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"journal personality social psychology" Discussed on Speaking of Psychology
"Highlighted? I say is not negative. I see it as human nature is incredibly pliable flexible. And that what it really says is. We underestimate the extent to which our behavior is influenced by the situation, but other people doing and saying Howard dress what the obvious is whether it's a professional thing. Whether it's a rock rock party. Whenever and situations can push. Good people to do bad things. But now the hurled maJ should project says, let's work to create positive situations which bring out the best in us. So the ideas people can be good or bad. Devils or angels. And an always saying is we have to be more aware of the power of social situations to shape us and then put invest in having. Better schools, better social welfare programs that bring out the best in people and suppress the worst. And if you were to conduct this experiment today, would you do anything differently? Oh, sure. Okay. The problem now is the study can never be replicated because once it was over. Now, we should say even though is nineteen seventy-one Stanford University was one of the first universities to have. A human subjects review committee. So they reviewed the study, and and they had some limitation things we had to do which we did. But again, it's kids playing cops and robbers and everybody knew was study everybody signed a statement. I'm going to be a prisoner guard if I'm imprisoned there'd be some stress minimal diet. So everybody knew it was an experiment. And so you mean semi it can be said, they knew as experiment. It's it's it's instead food what could go wrong they like I underestimated how powerful that situation can become and within thirty six hours. It became a prison run by psychologists. No, one used the word experiment. So for example, we we said in the at any time if anybody says if any anybody says, I quit, the experiment. I would release them. Nobody said that they said I want to see a lawyer. I want my mother I want a doctor. And so I had to use that phrase it before that. But it didn't become an experiment in there in anybody's mind after after the first day. And so what we would do for example. What would happen? It was all women. That's what I thought about immediately. What happened was all minorities? Would it be different? If it was older people more wise than than college students. So there are a lot of interesting things that would be interesting for us to know. But we can we can never know that again moving onto another topic. You've done it done. Ted talk about time. And you talk you spoke about how is humans either live in the past present or future? And you talked about the negative aspects of all three of those things. And you said the most optimal way of being is to be in all three realms, but focusing on the positive can you can you? So one of the things that to things that came out of the prison study, which have shaped a lot of my life was. Because there were no clocks there, no windows. So we all lost track of time that is. I lived in my office upstairs. I would come down for extended periods. The guards worked eight hour shifts. They went home came back to prison live there all the time. But when we were there we lost track of time because when the guards were on they were doing all kinds of stuff, you know, making the prison jump up and down in a new council thing and so became aware as this was going on that how about the psychology of time. How time is is is not object is objective time. But there's also subjective time began to think about it and do literature search, and then I realized that. One one aspect of time is our sense of time perspective that is we live in the past present or future too right now as we talking this is the present when we were setting up that that's the pass. What what we're going to do at the end of this is is the future. But but in thinking about it, I realized that it was very little literature on the psychology of time perspective, and I developed a scale called his embardo time perspective, inventory, Zeki PI publishing. This. Journal personality social psychology nine hundred ninety nine then I wrote a book that time paradox. And what what we say is that we all live in different time zones at different times, and is two ways to live in the present to in the past one is positive when it's negative. So scale we say when you think about your pass what comes to mind for some people at success happiness birthday parties. Graduation others. It's abuse neglect missed opportunities. So then we can identify people who are past negative past positive when we talk about the future. Some people say future is the key to success in life to be educated. Not to do rash. Make rash decisions. Always think about the consequence of your action on the other hand for some people when they think about the future with anxiety. Will I be able to succeed will I be able to find a wonderful wife. Be able to get a good job. So if you can be positive some negative, and then the present, but we discovered there people who present fatalistic they say doesn't pay to plan. My life is controlled by forces outside of this is true. Poor people people who certain religion another way to be president oriented Z present hedonistic. Meaning you live for the moment. You live for excitement, you live sensation live for the novelty. These people get addicted because you always want something citing new so do you think is still the optimal way of being is to be any of those realms, but befo kissing on the positive aspect? Yeah. So the optimal. And we we have. We have a lot of now research. It's having a balanced time perspective, which means low on past negative low on future negative low on present fatalism. Moderate on present hedonism present hedonism is exciting when it's not in the extreme and moderately high on future. So so there's a balanced time perspective. And if you look at our scale, my scale has fifty six items is also short-form. I think just time paradox dot org. The scales? Veiled taking get scored. So, but people have balanced time perspective BT BT p we show in many, many realms. They are have self esteem. More successful live physic-, even physically psychologically, healthier. And in many ways, this is the ideal in life. And then we teach you how to develop that had a lower the negatives. And promote deposits reserves also focused on men, and you're talking to book, I was talking about how men had mind, women, and achievements and social success. Can you talk about what your motivations behind? This research was and invites do you have for Matt. Yes. So the most recent thing I've been doing is focusing on why young men around the world, including America are failing academically socially and sexually and got interested in. I'm not a game player in general. Certainly not a video game player. But I had students at Stanford had my son Adam were addicted to video games, and in those days, you put a quarter in the machine, and you you work some and now video game is right here with you all the time. And there are people who now play not people men mostly. It's like ninety percent of men. Ten percent of women are addicted to video games was addicted mean, they play ten or more hours every night. Okay. And if you doing that, what are you not doing you're not exercising? You're not taking time out to eat. You're not doing your homework. Not doing anything creative. You're not taking hikes. If you're on sports teams, you give that up. You don't have time for friends of girlfriends, and then what's happened. Now in the last few years, suddenly here's online free pornography, which as an old timer. You had you had to go to a dingy penny. Arcade, put a quarter in the machine to watch a black and white French pornography film. And now you press a button, and there it is. And so now what was saying as young men with a double addiction addiction to video games edition pornography? And it's and again what I say throughout is his nothing wrong with either. I mean, I'm not I'm not pejorative. It's only when it's done in social isolation giving up friends, and it's done in excess because inaccessible is whole realms of your life that you are giving up. And so a lot of evidence is failing and high school that dropping out. Of school as soon as they can the dropping out of even college the giving up girlfriends, and they live in this world. We're on the video games, they dominate they control the enemy and world of warcraft. Pornography is these beautiful studying. Modern naked women who pretend they wanna make love to you only going to cost you a dollar a minute. So it's free. Once you get in. Then then you become we've become hooked. Now on the other side. So I wrote a book about why young men are struggling why young men failing? The the interesting thing is women are succeeding better than ever not because MENA failing but women simply working hard women doing all the things menus to do. But doing it better better smarter wiser so last year around the world women got more of every advanced degree bachelor degree, massive PHD more and even engineering now there's still a glass ceiling where there's some men at the top that, you know, keep keeping the powerbrokers. But I think that glass Healey is going to be broken soon. Hopefully. And so you've had a long story career even a lot of different things. And right now this point six decades worth of work is the hero. Welcome education project. You're only project are doing right now. Or what else are you are you doing? Well, the hero project is the main thing I literally go around the world to these different countries through training. But I'm on my way in a few weeks to nonce France where we have an international. Time perspective conference where Pete research. Researchers scientists business people artists come together. And we meet every two years so immediate and France. Now in non last year we met in Copenhagen two years before we met in Warsaw two years before that in Coimbra portrait Portugal. So that's really exciting. I'm the grandfather most of these this movement because I developed a scale which people use freely around the world. As long as they share the research. So we meet we talk about the research. We talk about how how have we shape? Our lives to make make lives of filling and exciting. So so the hero project is is one dimension. The time perspective is the other dimension. The thing I forgot your question. What came out of the prison study was shyness actually shyness is the thing. I would like to be most remembered for because Stanford. So because what is shyness it? The interesting thing. It's a social handicap people limit their freedom of speech freedom of sociation. And the curious thing is nobody says, hey, you're a shy person say, I'm shy person. Therefore what I can't do ABCD. So in a way, I conceptually shyness as a self imposed psychological prison. It's it's a prison in which you are your own guard and your young prisoner. So the guard tells the prison you can't talk to her. You can't ask the boss for raise. Even though you deserve it. Don't raise your hand to answer the question, even though you know, the answer you gotta make people gonna laugh at you. And the prisoner. You says okay, and the more you say, okay, you low yourself with scene, and that's the formula for shyness so began to study shyness nineteen seventy two the year after the prison study, I've form the Stanford shyness project we began to do research on China's and in nineteen seventy two zero research on China's in all of psychology. And so we did research, and then my student said, hey, we know a lot. Why don't we try to help others shy students? So we formed the Stanford China's clinic, and we were incredibly successful because we knew exactly what China's was it's either you don't have the social skills have negative cognition, which we can change and where you have. Physiological arousal you blush. And so for each person, we found out what how does your house your shyness manifested? And then we could focus in we could change this this and this, and we were incredibly successful. Forty years later are shyness clinic is still operating in Palo Alto university. So for me, that's the model. Get you get an idea you do research on it you get data. And I wrote a book shyness what it is what to do about it, which is very successful another book the shy child. And then you convert that into a therapy that helps people and so for me that's model. An idea research share your ideas in therapy, share your ideas in the public domain through. We wrote articles for psychologists, but also the general public. Pleasure speaking with doctors. Thank you. Thank you for joining us on our podcast. It's great to be here. Speaking of psychology is part of the ata podcast network. Which includes other great podcasts like APA journals dialogue about the latest and most exciting psychological research and progress notes about the practice of psychology. You can find our podcast on itunes, Stitcher, or wherever you get your podcast. You can also visit speaking of psychology dot org to find more up associates and other resources for the topics. We discuss I'm your host Caitlyn Luna for the American psychological association.