheat in his experiment and so I went there and in preparation for that. I started reading the literature quite quite a bit and that persuaded me. That Gio really looks like something is here and so I went to his laboratory looked it over and decided it looked airtight to me and so I said to him you know the other talent. I have is getting published in mainstream psychological journals. Nice said if you get positive results with these with these experiments I'd be willing to try to get us published. Why did you make that offer? Because I was very impressed by the experimental methodology and thought if he got positive results than that was enough to persuade me. Bem kept up his collaboration with honor ten and eventually they do get published in mainstream journal in one thousand nine hundred four. They write a paper together. That reviews the evidence for telepathy. It was published in the journal Psychological Bulletin. It caused a bit of controversy but it wasn't until two thousand eleven that Bam really set things off that year. Ben Publishes an article in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. This is a top Tier Journal for the field. The title of the paper is feeling the future. Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. I want you to describe one of the experiments that appear in that paper. You give it the title pre cognition detection of Erotic Stimuli. Can you describe this this experiment to me? Yes this is the one that also appeared on the the Colbert report. Have you seen that in his latest? Study Professor Bem paid one hundred college students five dollars each to sit in front of a computer screen which displayed to curtains. They were told an image would appear behind one of the curtains and asked to predict which one is. Just like your grandfather's old game which hand is hiding the quarter. Except in this case GRANDPA GETS TENURE. The participant is told behind. One of the curtains is a picture and behind the other. One is just a blank wall and the and that some of the pictures erotic and the challenge to the participant is to select the curtain. The has the picture behind it. Can I ask really quickly? Why is it important that that that the picture be erotic? Why is it important that it'd be porn? Well you have to ask yourself. Why if cy exists does do. We have that ability to evolution. Why would evolution of favored session ability for two reasons? Says the first is avoiding danger. Call it your spidey sense. The second is your reproductive. Urge your sexy sense. I suppose apparently when it comes to seeing the future we like to watch professor okay if you were doing this experiment. What would your hypothesis be? Assuming that psychic abilities don't exist. You'd expect that participants would correctly predict the location of the picture. Fifty percent of the time on average. And you'd expect the content of the pictures would have no effect on the participants success right. But what if you had time traveling psychic powers will then maybe you could read your own mind in the future somehow tap into that future version of yourself. That already knows what's going to happen. In Our experiment we saw fifty three percent in bams experiment. Participants were able to correctly predict the future location of the erotic pictures fifty three percent of the time. That might sound like no better than chance but it actually is. That three percent difference is a big deal according to professor Bam. It means that somehow information is traveling backwards in time. And that's a statistically significant difference that beats the hypothesis there yes. We can't claim we can't claim it until we've actually done that. There are two there are two numbers. that that are required that in reporting an experiment. You mentioned one statistically significant and we probably probably should tell listeners. What that is that. I all important number. The mentioned is called P. or the P value it's the number that comes out of the statistical tasks that scientists used analyze their data piece stands for probability and it determines whether you're experiment has achieved what's called statistical significance if you can show statistical significance that means. It's unlikely that the results of your experiment are just due to random. Chance a false positive. In psychology the threshold for statistical significance is getting a P value lesser than zero point. Zero five scientists live and die by this number because it means they've found something real a P value smaller than point zero five means there's less than five percent chance that your data is just random noise then and only then you're allowed to say that you found a statistically significant result and publish your findings so that three percent difference the bem found sounds like an insignificant amount but it is significant statistically significant and so had proven that pornographic pre cognition was real. That's right folks. Science has finally discovered tie one more thing this was just one of several experiments in bums paper. And did you have you? Did you have trouble getting this paper published? No it was accepted. The editors did feel it necessary to publish a note along with it saying justifying their accepting of the paper. What did that say? It said that this these are intriguing results but of course we hope that other people will try to replicate them. And that's that's the absolute standard in science. You have to be able to replicate them by other people. The more extraordinary the result the more controversial the result more important it is to have other people. Try IT OUT Yeah this would Be probably the most important research paper I would say ever published in any field if it were true. This is Jeff gallic again psychologist at Carnegie Mellon University. If this paper were true our understanding of the entire world the universe physics psychology for sure would be completely different right. We would no longer see time. As this linear thing that we move through but instead something that can go forwards and backwards and we could reach into the future and pull information from that if it were true and and if is a big part of that statement gallic runs what's called a journal. Club at his university each week researchers will pick a pure review journal article and meet up to discuss the talk about the papers strengths weaknesses and implications after Darryl. Them's feeling the future came out. Everyone wanted to talk about it so this was on our list really quickly to read. We had a discussion and the discussion was mostly positive. And we mostly came out of this. Saying you know were skeptical. Can't believe that this is true. But look like here's the evidence it's an journal it's been refereed and we believe it so there was like twenty people in a room discussing his paper. It's hard to remember maybe around twenty and you and you know I've sat in Journal club before so you kind of her everything you have at the paper and find the any crack that is there And any mostly came away. The paper mostly came away on the paper came away with. We still don't believe it because it was just so incredible and yet we couldn't find any critical flaw at the time. Yeah which was unusual for journal clubs usually attorney clubs as you point out and with US thinking. That papers are terrible. Gallic calls up fellow researcher at UC Berkeley Leif Nelson Nelson. Has His own journal Club at his university. His group talked about feeling the future too but Nelson came out of the discussion on the exact opposite side. And so he and I were chatting and he bet twenty dollars that I said it would replicate and he said there's no frigging way too. That's GonNa Golic and Nelson chose to the original nine experiments to replicate recruit more than three thousand people from the Internet to participate in their replication. Attempt they run the study? Get data analyze it and they check the P values so we had this huge sample of people across a variety of of experiments experimental conditions so laboratory different universities online and so on and across all of those those absolutely no evidence for sign. I really wanted this paper to be true. I thought the world would be just such a more interesting place. If it was such a thing as serious I was you know I bought it. I really did commit twenty dollar button and I lost it using the same methods. The Same Statistical Models Daryl Bem and Jeff gallic canes a completely different results. How does this happen? Some psychologists found answers in another paper published that same year. Darrell Betham's feeling the future. This paper got talked about journal clubs all over the world of psychology. It's title is false. Positive psychology a false positive is when the results of your experiment indicate in effect when there really isn't one in psychology the threshold for statistical significance is point zero five. That's supposed to mean there's only a five percent chance that it's a false positive so that should be the false positive rate across the field five percent or one in twenty but the authors of false positive psychology argue that is actually much higher. They say a motivated. Scientists can find evidence for literally anything without doing anything out of the ordinary without breaking any of the rules of research the culprit they write is a construct. We refer to as researcher degrees of freedom researchers and this includes me and everybody else have the ability to decide on a number of factors that seemingly are inconsequential for finding things like statistical significance. And yet when you look at them in aggregate they have tremendous impact four false positive results in other words. I as a researcher have the luxury to say. Choose between multiple dependent variables. And if I failed to report the fact that I'm doing so I'm inflating the likelihood that when I'm going to report as a false positive. Throughout the scientific process scientists make choices what to manipulate an experiment. What to measure had analyze the data and crucially. How much of this process to report when it's time to write the paper all of these choices affect p values and if you're P value isn't smaller than point. Zero five results are not going to be publishable as a researcher. You have a couple of options you can simply abandoned the study here or you can keep working the data. This is how we get what researchers call peacocking. Yeah right so. P hacking is basically a former of cheating. Chris Chambers is a professor of cognitive neuroscience at Cardiff University in Wales. He's the author of the book. The seven deadly sins of psychology hacking. His way you selectively report and analysis out of many analyses that you ran when it comes to writing up the paper you selectively report the analysis that quote unquote worked. Let's imagine you're conducting an experiment. You want to find out if discounts affect how people behave at all you can eat buffets see find a restaurant that will let you do your experiment. He set it up so that some customers pay eight bucks for their meal while others get to eat for half price in an experiment. Like this you can measure all sorts of things how much people eat. Obviously but you can also record what foods were most preferred. How long it took to finish the meal the number of trips to the buffet table. How folded they fill their play to the order a drink? Let's say we don't find any significant differences there between the diners who paid full price in those who got a discount. We can stop here but without any significant differences in our data. Our study is not going to impress at journals. It's going to be doomed to a file drawer. Well maybe we should break up our data and just keep analyzing what if we look at men versus women eating alone versus eating with group lunch versus dinner. You can keep slicing and dicing the data asking different kinds of questions checking different variables including or excluding different moderating factors. And if you keep looking for significance eventually you will find something. For instance many more in the company of women. Now if you look at all of your evidence the significant stuff and the nonsignificant. Your study is not very convincing but not all of that has to go in the paper. If you selectively report you cherry pick only the significant result. Then it artificially inflates the certainty in finding and makes it seem a lot more convincing than it really is and this helps psychologist publishing journals because Jones want convincing results and say the whole crappy soccer which is kind of goes around around around that all you can eat buffet. Experiment is a real one. It came out of the Food and brand lab at Cornell. University run by psychologists. Brian wants and it. Produced four papers published in peer reviewed journals. Those journals later issued corrections and one paper was fully retracted. Not Very many psychologists or scientists in general had heard of p hacking before the false positive psychology paper came out accepts. That titians statisticians will tell you that they've been warning researchers about hacking forever. It's not easy to know the prevalence of this but evidence suggests it is common in two thousand twelve. A survey of more than two thousand American psychologists found that every single one of them had selectively excluded data at least once and so psychologists started to think a little differently about Daryl. Bam's feeling the future and this is really interesting. Because if a paper like this that's doing everything normally improperly can end up producing a ridiculous conclusion than how many other papers that use those exact same methods that didn't reach ridiculous conclusions. Similarly flawed the American astronomer and author. Carl Sagan wrote that science is like a can on the dark in a demon haunted world. Science is supposed to be the light that leads humanity darkness of ignorance an engine of ceaseless progress towards enlightenment. But does that really has science? Works Daryl bums evidence for ESP was so troubling to psychologists that they were forced to take a much more critical look at their own field. They began to question the standards and methods they had used for decades. This uncertainty has since rippled through other disciplines as well raising some daunting questions about the nature of knowledge itself. You're listening to a documentary called. Repeat after me by ideas. Contributor Alexander Beacon on. Cbc Radio One in Canada across North America on Sirius. Xm In Australia on our end and around the world at CBC DOT CA slash ideas. You can also hear ideas on the CBC. Listen APP or wherever you get your podcasts. I'm GonNa get what's known. As the replication crisis in the field of psychology exploded in twenty eleven after a prominent and highly respected Cornell University psychologist published a paper basically proving the existence of pre cognition the ability to predict the future. The paper was called filling the future shortly. After feeling the future is published. A group called the open. Science collaboration organized a massive replication study. Two hundred and seventy scientists from seventeen countries around the world signed up. They pick one hundred studies published in the year. Two Thousand and eight as their test sample from reputable peer reviewed psychology journals. The plans to repeat all one hundred experiments exactly as described and see what happens. The findings came out in. Twenty fifteen ideas. Contributor Alexander Be. Kim picks up the story from here when the results come out. It's bad news. Only thirty six percent of replication. Were successful a little better than one in three. How can you trust a scientific literature? If only one third of results are reliable and then psychologists began to worry not just about the individual studies but the theories underpinning the field one of the most dramatic aces of theories that faced a brutal death is ego depletion and the idea behind it is that soft controls thought to rely on a limited resource that runs out after us. Michael INS Licht is a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto. And when you use that resource the self-control resource to control impulses or thoughts or behaviors. At one time of the day. You'll have less of that resource to control yourself later on. Maybe you diligently eat healthy foods all day but at night you just can't help yourself from binging on chips resisting temptations or making tough decisions uses up brainpower. The idea became pretty popular. Barack Obama once said that he always wore the same suits to avoid wasting his decision making power on trivial stuff. Insect built his career on ego. Depletion he worked on this theory doing his own experiments for almost a decade but now doubt and uncertainty were growing in the research community a big Meta analysis which is a study of many studies. Came out it said there was no good physical evidence for ego depletion. At first INS LICHT WASN'T CONVINCED TO HIM. It seemed like funny. Math ego depletion had been empirically observed hundreds of times. You can't just make that all disappear but what will really solve this issue is if we have a bunch of people around the world to replicate a paradigm uneager pollution paradigm. The proponents of the theory agree about and then go off. Test it with thousands of people and then we can ascertain to what extent this is valid idea or not. And that's in fact what happened in two thousand sixteen and the results were shocking. The overall Meta analytic effect from the twenty three labs was zero in other words. Finding that Edmund replicated now people say about six hundred times when there was a rigorous pre-registered principled attempt to replicate it. We could not and that was I mean disquieting and it wasn't only ego depletion. All kinds of effects across psychology would not reliably replicate unconscious. Priming stereotype threat. The facial feedback hypothesis tower posing. If you remember that I had trouble differentiating. Like what was really not real. I'd grown up. Scientists believing in the scientific method and the tools that we used and all of a sudden. This one replication. Maybe just question everything. What was real. What could I trust the things I was studying with real? It was as if the ground had shifted. Maybe it was never there in the first place watching this happen changed INS Licht he would never be the same again but to his shock others in his field didn't seem nearly troubled. The senior people of our field. The gatekeepers the caretakers refuge. But people were in charge They were acting as if nothing was amiss. There active this business as usual. Nothing wrong here folks. Keep on moving. Keep on working. And I'm like what up until that point. Being scientists working at the University of Toronto was a joy it was a pleasure drives so much meaning from it. I was one of those weird guys where I told myself. Yeah when I'm sixty five seventy I'M NOT GONNA retire. I want to retire. This is this fun after this Maybe walking away from this isn't such a bad idea. You know I'm not just doing this for for for myself. I'm not just doing this because I think it's fun. I'm doing this because I think it's important. I'm I'm doing this because I think a science. You know advance. Knowledge Knowledge is important so the fact that you know it's been revealed that all this could have been for naught is distressing. If you're not bothered by then I'm much what's wrong with you? You know. For many scientists their work will be overturned or or become relevant. Or you know get updated and whatever but it usually doesn't happen in your lifetime in for pull generations of psychologist is happening right now. I feel like whenever this comes up. I just sound super idealistic because I just really WanNa try to take the ego out of science and of course as a social psychologist. I know that's not possible to mean vizier. Is a professor of psychology at UC Davis where she studies personality. Sure it's human to have that temptation and so on but we really are like making a deal when we become scientists to deal with society that we get all this all this status and a beauty. Nice lifestyle if we make it. You know far enough and in exchange for that we really are supposed to try to go side but our financial self interests and other kinds of self interest aside and you know most of the Saul self interested in. This comes not so much from wanting to be famous or sell books but from wanting to help the world and really wanting year theory to be the one that helps the world and we need to remember that no like if it turns out. My theory is wrong or my intervention doesn't work or whatever it's better for the world to know that it's better for the cause that I care about to know that. How do we get so disconnected from from those values? That's a question for sociologist. I think I don't really know I mean it but we get it from all sides right. Nobody is telling us to eat to have integrity all the all the pressures and all the cues were getting are telling us to get more grants to Bush. High impact journals to promote ourselves. I mean it's unbelievable. Really how many different Authority figures are encouraging us to do that as scientists and and punishing us. If we don't do it there's a big grant that the many of us gets From the granting bodies the Canada Foundation Innovation and literally in this grant they stress over and over again innovative groundbreaking state of the art. And it's almost like a parody caricature bad incentives. And you're writing your own research in these grandiose way as if you're going to solve all the world's problems charts from from from granting from granting agencies but then it's also there in your university administrators valuing this because they want grants and then the journals themselves basic science is not always about chasing the new. It's not always about chasing something. That's you know groundbreaking. It's about building a house. And if the foundations of the house are rotten if from the beginning a discipline was was built on on shoddy foundations. The entire enterprise can fall. And that's what's happening here like reading and hearing about all these problems in In how we try and figure out what's real. It really makes one kind of skeptical of what of what is out there like user. Why should we believe anything that gets published? You know it's it's a wonderful question psychologist. Jeff gallic you'd like to think that we have the ability to have some differentiation between what's real and what's not. It's imperfect we used to think it was perfect. Unfortunately what that means is that that gold standard of it's been published therefore it must be true just does not apply when I first started to learn about the replication crisis. I was reminded of my days as a neuroscience student back then I was so convinced in the supremacy of the so-called hard sciences. Me and my friends didn't make up stuff like the social science kids did we. Couldn't we did dissections? We measured proteins. We did electro physiological recordings. That stuff is real if I talked to them an INS Licht all the way back then I think I could have waived this all away. The replication crisis was something that happened to fake scientists. Now Real ones but now I'm not so sure. Psychology is a science but critics sometimes say that it's a pseudoscience which I think is very harsh and uncalled-for it's a it's a science but I think it's it's a pro science. It's a science in the making. Is Psychology Special? Like isn't a uniquely messed up field? I actually don't think psychology is special. I don't think it's specially affected compared to other social life sciences. I think We're simply aware of these problems. More perhaps than other disciplines are working on. This story brought back a lot of memories for me of things. I've seen before things I've done laboratories things I was taught as the scientists in training. I remember being in the lab struggling to replicate someone else's results and trying to figure out. Why the Hell my mice weren't behaving like they were supposed to. I remember learning how to play with data analyzing it every which way I could think of until it gave me something statistically significant today I would call that Peac but it was taught to me as normal scientific practice to find the story hiding in the data. I remember my supervisor. Stressed out over a grant application that needed to be successful. I remember days when the whole lab stopped working on their own projects and jammed through one experiment together because to write that grant. We needed that data and remember if there was a certain kind of result that we were looking for like searching for a puzzle piece that would fit perfectly into the full in our story why couldn't replication crisis happened in field like medicine or neuroscience or cell biology. I looked into it. And they're actually is evidence that the hard sciences may not be so hard. The pharmaceutical company Bayer attempted to replicate sixty seven results from oncology women's health and cardiovascular research. They were only able to replicate about one third. The Biotechnology Company Amgen tried to replicate fifty three influential studies in cancer research and they were only able to replicate six. That's an eleven percent. Success rate in a recent Meta analysis findings published in some of the most prestigious neuroscience journals concluded that around fifty percent of published findings. Maybe false positives. What science can we trust? How do we know what scientists true and did no one see this coming? Really? This problem with the replica. Ability of psychological experiments of the experiments in various eldest sciences should have been obvious for decades and the reason. It should have been obvious for. Decades is very simple because physics has acted as an experimental laboratory for all sciences. Harry Collins is a sociologist of science at Cardiff University. Well sociologists scientific knowledge would be more accurate that means somebody who studies the white people. Decide that some things are true and something gone true. Since the Nineteen Seventies Collins has written about replication in gravitational wave physics and what physics found out over a period of decades is that the statistical criteria. They started with weren't good enough so in the nineteen sixties. If you wanted to publish a paper in physics that said you'd found this might discovery you had to justify that paper at what's called the three sigma level all the three standard deviation level. The Bar for statistical significance was always higher in physics that psychology psychology uses zero point zero five one chance in twenty this is also called two sigma in physics the standard used to be three sigma and that means one chance in about three hundred seventy but physicists learned that even their standard wasn't really reliable so they raise it to five sigma which is one chance in three and a half million of it being due to John's now physics is I think the only signs that has five sigma as expanded a nearly all the rest of the sci. He's only have two sigma. I'm what we know now. I'm in physics would just laugh at two. Sigma you're not going to get up to physics level of reliability unless you get up to five sigma and there's not a hope in hell that psychology or medicine or any of those other sons will ever get up to five six. Does that mean that psychology is is doomed to irrelevance? Well I don't think he did. I know so really you. If you want a sort of reliability that you're GONNA get out of that you get from physics and remember physically self is not that reliable you could find no Sosa Five Sigma results in Physics. No all but a few five sigma results in physics. Turn out to be wrong now. This is Sorry this is having the opposite effect that I was hoping it seems like you're saying that not only should we worry about the two sigma level? But we should be skeptical of the five Sigma Level and and statistical knowledge. In general like how how do we how do we? What are we know what's true then? Well first of all if you just relying on statistics alone and statistical inference load. You should be a little bit worried even about the five sigma level. But there's a much better solution to this whole business and the much better solution is not to rely. Solely on statistical inference Collins says the too often scientists treat statistics as they stand on their own statistical significance proves the validity of the result instead he says scientists need to rely more on what he calls tangible experiments in a tangible experiment the process or mechanism being investigated should be observable or demonstrable in some way statistics become a supporting plank of the overall finding not the end. All be all so you know. People say that we are living in an era of Of Post Truth Alternative facts and and a rejection of expertise And that all sounds quite bad but You know having taken this tour through psychology replication crisis in seeing kind of how How structural problems can be invisible to experts themselves for so long? It kind of feels like maybe really. We really ought to be skeptical of expertise. What do you think that no? I think it's absolutely the wrong conclusion to draw. Science isn't perfect and science has never been perfect. We have to accept what sciences is a craft activity unlike any other KROFT activity. It's imperfect fortunately science is generally done with integrity. So you've got a choice where you take your advice from the powerful celebrities. People who have political interest in promulgating false truth. Aw people who are skilled crofts person who work with integrity if the experts are going to have the kind of respect collins talks about. I think they're going to have to earn it. And perhaps ironically it's the psychologists the researchers I once thought were the least rigorous leading this movement. Michael INS Licht from the University of Toronto is one of them. We need to value reputations. We need to publish them. We need to maybe not published studies before they've been replicated at least once exactly. We need to publish our failures. We study ideas that are risky so and we test them in risky is by definition. Fail are wrong sometimes or often so we to publish those failures. Then we can determine how much support idea has relative to all the time it's been tested and we don't see the successes since two thousand eleven psychology has changed for example is becoming more common. This is when researchers right up. How they're going to do their study. What their hypotheses are and how they intend to analyze the data before doing the experiment this helps prevent researchers from hacking the can't fiddle with the data looking for a positive result until they find one more than two hundred scientific journals both inside and outside psychology now publish registered reports. This is when journal decide whether to accept or reject submitted studies before the experiments have even been performed so the decision is based on the proposed methodology. And not how exciting the results are. But only time will tell how replicable and robust our future literature will be so. I am hopeful by still think we need to reckon further with our past and we need to have some full-scale changes even the way freight for example way. The Canadian government doors grants the Canadian. Government doesn't prioritize replication right. It's not baked into every single grant and it should be the reformers of psychology. Still have a lot to do but many have taken up the challenge. Discussions of replication and reliability among researchers have exploded online. There's these huge. Facebook groups were psychologists are always posting. And there's a big community on twitter to researchers formed organizations like the Center for open science in the Society for the improvement of psychological science. I wanted to see that in action. I wanted to know what it's like when a bunch of psychologists get in a room and try to fix science so I went to Portland Oregon to attend a meeting of the society by what appeared today. The Society for the improvement of psychological science is hosting a hacker thon psychologists from all over have assembled to try and figure out a new standard for research. The focus of this meeting is pre registration. Get there needs to be maybe something earlier on in the premium other things that you'd revised other theories. Okay there's around fifty people in the room. They split off into groups and pick different challenges to tackle. What should the standards for pre be? What would encourage more research to do it? Which is the form of but if the point is to combat publication bias. Then do we want to require. People's liberation of a theory versus falsifying a theory and I think that's a really good distinction last trivia collected questions. I'm trying to figure out how to feel about this like the people in this room. Are They GonNa save science or like what? I thought you should feel right Alexa toll. It is a social psychologist at the University of Alabama and a founding member of society. I guess maybe your question could be like. Should I be feeling pessimistic optimistic? I feel pretty optimistic. Most of the time I optimistic but that's a personality psychologist. Allison Ledger would from. Uc Davis language. To if it's an opportunity and paying attention to these problems is what creates the opportunity. So sometimes I look at like the areas of developmental psychology and neuro and other disciplines outside of psychology political science. That aren't yet kind of seeing the problems and I think like I sure. Hope they don't miss the opportunity because Uh back in twenty years oops we could have improved back about. And we didn't like I'm pretty confident that things are changing. And that people are gonNA adopt a lot of these practices vizier from UC Davis. Also a founding member of the society. But I think what's really important you guys on a near talk which is not just going through the motions but understanding why. You're doing it to something. I'm afraid of is that we'll win. On a superficial level when quotes. We'll get change at the behavioral level. But not the hearts and minds. I think that would be terrible because then set of rules right actually. We're trying to go back to the way that people's hearts and minds start when they go into psychology or at least. That's what I seem to see you when I like deal with First Year. Undergraduate students right. Yeah so like I think people come into science thinking like this is going to be something where like you know. It's a really open process. We're going to be really like our priority is going to be the truth. And we're we're not going to be motivated to find something cool. We really care about how things really work. And it's going to be collaborative in cumulative. I think the goal is to try to change the systems as much as possible to allow somebody to have that idealistic mindset about science and also can be successful. All right I don't know Carl Sagan said Science is a candle in the dark. Another rider said science is a cemetery of dead ideas. We don't yet know if any of the changes that psychologists are making to their science will really improve its reliability as Michael Says. Only time will tell. I don't know the future. I don't know if it's fair to say that none of this would have happened without daryl bem but I think psychology maybe all of Science Os Bem debt of gratitude for being the impetus for change. Some even believe that this was his plan all along when possibility assist. I'm just a fraud after all. I am a magician right and and the rumor was going around. That actually what I was doing was. I'm trying to play a fraud on the whole of Psychology. By showing how stupid they are with their methods by getting them to accept these these experiments that are just fraudulent so high. Needless to say I don't believe that kind of the epilogue to this paper that you published into eleven. Yeah you have a passage in there from from the adventures of Alice in Wonderland and Basically what's happening is Alice is talking to the White Queen. And she says she says this line that you know one just can't believe impossible things and you remember what what the White Queen says in response. Oh yes my dear. You just haven't practiced enough. Why often believe at least six impossible things before breakfast You're listening to repeat after me by ideas. Contributor Alexander became of cited podcast. Thanks to Samphan for his help with production Sam also wrote and performed the music in this episode. Thank you Dr Ed Crock. For help with statistics. Dr Candice Collison for help with philosophy of Science Tom. Low for recording Professor Collins in Wales Partridge for booking professor Ben and cited media productions for supporting the making of today's show technical production. Danielle do val web producer. Lisa I you so senior producer. Nikola Luxury Greg. Kelly is the executive producer of ideas. And I'm now liat for more. Cbc PODCASTS GO TO CBC DOT CA slash podcasts.

Professor Bem researcher professor Alexander Beacon professor of Psychology Professor Collins Daryl Journal of Personality and Soc Bam Carnegie Mellon University Cornell University Carl Sagan United States University of Toronto Jeff gallic Google UC Davis Michael INS Licht
233 - Awe: The Most Incredible Emotion and Its Spectacular Effects

The Savvy Psychologist's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Mental Health

14:20 min | 2 years ago

233 - Awe: The Most Incredible Emotion and Its Spectacular Effects

"I look back. It's savvy psychologist, I'm Dr Ellen Hendrickson. And I'll help you meet life's challenges with evidence based research a sympathetic ear and zero judgment this week. Let's start with a question. What the standing on the edge of the Grand Canyon looking up at the Sistine Chapel and Caitlyn Ohata. She's perfect ten viral gymnastics floor routine have in common. Well, they might bring a tear to your eye without knowing exactly why in their own way, they are each entrancing and sublime, and they all leave you saying, wow. A telltale sign of a little known emotion called off. Now all doesn't have to be rare. The birth of a child is a great example of something that happens worldwide two hundred and fifty times a minute but still inspires. Aw. Neither does all have to be sparked by the natural world man made structures like the Taj Mahal. All Saint Peter's basilica and the great wall of China all also inspire awe and odd doesn't even have to come from something physical virtuous performance amazing athletic achievement. And of course, religious, and spiritual experiences can all be awesome. But no matter where it comes from all is a mysterious. Can't quite put your finger on it emotion. It's more complex than the peanut butter and jelly of sad. Mad and glad and if all were a pizza, it would be loaded with a lot of very different toppings, including morality, spirituality, and aesthetics. But even if all is hard to describe like jazz, you know, it when you experience it, and when all is particularly strong. We are humbled by its presence and feel graced or fortunate all is transcendent shifting your attention away from yourself and making you feel part of something larger humanity the earth the universe or a higher power now in the journal, ignition and emotion psychologists doctors decker Kellner, and Jonathan hate took a stab at describing the two fundamental components of off now one of the requirements was perceived vast nece. And here vast nece might refer to physical size like the Himalayas or the Montana sky. But it could also be vast prestige or power the Oval Office. For example, though, technically just a room is way more vast than its physical dimensions. Finally, vast nece could also refer to a force like a holy presence or the human spirit. Next. The second component was a need for accommodation defined as an inability to process, for example, the scale of the galaxy the complexity of string theory or the presence of a powerful individual using one's current mental frameworks it's being unable to make sense of something. And therefore needing to expand your concept of what's possible real or happening in order to take in the experience in short. It's your brain sane does not compute when faced with the virtuosity of humans nature or spirituality, which kick starts a change in. How you think about the world? Now, the researchers also pointed out that all can have different flavors just like frustration and irritability are very on anger all can take very different forms as well. For instance, sensing the presence of God in worship or contemplation can be off. But so can the feeling of insignificance when gazing through a telescope at the rings of Saturn now, a distinctly more terrestrial flavor off can also be triggered by celebrity that makes onlookers gape fawn and act deferentially imagine you find yourself sitting next to your favorite movie star or sports hero on a plane and hopefully won't unload on them like Liz, lemon did to Oprah. Hi, I'm Liz lemon. I lost my virginity at twenty five, but the resulting sense of being tongue-tied overwhelmed. And yes awestruck is a definite flavor of off. In fact, some scholars think odd developed throughout evolution to prompt reverence and devotion to group leaders which in turn. Prompted social cohesion. Okay. On a related note. Just as something can be awesome. Something else. Maybe awful in the natural world alarming events, like a window rattling thunderstorm or the eruption of volcano can trigger off. Tinged with fear. Charismatic leaders like Gandhi and Mandela may have inspired others to transcend the self and feel connected to a larger mission. But so did leaders like Hitler and bin Laden. So how exactly does this powerful emotion? Change us. What marks are left by perceived fastness and a need for accommodation. Well this week. We'll take a look at four effects of beholding, both the awesome and the awful effect number one is all makes us feel small. So in a really creative study researchers approached over a thousand tourists at Yosemite national park, arguably one of the most all inspiring places in the world. And at fisherman's wharf, a popular waterfront tourist attraction in San Francisco, and among other tasks participants were asked to draw a picture of themselves on a piece of paper preprinted with a son and grass for scale and to sign the picture with the word me, so participants at Yosemite drew themselves almost one third smaller than those at fisherman's Warf. And in addition the me signature is of participants immersed in the grander of Yosemite or significantly smaller than those signed in the bustle of the city. So all researchers link these affects to something called the small self all makes you feel smaller not in a shameful way. But in a humble way, it's the sense of insignificance, we feel when looking up at the night sky or watching an I max flyover of an East African wildebeest bike ration- all diminishes are normally big human egos and connects us to something. Roger Moore of the awesome. And the awful after the break. Today's episode is sponsored by blinking. I the only app that condenses thousands of nonfiction books into the best key takeaways and need to know information. So you can read or listen to them in just fifteen minutes, the library is massive and constantly growing with titles, including self help business, health and history and titles. I'm excited to read like start with why by Simon Sinek and classics like how to stop worrying and start living by Dale Carnegie Pelinka's makes it easy to get the key essentials from book during a short commute, a workout or while cooking cleaning, so join the eight million people who are using it right now. And for a limited time blinking has a special offer. Just for you. Go to blink dot com slash savvy to start your free seven-day trial. That's blinking. I e L I N K. I S T blinks dot com slash savvy to start. Your seven-day trial, Blancas dot com slash savvy. If you're like a lot of people, you might feel out of your depth when it comes to life insurance. But whether you're an insurance expert or a newbie, you can find coverage with policy genius the easy way to get life insurance policy. Genius lets you compare quotes from top insurers, get advice and get covered. It takes. Just a few minutes to apply online and the advisors at policy genius handle all the red tape. There are no fees and no commission sales agents just great customer service, and I appreciate policy genius because you can talk to an actual person. If you need help. There are no AI boughts, no robocalls and no sales pitches. Just real human help from start to finish. So no matter how much you know, about life insurance, find the right policy in minutes at policy genius dot com. That's policy genius the easy way to compare and buy life insurance. Now back to the show effect. Number two, all is linked to being a nicer person, the university of California, Berkeley campus happens to be home of the tallest stand of hardwood. Trees in North America. A group of Tasmanian eucalyptus trees, some of which are over two hundred feet tall. So researchers at the university took advantage of this to study the effects of off and INA study in the prestigious journal of personality and social psychology. Participants were instructed to meet a researcher either at the eucalyptus trees or at an equally tall building on campus. And each participant was asked to spend one minute gazing up at either the canopy of trees or at the building. So afterwards to measure helpfulness the researcher approached an accidental on purpose spilled a box of eleven pens. Now, each participant score was the number of pens. They helped pick up next the particip-. Unz filled out a questionnaire that measured entitlement, and they got a chance to tell the researchers how much from one to ten dollars. They thought they should be paid for the experiment. Okay. So what to make of all these spilled, pens and dollar amounts? Well, those who gazed up at the trees and experienced a sense of even if only for a minute or more helpful less entitled and demanded less money than those who gave up at the building. So here again, we see the small self. But this time it's linked to be helpful modest and humble the thought is that all and humility are intertwined because they both help us understand our place in the world. Affect number three. All expands. Your worldview now in another creative study out of AirAsia state university two hundred forty participants were divided into three groups the first group watched a four minute video designed to elicit off. So specifically the video moved downward and scale from the outer edges of the universe and then to earth and finally down to subatomic particles by contrast in order to elicit a pleasant emotion. The second group watched a feel-good video of figure skater Sarah Hughes winning gold at the two thousand two Olympics. Then a third and final group watched a neutral video on how to build a wall out of cinder blocks. Okay. Next, everyone listened to a five minute stories about a couple going out on a dinner date and answered questions about the details of the story. But here's the twist some of the questions were consistent with atypical dinner date. Like did the waiter poor the couple wine? But we're not part of the story. The participants had actually heard so it turns out that the participants who had watched the all inducing video were better able to identify the actual details of the story rather than relying on internalize scripts of how things typically go. So in other words, compared to those who watch the happy or neutral video those who experienced were able to see things as they were rather than how the expected them to be. So in short all expands and changes how we see the world rather than allowing us to sleep walk through business as usual. And finally affect number four all is linked to decrease inflammation. So a study in the journal emotion examined seven different types of positive emotions amusement compassion, contentment joy love pride. And of course, out of all seven only off went along with lower levels of a marker of inflammation called interleukin six or l six which has been linked to diseases as diverse as rheumatoid arthritis. Lupus and diabetes. Now, why on earth might standing on a mountain top connect with our levels of inflammation. Well, one hypothesis is that pro inflammatory cytokines, like six lead to physical and social withdrawal crawling up in your den and resting speeds recovery from illness or injury more quickly than pushing through. But by contrast off triggers the opposite and urge to explore and experience more. Therefore, it's. Clear whether all reduces inflammation, or reduced inflammation makes us seek out. But either way the to seem to be linked. All right to wrap it all up on not only feels good, but the cutting edge of research is leaning towards it being good for us as well. So next time you lie on your back in a field and look up at a clear night sky survey, the twinkling lights of Paris from atop the Eiffel tower or rewatch Whitney Houston's legendary nineteen Ninety-one Super Bowl star spangled banner. You can say with perfect accuracy. That was awesome. Thank you so much for making sevi- psychologist a part of your life new for twenty nineteen. Give us a call at the savvy psychologist voicemail line at eight five seven five two nine five. Six five. You can request an episode topic leave a comment or just tell us why you love the show. Give us a call. You could hear your voice on a future episode or not totally up to you. That's eight five seven five two nine five six five. Savvy psychologist is audio engineered by Steve rookie Burg and edited by beyond San Torah as always savvy psychologist is strictly for informational purposes and dozen substitute for mental health care from a licensed professional. Thank you from the bottom of my heart for listening, and I'll see you next week for a happier, healthier mind.

researcher Yosemite health and history Taj Mahal journal of personality and soc China Dr Ellen Hendrickson Sistine Chapel Liz lemon Saint Peter's basilica Grand Canyon Himalayas Caitlyn Ohata Roger Moore Simon Sinek Lupus San Francisco Yosemite national park
03 June, 2020  Episode 776  Its Time For A Change

This Week in Science

1:40:12 hr | 1 year ago

03 June, 2020 Episode 776 Its Time For A Change

"This. Is twiss. This can science episode number seven, hundred, seventy, six recorded on Wednesday June, third, twenty twenty. It's time for a change I'm Dr Kiki and tonight on this weekend science we will fill your head with Fox, life, brain, disease, and misery, but first thanks to the burroughs wellcome fund, and our patriots sponsors for their generous support of twists. You can become a part of the Patriot community at Patriot Dot. com slash this week in science. First claimer disclaimer disclaimer. The looting has got to stop no excuse for it. The opportunistic nature of the looters should be met with force military, if necessary I speak of course about the last round of tax cuts for the already rich, which amounted to two point three trillion dollars. In looting from the federal government, adding trillions to our national debt and giving us nothing in return. What else would two point? Three trillion dollars paid for two hundred ninety five years of the National Science Foundation's budget. Or. The elimination of all current student debt in the United States plus a hundred two years of the National Science, Foundation's budget. Or enough to triple the federal spending on public schools, every single one of them. When we see looting, we react as we should. It is wrong and something should be done about it, but let us be clear eyed when we call for force to resolve it, but as add up the actual cost count the ways in which those dollars have been taken from us and let us direct our outrage. where it is most deserved, which is anywhere, but this we can science coming up next. Got Kind of mine I can't. I WANNA. Learn everything. Up with new discover happen every day. There's leave one place in. The violent knowledge ED. And! And the good science to you to Justin Blair and everyone out there welcome to another episode of this week in science, we are back again with all the wild things happening around the United States and around the world even within the last week months. It's been a crazy ride, but we're here to talk about science and today we have a bunch of fun science to talk to you about I've got stories about the pre mentioned Fox's and their lives I also have some psychology for you related to protests and I've got a link for you. We will share on our website later on related to black scientists and science in general and I've got Geo Engineering Problems Justin. What did you bring? Interesting. Okay what did I bring I. Let's see I've got hemorrhaging brain great. I've got triple negative breast cancer. A Dead Sea Scroll. Puzzle varied Nice. We like puzzles. That's what everyone's been doing during conveyed out of them so. There's a new one out. One player wouldn't see my thousand pieces. Cheese not in challenge at all in done by tomorrow, and they don't necessarily go together, not fun. Right Blair. What's in the Animal Corner? I Have Royal Jelly I have a story about how misery loves company, and I have your dog to the rescue. Thank you very much. We could go on with the show. How can we make things better? There's a lot going on right now. That needs to change. There are some organizations that are working toward that change. One in particular is campaign zero. You can find them at join campaign zero dot Org. It's a group of people who are working to have zero deaths from police violence moving forward. You can also find information on the methods that they suggest for police. For police forces around the country to adopt in order to reach that goal, and they have another website called eight can't wait. That's eight can't wait dot org, so if you're interested in these things I recommend, you check them out because it's a way that we can move forward and really see some change, and this is data backed practice. And I'll say I looked at eight can't wait dot org when you sent it. Kiki and I am not done with my own education. Let me tell you because I clicked on that link. I saw the eight ways that we are just you know that could help. Reduce that number that terrible number and I saw the list I thought. That I would assume that that was all currently happening everywhere, and it is not and yeah, that was. Earth shattering for me and devastating and I I'm very privileged that I didn't know that because. I haven't been faced with any of those problems before, but. Yeah. It's a good reminder that we all have a lot of educating to do. Yet there is a lot of a lot of work that needs to be done. There is something rotten in the state of Denmark for Schmo actually does quite lovely. It's United States that is mastering pool at the moment of the worst. Pandemic and and yeah, and we're getting mocked course by Iran and China for our civil rights act like that's also ridiculous. Hard, doing not quite sure how to get that done, but it seems like. It's I mean. Disruption is the way to get big change so i. get it as Obama said today in his his web stream It's not jest, protest or voting. It's protest and voting. You protests to get people's attention, and then you to make change, and that's what bird, so actually think that the community that we sh- that should possibly be focused on Moore is outreach to police departments to be vocal, not to be really vocal about when they see other police departments doing things like this because it. Does affect their ability. To to. Have that connection to their community and. Peacefully. I feel like there's maybe something that the Union doesn't allow people to speak out against other people in the same union somewhere else, but if that's the case that needs to change we need. We need members of the police community. Do What's that police? Themselves yes, not you really been more vocal and I think that's part of the problem. There hasn't been that loud voice from police departments across this country, saying how much they condemn things that they see on other police, departments, or specific activities or pointing out police in saying that is not something that follows the ethic of policing in America it. That's that's really what needs to be out of the conversation and the fact that it's missing is part of the problem. So as we jump into the show here to talk about the science, I do want to remind you that subscribing to the twist podcast is how you can get us in your ears every single week you can subscribe to us on Youtube and facebook. Look for this weekend. Science in those places and on any podcast directory you can find our website at twists dot org. That's T. W. I s. that go are Chee. All, right, so let's talk about some. I've got a story about protests and psychology, so there is a recent study out looking into the psychology of how people are influenced by extreme actions during protests, so actions such as blocking traffic or breaking windows, things that the to maybe that lead to more violence or that include more violence or guess, affect the flow of people's lives who are not involved in the protests. This is published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The author on the study said that he's interested in social change and progress and was curious. What social movement strategies might be most effective at influencing popular opinion. They did six different experiments with three thousand, three, hundred ninety nine participants. And looks at how different types of protests and behaviors influenced support for progressive. Causes Conservative causes black lives. Matter, antiabortion it movement. They found a whole bunch of stuff things like blocking traffic, inflammatory words and vandalism. Consistently reduced popular support for social movements now this study was performed well before the extent of what we're experiencing right now. Where so many people are disenfranchised at the moment, so many people are responding to inequalities, injustices, racism and So I. Don't know how well this particular experiment particular. Lee applies to what we're seeing right here and now today, but looking online on social media. It's you know you see people. Start to turn away from the protests and turn away from supporting the protests as vandalism takes place as violence takes place whether or not it's instigated by the police or the protesters. And obviously it's usually somewhat separate like there's usually a protest. And then opportunistically Baz. The police are focused on the protest. There is a looting going on elsewhere or it's happening after the protests is ended, but there's still a large crowd. So you know it. And it's. I think this might be different. Because what hearing what I'm reading between the lines, there is that people might get frustrated with protests if it. I'm not trying to make trivial, but if it kind of it, inconveniences them right I think about like breaking like messing traffic. So right now. All of our lives are inconvenienced to a crazy degree because of shelter in place, and all this pandemic stuff going on. Yeah, so you know weird way. The response to this might be weighed different. Yeah, because who cares you. Block the freeway anywhere to go. Nobody's going anywhere anyway not to mention we are all. Consuming Media! And To a crazy degree right now, which? Gives an opportunity to have more of a constant dialogue as to the reasoning behind the protest, it might not have happened before people are less distracted by other daily things that aren't happening as much. Yeah, so anyway. The researchers go on to say activists outraged by the status quo, and or believing that change is largely impossible may engage in extreme protest actions as a form of self expression, or even Catharsis without any strategic calculations about the effects such behavior. We'll have in the long run similarly, even if movement plans not to engage in extreme behaviors, a small number of dissidents in the group may incite extreme actions in others, so there is a bit of a dilemma there. and. It is something to be taken into account but yeah, we may be in a different kind of situation in the current time period. There's also a tremendous amount of propaganda going on around us i. mean the idea that it seems see. The parallel world where all of the protesters are demolishing the city, and it is specifically them okay. What are they doing it for? Then civil rights okay. What are other ways that cities get? Rioting and looting takes place we're in the the hockey team wins or loses the big game, yeah? Might Ranvir loses the big game when your football team won the Super Bowl you flipped over cop cars and set them on fire. Stop with the double standard first of all. Natural nobody called the national. Guard then. No, absolutely not. Why probably? A lot of white faces on the streets. That's why so let's not. Let's not have that standard. Also acne. We're talking about ANTIFA. Who's who was killed? No one if you're against antifascists. Wait till you experience actual fascists and then tell me your. Anti Fascist like I feel like we're in a sea of ignorance and having just the basic conversation sometimes about what's taking place in our time and I was starting to. Calais Put a cap on. Okay. But I absolutely agree with your point Yeah, yes, we need to get people talking to each other. That's what we do, and and there is also the point at which there are difficult conversations that we need to have we. Maybe some people need to be inconvenienced to see what's happening in the world around them, so there is there is awareness and there's a way to bring awareness. But okay moving on more science. Let's see if I could have one more second because you. Got, what you said. I've you remember the the Rodney King Protests? Yes. No, you don't. No, you don't remember the protests. You remember the rioting and remember the writing that caught fire to the city and made the department absolutely yet redefine itself. You do not remember the protests because they went noticed, so do your point Kiki. Sometimes happy to grab attention, not just not just have a slogan and walk into start so. Yeah? Myself! You know I'm going to bring you to another study. That might get Justin. Talking a this one is related to the Russian. Fox experiment that he's talked about many times the Siberian Fox experiment, however that experiment is a experience, a lab experiment. These Fox's were put into caged kenold. Situations, they were domesticated in these. Fox's were taken in and domesticated, and the researchers have been watching to see what kind of changes occur to the Fox's. They've seen a shortening of the muzzle broadening of the head. They've seen changes in the for. They've seen changes in the behavior of the animals as well and so these are all adaptations that have been. Taken to imply that there that there is a domestication affect on animals potentially were even domesticating ourselves as some other studies have gone on to say. But a natural experiment has taken place in which researchers in Glasgow realized there were a bunch of Fox's coming into the urban areas of the city, and not necessarily being domesticated, but living within the urban environment, and they wanted to know if there was a change. Between an actual physical change between the urban living, Fox's and their rural counterparts. So! There were a bunch of Fox skulls skulls that had been collected in Scotland because these Fox's are just kind of living there. They had fifteen hundred skulls, which is pretty big sample size. They were collected between Nineteen seventy-one in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, three, and so the researcher decided to take a look at these Fox skulls and indeed. was able to find a difference. Urban foxes had that shorter muzzle, and the the broader shorter and broader muzzle and what they think this has to do with is. Living off of human cast-offs, there are oftentimes bones that are cast off. And so the hypothesis now is that the skulls? The jaws of these foxes have to get stronger to be able to chew the castaway food items from humanity. So it's it seems it's just this stronger bite as opposed to speed, which the which the rural counterpat part is thought to be quote, unquote designed for Thursday. It was there. was there drowsy mandible the mandible? Yes, okay, so that makes sense from what I know about. Animal skulls up here in your. Gosh Hot Ziya Matic, arch I think is what it's called is in front of your muscles low. You can actually feel that. If you bite down, you can feel muscles. Kinda right next to your eyeballs. that is your bite muscle, and on like cats and wolves that arch is huge, because those are the giant muscles. If you look at like a horse, this bone your mandible. Mandible is huge, and that's the that's the chew muscles, pray and so on animals that are just swallow things whole or rip off whole pieces of meat, and then swallowed those whole, their mandible, still pretty small, because they're not doing much chewing so one of the big differences between wolves and domestic dogs. is you see a much bigger wider mandible for Chew Muscles to exist. So that fits right in there. It does it absolutely does the other interesting. Finding was that there was less room for the brains of the. Urban foxes she. Urban Foxes have smaller brain than their rural counterparts. Why would that be? The idea is that maybe the brains don't have to be as big because the Fox's aren't really that worried about predators or other animals in the urban situation, and they just have to stand still at one place and eat as opposed to constantly potentially be on the move. Yeah, food is always there. I'm conduct, foxhunter hearst castle that was oddly on top of a hedge extending. An after the peacock known it was, it was even berries or something off of this hedge, but but what was interesting is like. We walked past it and it wasn't the least bit skittish. Of humans in any way I didn't measure it skull, though I should have thought of that. Compared to. Other critters at hearst castle are very friendly as compared to their wildcat, but yeah, they've sort of created an environment where there are no sort of predators allowed on the grounds. They used to have like all kinds of zoo animals, too. Yeah! Will, Foxy foxy things at hearst castle, but Yeah Fox is urban foxes smaller brains better by. Maybe that has to do with domestication. Blair. Did you want to give a silver lining for our covert update for the yes? Yes, so Colvin. Still Bad I'm not gonNA. Say without bad. Bad. Where your math don't touch each other it's it's still not good number It's it's. It's fundamentally changing the way that we behave in a lot of ways for many many many years to come, and so this is actually a study. It's a it's a large poll conducted a lot at Americans. It was over two thousand adults over the age of eighteen in May. And it was looking at self care. Up in a post, pandemic world, so this WHA on in general forty six percent of Americans report that they are struggling to find a way to maintain their whole health during the pandemic, so that can include physical mental and spiritual health, but the silver lining here is that eighty percent of those people polled plan on being more mindful of practicing self. Care Post pandemic. So there's a lot of reasons that that could be probably because most people that are stuck at home we've talked about before and I shared in the newsletter are showing some sign of grief and stress and so. Everybody's Kinda strung out all right now and so It also gives us a moment to kind of look inward, and look at how we take care of ourselves, so About thirty five percent of those polled are practicing more creative activities. Thirty one percent are praying more thirty one percent are engaging more meaningful conversations with friends and family And sixty four percent say that they are more focused on mental health now than ever before. So. It's it's because it's okay. So thirty percent of Americans report lack of energy. Twenty nine percent report, difficulty, sleeping and exercising less and forty seven percent report feeling socially isolated, so all those things together mean that people are actually taking this opportunity to think about how they're gonNA. Take better care of themselves in the future, also because the the other kind of. Leap that was brought here, looking at these findings and extrapolating from them. Is that this is a time when a lot of need healthcare more than we ever have before. Either because of physical problems related to covid or not or mental problems related to all that stuff we were talking about and. Ironically. As, we have. Frustrated Lee talked about before because healthcare is linked to jobs and unemployment is crazy high at a time when people need healthcare, most a lot of people can't have it. Yeah, and so that also is putting into stark contrast when people may have had health insurance before, and didn't take advantage of it, so both of those those things together make it likely that people may pay better attention to their own, mental and physical wellbeing when we all get out of our houses. I think there's another side of it, also which is. That since everybody's in this together, we're all you know. Not You know there's there are those frontline workers the essential workers who have been going into work, but We're all under stress in different ways. but because of that where we are aware that others are under stress, and there's a little bit more consideration. From other people as well, there's you get on a zoom call. How are you doing is one of the first question? Whereas before it might be you. Jump on the call and somebody's immediately asking you what you've gotten done, and if you know, have you. Have you hit your metrics for the week and Blah Blah Blah? Things have slightly slowed down and the priority. Have shifted I mean still people still want to get things done, but there is more societal care. Yeah definitely brought into stark contrast. What is essential? Right although I have heard that that the there has been a lot of stress. In. Place this this week. I think I heard was that. Sixty three percent of Americans are now. Seventy four percent of Americans. Something along those lines of an increase in the amount of Americans that they are but I. Mean What Kiki was talking about what I was talking about. Put together means maybe people will be better about advocating for themselves and taking days off when they need them. Which I hope they're of this. Yeah, it's A. It's a hope that as a society we can move forward in a healthier way for our work. We've been very work. Driven Society Achievement Driven Society, but maybe there are healthier ways to do that. Actually there are healthier ways to. Twenty years to really figure out what a mental health day was. Which you? Talked about like a you're taking a mental health day. But they're actually super important, and now I can recognize that and go. Oh, my Gosh! I need a day. I'M GONNA. Take a day. I am no good to anybody today. I need my mental health is also important I don't have to be snotty coughing to say that I can't be at work. I. Usually my mental health, you can usually be cared about fifteen minutes. I know it I know talking about or seven. Or seven something. Depends on the temperature. A day. Yeah, all right just in. Let's move on from silver linings to brain damage can. Our that seems appropriate. Oh, my goodness, okay. So, we have quite a bit over the years about the. Brain. Connection. How things seemingly unrelated to cognitive functions actually have this connection to bacterial communities in our intestines which I seem. impossibly strange, but as evidence has. Piled on over the years is now sort of a normal way of looking at things now we have say showing that people with a rare genetic disease that causes brain bleeding. Have microbiomes that are made up of distinct bacteria. More than a correlation here it is molecules produced by this bacterial. Bouncing they're causing lesions to form in the brains of the patients as discovered in this study. This is the first in any human neuro vascular disease To, show this correlation or even causation. So it has implications, not just for treating the particular disease that they were studying here, but can use this maybe now to examine other neuro vascular diseases. That they never. A to inquire into the gut microbiome this if there was a connection to the patients. Study was led by Investigators University of Chicago Medicine published may twenty seventh in nature communications examined got bacteria patients with Cavernous Ngoma. Vessel abnormalities developed in the brain, causing strokes, seizures and other serious neurological complications. It is caused well. It is caused doing air quotes things because this is sort of how it has been looked at past, caused by genetic mutation and lesion. Be Inherited, and also can occur sporadically, so it's both an inherited disease one that's not linked to heredity. And the severity. Vary widely among its patients. So investigators had hints in the past that there could be a gut microbiome link. This is senior author Issam Awad. WHO's a medical doctor professor of neurosurgery and was partnered previous study in mice, which showed that the cells that line the blood vessels of the brain. Reacted to changes in the The animal's gut bacteria. The implications of that were very big, he said, and I am saying in cody voice, which may not represent his actual voice, but we didn't know if this concept of a unique microbiome that favors the development of lesions would be true in human beings to find out. The researchers working with investigators. University of California San Francisco University of Mexico Mexico University of Pennsylvania and the Ngoma Lines Patients Sport Group. As, well as you Chicago. Collecting stool samples from more than one hundred twenty cameras Ngoma patients samples were analyzed for bacterial contents, compared to samples from people who, in the jarrow population who did not have the disease. And they found combination of three common bacterial species is relative. Abundance allowed them to as if in a blind. They could tell a high. This one will have it that one will not. With absolute certainty. Voice the Cavernous Ngoma patients from all the different collection sites had the same distinctive microbiome, regardless of whether they inherited mutation or had sporadic lesion regardless of the number of lesions. They had a what says investigators further showed that patients produced. Is a long way to give me a moment. Lebeau polysaccharide. Molecules which travel through the bloodstream. Through the bloodstream to the brain, and then attach themselves through the brain's blood vessel lining. Still now we have a molecule produced in a bacteria in your intestines that works its way to the brain, the lining of the vessels in the brain. Facilitating than lesion development all this evidence, this is quite a voiceover and there's evidence pointed to the microbiome. As. They cause of lesions rather than an effect, so there could have been the argument right there. You have It's something. You have a correlation. There's gut bacteria. There's rain, but the communication is supposed to be two way so maybe the lesions of the brain are causing some sort of failed reaction in the gut or the intestines, but now it's absolutely the opposite way is the the bacteria in the intestines or able to create and causally effect these lesions in the brain. So. that's the next step courses the look at ways. To create treatments, they do caution that just doing antibiotics or probiotics. You're pulling levers. You could make it worse. You don't like this. Wait for a little bit more science to be done before you start attempting this because you don't know buttons, What does this do? What does this do what? and you could be. You could make yourself more susceptible to legion spy doing so but an amazing. 'CAUSE WE TALK A lot. When there's correlations, a lot of these studies have been correlated. See this see this over here. It seems to be related to that of their, but no mechanism. We haven't figured out this mechanism to so it's really stunning. That's amazing. That's I mean. This is this is the first kind of study that is gone beyond correlation to give some kind of. give us mechanism to yeah I mean. I think there's still so much to be. Pulled apart they're you know. How do different bacterial species in Iraq in population to lead to healthy versus disease states, which species are specifically bad ones. How do we get rid of those? How can you monitor your bacterial? microflora right? How can you? How can you figure on stuff out? Something interesting here too is I haven't done the deep dive in the paper to the previous research that found the hereditary links. But they make me wonder now if they exist because within a family, you will share micro biota. There isn't this odd like you have to. It's a tough thing, but you have to separate micro Biota, that has passed down from generation to generation within households within the grandparents house. It's your and it's your bed sheets and it's in the couch in the family. Eating together that sharing do. Yeah! Perfect Yeah Perfect Murphy for those of you who have dedicated the your current lives into A. A yeast dough sample baby a baby. Previous correlations of genes. May also be actually the the generational. Sharing of micro aren't actually related to those jeans, but so there's a lot of. A lot of digging. so much digging, but so fascinating. I can't wait until we get to. That point in time where we do know which foods are going to help us, which bacteria we should have in our Po- probiotic yogurt drink where these things are individualized as opposed to. You know just being a catchall. Everybody's just eating prescription. Yogurt from Yes I mean any. Have My prescription, Fiber and Yogurt Yogurt morning morning God. I mean I mean it sounds silly, but also. How much better would that be then a cocktail of drugs to just eat your medicine? As Way Way Way Way way better. What are the drugs? It Fair. Depends what they're for. Reading the September, the cause or Fun Or is it just fun we all? These days. Be Eating cinnamon made you live forever. I would still need a drug that similar. Something red peppers. That that cinnamon, not liking response, minimum and red peppers. Yeah, maybe microbiome. Maybe the microbiome. You'd like A. microbiome. I prefer not. All right if you just tuned in, you are listening to this week in science, and if you're interested in a twist shirt or a mug or facemask head over to twist dot Org Click on the Zaza store link in Browser store. We are face masks now. And now it is the time. For Blair's animal corner. Loves. By. A. About animal change. Except more giant. Drop Well I have a study. That kind of rocked my world a little bit. My understanding to the core of what makes a. Queen Bee. What makes a Queen Bee? Doo Doo now broiled. Yeah turns out no. So. This study. Kind of challenge that long believed. Belief. Understanding that cleanliness comes from the Diet of Royal Jelly and milky white secretion of protein, water, and fat and vicious, coming from the heads of nurse bees. But this new paper looks at what specifically makes a Queen, and it doesn't appear to be the jelly itself. It appears to just be the amount of food that they eat. So whoever becomes the this. The most important their hormonal changes that come from that, and that is what makes a. Piece. This is a study from North Dakota State University. They had previously studied bees from species, would each female lives alone, and raises their own young, and discovered that the body size of these solitary bees depended on the amount of food. Their mother gives them. So they wanted to see how the amount of food relates to social honeybees. So in this control experiment. They raised larva in a lab in nine different diets. With different amounts of royal jelly sugar, the bees who ate the most food were indistinguishable from Queens raised in a hive. And their ability to turn into queen did not depend on the proteins or sugars or being Fed Royal Jelly. Scientists know what hormones and genes responsible for queen development, but they don't know what the trigger is there for the hormones genes to do what they do, so they don't exactly know how the hormones and genes change. Because it appears to be with the amount of food. Those two things start to change. This could have a huge implication for the be industry, besides just totally blowing our perception of what makes a queen bee out of the water. If, we know better. What makes a queen? There's actually an opportunity for. The people who raise bees for commercial honey or for pollination of agriculture. That they, they often will replace their cleans every year and so if they know how to make Queens. And can do that that can actually help. With the industry, so they could actually increase resilience of the commercial beekeeping industry by being able to do that, so there's pretty cool implications here, but also just up. That's like that's just one of those things you take for granted in biology. What makes the Queen's Royal Jelly? Not only know. Just Fed. A lot has ever whoever eats the most Royal Jelly I. Can. Which is? Mean Royal, Jelly new from some sort of sci-fi episode of like an outer limits, Riboud or something like this. To farmers eating Royal Jelly and then turns into a B.. That's how I knew that honestly how information got my brain? Next the story that we could probably relate to right about now, they'll showing some signs of stress. As we talked about at the start of the show well, this is the second segment you're talking about. Okay well. Macaques. Show that misery doesn't Need Love Company. What I mean by is this University of? Vienna and medical primate research. Center in Reassure Vic Netherlands. Lots of constants, not a lot of else. They were studying macaques and their stress levels when working towards a goal by themselves with a stranger or with a bonded die. Add so basically a close friend. So in order to be able to do that. The first thing they do. was trying to teach the macaques that lived in this lab. How to provide a saliva sample on demand so I love that, is they? They top of CACTI the stint into something, so that's great. I don't know. I mean that's science. Animal Science to the OH. That's so cool. That's that's animals. Get to participate in. Experiments voluntarily. That's so neat anyway. So Anyway so they i. they did that then they noted who had chosen to bond with another monkey, so they could identify die ads and monkeys that were low, and then they taught the monkees how to use a string to pull a platform close enough to retrieve piece of food. And in some cases one monkey could do it, and in other cases they manipulate it, so you'd need a friend, so they would have a monkey pulling from two different sides to make it work so that you'd need the teamwork. After each trial the spit they would, they would test cortisol levels to see how stress they were. So they found that? The monkees who are paired with a bonded friend had the lowest levels of Cortisol. So they were least stressed from the monkees that we're doing by themselves. The monkeys that had help from a stranger. So I mean it makes sense. If you think about any situation where you've, you've been in a ridiculous scenario or even stressed out, or you've been scared, or there's been any sort of stressor on you. If you had somebody you knew with you, it probably was a little less stressful. It was comforting to have that. That's that's where misery loves company I. This is this whole idea that? If, if they're in the stressors like I want this food, but I have to do this thing, but there there with a friend. It's a little, less, scary or stressful. It's like having your little security blanket. So, I think that's fantastic being able to show that these monkeys and and and Look at to your point. Yes, they weren't forcing. The court is all from the monkeys they weren't taking blood draws. That were really stressful, or you know having to handle the monkeys, which can be stressful to be able to can't manipulate your variably vindicates. Yeah, when the human handling the human interaction aspect is a big factor that researchers really have to think about when they're talking about stress experiments. Like how much is the human stressing the animal out versus? How much is. The Cortisol this up. That's just it for all of them. Yeah, but that's a I love I love that they. I mean I think they do have to worry about now. The Rhesus Macaques just deciding to spit at the researchers. I'm sure that. That's not gonNA increase because of the study is already happening. Or decrease it's. Going down. It's yeah, maybe they realize. The macaques were already spitting at them and say hey. We can put this to good use. Bad. It's like sometimes. They collect that from a face shield that they were wearing, but Still. Oh friends. I mean I think I would like I like company when I'm not feeling good. And I mean if I can extrapolate this to our human scenario, which this was not a study on humans, so I'll I'll say that right away, but think about people who are self isolating alone. Versus in family groups, or with a partner or even with a roommate. It's very different, and it could be because you're going through a stressful situation either alone. Or with somebody that you're bonded to in whatever way? And so. Check on your friends that live allowed. But don't spend on them. Don't spit on them. No! Way Let's check in on each other yeah. Justin, how're you do that? How am I doing? Time? Fair enough. To go into it, maybe the out that. You're. Gone. You have your whole life. Shatter. Back what used to live long life on. A. Long lives, this is why people like to have children so that when they're old and miserable. They still have company yes. All right. I mean take very very very quick. Break Right now. To thank you for listening to twists. You are the reason that we do we do. We can and week out bringing you science news trying to discern what is truth. What is fake news? Where is this reality that we're experiencing? What can we agree on? Is Reality Right? Let's talk about these things in a very down to Earth Way. Let's try to get away from the. Craziness of the world that's out there every once in a while once a week, right? We can bring that same perspective and it's thanks to you. So with your help. To continue this. We can continue to bring twists to you every week if you had to this week. In Science is website. Twists Dot Org Click on the Patriot link and send us at a level of your choosing ten dollars a month and you will be thanked. At the end of the show. We can't do this without you. Thank you for your support. And we're back. You're listening to this weekend. Science Kiki Dee of more stories for us. I do have more stories. How about a story about lab? lab-grown livers? Do you like line human human livers? Yes. Yes lab grown human livers, although there little livers, the little little livers. Researchers were able to take skin cells. These are researchers from the University of Pittsburgh. have taken skin cells and been able to reprogram them to. Be Liver cells, and not just one kind of liver sal I mean. The liver has multiple types of cells within it, so they were able to reprogram these cells. These skin cells to be multiple different cell types that exist in the liver to create. A little tiny mini, liver and they. They put these livers into into mice, and they grew within the mice in. They took them out, and everything seemed find. The mice survived for four days, and they probably would have survived longer, but that was the end date of the experiment when they sacrifice the animals to see how the livers had grown, and and how they had done. The exciting aspect to this is that with. The advent of Regenerative Medicine of being able to grow. All, the cell types that are required to grow an organ. This potentially will help us to to address the issue of Oregon shortages. There are hundred hundreds of thousands of people on the. On the organ donation list about seventeen, thousand people are waiting for livers right now in the United States. And each time there is a liver transplant. It's almost a million dollars in cost. And if we could potentially grow livers from step from a patient's own stem cells, it could lead to. It might still be a million dollars, but we could at least potentially address all of the seventeen thousand people who need them instead of having individuals unfortunately go without as they do right now. We'll livers are kind of an interesting one because? I think they. The people who need them sometimes get bumped up or down the list depending on all sorts of variables like if you have a history with alcohol, dependence, or how old you are, or give other health problems and I would love for everyone who needs a liver to get delivered. It would be so much easier if you could just grow. Then you don't have to decide who quote unquote deserve the liver more, which is just heartbreaking. Yeah, yeah, and that is one of the problems. There's inequality in the system. At this point at this point. In time there are issues as well with respect to a donors and recipients, and how well they match up, so you don't only so. There's the matching that has to take place, so that rejection doesn't have to have to happen. In this particular study, the mice were immunosuppressed because they were getting human cells, and so they didn't want the mouse immune system to react to the human cells, but if you're if you're creating. Patient derived. Regenerated livers than as you're potentially going to not have rejection effects, people wouldn't. On immunosuppressive drugs. There are so many things that could go. But by the way fun fact. If, it did cost a million dollars. Of the two point, three trillion dollar of looting of the US Treasury by. Giving tax cuts to the already rich we can. We can pay for all of them. And they still have money left over. So. Even. Again? Take into account. What was taken? And be outraged about that because even if even if it was a million dollars per. Week paid for it in that one tax. Can't all relative. Own Relative. To you know and. And if we had universal healthcare. That would be a lot better to. Get. You know, but these are issues to get into all together. Yeah, so the another issue here, is that these little these little livers? Fit In mice, so we're not looking at things. Cute Lavazza, never. Deliver looking at masculinization of smearing tiny little. It looked deliver. It acted like deliver. It was great, and there was masculinization, and it was fantastic, but it's not gonNa work for person unless they can figure out how to increase the size and the durability of the entire structure which is going to be. A bit harder, but Yeah new! Stops, baby liver. I mean the fact that we're even at making little baby livers right now is I love it. This is science fiction. This is we are getting. We were working into the realm of science of the future. This is the stuff that's so exciting to me. We'll see how long it takes to actually make it happen, but I have faith that it will. Justin what you get, oh! okay. have been betting the fact that I would be bringing another story tonight Oh here we go. I'm going to change the order the story this is researchers at Tulane University School of Medicine identified a gene. That actually causes an aggressive former breast cancer. To rapidly grow, this is the triple negative. This is a this is the most dangerous most untreatable most aggressive metastasized form of breast cancer. and. There, was they had parallel studies that were looking into jeans doesn't really matter what they are, but once traff three two and the other's Rab Twenty Seven A. Jeans get weird names. There's just not enough names that sound like something you've heard of before to name every gene it's. You. You have a weird name they do they look at us and go. How come you all have the same name? How do you differentiate who's doing what so? A. So the research team studied. What happens when these genes were stopped from functioning. Suppressing expression of either gene lead to a decline in both. Tumor, growth and spread. To other organs, this is The research was led by Dr. Is that. Now, who examined these? These interactions. And basically what they came up with this, they found one like we limited one. One of them was silenced, really limited that Tumor Growth Jim. McGrath would stop, but there was still a small amount of spread when they also turned off the second. There stopped being at all. It stopped metastasized. There was no little cancer cells going off in latching somewhere else and restarting growth. This is this is a we usually avoid talking by? Try to avoid talking about cancer. Here's. Historically, because there's everything was a path to leading to a treatment that could someday, but this is this one looks like a switch. This one looks like a switch. The according voice is important to note that this discovery is the result of a really collaborative effort between basic science researchers and other clinicians. But what they basically did. was develop a two gene switch that can shut down the most aggressive untreatable form of breast cancer, and now they can create a drug that targets these specific genes to suppress their activity. Pretty huge. They're already working on FDA approval and a wanted to go right in clinical trials. From the animal model results because it was that. Just starkly stunning positive result. They got from this study so. With all the bad news going around. In terms of where we have been reminded game against stay at home. We don't know when this is going to. Triple negative breast, cancer. Might have just. Found the switch that shuts it down and if we have a drug, I mean finding the switch, but having a drug that can that can do that. That's the next best. They're already on a path towards towards that than actually. Actually. Did actually. And I think I under sold it. Would they actually did was. Triggered that they actually switched now it's in mice. So you need to. You need to now do the study on humans. But they. They already. Effectively showed proof of concept. It's not like now we need to. Actually it's not not we need. They did it already. And so now the clinical trials need to start, and we need to see that it works in humans as well. But yeah. I Love I mean there's it's. It's always the step forward. Of what point do we get excited of it working for people, but you know at what point is it more than just curing cancer in mice? and. Actually, looking over what I, I don't have the. I'm sorry I just I. Don't have the actual. Animal model that it was utilize in that was I was parallel from the story. But in general, they're so many stories about curing whatever in mice. It's always in mice first, and then the drug doesn't work in people. It causes too many side effects in people. There's you know so many reasons why something won't go forward into treatment and so there are a lot of hoops that still need to be jumped through for humor, but having something that is such a specific target. Is that it? It's just it's a cleaner shot. We're getting there. That's exciting. Yeah. I, love it, that's great yeah okay well. Let me. Go from there into. Kind of you know negative land. It's bad negative land like the back end of a magnet or like say up like six. Lake. Climate change though not that the thing that we haven't been. No Specifically with Cova and all the pandemic and things going on I've been avoiding climate change news, but it's ongoing and new study out I found it interesting because we've talked about this general trend in the show previously which is. That animals are found have been found to. They're making shifts toward the Poles. And, this is something we've talked about previously. We know that. The the weather is changing. Climate is changing the there are lots of organisms that are finding their systems are no longer working for them, and they have to follow that the plants are moving, and the animals have to follow the plants and. Everything is shifting and. We've discussed this before but this week. A, database was published that brought together two hundred, Fifty, eight peer reviewed studies. Comparing over thirty thousand habitat shifts in more than twelve thousand species of bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. This is called bio shifts and this is. Aside from, being A study. One, off studies, this is the first massive comprehensive analysis of the shifts that are taking place by life around our planet. And the authors published this week and discovered that. Land animals are moving. Closer to the Poles but at a pace that slower than was expected. That the ocean life is moving a lot more quickly than the life is. That's on land. and. FITHIAN are found to be moving toward the polls. They call that moving upslope at over twelve meters. Tiles seem to be headed toward the equator at six point five meters a year. Insects are moving poll word at eighteen point five kilometers per year. And in marine species are moving at about six kilometers per year, but land animals that slowness. Only one point eight meters per year. So. Land Animals not moving fast enough? Maybe and are the are the ocean animals, the marine species are they because of the way that the water currents work Is that why they're moving so much more quickly? Are The question now arises. Will Marine species adapt to the fast climactic shifts that are taking place on our planet better than land animals, and I think as the big question, I would assume the answer's yes, I would. My attribution. My add to that would be a speculate that the obstacle for the larger land animals would be humans now insects can travel regardless of whether there's human development. Out in the ocean, there isn't a there's no highways to cross. There's no large city further north. Or south of you as the case may be to to have to encounter to continue in that direction I would assume that the obstacle courses humanity. That's probably else. There's also something else which is plant. So. Yes, so plants cannot move nearly as fast as an animal. Large animals. the, animals move, and then the plants don't move with them, and they have to kind of retreat. Go like Oh, I need those. It's a huge barrier that that land animals depend on plants that are fairly immobile. Yes, if you're doesn't move, yeah, either yeah. That's a really so that may be a combination of the biomass themselves not moving very quickly and habitat fragmentation like you're talking about yeah. Yeah! Kiki makes us both right. At, bring everyone together. All right. We can be right together. It's okay, but you know there have been engineers for several years now talking about the possibility and the potential for Geo Engineering, our way out of climate change can, we'd use technology and engineering to halt the progression of temperature increase of carbon dioxide increase here on the planet. Well. Some researchers decided to model this and you know this is a really good idea. Before actually implementing some of these proposed solutions, maybe try and figure out what they will actually honor you. Yeah, model them, yes! So these researchers at MIT wanted to look at the idea of Solar Geo Engineering and they considered an idealized reo. which is you know that's what they do in modeling giant umbrella? As? A parasol over the earth to block the sun, yes. Yes absolutely so that's That's pretty much the idea that they looked at this scenario in which solar radiation is reflected away from the earth that we would put not not umbrellas, but giant reflectors to aim sunlight sunlight. Away from Earth. And the. The. Situation that they looked at. They wanted to see whether it would be enough to offset the warming that would occur if carbon dioxide quadrupled in concentrations. They were looking at like. Extreme! Wani Sixty. Yes, her, or which isn't that far away but anyway. Okay What they've found looking at their research, which they published in Geophysical Research. Is that. The reduction in solar radiation would work the GEO engineering. Strategy employed to reflect light away would. Lead to reduced radiation, reaching the earth, and so there would be less incoming solar heat that would counteract to a degree. The warming caused by the carbon dioxide emissions. However, the cooling of the planet would not prevent other greenhouse gas induced effects like regional reductions in rainfall and ocean acidification, so what ends up happening with this scenario this situation? Is that storm tracks would be changed, and whereas now we're looking at the possibility of increased storms and increased severity of storms, tropical storms, hurricanes typhoons. With the conditions of their experiment, which they called the G., one experiment a GEO engineering model Inter comparison project. That if solar radiation were to be reduced, there would be unpredictable effects on the on the atmosphere and those storms, and so storms are often used. They work to distribute. Through the atmosphere, they work to distribute rainfall through a the globe. And they also distribute particulate matter they. Think around this. Atmospheric? Can Conduction of materials and. It's imperfect, so the bottom line of this story is that reducing solar radiation isn't just going to be a Ted data. We fixed it scenario of fixing global warming. It would actually have potentially negative effects on on water distribution around the globe, and on particular matter at what they specifically go into saying is that in the northern hemisphere there would be much much much weaker storm tracks, and that it could end up leading to stagnation especially during the hot summer months. which would be a lot worse? Turning down the Sun. Fees. The the The sun's not the problem. Trouble with that's like. That's like like cooking on the stove, right and and touching the burner. And being like ow. I burning my hand. Her in the stove off. Here hand. Very Fair every year. This is this is part of global warming. Right here. This is really all about every year. The Earth moves closer to the Sun. It's a fact it's a fact. Also every year we've been moved further away again. Again. Orbit. were. kind of like I don't know the plants and like for solar panels and like. Don't why? Why are we trying to turn the down? We want more sun for the solar panels except then we went to. Not The problem the. The guesses are the problem. The heat trapping gases the problem. Not to take this back to the protests that are happening across the nation, and in other places in the world. But. Gosh, Darn. And this is the best of the Gosh Darn, but why aren't people? Also activated by this to this degree. I don't understand it. This is this is this is. Destroying our own habitat globally. We need. We need to learn a lesson. That's A. It's if we if we fix racism and inequality. We can also fixed climate change. It, climate change is and end water availability around the globe. These are issues of. Climate Change Effects. The world's poor. Ray Most yes. Thing. Yeah, so this is if. Pates it's part of the whole package. Fixing climate change is part of. Fixing. Inequalities around the world, and it's it's worse than. It's an. It's worse than you think because it's not just. Going to be evenly distributed the effects, actual sea level rise is going to be much worse in the in the Southern Hemisphere than it is in the northern hemisphere, so they countries who are doing be least contribution. To the global warming are going to to be the most effect. It's sort of like it's sort of like an oh my goodness. It is sort of like a little bit of a correlation to what's going on the United States right now. There are some people who are living under fascism. While the rest are not and there's disparity. In the society's. Naturally here in the United States and then globally people who are living under under unacceptable. Conditions? That's wicked stuff i. Yeah! So anyway, Long Story Short furred you. Engineering the researchers say this work highlights solar geo engineering is not reversing climate change, but substituting one unprecedented climate state for another reflecting sunlight is perfect counterbalance to the greenhouse effect. And another researcher added there are multiple reasons to avoid doing this and instead to favor reducing emissions of Co, two and other greenhouse gases. Somehow. Was One of the because this was an old early solution like aerosolize. Atmosphere. Over Yeah. Iron Iron Particles and. I think Oh son of Moses Marine Miko. Yeah Yeah. There's been a few idea of how to accomplish this, but yeah. That's not a twilight zone episode. Let's go walk out the. No let's not. Do that. Just makes the problem we made. Our remits learn how to I think we're in a point where we can learn how to do a whole lot of things better and there's already a lot of good research out there on how we can do things better. Yeah this is this week in science. Want to help twist grow. Get a friend to subscribe today. So Dead Skis, Dead Sea Scrolls. This is a collection of twenty five thousand issue about fragments of ancient manuscripts, including some of the oldest copies or the oldest copies excuse of the Hebrew Bible This is a regional source material. So piecing them together, it's been incredibly difficult because there's so many different pieces. They're small. They're all deteriorating and they weren't. They didn't get excavated from the the caves found, and in handed to researchers were nets buying researchers rather most of the fragments filtered their way through the hands of antiquity dealers and private collectors first, and then eventually into the hands of people researching. This is reported in the Journal Cell June second at an intriguing clue to help put puzzle pieces together maybe. Even, finding the edge pieces. Because they did for the first time DNA sampling. Of. You can't you can't take a piece and destroy, but there's there's residue. There's just that comes off the France. So, they did DNA analysis on the fragments and it turns out. A lot of them were on sheepskin, which wasn't number. Four with the majority of them are written on sheepskin. This is cody voice. Who is this? This is owed Ed Rickaby Tel Aviv. In Israel the discovery of two thousand year old dead. Sea Scrolls is one of the most important archaeological discoveries ever made. Maybe however, it poses to Major Jones's first. Most of them were not found intact, but rather disintegrating thousands of fragments, which had to be sorted and piece together with no prior knowledge, and how many pieces have been lost or and the case of non vocal compositions. How original tax should even read depending on the class of? Each fragment interpretation of any given text could change dramatically, so you've got a book. You've got many books several books. Maybe a thousand books who knows chopped into tiny tiny pieces? You have sentenced fragments, and then they try to piece these things together. This is actually pretty brilliant the fact that they were. The fact that they were largely on sheepskin cowhide. But when you look at the DNA. You can actually see not just what animal they keep. But how related those animals were. So you have to fragments that came from the same shape, chances are they're much closer related than something that was written on sheep that have no relation. Maybe these this. This fragment came from a sheep. That's related to that other sheep fragment. Those might be closer than the one that came from a cow. So they started they. They did this analysis and they started piecing things together. Some of it very different differently. So this is who it studied. cobby colleagues. Including GNOME misery at title we've any university. Israel and Matijas Yaacob Zain oops. Allure universities spent Sweden the side look deeper and they did this DNA analysis. Some of the things are sort of interesting. They found that pieces that were. Thought to run together. Because at first, they were doing this visually morphological. Almost like this looks like it's this. This is part of the same tax. There was one segment which was a part of. The Prophetic Book Jeremiah. Wright this is one of the oldest known scrolls. Right A two pieces of these pieces that were thought to go together to form the story one you came from different animals sheep, and was cowhide, which makes them think these probably came from different versions of the same story. The found says these texts found that on these Jeremiah Jeremiah pieces suggests that they not only blocked to different scrolls. The also represent different versions of the prophetic book. The fact that the scrolls that are most day virgin technically are also made of a different animal species. `indicative. At a different provenance. First of all this is going to help. Put the other pieces that weren't able to be put together and separate pieces that shouldn't have been put together, but it also shows that the early stories of mysticism and Jewish Liturgy and some of the other non secular stories. Had different versions of them concurrently, which is sort of interesting when we compare it to. What! Modern Day religion is where you have. Here is the one taxed and message. And, it is the literal now in the origins of religions. There were different versions. Of these religions, different texts and different stories in different, even before there was a lot of writing and all you had one scroll, but you had a lot of people going around telling things verbally, and so maybe you know the story you know. It changed a little bit as people are talking about it and telling the story from person to person. You know you have that telephone operator effect. You know even in the days of the dead. Sea Scrolls multiple. Different taxed yeah identities. Girls are two thousand years old. Right is what I heard We're currently in the year in the Jewish year fifty seven eighty. So you have almost three hundred thousand years. Of oral tradition before these scrolls existed so that is a huge amount of drift. Even assuming there is a common origin on these stories. And people were like last night at all down. Put it all down after it had been tradition for thousands and thousands of years. Yeah, absolutely, which again which again just bring brings the thing that I've always said which is, there was a written language in China it's. Why not start with people who could right now? START! Let's. Just take the message to people who can liberal interrupts rabbit. It's not likely to illiterate. Likely likely had like had planes, trains and automobile. The big man upstairs if have. Written it. Spears. Take it to the people who had A. Only the find written language that I. Put in the hands of illiterates who had? Thousands of years before they can write it down. I'm talking to different. Big Men and women upstairs, weren't they? There you go okay. I'm convinced it's got Loki playing a trick on the other. Hand. We all have our version of the stories. This way we get more stories. It's better yeah better than. Oh goodness, speaking of more stories. Let's jump to the last couple of stories just in this one is specifically where you. Okay now I'm both cringing. Dissipation and excited to hear were disturb maybe. Your. Christmas there's cringe assignment going on. Yes. Okay well. Researchers in south. Australia decided that they needed to test a methodology for getting rid of feral cats on, so they have. Completed and published their field trial results of Felix. IRS which are a device that sprays. Poison on the identified target a cat. So. They tested twenty. Felix Sater's. That were set to fire their poison across vehicle tracks in Dune crossings for six weeks. They recorded cat activity. And they used track counts and grids and remote camera traps to be able to record this activity. They also had radio collars on six of the cats. They found that none of the non target objects, batons, Bill, bees, birds, lizards, humans, or vehicles. The past a Felix was fired on the Felix Sater's only they had high target specificity according to this abstract, they only fired thirty three times over the six week trial on cats. and. They only had two. They looked at their to radio-collared cats. That were that triggered the Felix Irs. Trial and they died. So or Their results. Their results suggest that Felix. Sater's are an effective target specific method of controlling feral cats at least in areas where cat immigration is prevented. Yes. So now Australia, and may have a method for ridding itself of some of the problematic cats in their outback. The cats in Australia and New Zealand. Bigger. No? There should be these zero Cots Zealand they're not? They're. Making they're making really good strides in New Zealand. Because it's small, so it's easier to dress, but in Australia, it's it's still a huge problem. Yeah, so they have tried all sorts of methods of poisoning food and trying to get cats to eat the poison food. Trapping cats but this particular method win with a poison that sprays the for cats. The cat's then clean themselves and ingest the poison as they as they go through their cleaning routine, and it apparently is very effective. Show. Torn I'm so sorry. I thought you would be happy. It's sad, but it's it's. It's a good news for all those fees and other words. Love. Birds. Philby's Philby's some cool. So. None of those animals are targeted or affected. And it's good that it specific. It's sad for the cats, but also the cats of Australia and New Zealand as we said. Big Dog longer. King, toads and cats got to give out yeah. Eric Blair. Have Oh to all those dog owners out. There you know how sometimes you're rough housing. The friend and the dog runs up to you and you're like. DID THEY WANNA? Play or do? They think I've been trouble? Well. A lot of us have often wondered if our dog would rescue us if we were in trouble, the study out of Arizona State University and this very preliminary study makes it look like yes, indeed, your dog would like to save you from peril. so they took a sixty pet dogs, and they had zero training in how to quote unquote rescue their owners distress, and they put their the owners. It'll large box equipped the lightweight door that the dog would be able of moving aside to get to the owner, and then the owners called out help or help me you. They did coach the owners to make sure that they sounded real. Is Very Funny And then they noticed that about one third of the dogs rescued their distress owner, which at first doesn't sound very good. Right as I was like okay in general, don't WanNa save their distressed owner? But in fact, Ben's on their their their control test was that they put food in the box and only nineteen out of the sixty dogs were able to get to the food. So more dogs actually rescued their owners than went for food. Which means that when they control for they consider this a control for understanding of how to get to the inside of the box. When they control for that, it actually looks like it's. It's very good If you look at only the nineteen dogs that were able to open the door to get to food, eighty four percent of them rescued their owners so actually it looks like if they know how to get inside the box, it's a pretty big number of dogs that were very interested in getting to them, and then the other control tests they did. was having a an owner. Just read a magazine inside the box, so they were trying to figure out if the doves just wanted to know where their owners were, and sixteen out of sixty went up to their owner, but did not show any signs of stress like winding walking, barking or yawning, and they did a lot of those things when the owner was calling out for help so. This is. It appears to be an inherent desire in dogs to get to their owners when they are. In, trouble, or they appear to be in trouble, so the next step of course is to figure out whether the dogs their rescue them do so to get close to the people or If they're really trying to help them. And accessing the human physically is not the main motivator, so if they can help, they could assist their human in trouble even if they couldn't get to them physically to get some pets. Would they still do it? So. All in all your Doug cares about you. Care at least a third of the dogs, care. Which is actually a high number according to WHO is able I duNno. More study is needed, but I think if I were and study. Yeah, but then it gets into the idea of which dogs like what what are there specific breeds, or does it have to do with how how how connected the owner dog are like kind of winded the owner get the dog. Was it when they were a six week old puppy or win? The dog was three years old. Did they adopt them from a shelter or was it given to them by a friend? What are the what are the? There's so many variables. How long! How! How! Do they exercise them regularly. You could probably zero out all of those and look at two factors. Does the dog? Think that they are higher or lower than the owner in the hierarchy. The dark thinks it's lower in the hierarchy. It's going to jump to support the the master dog if it thinks it's actually the dominant member of the pack. It's like I don't care who beats up. The miners doesn't matter to me I'm still the top dog. It's your. Hair this is what happens. I'm more dominant male than you or female has shown up the pack. But they? Also they should also figure out whether or not people have practiced. Having their dogs saved them from a box before. But I. Have noticed whenever somebody's dog really doesn't like me. It's because I'm kind of the more dominant male, and where's it because they know you don't like dogs? The dog concerning some dogs absolutely love me. But. I I tell. I feel like those dogs think they own the house. Those dogs think that they are the top dog. It's the dogs that aren't really sure of their position. That always are barking at. That's just might my dog psychology pop psychology I I admit I admit I'm not I'm not diagnosing any specific dogs. It's from all those dog training says you've taken yeah. All right I think this brings us to the end of our show here, but as we do come to the end I want to Give you a little bit of homework. I'm going to put a link in our chat rooms, and also I will put it on our website for a youtube video. It's about an hour and forty five minutes long that the Royal Institute. In. England put out and IT'S A. It's a conversation panel conversation on black scientists past present and future. What we can all do is learn more about. Where black scientists have come from the past what they're doing now and where they're potentially going to influence science going forward. We need more black scientists more people of color indigenous scientists so that there are a representational diversity of views and backgrounds that can give us a better fabric of understanding of our world. There's probably some questions that we have no idea we should be asking because those people who would be asking. The questions aren't in science because they've been pushed out for whatever reason so. We all have to do a job to. Inform ourselves and to learn more and to move forward to bring more people into science, and to make it more equitable and diverse and additionally. This week is black burgers week so if you're aware of the incident that took place. In New York City's central park last week involving a black burder. And a woman who was running her dog off. An area that was not allowed to be not off leash. Anyway, it was it was a whole thing, and it just stood to highlight. The the daily assaults that. Black. People are up against in in. Natural in in the ecological sciences. There are not many black murders and people. Don't talk about it that much, but this week there is a celebration of black borders on twitter. They're doing all sorts of things if you look up. Black Burgers the Hashtag borders also going to put a link to black AF in stem. Hashtag with some really great black scientists, young ecologists, naturalists, murders, people who are doing. Really Great Work and also science communication outreach work. And tomorrow they're going to be doing alive. Q. And A. in the afternoon. For those of you who are interested, so the link will send you that direction as well so I hope to be able to from where we are with this platform. Be Able to send you to these places so that you can see what other people in the sciences are doing, and what celebrations are happening right now. And on that note. Thank you for listening I! Hope you enjoyed the show and if he did remember. Please share it with a friend. Shout outs to fodder for help on social media with our show descriptions. Thanks to identity for recording the show. Thanks to Gord manning the chat room and thanks to the burroughs wellcome. Fund, for their support, also thanks to our patriots sponsors. For Your generous support. Thank you to Paul Disney Andrew Swann's Pollick ed. Dire Kevin Hayes coast earring. Ranji Craig Landon Tony Steel. Our Wilson Steve Tobel Joshua Fury. 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