29 Burst results for "Josh Clark"
"josh clark" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Welcome to the podcast time Josh Clark and there's chose to be took pride in those cheery and we're about to try some physics yeah this is your body tries yeah this did not break my brain like I thought it would yeah I think it's a pretty surface level explanation but it like it gets the point across and I don't see any reason for us to try to go any deeper I don't think we very quickly spin out of control like a up down Cork or something yes so dark matter is invisible glue that holds everything together the end the we just don't know what it is now we'll get into it but you might notice dear listener a new thing in your feed popping up next week next week next Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday is we are debuting a new thing called short stuff which is just the cutest name yeah this is stuff you should know short stuff I guess is the full name probably or not who cares yeah but it's just it's a stuff you should know up so did you mean Jerry but over the years of of recording like we get these lists of topics we want to do so many looks and this one like part of the list just kept getting bigger and bigger and bigger because they're like topics out there that are really interesting but they're just not big enough for a full episode even with tangent upon tangent and we could have like we could have been like all put like three of them together randomly we thought about doing that yeah just didn't feel right so what we did was spin off like a new podcast called short stuff which is just a smaller sized episode of stuff you should know just because the topic wasn't quite big enough to warrant a full episode or large size of his own we're doing a small size upside yeah so look for like ten to fifteen minutes tops I think we're in the wheel house of about twelve minutes we seem to like magically hit twelve every time yeah and it's like it's kind of fun I think it's a it's a great idea I'm I'm really happy with them yeah same here and I think the first four we recorded we didn't know what we're going to call it yet right and I don't believe we went to the trouble of going back and changing that we have it we might do that we do in the cherry she just shrugged no she said I said that sounds like our yeah it would be just like us to just sort of while our way into this thing sure and which is exactly what we did but hopefully you guys enjoy him didn't cost anything yeah so don't complain actually because if they're way off base here they could be better we want to hear about no I think people be like oh this is just like a little bite sized stuff you should know something exactly what it is it's like a snickers manager but of stuff you should now that's right and you know our love of small things here especially snickers like tiny Tabasco bottles this is the tiny Tabasco bottle version of a ridge of those things are ice list all right so physics dark matter go let's do this all right so this wasn't as hard as I thought no it is actually pretty easy to get across yeah here's the thing so astronomers have gotten to the point is starting in about nineteen twenty on yeah a strong numbers in physicists and astrophysicists and even particle physicists got to the point where all of their combined knowledge was refined enough that they could look out into the universe and be like we can figure out how much this ways right to put it more scientifically we can figure out what the mass of the universes it's going to take a really long time but we are now at the point where our level of observation and our level of understanding of physics is is such that we can do it we're there now yeah and it's not just like oh well that way is this the end right like knowing something's mass tells you a lot about it the way it behaves and the the nature and future of the universe is we'll see yeah for sure so it's not just wait it's it's more complicated than that and what weight can tell us right the problem is you can't just like put a galaxy or star something on the scale broke the scale pretty quick it actually vaporized but the the there are ways you can infer the mass of something yeah one of the ways that you can infer the mass of a star from what I understand is to measure its luminosity how bright it is yeah I've also heard that it's a mixed bag because it seems like it could have doing this they have different different sizes in their life span yeah I I've just heard luminosity in mass is not is not just straight forward sure like it like most things in astrophysics are yeah that's the word on the street right so when they started getting to the point where they could infer the weight of a star or the galaxy or a galaxy cluster which is basically like a galaxy of galaxies yeah this Sir did notice something really weird all the matter that they could see the stars the gas clouds the cosmic dust the everything matter things that make up you in media things that everything has a a common basic unit and Adam is made up of elementary particles like protons and neutrons electrons matter every non living and living thing on in the galaxy you would think is made of matter the problem is they started finding that you know this galaxy over here in this galaxy cluster in everywhere we're looking the dim amount of matter that we're seeing is way too small for the amount of mass the thing we're looking at appears to have been a cosmological mystery was launched what the heck is going on was the question of the day yeah so all that matter that we know about the call that baryonic matter and they were like this the the calculations are offer something like there's got to be something else there to account for this well that's the two the two possibilities well sure in so way back and Jeez was at nineteen thirty two an astronomer the Dutch astronomer name Jaan Hendrik who worked mmhm because he's Dutch sure he actually I believe was the first person to use the term dark matter is that right that's what I thought so dark matter is a it is a sort of a place holder name for what they came up with for this for lack of a better word this invisible matter that has to be out there mmhm is this for like a window like you can't see wind but that doesn't mean it's not out there because you can measure it in different ways see how it reacts on other things right and so they they called start going in dark matter right this invisible well we'll talk about what ends up sort of looking like in a minute I will give that away yet right but this invisible matter that they think is there right but it doesn't it doesn't emit or absorb light or electromagnetic magnetic energy so it's it's way different it behaves differently such that the people were very confused as to as to what the heck was going on and they still are yes Sir so there isn't so this term dark better like you said it's a place holder and it's a place holder for the current point we are in our understanding of the universe which is when we look out at galaxy clusters in galaxies and all this stuff there's not enough matter to account for the amount of mass they were seeing so again that means one of two things either there's something there that we can't detect or our our understanding of physics is off in the term dark matter stands for both of those it could be a thing and yet there's covered particle or something like that or it could be a mis understanding of physics that we need to eventually correct either way there's a lot of mass that is unaccounted for throughout the universe and it seems like there's a lot more what we call dark matter yeah then there's regular matter and the more we look into it the more it seems like there's something there that we haven't discovered yet yes the right now baryonic matter all the stuff that we know about ounce for about four and a half percent twenty three percent of where they take dark matter then we have something that I don't even know if I ever wanna cover called dark energy which makes up the other seventy two percent but they know it's there because there's something out there that we can account for that has a significant gravitational force right that's where the whole the whole thing started where they first detected it right so when they first started looking out at galaxies and stuff like that there's this whole thing that Newton came up with the second law of motion yeah where and this is like a tried and true law it's a law this is a new and suggestion of motion right Newton's second what about this of motion it's a will a scientific law that it is is proven and accepted as a scientific observation can be is to be made a law in it said that when you're looking at a galaxy far far away ended the most of the matter is accumulated toward the center of the galaxy that means most of the masses accumulated toward the center okay yes okay so that means that the stars near the center are going to spin they're going to rotate around the the galaxy a lot faster than the ones on the fringes because the ones on the fringes are going to go a lot more slowly because they're further away from that center of mass so the gravitational pull is going to be weaker yeah I mean that's the easiest way to say it is in the center you have more mass more mass means things are spinning faster there's more gravitational pull right so all these strong numbers supposed like you said the stuff on the outskirts are probably hanging out there's been a lot slower right well when they look to they found that's not the case at all as a matter of fact the stars on the outsider spinning around the center of the galaxy just as fast as the stars near the center of the galaxy which makes zero sense yeah it's almost as if they're some invisible force help here right I like if you look at this if you look at this some this galaxy the situation that they started to find and it wasn't just one galaxy they they found in this galaxy to in this galaxy to an even stranger than that they found it in those clusters as galactic clusters so rather than stars that make up a galaxy this is galaxies making up a huge giant make a galaxy the same thing happened the galaxies on the outer edge of the cluster worst.
How Did Clickers Save Lives on D-Day?
"Today's episode is brought to you by Oregon. You know, when something goes wrong at home, and you just freak out, I have definitely had my moments especially when it comes to pests ants in the mirror. Nara, cockroaches hanging out around your bubble bath and uninvited rat, a your daughter's birthday party. Don't let pests ruin the moment, get an architect out to your house tomorrow. Bill, protect your time and your temper. Visit organ dot com slash brain to save fifty dollars on your first general pest service with the promo code pod. Fifty that's peo- d five zero Oregon home is where the bugs aren't. Welcome to brain stuff. A production of iheartradio. Hey, brain stuff. Lauren Vogel bomb here shortly after midnight in the early hours of June sixth, nineteen forty four nearly twenty thousand allied paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines to be the first soldiers on the ground on d day conditions were terrible that cloud, cover, and fog made it nearly impossible to spot their landing targets and the night sky was pierced with Nazi heavy anti aircraft rounds and Steiber fire for those paratroopers, who made it to the ground, many were separated from their units and unsure of their locations alone in enemy-held territory. They had to find their comrades in the fog, blanketed dark without tipping off the enemy good thing. They had their clicker. Hours earlier when boarding the transport aircraft back in England. Members of the United States one hundred and first division were each handed a small metal box that would serve as a low tech emergency communication device by pushing down on the list of the box with the thumb and releasing it made a sharp clicking sound their instructions were simple. If you're on the ground, and here's someone approaching click once two clicks reply means a friend. No, click could be in trouble. Twenty four hours after landing. The paratroopers were told to ditch or hide their clippers allied commanders were worried that the devices would fall into Nazi hands and be used trick allied soldiers into thinking that an approaching fo was friendly, the day clippers were only an action for twenty four hours, but who knows how many lives were saved by the simple, ingenuity. Inspired by the seventy fifth anniversary of the day invasion. This year, the British company that made those original day clicker is on a search and rescue mission of its own of the seven thousand clicker is manufactured by acme whistles during World War, Two less than a dozen have been recovered. Now. The company has launched a worldwide campaign to find the loss. Deta- clicker and learn the stories behind the brave troops, who carried them we spoke with Ben McFarland, the head of sales, and marketing at acme whistles, which still manufactures whistles in the same Birmingham England factory that took a direct hit from Nazi bombers during the war. He says that the few confirmed clippers in circulation are all held by museums and private collectors, acme whistles itself doesn't possess even one of the original clippers, although it sells an exact replica made with the original machine presses just because there have been so few recovered DJ clippers it doesn't mean that there are not more out there. Mcfarland, said it just means that people don't know that they've got them acme was those has been businesses. Eighteen seventy and is responsible for a number of important whistle. Firsts. It's founder Joseph Hudson. Invent? The first police whistle used by the London. Metropolitan police prior to that the Bobby on the beat used a wooden rattle. Hudson. Also invented the very first sports, whistle the original acme thunder before that football referees. That's soccer to Americans in the UK waved, a white handkerchief to get the players. Attention, not quite as effective. But back to the clippers since the clippers were exclusively supplied to the US, one hundred first airborne McFarland, expects that many reside in America either handed down as heirlooms from generation to generation, or in the hands of antiques collectors, who may not know the Geraldo providence of these humble looking boxes, the day, clicker, also known as the acne cricket was originally used by marching band leaders to click out the tempo of piece of music. They're made of brass and are half open rectangular boxes about the size of the top joint of thumb by half open. I mean that one short end in parts of two walls, are busy from the design the remaining short end is labeled with the acme made an England if you think you're in possession of an original day, clicker MacFarlane wants you to. Email him personally at Ben dot McFarland at acme whistles dot CO dot UK. He's already heard from at least one American woman who appears to have the real deal acne was those plans to invite all clicker owners to England take a tour of the factory receiving engraved, commemorative whistle and share the story of the brave paratrooper who carry the clicker into combat on the day. This episode was written by Dave rou and produced by Tyler Clegg, brainstorm is a production of iheartradio's, how stuff works for more in this most of other topics designed to make a very specific ruckus. Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com and for more podcasts from iheartradio. Visit the iheartradio app, apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Hi there. This is Josh Clark, and I am taking my show, the end of the world. With Josh Clark on the road. Live to Minneapolis in DC this June on June nineteenth, I'll be at the Parkway theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota and on the following night June twentieth. I'll be at the miracle theatre in Washington DC, if you've heard the end of the world ten times already, or if you've never heard a second of it, it matters, not because this show, explores themes, covered in the end of the world and also chases down, new avenues, like, how good could things be if we managed to survive the next century or two. So come see me this June nineteenth and twentieth in Minneapolis in DC.
Can Galaxies Exist Without Dark Matter?
"This episode is brought to you by the Capital, One saver card, earn four percent cashback on dining and entertainment. Two percent at grocery stores and one percent on all other purchases. Now when you go out you cash in what's in your wallet terms apply. Welcome to brain stuff. A production of iheartradio. Hey, brain stuff. Lauren Bogle bomb here. Dark matter. Sounds a little mysterious because it is it stuff. We can't see with any existing telescopes but that math and physics tells us must exist based on the way that normal matter the stuff we can see babes. And there's a lot of dark matter out there astrophysicists think the twenty-seven percent of the universe is made up of dark matter. Compared with only five percent normal matter, meaning that the term normal probably isn't the most accurate dark matter is the bedrock that all galaxies are anchored to you can't get one without the other. Or so we thought until strana mors found ghostly galaxy. The doesn't appear contain any dark matter. It's as if the universe is planning trick on us by flipping the laws of physics on their head dark matter should be there. But isn't it's a game changer galaxy astronomers are saying, and it's like nothing we've ever seen before we may not be able to spot dark matter. But astronomers can measure its gravitational effects acting on normal matter. For example, they can look at how fast stars cruise around galaxy when dark matters. Isn't that galaxies gravity will be bulked up causing it starts to move faster than if just normal matter were present? But in the case of N, G C one, oh, five two dash d f to an ultra diffuse. Galaxy located sixty five million light years away. Astronomers found that it stars are moving in exactly the way that would be predicted if only the total mass of all the visible stuff is considered. In other words, dark matter doesn't seem to be exerting its gravity on normal matter in that galaxy. And that's weird. Peter von doco of Yale University, sudden statement finding a galaxy without dark matter is unexpected because this invisible mysterious substance is the most dominant aspect of any galaxy for decades without the galaxy start their lives as blobs of dark matter after that everything else, happens guests falls into the dark matter halos, the gas turns into stars. They slowly build up, then you end up with galaxies, like the Milky Way this galaxy challenges the standard ideas of how we think galaxies form ultra diffuse galaxies auditees in their own. Right. Having only been discovered in two thousand fifteen as they are very difficult to detect. However, it appears that this class of galaxy is common but none are like the one in question. The galaxy was discovered using the Dragonfly telephoto array telescope in New Mexico. That's custom made to seek out these allusive targets. Then using a set of twin ten meter optical and infrared telescopes in Hawaii, the Stromer signaled out ten bright, globular clusters, which are large combat groups of stars orbiting the galaxy's core. They let us spectra. Data to measure their motions these clusters were found to be plotting along more slowly than expected. Meaning there's far less mass in that galaxy then would be predicted. In fact, there's so little mass that the researchers have come to the astonishing conclusion that there's little if any dark matter their follow up observations were made with Gemini north telescope. Also in Hawaii. So the galaxy structure could be studied with geminis help the researchers ruled out interactions with other galaxies, as being the cause of it's weird dark matter deficit. Ben dot com said in the press. Release, if there's any dark matter at all. It's very little the stars in the galaxy can account for all of a mass, and there doesn't seem to be any room for dark matter. This finding seems to suggest the dark matter has quote its own separate existence apart from other components of galaxies, he added and this makes the very existence of this galaxy of mystery if it has no dark matter how did even Volve into a galaxy in their study published in March in the journal nature then doco teams speculates that some cataclysmic event in the galaxy. He may have cleared out all the dark matter and blasted away all the star forming gases alternatively a nearby massive, elliptical galaxy may have played a role in the current galaxies lack of dark matter, billions of years ago when it was undergoing, it's early and violent stages of evolution. Now, the researchers are pouring over Hubble space telescopes observations of similar galaxies, to perhaps find more that lack dark matter, if they find more than alternative fuels and faint galaxies might be the norm when dark matter isn't present, and that's a fascinating development in our understanding of how galaxies evolve. Then dot com concluded every galaxy we do about before has dark matter. And they all fall in familiar categories like spiral or elliptical galaxies. But what would you get if there's no dark matter at all? Maybe this is what you would get. Today's episode was written by Dr Ian O'Neill, and produced by Tyler clang brain stuff is a production of iheartradio's, how stuff works for more on this, and lots of other dark topics. Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com and for more podcasts for my heart radio, I heart radio app, apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Hi there. This is Josh Clark, and I am taking my show, the end of the world. With Josh Clark on the road. Live to Minneapolis in DC this June on June nineteenth, I'll be at the Parkway theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota and on the following night June twentieth. I'll be at the miracle theatre in Washington DC, if you've heard the end of the world ten times already, or if you've never heard a second of it, it matters, not because this show, explores themes, covered in the end of the world and also chases down, new avenues, like, how good could things be if we managed to survive the next century or two. So come see me this June nineteenth and twentieth. Minniap- in DC.
What Is the Humboldt Ocean Current?
"Today's episode is brought to you by gravity blankets. They make weighted blankets these blankets that contain fine grade glass. Beads to weigh them down when you curl up under one it's supposed to simulate the feeling of being gently held her hugged. They sent me want to try out. And I genuinely love this thing it is so comforting and relaxing. It puts me in the mood to sleep right away. The microphone duvet cover is incredibly soft, and has these ingenious little internal clasps to keep it in place if you'd like to try a gravity blanket for yourself. Let them know that we sent you and get fifteen percent off your order by entering the code brain stuff at checkout. It's one word. That's gravity. Blankets dot com. Promo code brain stuff. Welcome to brain stuff. A production of I heart radio. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb here in December eighteen o two small sailing. Ship called the casino set sail from Peru northward along the South American coastline toward Gua quill in present-day Ecuador, a trip of about seven hundred miles or about one thousand one hundred kilometers one of the ship's. Passengers was thirty three year old Prussian aristocrat Alexander von Humboldt. A mining engineer by training Humboldt had an insatiable curiosity about nature that led him to roam the planet studying plants and animals as well as phenomena ranging from magnetic rocks to river systems in ocean currents fresh from studying the value of bat guano as minority because y'all humble used the sailing trip to investigate a powerful cold current that flowed from the tip of Chile to northern Peru ranging from just offshore to about six hundred miles off the coast. That's just under a thousand kilometers the current existence had been known for centuries to sailors and fishermen, but no scientists had ever systematically studied the flow Humboldt carefully measured the water temperature. The speed and continued on his journey, which eventually would lead him to Mexico. Humbles work was the beginning of scientific understanding of what's now known as the Humboldt current or the Peru current the current helps hold warm moist air off the coast keeping the climate cool. It also pulls plankton rich water from deep in the Pacific to the surface. Feeding a vast number and variety efficient birds and creating the richest marine ecosystem on the planet. It's fishing grounds. Provide about six percent of the world's catch and the Humboldt Kerns nutrients support the marine food chain of the Galapagos islands and influence its climate as well, it has helped make possible the archipelago's incredible bio-diversity in that sense. The Humboldt current also helped shape the development of evolutionary theory, the Galapagos provided the living laboratory for another nineteenth century scientist, Charles Darwin, who's paradigm shift and work on the origin of the species was published in eighteen fifty nine the year of humbled death. Darwin himself was inspired by the work of Humboldt who might be the most important scientists that we don't care much about the early to mid eighteen hundreds though, he might have been the most renowned researcher on the planet. I'm what was the first to investigate the relationship between mean temperature in elevating and came up with the concept of maps with isotherm aligns the delineate areas with the same temperature at a given time he did important early work on the origin of tropical storms. Most importantly Humboldt altered the way that scientists see the natural world by finding interconnections. This scientists invented the concept of a web of life. What he called this great chain of causes and effects some consider him to be the first to college issed. He was a head of the curve on understanding environmental problems such as deforestation and its effect upon climate, which he I observed around lake Lancia in Venezuela back in eighteen hundred Humboldt was also predecessor to Albert Einstein as a scientist with a strong interest in social Justice. He was a critic of colonialism and supported revolution. Mary movements in South America. And also criticized the US a country, he otherwise admired for its institution of slavery. We spoke by Email with Aaron Sachs history, professor at Cornell University and author of the Humboldt current nineteenth century exploration. And the roots of American environmentalism he thinks that rather than focusing on humbled scientific discoveries. It's more important to look the insights and approaches to the work that we're based upon his research and observations he said to me his version of ecology was significant not just because he stressed interconnection. But because he combined it with a social and ethical perspective. The fact of interconnection had certain implications with regard to human responsibilities toward each other and the environment. It was a cosmopolitan open minded ecology. Today's episode was written by Patrick j tiger and participate. Tyler claim brain stuff is production of iheartradio's. How stuff works for more on this and lots of other interconnected, topics? Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com. In for more podcast, my heart radio, I heart radio app, apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Hi there. It's me Josh Clark. And if you love the beautiful musical score that point Lobo created for the end of the world of Josh Clark. Then you can rejoice. It's now available as the original soundtrack album sixteen tracks selected and remastered by point logo capture the highs the imagination and the far out of the series, and they all come together to make really great album. It's like the spirit of the series now in a convenient capsule. You can get the end of the world with Josh Clark original soundtrack album everywhere. You get music online apple music, I tunes iheartradio Spotify. Amazon everywhere. Could check it out today.
"josh clark" Discussed on Stuff They Don't Want You To Know Audio
"Hello, welcome back to the show. My name is Matt my name is no they called me. Ben we are joined with our super producer Paul mission control deck. Most importantly you. Are you you are here that makes this stuff? They don't want you to know, gentlemen. We are at the end of the year. And today we were talking about the end of the world. Yes. How humanity shall perhaps perish? Yes. We do a better job in fixings. Yeah. Yeah. Sure. We're we're going to be able to fix it. Now, we are not confronting these existentialist threats alone. Today, we are joined with an expert and a friend of the show longtime friend of ours. Both on and off the air. He's kind of like our big brother in a way, friends and neighbors, Josh Clark. Hey, guys. Hey, man. Thank you for having me on always thought of us. A bit of a big brother figure doesn't feel like you're always watching. And that's a little more my style for sure. In the huggy K. You can do it in my mind is more of watching you walk and then trying to find a way to fit in those footsteps at least in some small like gate kind of. Yeah. Yeah. Really just try and explain so much. Gate is more of like, it's kind of like a speed walk slash Jazzercise cross things. So it's tough to replicate. Matt seen you try the door will thanks. So hopefully, hopefully met you will have some time to perfect that gate, and that leads us to the big question. Josh, you recently created a podcast called the end of the world, and one of the questions that a lot of people have when we talked about the end of the world is really a question of time line, you know, tick tick tick tick tick how much time does Matt Frederick have to practice his gate ma-. I would give you one to two centuries tops. Whoa. Which which sounds like a lot of time. Does your you're like, well, I'll be long in the grave most likely, although I don't know you might live to a substantial portion of that. But if you step back and think what about the children, what about the grandchildren? What about the future humans who will will come down the line over the next hundred two hundred years, and then if you look beyond that and really take a step back and look at? Just how long some people expect humanity to continue on into the billions of years. All of a sudden the idea of going extinct in the next hundred two hundred years, suddenly become really terrifying and scary if you can kind of step outside of yourself, we'll quickly. Let's just get kind of an idea of what happens if humanity. Just does great. We don't we don't kill ourselves off some giant external thing doesn't wipe humanity out that billion years, then you talked about for humanity is is that cutoff date when the sun, essentially creates all death everywhere in our solar system. Right. Yeah. Yeah. That's a that's a thing for sure. A lot of people say if you Manitoba didn't do anything just kept plotting along. And rather than doing everything, right? We just kind of got lucky at every possible break. Okay. A billion years is about how long we would last because that's about how long the earth will last in in its place in the solar system. The sons. To grow. And it will eventually basically swallow the earth just totally subsume it. Yeah. Everything. Yes. It's going to it'll be bad news for the earth. But we've got a good billion years. We can have a lot of fun and do a lot of cool stuff in a billion years. That's the low end. Right. That's if we do nothing, but just hang around on earth. But alas people are kinda dumb. You could make that case. It's true. But, but there's also a lot of hope to future ingenuity. And then also I think as far as dumbness goes contemporary. It's more complacency than than being dumb. You know what I'm saying? It's almost like there's some weird death cult mentality. Among a lot of people on earth, which is like a few minutes. He goes extinct. That's just what happens. Maybe we deserve it, which drives me bananas that that sentiment. That idea. Maybe humanity deserves to go extinct we screwed it up for so long. Maybe this is what we have coming. I disagree with that tremendously..
Could Neanderthals Laugh?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m l s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb here for millennia humans and Neanderthals poor Neanderthals if you prefer coexisted in Europe, and your Asia, you've probably heard about it because apparently they all had sex. And now you might have around two percent Neanderthal DNA in your genome. It's a whole thing. So we know there might have been some Neanderthal slash modern human romance. But did they have any laughs together? Well that mostly depends on whether Neanderthals could laugh it's a tricky question, though, because what would enter of laughed at we modern humans laugh at all sorts of things depending on who you are. It's equally possible to guffaw at kittens playing as it is to giggle over a pound about chemical engineering. If that's what you're into. We know even less about Neanderthal theory of mind than we do about our own, but there's evidence that the idea that they were intellectually inferior to modern humans is bogus. And though, we don't rightly know what would have tickled them research on the volition of laughter supports the. Idea that Neanderthals were most likely heir to a glorious legacy of chuckles. That's because other great apes laugh. In fact, laughter in our filer genyk corner of the world is estimated to have evolved between ten and sixteen million years ago, it most likely evolved from the labored breathing that happens when you're playing or being tickled spontaneous laughter is something we all do within the first couple months of life, even in babies born Dafur blind. The main goal of laughter seems to be to create and maintain social bonds. We Nonni under thaws lived in small family groups, so although they might not have needed to have the social smarts to, yuck. It up at a comedy club given their lifestyle laughter. Probably would have been beneficial to them just as it is to us or ape chimpanzee. But a lot goes into laughter and the question of whether or not Neanderthals could laugh has two parts the first having to do with the ability of the Neanderthal voiced produce the sound and the second with whether or not they have the cognitive ability to find things funny. According to Dr Philip Lieberman, professor emeritus in the department of cognitive linguistic and psychological sciences at Brown. College Neanderthals definitely had all the vocal equipment required. To laugh. Neanderthals had a vocal set up very similar to humans, a larynx or voice box supported by a delicate horseshoe-shaped bone called the highlighted Lieberman explained. The lyrics produces acoustic energy that causes the vocal cords of the larynx to open and close and the super laryngeal vocal. Tract the space between the lips and the larynx changes shape with movement in the lips tongue jaw to make a kind of malleable organ pipe that helps us make vowel inconstant sounds. We share all this vocal equipment with Neanderthals. So it stands to reason that they're laugh would be similar to our own. The only difference of opinion. Among researchers here centers around whether the Neanderthals speaking voice was lower or higher than that of a modern human. So with that settled the next big question is whether Nandor falls had the ability to. Things funny enough to laugh at them, according to Lieberman, and some recent research, it's very likely he said EPA genetic evidence now shows that Neanderthal brains could execute complex motor axe. This means that Neanderthals could talk and had language as long as their brains could control the complex gestures that human speech entails. They definitely could have left. Today's episode was written by Len shields and produced by Tyler Clinton for more on this and lots of other topics little tickle you. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. The end of the world with Josh Clark is a ten part podcast series about all the ways we humans might accidentally wipe ourselves out in the next century or two and yes that sounds scary. This dangerous place other. I mean, the the universe is is the house going no care for life on earth and devastating. It brings a tremendous amount of energy with it flesh-eating, the earth surface embroiling alive, anything that can't take cover underground or new walk and mind boggling, if we accident trigger some sort of existential risk or exposed to an existential destructive event, that's sort of heat for humanity. And it definitely is all of those
BrainStuff Classics: Why Do You Hate the Sound of Your Own Voice?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m l s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren bomb. And today's episode is another classic from our erstwhile host Christian Sager. He's here to explain why we're all weirded out by the sound of our own voice. Hi, I'm Christian Sager and welcome to brain stuff. Have you ever heard a recording of yourself played back and thought, oh, why do I sound like that? I happened to me every time. I listen to this podcast. It is weird right? Usually our voices sound deeper. But when played back the way everyone else hears them, they're higher tenure. Why does it sound so different in? Why do we hate it so much well, the sound of your voice reaches your inner ear in two different ways, the vocal folds in your throat vibrate creating sound waves that travel through the air, but those sound vibrations. Also conduct through your body, particularly through your skull and bones are skulls lower the frequency of these later vibrations as they've bounce around inside our throat mouth neck before reaching the ear's cochlea through fleshy tissue in our heads. The surrounding bone spread out the vibrations lower their pitch in. Enhance the lower frequency vibrations. So your voice sounds fuller and deeper when we hear our voice played back on a recording. We don't get it filtered through flesh and bone what we're hearing. Then is only the air conducted sound of our voice as waves of pressure. These vibrations are caught by our outer ears and then transmitted through our ear drums where they vibrate. Three. Bony Ossika lls before reaching the cochlea in both cases. The cochlea converts these vibrations into impulses that are sent to the brain. But with the elimination of the bone conducted sound we end up hearing, our voice the way, everyone else hears it most of us have had this experience. And we hate it. We're used to the combination of the air conducted and bone conducted sounds of our voice, it's what we've lived with all of our lives. So of course, it's unsettling to hear something so different than what we're used to. But remember this. This is how your friends have been hearing. A new your whole life to them it is normal. So just relax and rest easy, knowing that everyone cringes at the sound of their own voice. Even Morgan Freeman. Well, everyone except Morgan. Episode was written by Christian and produced by Tyler playing for more than lots of other topics that'll shake you to the bone. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners today. I wanted to tell you about another podcast. But I think you might dig the end of the world with Josh Clark. It's a ten part audio podcast event. You might know Josh as the co host of stuff, you should know and for end of the world, he's launching into some even bigger questions than ever. Like are we the only intelligent life in the universe? Did something happened to all the other intelligent life. And if so are we next the common thread to these questions is exit stencil risks threats so extensive that just one single event could trigger a catastrophe that drives humankind to immediate and permanent extinction. You can binge the full season. Now. Listen subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
How Can I Donate My Brain to Science?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m l s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. I'm Lauren Bogle bomb, and you don't have to be sitting on a mountain of cash when you die to leave a little something for your loved ones and the rest of humanity. Researchers are looking for a few were lots of good men and women to donate their brains to science these gifts are key to research that may change the way a wide range of elements are treated, including Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. Of course, the idea of having your organs picked over by strangers when the sunsets on your time here among the living is enough to give some of us the willies. Here are a few things, you should know about donating your brain to science. Obviously the decision donate. Anybody part is something that you have to reach before you die. But it's also important that people know about your choice before you leave this world for whatever might come next brain donors body has to be refrigerated or the brain put on ice within six hours of death. According to researchers at Harvard University, but yes, you can still have an open casket funeral if you decide to give the gift of your brain after death a person's face and hair are not disturbed by the brain removal process. So your loved ones are still able to have that one. Last look if that's your preferred funerary practice, however, be aware that the procedure is not tax deductible. Sure. Agreeing to give up your brain or any other organ to science is one of the more charitable things a person can do. But that doesn't mean it's treated as a charitable donation for tax purposes, but you don't need to have a brain ailment to participate in a donation program. Researchers want access to healthy brain. So they can compare tissue to those with various diseases. By the way, the average adult human brain weighs about three pounds. That's one point three six kilograms or about two percent of a person's total body weight. If you decide to go ahead with brain donation. There are certain steps required to seal the deal doesn't making yourself as an organ donor on your driver's license alone. Does not give researchers the right to take your brain. But consent for brain donation can be given by next of kin immediately following death. So if it's something you want to do you should talk with your family and friends about it share your wishes and registered beforehand to donate, your brain. If you are interested renaissance for the brain donor project. It's a great starting place for information and resources. The episode was written by Chris up for and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other Brinkley, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners today. I wanted to tell you about another podcast. But I think you might dig the end of the world with Josh Clark. It's a ten part audio podcast event. You might know Josh as the co host of stuff, you should know and for into the world, he's launching into some even bigger questions than ever. Like are we the only intelligent life in the universe? Did something happened to all the other intelligent life. And if so are we next the common thread to these questions is ex-general risks threats so extensive that just one single event could trigger Tatra v that drives humankind to immediate and permanent extinction. You can binge the full season. Now. Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
What Can Probiotics Really Do?
"If you've ever wondered how the world might end, then my new podcast is right up. Your alley. It's called the end of the world with Josh Clark. And it's about the very real ways that humans might accidentally wipe ourselves out in the next century or two might it. Be artificial intelligence or a haphazard physics experiment or perhaps in altered virus that escapes from a lamp who knows the one thing that sure is ignoring the risks won't make them go away. So come listen to the end of the world with Josh Clark. You can find it on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Bogle bond here. What if you could take a pill that would treat depression, constipation, diarrhea eczema, urinary tract, infections and allergies while also preventing cavities and strengthening your overall, immunity, and what if it promised to shield you from the impurities of the world and reestablish a right and correct balance in your body's ecology. First of all everybody settled down. There is no such thing as a pill that does all of that. But to hear some people talk, probiotics might just come close the popularity of products containing friendly live microorganisms has exploded over the past decade at this point. You can walk into almost any grocery store and find probiotics in capsules lozenges. Gum facial toner, and yes, even in pet products. In addition to the more traditional delivery systems, like culture, dairy products yogurt and fermented products, like sauerkraut and Khumbu. Some folks are making a lot of money on these little bacterial helpers. But what are they actually able to do for us? And are they safe? We spoke with Dr Chris Irwin, a dietitian and lecturer in nutrition and dietetic at Griffith university in Queensland Australia. He said that unless you have an extremely poor diet or drink alcohol to excess. There's not a lot of evidence that a probiotic dietary supplement will help your overall health. He said if you're taking probiotics you'll likely. You need to take them every day, and it's best to feed the healthy bacteria with prebiotics. The bottom line is that healthy people are likely to get more benefit from getting regular exercise of waiting smoking or consuming too much alcohol and having a diet rich in foods that increase fiber and natural prebiotics intake like vegetables, fruits and whole grains, rather than consuming a probiotic supplement. However, probiotics might be an effective treatment for specific cases or conditions while there's not a lot of evidence. Supporting the idea that probiotics could help with your ex allergies or dental woes. Sorry, they might actually help people looking to avoid veteran east infections or upper respiratory infections picked up from a cold virus. Other. Studies have found that probiotics can help with digestive issues like irritable bowel syndrome, and may improve the frequency and consistency of your poop. So as a consumer what should you look for in a probiotic? If you want to get the most bang for your buck. Basically, you've got some homework to do. Irwin said a different probiotics. Strains have different effects. So it's important to look for a probiotic supplement that contains the strains of bacteria most likely to match your condition, the dose of bacteria called colony forming units or CFU is also important and should be high enough to meet benefits observed in clinical trials, the short answer here is if someone is looking for probiotic to take gopher something that provides the greatest diversity in bacterial, strains and the highest CFU. Irwin also suggests getting advice from your doctor or dietician for those strains that might be right for you. And making sure you're buying probiotic strains that are refutable and have committed to transparency in scientific research. However that ladder is more easily said than done. A study published in JAMA internal medicine in two thousand eighteen pointed out that there is very little government oversight of factories that manufactured probiotics and the US food and Drug administration or FDA found that about half of the six hundred and fifty factories that manufacture probiotic supplements in the United States were cited for violations most having to do with the product not living up to what was promised on the label. The study also said the probiotics may lead to infections in people with immune deficiencies. Another study published this year in the journal cell suggests some people may be resistant to supplemented probiotic bacteria, and therefore we'll get no benefit from it at all the researchers also investigated whether probiotics can help the gut microbiome bounce back after a round of antibiotics, and they found that though probiotics might have hell. With diarrhea related to the anti-biotics. They seem to have delayed the reconstitution of gut bacteria. Of course, more research is needed to understand just how helpful probiotics are to our overall health, and it's important not to give them more credit than their do. Irwin said. It's unlikely probiotic supplements are dangerous, but I don't think that they're a magic bullet L D people are likely to get more benefit from having a diet rich in vegetables, fruits and whole grains on the other hand if someone has a poor diet and doesn't exercise regularly their digestive bacteria may benefit from probiotic supplements. But they'll likely need to keep taking them to get lasting effects. States episode was written by just windshields and produced by Tyler playing for more on this and lots of other gutsy topics. Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com. Hey, their brain Steph listeners, we need your help. So the ads that you listen to make this podcast possible. But we want you to listen to ones that are actually useful. We have listener survey up on our show website, brain stuff show dot com, where you can go, and let us know what you're most interested in it should take less than five minutes. Just head on over to brain stuff, show dot com. And let us know. And thank you so much for listening.
How Did the Inca Knot Language Work?
"Hey, brainstorm listeners today I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten. Donovan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you new stories of the trials and triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff Lauren Vogel bomb here during the bronze age the Incas built the largest pre-columbian empire in the Americas extending along the west coast of South America from Bolivia to Chile they not only thrived in the harsh climate and dry steep slopes of the high Andes. They also served up masterclass and technical road-building that would have made the Romans quake in their sandals. Thank created a twenty five thousand mile highway system that's about forty thousand kilometers complete with rope bridges across treacherous mountain chasms. They also engineered millions of acres of high altitude terraced farmland and constructed an earthquake proof citadel on top of a craggy mountain peak one point five miles that's two point four kilometers above sea level, the even figured out how to freeze dried potatoes, but unlike the neighboring Maya and as techs and the ancient Mesopotamia's Chinese Egyptians, the Incan never developed a system of writing what they did have were keep Lou or not at length of cord made from Lana oral Pakowal or cotton. They hung in rows like. A curtain from a thicker central rope, which was sometimes coiled up to resemble the string mop these bundles were often color coded, although most surviving keep who are now a uniform camel color and could contain just a few strings or hundreds when the Spanish arrived and wiped out the entire in Kosovo ization, they found keep who everywhere but destroyed many of them in the nineteen s a science historian named Leland lock studying the keep who at the American Museum of natural history in New York City discovered the knots and the key PU represented numbers and the bundles of textiles were most likely recordkeeping devices similar to Advocacy's probably used to hold census data or to keep track of the contents of storehouses or how many lamas were paid tribute. He realized that the height of a not and its position on its cord civilized units tens hundreds thousands, and so on and the position of a string off the main rope could denote things like specific people or villages, but even after lock cracked the code. He noticed that some of the key. He studied seemed. To be anomalies. He figured these were used for ceremonial purposes. There are however anecdotal clues that entire narratives could be passed along through keep Oooo a one seventeenth century Spanish conquistador reported meeting an in-command on the road. Who carried keep Oooo that he said told of all the deeds of the Spanish in Peru. Good and bad. Keep who couriers reportedly ran all over the Incan empire. The cords looped over their shoulders, but finding living people now who can help researchers unravel. The secret of the nuts has proved very difficult. If not impossible so research has made slow progress in the past century since the early nineteen nineties Harvard anthropologist named Gary Burton has been working to decipher what if anything the key booze that don't fit the normal mold of accounting devices might mean collecting database of over nine hundred keep who in the process has discovered that beyond the position and height of the nods. There are other factors to take into consideration. When reading Kiu the color of the string. The direction. The knots are twisted and the type of knots used through cross-referencing, keep Kiu in the Harvard collection with Spanish documents from the exact time and location in Peru, where they originated he has recently been able to prove that the direction. The knots are tied in could note, which clans individuals belonged to another researcher named saving Highland at Saint Andrews university in Scotland has recently found that some keep who still exist within villages in the Andes the locals there has shared. Some new information about them, for instance, that the different materials used in the strings is significant and their understanding is that the devices were used to tell stories of warfare Highland. Also reports evidence of network symbols in the strings, it could be for all their ingenuity the Incas never learned to use symbolic written language, but it looks like they may have been just a little more creative with their storytelling than any other major civilization to date. Today's episode was written by Jesulin shields and produced by Tyler clang, her more on this and lots of other historical, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. The end of the world with Josh Clark is a ten part podcast series about all the ways we humans might accidentally wipe ourselves out in the next century or two and yes that sounds scary. Dangerous place other. I mean, the the universe is is the house going to no care for life on earth and devastating that brings a tremendous amount of energy with flesh-eating the earth surface embroiling alive. Anything that can't take cover underground Newark. And mind boggling we accidentally trigger some sort of existential risk or are exposed to an existential destructive event that sort of for humanity. And it definitely is all of those things, but it's hopeful to and in need you to listen and understand. So you can help save the future of the human race. Join me stuff, you should know. Josh Clark for the end of the world an immersive podcast experience available now on apple podcasts. The iheartradio. Uh-huh app and everywhere you get your podcasts.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"It's about here where the story begins of how Sern which actively messes with the mass and energy of particles took up a longtime quest to prove that it's large Hadron collider won't do humanity. Actually, wait. It begins a little before the L H C came along. The story really starts in nineteen ninety nine. That year was as far as anybody knows the first time anyone seriously raised the idea that a particle collider might be able to end the world. Scientific American magazine published a letter from a reader who wasn't. So sure that the relativistic heavy ion collider at the Brookhaven national lab in New York nicknamed the Rick was entirely safe. The reader was concerned that the Rick might produce a microscopic black hole kind of thing the hawking proposed when particles collided inside of it. Scientific American published the reader's letter along with a response by physicist named Frank will check and we'll check pointed out classical physics doesn't allow for microscope like holes to exist at all. That's point one point two was that even if the theories that include additional dimensions theories that are beyond classical physics and actually do allow for microscopic black holes to exist. If those additional dimensional theories turn out to be true, the energies of the particle collisions in the Rick. We're still far too low to actually create a microscopic like whole so no worries. There was one Maury. At least. We'll check did mention that it was much more likely. The Rick could produce an exotic type of matter called the strange lit strange. Lists are heavy particles made of smaller vibrations called strange quarks despite their heavier size. They're actually lower energy than typical strange. Works which means that the universe would prefer them over strange corks. It's just strange lists tend to dissolve very quickly because of their higher mass. The concern over strange Litz is that if one of them didn't dissolve into elementary particles. It could conceivably set off a chain reaction lowering the energy, but increasing the mass of the matter that makes up earth converting our planet and everything on it, including us into a massive in art dead. Bolck? We'll check offhand comment at the end of his reply set off a separate years. Log tangent of uneasiness an investigation into strange. Let's and whether they have the goods to pose an existential risk themselves, but at least microscopic black hole tear was put the bed. So it seems the terribly disconcerting idea of a man may black hole has a habit of winking into existence again and again. A couple of years after the scientific American readers black hole. Question was asked and answered the looming specter of a potentially world ending black hole created in particle collider rose again, like a new universe rising to replace an old one this time the collider and questioned was the large Hadron collider which was beginning to be assembled in Europe this time around the fears weren't quite so unfounded because the energies of the collisions in the large Hadron collider for an order of magnitude higher than the Rix high enough, in fact that if any of those multidimensional theories are correct the LHC should be fully capable of producing microscopic black holes inside of it. So capable in fact that a two thousand one paper by physicist, Stephen Giddings, called the L H see a black hole factory and calculated that it could produce a microscopic black hole every second. It's pro time beams for. Crossed. Now. It's here where certain began its longstanding quest to prove the large Hadron collider safe on the one hand, the idea that the Elliott see might be able to break open, the current understanding of the universe and point. Theoretical physicists in clear. New direction is intensely exciting for the particle physics community. But on the other hand Sern was much less excited about the idea of everybody else seeing their machine as a black hole factory that could end the world. And it's pretty easy to understand why the funding for Sern at any given point is precarious enough under the best of circumstances. They count on public funds from multiple nations and work under the threat of those funds drying up at any time and the stakes for keeping the large Hadron. Collider funded are very high. This is law. Professor Eric Johnson who has written extensively on the risks that come along with high energy physics experiments..
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Bacillus anthrax, the bacteria that causes anthrax. It had been weaponized to make it more easily inhaled in there for infectious. Twenty two people were infected by the spores and five of them died in America already gripped by panic the anthrax letters had a profound impact on the country's psyche. And it turns out that the source of the anthrax was actually a a lab at fourteen trick scientists there who really was somewhat mental in stable, and I think people should have known it. He was responsible for spreading that anthrax. I think that just scared the hell out of everybody. The problem is that even with the creation of ESL three and four labs with their astounding array of precautionary equipment and procedures the twenty first century has still seen a lot of high profile accidents from these lapse between two thousand four. In two thousand ten there were six hundred and thirty nine reported accidental releases of pathogens found on the USDA's list of biological select agents and toxins bacteria and viruses, like the Abullah virus, and the bacteria that causes the plague virus that causes SARS or all on the list. Those six hundred and thirty nine accidents represent just the ones that were reported and only then among those publicly funded labs that are required to report such accidents labs that don't receive public funding like those run by corporations or private groups. Don't have to report accidents like that at all. Back in two thousand fourteen a national institutes of health lamb in Bethesda, Maryland discovered. Six files of.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Efficient version of what's found in nature. What synthetic biology does actually is make literal use of the building blocks of life. Eventually synthetic biology aims to create a database of genomic codes that went inserted into an organism will produce a predictable trait. So this nip it is a gene that codes for proteins that creates bioluminescence, and when you insert it into e-coli it will make the bacterium glow like firefly, which is pretty neat. The common analogy is LEGO bricks synthetic biology community calls their genetic snippets bio breaks, but instead of plastic blocks synthetic biologists use jeans snap together as it were to radically alter existing species or to even create entirely new ones that have never existed before synthetic biology will eventually democratize biotechnology making it easier for people to enter the field. And this effort is already underway. MIT maintains a database of bio break. That anyone can access find the gene that produces the trait. You're looking for copy the genomic code of that gene and pasted into the order form of an online genetic synthesis lamb, they will produce those snippets of DNA ugly. Nuclear tides from simple sugars, which you can then insert into a host organism transforming it into a creation utterly outside of nature. This ability to create organisms from scratch at home, basically could be very beneficial for humanity. But it also poses huge new risks that have yet to be explored still the idea of something like a rogue biologist, creating a lethal virus Denault and releasing it under the human population occupies, a very small place. Among the worries of people in the biosecurity field in accident will release they say is much.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"In places the virus appeared the population fell by half. Two-thirds ninety percent in some places nine out of every ten members of the native American groups in contact with the Massachusetts bay settlers died from sixteen seventeen to sixteen nineteen the English Puritans who arrived the following year took it that God had cleared the land for them. During the sixteenth thirties half of the Iroquois confederation. And the here on around the Great Lakes died half in a decade, a single seventeen thirty eight outbreak killed half of the Cherokee tribe in the Carolinas Georgia in real numbers. These epidemics killed hundreds of thousands to millions of people at a time. Imagine a disease that can kill off ninety percent of the people in your town. It's no wonder then that smallpox is considered one of the deadliest viruses in the history of humanity. It is credited with killing half a billion people in the twentieth century alone. The first eight tenths of the twentieth century, I should say back in nineteen sixty six the World Health Organization of the UN lead a global vaccination campaign and by nineteen eighty it declared smallpox eradicated from planet earth. This is a pretty big deal along with the cattle disease called rinderpest that's related to the virus. That causes measles in humans smallpox is the only contagious disease humanity as ever managed to Aratu Kate right now, there is no living person on earth who has a case of smallpox. But that's not to say that the variable of iris is still alive and well. After the Aratu -cation campaign. The UN persuaded the global scientific community to give up its stocks of smallpox, and they were almost entirely successful. Save for two nations, which just happened to be the two most powerful on the planet the nuclear superpowers the Soviet Union in the United States. Those two nations decided that it would be better for them to keep their stocks rather than destroy them a sensibly this was for scientific research, but both nations have been known to run illegal biological warfare programs, and the idea of them maintaining stocks have smallpox made the rest of the world uneasy this being the height of the Cold War. No other nation was in much of a position to argue. So all smallpox samples on earth will be stored under secure conditions in two locations in Russia. They are stored at the state center for research on Veraldi and biotechnology inside. Syria in the US. They are held at the centers for disease control and prevention in Atlanta. Those two stockpiles still exist today. On a number of occasions. The UN again called for those stockpiles to be destroyed in nineteen eighty three two thousand seven and most recently two thousand eleven and it also tried to create a global agreement that once those final stocks were destroyed any nation. Call was smallpox could be charged with a crime against humanity. Unfortunately, in all cases, the UN failed and the smallpox stocks remained intact. Contagious disease. Researchers are divided on the wisdom of keeping these stocks the US in Russia continue to argue that we need to study very Ola. So we can understand how the virus co evolved with our immune system. Hopefully, we can use that knowledge to cure and prevent other diseases. The logic goes that if nature made smallpox from say camel, pox, it could create another pox on humanity. Studying smallpox could help us prepare for that. To plenty of other. Researchers though Aratu vary all of iris from the wild only to keep hundreds of samples of it in laboratories is madness. But regardless of where contagious disease, researchers fall on the matter most dismissed the idea of a smallpox epidemic as being a genuine threat to humanity. It could be utterly catastrophic for any community where the virus showed up true and that is bad enough. But because smallpox requires close contact for transmission, it would be relatively easy to contain an outbreak. And cut off the possibility of a pandemic it almost certainly does not pose an existential threat to humanity one that does the one that keeps researchers awake at night is the flu..
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Ingredient in a vaccine the virus adds it into the cell's genetic code along with its own genetic material the cell produces whatever it finds in its genetic code. Whether it was added there by a virus or by a human. It's pretty impressive. Researchers hijack viruses ability to hijack a cell Jackson ram. Shell chose the virus that causes mouse, pox, extra Melia as the vehicle for their vaccine normally Maoz pox kill a lot of the mice that were exposed to it in the study. But the researchers were using mice that had been previously vaccinated against mouse, pox, along with other mice that had been genetically altered to be totally immune to the disease few if any of the mice used in the study where. Expected to die from exposure to the mouse pox, but within nine days of receiving the vaccine every single mouse in the study was dead. The mouse pox had a one hundred percent mortality rate. It killed every mouse that had been exposed to it. The researchers found that the aisle for gene had indeed increased antibody production in the my says intended, but increased interleukin had another unanticipated effect. It also suppressed the mices cell. Mediated response a function of the immune system which wards off infections by viruses by adding the I L four gene to the mouse pox virus? The surge of interleukin told the mice's immune system to lay down its arms, which paved the way for total annihilation by the mouse, pox virus, even among mice that had been genetically designed to be immune to the disease. Jackson and ram Shaw. Had accidentally created a perfect killer of mice. Mouse pox bears resemblance to smallpox in humans. The two viruses are distantly related and it was not lost on ramp. Sean jackson. What would happen if their technique was used smallpox instead of mouse? Pox Jackson told New Scientist, it would be safe to assume that if some idiot did put human I'll for into human smallpox, they'd increase the lethality quite dramatically. Something like that would be monumentally bad smallpox is caused by the variable of iris. It's an ancient virus that has plagued humans for possibly long as ten thousand years, and it's believed to have made the jump from either camels or gerbils or possibly some extinct animal. We don't know about over to humans and spread along trade routes that crossed the Middle East to Asia. And then eventually west over to Europe, our earliest definitive evidence of smallpox dates back at least three thousand years found on mummies of people who lived millennia ago, including the gypsum pharaoh. Ramsey's the fifth Ramsey's appears to bear the sign of the virus the pockmarks that are left behind when the pustules that cover the body scab and fall off. Those pustules come at the final stage of a very difficult disease within a couple of days of being exposed to smallpox for the first time, you will be leveled by a fever and flu like symptoms. They incapacitate you for days source develop in your mouth, and they fill with fluid just as you overcome the fever and begin to feel better the mouth sores erupt, which releases the virus filled fluid into the rest of your body where reappears as those pustules masses of tiny bumps that cover the skin and concentrate around your extremities. The pustules scab over and eventually they fall off when the last one falls you are no longer contagious. If you survive the.
Why Does Hot Food Seem More Satisfying?
"Hello. I'm Kevin Pollak. Yes that Kevin Pollock. What's that? I did save room for pie. Thank you. And may I offer you a slice of my new comedy podcast. It's called alchemy. This. I've gathered five hilarious improvisers. And each episode. I set the scene and the comedy gold fills your life with undeniable joy, be the first yellow your friends about Kevin politics. New comedy podcasts. Alchemy this listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren Bogle von here. You know that ravenously hungry feeling you get after going swimming? It feels like you could go to an all you can eat buffet and make them rethink their business strategy, but although a salad or a granola bar or even the nice smooth. He would probably satisfy you a voice echoing out of the deepest recesses of your brain commands you to feed it something warm entire pizza perhaps or two giant Balza extra brisket. Please. There could be a lot of reasons why we crave warm foods when we're especially hungry, but one of them probably has to do with the link between smell and taste. We spoke with Dr Steven Sacher an associate professor in the university of Alabama department of biological sciences. Who studies the physiological design of digestive systems. He said hot food emanates much more airborne particles than cold foods. And since a large part of our taste sensation. Also involves smell hot food would therefore provide positive reinforcement and its selection. Just consider how quickly the smell of smoke from a barbecue can make you feel hungry or how no matter how tasty it will be a cold spot show. Simply doesn't stimulate the senses like a warm chilly. So even though we intellectually know that cold soup is going to be good in phila-. Sup are olfactory apparatus hasn't yet been appraised of the situation making it hard to get all the parts of the brain on the same Gus Baccio bandwagon, but smell may not be the only reason we crave a hot meal more than a cold one. Or rather it may signal a deeper reason since heating food on locks calories and nutrients, we wouldn't be able to get eating the food raw. And since our big brains are very calorie needy. Our preference for hot meals might have something to do with our brains steering us towards the most potential calories possible in the moment of hunger. According to Richard Wrangham, a biological anthropology at Harvard and author of catching fire how cooking made us human the important comparison is between foods that are cooked and differ. Only in temperature. He said. Hot food, very likely yields more net energy gain than cold food, partly because of changes in digest ability. One example is that starch becomes increasingly refractory after hot bread than cools. Which could be one reason why we like hot toast in the case of lipid, rich foods, the closer of fat is to its melting point when eaten probably the easier. It is digested however, Secker clarifies that chewing and the digestive process are both pretty good at unlocking nutrients. He said that once you've cooked hamburger, for example, eating it. Hot or cold would provide a negligible difference in calories consumed and digestion effort, but there's also the nostalgia factor. Smell is the most nostalgia triggering sense, researchers aren't entirely sure why this is. But they think it has to do with the physical way. Our brains handle information in the parts known as the limbic system. The limbic system includes the amid Dula which helps us process emotions the hippocampus which processes and stores memories and the olfactory bulb which. Passes sent input from our nasal cavity. There are direct connections. Among these three brain bits. Studies have shown that sense create more positive and more emotional senses of nostalgia than other triggers. And scientists think that's because of these close connections among sent emotion and memory in our brains while there might be some selected Dr hidden in our behavior to crave cooked food for nutritional gains are cravings and susceptibility to a rich sent in the air is very likely driven by a nice memory of the taste and smell of food right off the grill or the chicken soup that comforted you when you were sick a child, however, even small changes in temperature can make a big difference in how satisfaction food is perceived. It's important to remember that the texture foods and especially fats, like those cheese and cheese. Substitutes changes drastically within a relatively small temperature range, for example, cold pizza, delight or horror discuss. Today's episode was written by Jesulin shields and produced by Tyler playing for more on this and lots of other savory topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hi there. I'm Josh Clark of stuff, you should know. And I've just released a new ten part podcast series called the end of the world with Josh Clark. It's about existential risks all the ways that we humans my exit wipe ourselves out with the amazing new technology were beginning to develop today, like artificial intelligence. Sure, it's heavy stuff. But it's also enormously. Interesting stuff and surprisingly the series turns out to be kind of inspiring to search for it on apple podcasts. And check out the reviews from people who are already listening. It also has a lavish soundtrack with sound design by Kevin sends Ocoee and a beautiful original score by point Lobo. If you're curious person in a fan of the deep dive, check out my new series the end of the world with Josh Clark. You can find it on apple podcasts
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"A super intelligence. There are a lot of magic wands waving around here. But interestingly uploading a mind called. Whole brain emulation is theoretically possible with improvements to are ready. Existing technology. We would slice of brain scan it with such high resolution that we could account for every neuron synapse and Nanno leader of neuro chemicals and build that information into a digital model. The answer to the question of whether it worked would come when we turn the model on might do absolutely nothing and just be an amazingly accurate model of a human brain. Or it might wake up go insane. From the sudden novel experience of living in a digital world, or perhaps it could work the great advantage to using whole brain emulation to solve the friendliness problem is that the I would understand what we meant when we asked today Kate itself to looking after and providing for the wellbeing and happiness of all humans. We humans have trouble saying exactly what we mean at times in Boston points out that a super intelligence that takes us literally could prove disastrous if we aren't careful with our words suppose, we give in. AI the goal of making all humans as happy as possible. Why should we think that the super intelligent? I would understand that. We mean, it should purify air and water create a bucolic wonderland of both peaceful tranquility and stimulating entertainment do away with wars and disease and engineer social interactions. So that we humans can come for an enlighten one another. Why wouldn't they I reached that goal? More directly by rounding up us. Humans in keeping us permanently mobile doped up on a finely tuned cocktail of dopamine, serotonin oxytocin maximal.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Build structures to capture the energy from those bursts in store for later, but so long as we remain bound to earth, we will be vulnerable to the same threats that it is more. So really earth is likelier to bounce back from a cataclysmic asteroid or a gamma Ray bursts than we are. But there's an entirely different class of existential risks ones that we have a much greater chance of controlling because they are making. But also ones that pose significantly greater danger. These are anthropogenic existential risks. Genyk risks. However, we apply such an argument bounce the probabilities and to show that clad small I would say that maybe something like it was something like a one percent risk of extinction from anthropogenic causes in the twentieth century this century. I think it's growing my best. Guess would be something like one in six Russian roulette. And then next century if we don't get our act together even higher those technologies that pose an anthropogenic risk to us. We're beginning to develop them right now, some are already here, and almost no one is paying attention to the danger. They are bringing our way. On the next episode of the end of the world with Josh Clark. It was a cold windy day in January nineteen seventy nine when the robots took their first human life as we create more intelligent algorithms that are capable of improving themselves. We run the risk that they may take over their own development and quickly evolve. Beyond our control. There is no good outcome for us. If that happens. Hello earth. Actually. Hello universe. Yeah. We are here to tell you that. In addition to Tuesdays and Thursdays when you can get your regular stuff. You should know episodes. Just as you always have the last ten thousand years, a wait ten years ten years. We're now adding a whole new episode of a spin off show, that's really the same show. It's just a shorter episode. It's called short stuff. Yeah. We said, hey, sometimes we topics that maybe aren't robust enough to fill out a full forty five minutes stuff. You shouldn't have though, we don't wanna shortchange these topics these people. And so let's just make them short. Get over here. Short stuff and jumping our feet, right? Exactly. It's kind of like the Roper to our three's company. Yeah. Or it's kind of like after mash to mesh exactly, although it's like neither one of those because those were regular links. This is shorter everybody. Yep. So you can go to apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts. Or just look for it in your feet every Wednesday from your friends. Josh Jerry at stuff, you should know shorter is sometimes better.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"And so once the planet reaches the point where it can emit, no more infrared CO, two levels continue to rise, the tables can turn and it can be the carbon dioxide overwhelms earth. A runaway greenhouse effect is triggered when a positive feedback. Loop arises as the planet goes warmer, more water evaporates from the surface of the oceans water. Vapor is also particularly good at absorbing reflected heat trapping in the atmosphere. So the atmosphere goes even warmer causing more of the oceans to evaporate, adding more water, vapor to the atmosphere trapping more escaping heat warming, the planet even more in Evaporating more of the oceans, eventually it reaches a point where the entire planet becomes so hot that the oceans boil off. You'll be relieved to hear that. There is a point where the feedback loop is broken and the runaway greenhouse effect ends. But I regret to say that that doesn't happen until the atmospheric temperature reaches about three thousand degrees Fahrenheit. When the emitted heat moves to a wave link that water, vapor is incapable of absorbing. Long before that we humans would have ceased to exist and eventually with the oceans boiled off any life hanging on in. The seas would meet the same fate as us. This is what astronomers believe happened. Venus Venus is about the same sizes earth, but it's far closer to the sun. And it's not within the Goldilocks. It's not in the closest planet to the sun. That distinction goes to mercury, but it is the hottest planet in the entire solar system by far despite being almost twenty eight million miles further away from the sun. The mercury Venus is average surface temperature of eight hundred sixty four.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"And since they in one way or another feed the rest of life on earth. Everything still alive begins to starve, but as bad as the asteroid makes things for life on earth. It is made even worse by a fluke, a stroke of sheer, bad luck. The Yucatan the area where the asteroid strikes is one of the most sulfur rich areas on earth, and when that asteroid hit as much as five hundred billion metric, tons of sulfur instantly rose from deep inside the earth up into the atmosphere like dust rising from a table in a heavy book has dropped on it in the sky that sulfur mixes with water vapor in his bombarded by ultraviolet radiation from the sun. So it become. Sulfur aerosol type of atmospheric pollution that just happens to be the most efficient at absorbing sunlight and blocking it from reaching the earth. The sudden presence of aerosol in the sky makes the darkness complete so far aerosols also form acid rain and freshwater lakes in the surface of the oceans are poisoned by life on earth comes disturbingly close to total extinction. Millions of years later, humans will call this cataclysmic event, the Cretaceous tertiary extinction. It had such a profoundly colossal effect on the planet that it serves as the sudden and abrupt dividing line between one geological age Cretaceous, and the one that followed it the tertiary or paleo gene is it's called these days around seventy five percent of the species alive nurse at the time died during the event and the hard times that followed the asteroids arrival three out of four species does swept across earth in ways that lasted for tens of thousands of years. The species that did manage to survive head an extremely hard time of it. They hung on by a thread, in many cases, they were whittled down to just a few individuals that were somehow able to carry on their species animals that were able to burrow defeat off the carcasses of the unlucky ones, and whatever plants still reached up toward a son that no longer shown, those are the ancestors of everything alive on earth. Today, we are descended from the toughest band of animals that ever lived. But for most species of dinosaurs, fast, droid was the end of the light could aggress they succumbed to their existential threat. We know all of this. Thanks to a father son science team known as Luis Walter Alvarez as a geologist working in Italy in the seventies. Walter Alvarez found a thin layer of clay dating back to around sixty five million years before it was peculiar because of mmediately below the strip of clay. There was a wide variety of fossils of different types of forums. Tiny single celled organisms that have shells. But right above the clay. There was only one type forums are in excellent indicator species, the eat plants and animals that degrade on the sea floor, and they're very sensitive to changes in the environment. If something happens to forums. It means that something happened to everything else. Something definitely did seem to have happened to the forms around the time that Klay strip was deposited that drastically reduced diversity. There was something similar among plants too. Just below the clay strip where fossils of a wide variety of plants. We're just above the Rowley fern spores. Walter would have been surprised to know that the strip of clay he was scraping at with this child in the center of Italy was actually from Mexico. Walter head of very famous scientists dad, Louise, a physicist who developed the first atomic bombs for the US among many other things by the late seventies. When Walter approached his father with the curious fine of the Klay strip Lewis worked at one of the national labs where you had some colleagues who ran a mess spectrometer. He asked them to take a look at the samples of the clay layer what they found was surprising Klay layer contained about six hundred times more iridium than the layer above or below the clay. This is very weird because the rhythm which is a medal in the platinum family isn't found much in earth's crust. It certainly isn't found at six hundred times the background amount. It is however found in abundance on things like asteroids as Walter started. Looking around the world, he found that same clay layer at other sites, and it had all the same characteristics as the first site in Italy iridium aces in abrupt shift into..
BrainStuff Classics: What Causes Chapped Lips?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m l s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Pay rain stuff on Bogle bomb. And today's episode is another classic from our former host Christian Sager. He's talking about a topic that is increasingly relevant to my life. As winter sets in. Why do lips get chapped? Hey, I'm Christian Sager in this is brain stuff. I'm going to go out on a limb here and say you've probably had chapped lips at some point. Well, here's what's happening. Your lips are pretty delicate things in the one at the top. That's your labia m- surprise Auras. And the one on the bottom is your labia m- inferiors, or is collectively they form an enormously sensitive incredibly flexible part of your body, and it's tough to picture life without them. However, they also have some vulnerabilities, for instance, the skin of your lips is different from the rest of your face. Let's take a closer. Look. The outer layer is called the epidermis, and it has a protective covering called the stratum Cornelia underneath your epicure miss is another layer of skin the Durmus like the rest of your skin, your lips have all three of these layers. The difference is that the stratum m- on your lips is way thinner than it is anywhere else on your body. In fact, it's part of the reason people. Lips? Have that alluring red or pink pigment? It comes from underlying blood vessels red colored. Blood-filled capillaries close to the thin skin. On your lips next. Your lips. Also, don't have the oil and sweat glands that protect other parts of your body. Their only source of moisture is your saliva, and that's why they can easily become dry and chapped. And that's usually the culprit here hydration we often experienced chapped lips in cold weather, not because our lips are allergic to winter or anything. But instead because the outside air tends to be drier. And this also dries out the lips and this drying out is the leading cause of chapped lips also known as common Khayelitsha's. Luckily, there are some pretty simple ways to prevent this. I in no matter what the cause of your chapped lips might be stopped licking them. I know I know it can be difficult habit to break. But licking your lips can contribute significantly to dry cracked skin, the saliva evaporates quickly. Taking with it any moisture that was already on your lips and leaving them even drier, especially in winter air and speaking of amazing segues, let's tackle weather related Chapman. If you have very dry air in your house, consider investing in a humidifier. If you're outside them, protect your lips with the product that contains beeswax or Petra labrum, which will help maintain your lips hydration. If you plan to be out in the sun for awhile help prevent dryness by using a sunscreen on your lips as well a lip balm with SPF in it could help address both of these issues at once and as always drinking plenty of fluids is a great move for your entire body. Not just your lips. And that's it. Well, well, almost we didn't talk about the multiple other causes of chapped lips or lip balm addiction, or whether some of the ingredients in those things actually caused chapped lips which is an interesting little conspiracy theory. Today's episode was written by Ben bolan and produced by Tyler playing to hear more about fringe theories. But probably not too many involving chapstick tune into bends show stuff. They don't want you to know available wherever you get your podcasts. And of course, for more on this and lots of other protective topics isn't our home planet has stuff. Works dot com. The end of the world with Josh Clark is a ten part audio podcast series. Coming November, seven hosted by me stuff. You should know. Josh Clark the series explores existential risks threats to human existence that are so big so sweeping so utterly catastrophic. That they could bring about the sudden impermanent end to the human race. We're not used to these kinds of risks climate change nuclear war. These are terrible things, but they don't even register in the
The End of the World with Josh Clark Series Preview
"Hey, brain stuff listeners as a bonus for you today. I want share with you a preview for my compatriot. Josh clark. You may know him from a little show called stuff. You should know. He's got a new podcast series out on existential risks threats that could bring humanity to a sudden and untimely end in the near future. So here's a preview, featuring a clip about our potential to spread from earth. I'm stuff, you should know. Josh clark. I'm launching a ten part podcast series about all the ways humanity. My accidentally wipe ourselves right out of existence. It covers everything from whether we're alone in the universe to the evolution of life on earth from artificial intelligence to what goes on inside a particle collider. It is an immensely. Interesting deep dive into the world of existential risks, and I hope that you enjoy listening to it as much as I have making. I wanna share a preview of the series with you this clip comes from episode four and it features economist, Robin Hanson, creator of the great filter hypothesis, which is something we may have to contend with in the near future. When we settled down our cities developed agriculture can support more people than hunting and gathering and the more people. There are the more, brilliant ideas. There are two so our civilization began to advance by leaps and bounds in the last nine or ten thousand year ideas, spread more quickly among those people who live together in those new cities. So innovations were able to develop over the span of a handful of years rather than millennia almost everything we have in the world today can be traced back to our collective decision to settle down and raise crops. It was to say the least a sweeping change for us. Humans. With our next. Great leap spreading out into space. We are effectively doing the opposite of when we settled down into cities rather than contracting. We will be expanding from that huge coming together. We will spread out over time humans will begin to colonize other planets and generations of little human babies will be born on planets other than earth. They will be shaped by forces in experiences that no earthbound human will of ever encountered. And they will learn to adapt to their home planet. Just like, we did we are quite capable of becoming all the things that it's possible to become life that starts from us and radiates out cannot only spread to different places it can create different styles. Techniques and cultures and approaches all the life that you see on earth started out from a much smaller amount of Asian with time. It could explore lots of different niches and ways of living. And that's probably what would happen to us too. If we're the. Life around. We can survive we will radiate we will die become diverse and different and Phil thousand million billion different niches of different ways of being over time. Perhaps their physical connection to humans on earth will become distant enough that new species of humans will form and the universe will be home to more than one species of human again, just as it was fifty thousand years ago, we will become the aliens we seek and later on. They might be surprised to learn that they came from something that was simple and not as very it's odd to think of, but humans are inevitably -ciary bottleneck of our own right now, there's only one species of us, and with the exception of maybe half a dozen astronauts on the international space station at any given time we are all stranded on this island earth. Those astronauts aboard the ISS show just the famous beginnings of our future. If we become a spacefaring species. All of humanity's eggs will no longer be in just a one basket of earth should some catastrophe befall those of us here on earth. There will be other humans living elsewhere to carry on. We will begin to trickle from our bottleneck in spread throughout the universe. And when we do we will have made it through the great filter. Colonizing beyond earth is something we should begin working on as soon as we can because earth is vulnerable to a wide variety of catastrophes that are pretty hostile to life things. Like exploding stars the death of our son even earth zone systems going haywire. Please join me for the end of the world with Josh Clark. Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or listen wherever you get your podcasts.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"There would almost certainly be enough survivors to carry on. And as we saw with that climate change disaster scenario earlier Fisher, eventually returned back to where we were prior to the nuclear war and hopefully smart enough to avoid doing it all over again. Once we got. Out there. So for humanity as a whole global nuclear war would be trans-generational endurable event. But if you follow the scale is handy graph up into the right? You will find the point where existential risks live pan generational crushing events. We don't make it through those. But those are exactly what's coming down the pike right now, we are creating new technology that poses risks to humankind in a form we've never encountered before kind that dwarf global nuclear war and climate change, and we are wholly unprepared for them. My hope is that this series in some small way. We'll make us aware that we need to prepare that there is a safe path through the coming treacherous nece. But we have to plan for it. Now, if we can make it through the process of mastering the new technology that will define our world. Artificial intelligence advances in biotechnology and particle physics nanotechnology. We may secure a very bright and very long history for humanity reaching long into the far future and spreading across the universe. Technology that poses an existential risk to us now is the very same that can prevent existential risks from befalling us once we've mastered them appoint called technological maturity we're entering the most precarious period. Now the point between where those unprecedentedly dangerous technologies come into existence and where we have them fully under control anytime between those two points. One single slip when single lab accident caused by one single person one single failure to plan. One single oversight could bring about the sudden rapid demise of Hugh. Unkind forever. Turning our back on our destiny won't help us. The Di's already cast some self-imposed return to the dark ages won't reverse our momentum in the great filter that we will go through it has become inevitable even during the actual dark ages that period of modern human history where we supposedly stop progressing. Intellectually was filled with pockets of people and entire cultures around the world still discovering still innovating, and so it would be as well, if we all fools Lee banded together. Try to halt the progress of science for fear of the risks poses. We are not equipped to prevent science, and we would not want to even if we could it is science that will expose us to these risks. But it is also science that will free us from them forever on the other side. And it's not just us who we have to carry on for. It's the entire future of the human race. We're carrying all of those ten to the who knows what power future humans on our shoulders as we walk this tightrope over rumination the way to ensure our survival is not at concentrate on what's ahead, but instead to look down to plumb, the void below the only chance we have of navigating existential risks is done or stand them. On the next episode of the end of the world with Josh Clark. The some basic fill up our entire sky. You look out the window. Just be a big seething mess of of star. We've lived with natural existential risks since the dawn of humanity when bad things happen to earth. They happen to us as well. And that will be so as long as we remain in earthbound species. Over three hundred twenty five years ago. The community of Salem, Massachusetts was rocked by something that few ever thought possible. It's been called an outbreak a wave of hysteria or the perfect storm at the confluence of seemingly unrelated ideas events, and beliefs, whatever, we try to call it, though, we always seem to miss the Mark what bothers me so much so many people say how ignorant people were back that that's historian. Emerson Baker professor of American history at Salem state university. How could they possibly believe in witches? And that they were what I remember in sixteen ninety two which is were real everybody believed in university ministers. Doctors of theology governors pope's, which is a real the Salem witch trials are equal parts universally known and barely understood by most people. That's why this series exists. New episodes of this twelve part series air. Every wednesday. Learn more and find links to subscribe over at history on obscured dot com.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"The symbol celled organisms that made up life on earth got better at being living things. And then for a long time. Nothing much changed. It seems as if life had reached a stasis maxed out come upon some invisible wall and take into coasting rather than progressing toward ever more complexity earth seem content with his vast seas teeming with specialized extremely well. Adapted single celled organisms after that first three hundred million years of ceaseless innovation stayed the same for the next three billion years. But around five hundred million years ago, something huge happen life. Secondly, developed new 'em Bishen 's in exploded into new extremely complicated and sophisticated forms and geological terms. It happened overnight. Basically go from nothing to everything this is Dr Phoebe Cohen. She's a paleontologist at Williams College, Massachusetts, so fast majority. The history of life on earth is stat of microscope pick organisms before the Cambrian almost all lifelines microscopic, or at least very very small and ecosystems were dominated by things like amoeba and bacteria, and after the Cambridge ecosystem dominated by animals, and so it's really really huge shift in the biological evolution of our planet. This sudden surge in complexity is called the. Cambridge in explosion. We aren't quite sure why it happened. It's possible. It was triggered when the widespread glaciation that covered. Her just before it began to mill perhaps it was the oxygen levels in the atmosphere released by photosynthesis. Slowly, displacing the earth's atmosphere of carbon dioxide the Monja and methane. We need lots of oxygen power that conversion of food energy, and perhaps the Cambridge explosion was triggered. When atmospheric oxygen reached a critical threshold could support more complex life. If you go into low oxygen areas of the ocean today, there's plenty of animals living with almost oxygen, but they're not doing anything. They're very boring. They kind of just lay there because they don't have enough oxygen to do anything exciting. So one idea is that accident did reach some sort of threshold around Cambridge that enabled organisms to start doing fun things like chasing after each other and ripping each other apart that played a big role in changing the structure of ecosystems. It led to a huge diversification within the animal played whatever the reason half a billion years ago, most of the complex body plans that are still around on earth. Today, suddenly arrived. It's as if those organizing principles of life in a new face within just thirty million years plants made their debut on land in just forty million years after that animals, followed them out of the water. It's a standing to think of but within a span of just seventy million years. Life partners went from nothing, but single celled aquatic organisms to animals that lived in moved and walked around on land. Because life had remained so simple for so long before it the Cambridge explosion makes an excellent candidate for the great filter. It could be so unlikely that it universally denies intelligent life from forming evolutionary speaking there's never been a more important event in the history of earth following the emergence of life. Twenty of the thirty six body plans that exist on earth today, the plans that give shape to squid and fish, and humans in worms all suddenly appeared on her in those new body plans led to a riot of evolution the dinosaurs rose and fell in small mammals emerge from their Burrows and climb the trees, treat welling apes found their way out of the savannah in started walking up right becoming the first contours of humans, and it's about here that we arrive at another step in the long span between the emergence of life on earth and us. The evolution of intelligent life. Humans tend to think of intelligence as what differentiates us from other life on earth. But instead we seem more like the current end point in an evolution of intelligence. Signs of intelligence in some former fashion are all around us in two thousand eight Japanese researchers showed that slime mold a unicycle ear organism can learn a schedule of electric shocks when they shocked the mole that regular intervals. And yes, they shocked mold the mold learn to -ticipant the next shock and recoil from it before it was delivered..
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Com slash end of the world or text end of the world to five hundred five hundred we know, so you're going to get a chance to do something. That. It's probably about here that you should meet Nick Bostrom he chimed in earlier. But what I mean to say is that you should know more about him as his work forms a lot of the basis of this series in Oxford England, there is a university among the world's oldest where people have been teaching since at least ten ninety six nearly a thousand years and housed in a three story. Tim brick administration building called little gate house is the future of humanity institute. The F HI was founded by Nick Bostrom, who as I said is a philosopher, and it is a center where people from a wide array of disciplines come together to consider the ways that humanity could accidentally wipe itself out in the near future. And also how to prevent that. And also what we might do with ourselves. If we're able to negotiate the very tricky near future and actually survive into the far future. The great many of the ideas in the series came from those collaborations that arose FA. HI what Nick Bostrom mostly thinks about our existential risks. Existential risks are threats to life that have consequences so sweeping so utterly catastrophic. It should one of them befall us. It would spell the end of humankind. No more humans. And if it turns out that we are the only intelligent life in the universe. No, more intelligent life, anywhere at all. What makes existential threat so dangerous in addition to the catastrophe? They bring is that they are unlike any other type of risk where used to encountering. With virtually every other type of threat posed to humans. We can reasonably expect that enough of us will be left alive to continue. Our species should one befall us ticket disastrous changing climate, for example, imagine that a couple of decades from now we humans are caught totally offguard by sudden shift in the global climate far more pronounced an abrupt than the warning signs were currently experiencing a rapid rise in sea levels. Drowns coastal towns around the world, sending huge populations of people inland, which puts an enormous strain on the city's that absorbed them at the same time massive droughts and floods breakout in virtually every food producing region of the world, the ecological collapse leads to social collapse food supplies to adult water supplies, become salty, and untold number of people begin to die more than ever have in human history. Even more killed in wars that break out over the precious resources that remain in just a handful of decades. The entire human race is reduced from ten billion to just one hundred million people living in scattered settlements across the globe. As categorically awful is such an experience would be it would not spell the end of humans. Even with just one percent of the population left alive. We could reasonably expect that one hundred million people living across the world would be enough to carry the human race along and eventually to rebuild to be sure. We would be setback substantially all of the progress that we made as a global civilization would be pushed back thousands of years almost a square one almost there's a substantial difference between the perhaps fateful series of events that led to the discovery of something like smelting iron and carbon into steel and having people who remember learning that if you add carbon Diane, you can make steel or that there's such a thing as coffee or that you can make wine from grapes. And if you spend a.
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"To understand how we could create consciousness inside a machine rather than a human brain. You should know a little bit about the hard problem. I Beck in nineteen Ninety-six. The philosopher of the mind. David Chalmers published a paper where he divided our attempts to understand consciousness into the hard problem and the easy problem. They easy problem of consciousness is how it arises how for example, like can enter the I am be carried along as an electrical impulse to the brain where it's analyzed and sorted into the image of a house plan. We generally understand how the various parts involved in this process work. We pretty much understand. How the sights and sounds of the external world are perceived bias. There's no mystery to it. So although we haven't worked out every last detail of how consciousness arises from our brains in Chalmers view, we were well enough along that we basically had the easy problem. Licked already by the time. He wrote his essay. The hard problem is how we subjectively experienced those sites and sounds how all of those experiences moment to moment combine and create what we think of as the experience of being human. Why is it that rather than simply observing the house plant and deeming it neither threat nor food and simply disregard it instead, you might be reminded of your dear sweet mother who loved house plants, and maybe you'll also think about how perhaps a house plant might brighten up your own apartment, and maybe put you in a better mood because you've been a little bit down lately. In other words, why should we experience the inner life that we think of as our selves more to the point where does this conscious experience come from? We can point to the language processing parts of the brain does show how we humans understand what the other person is saying when someone tells us they love us, but we can't point to the part of the brain that creates the incredibly rich experience. Those words can arouse in us. That is the hard problem of consciousness to some people. We will never figure out the answer to the hard problem human conscious experiences to theories ever understand to those on the other side. We've already solved the hard problem. It's the same answer as the easy problem all of those neurons and dendritic acts on that are responsible for communicating and sorting and storing the sensory input in our brains are also the same parts that are responsible for creating our conscious experience..
"josh clark" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"My name is Josh Clark. And for the last few years. I've been thinking a lot about how the world might end over. The course of that time I've come to seriously believe that in one hundred or two hundred years from now there's a really good chance that we humans won't be around any longer. That we will have vanished forever from the universe. And that it may be us who brings about our own demise. This series is about the very real ways that that could happen. It's meant to open your eyes. Hopefully, get you to take these ideas seriously too. And ideally, get you to take action. But just as much I hope by pointing out just how close we are to the brink of disaster. You come to feel the way that I have about your fellow humans and humanity as a whole that we are flawed and ugly and brutal for sure. But that we are worth fighting to save even from ourselves that the beauty and the love that humans are capable of creating is greater than the worst of our faults that nothing we've done is worth letting our entire species come to an untimely impermanent. And it's a bizarre thing to say. But I've found it's worth saying humans don't deserve to go extinct. The series is about existential risks. We're not used to this kind of risk, nor are we really quick to deal with them. I'll tell you a lot more about them as the series goes on. But while you listen, try to keep in mind that no horrible catastrophe. No World War. No epidemic. That's ever come before. Nothing. We've ever been through has prepared us to take on exit central risks. We have no frame of reference for them because the destruction they can bring is unprecedented in the history of humanity yet in what may be the weirdest turn of events in the history of our species, a whole crop of these new existentialist threats are suddenly looming in our near future. Each one of them could bring about the sudden and permanent end of the human race. This would be a particularly tragic thing we humans of only just begun to live human civilization has been around for about ten thousand years. Think about what we've accomplished in that relatively short time. Now think about what it might be like to be a human after civilizations been around for a million years or a billion. So not only are the lives of those of us around today on the line, but we have to remember the lives of all the humans to come are as well, and the stakes I voting extinction in the next century might be even higher than that as we'll see in this episode. We unions may be the only intelligent life in the entire universe. If we die so too does all the things that make us human all of the love and compassion. All the inventiveness and curiosity all of it parishes with us not just here on earth. But in the universe as a whole. It's staggering to think, but the responsibility for our own lives for the future of the human race and for intelligent life in the universe appears to suddenly rests solely in the hands of those of us alive today. It would probably be good to know if we're alone or not just for the sake of knowing what's on the line. If we go extinct. So let's start there. As it turns out, you should know in alien by now, so should I by this point in human history. Everyone you, and I know should know any leeann, we should know them from work from your kid's school. They should be our neighbors earth should be a melting pot of not just human cultures. But extraterrestrial wants to at the very least we should be certain by now that they're alienated out there. Just as sure as we know that there are people living in France and Denmark, we should know that they're aliens. I'm proxima centauri beat or Trappist one f and yet, we don't and you, and I don't know any aliens, which is actually very very weird..
Why Do We Carve Pumpkins Around Halloween?
"Remember when you were a kid, and everyone told you your special they were right? You me and everyone alive on earth. Today are the most special group of humans who've ever lived. We're the ones who will have to save the human race from extinction. I'm stephie should knows. Josh clark. Join me for the end of the world the ten part podcast series. That looks at the existential threats that are coming our way. If you Manitou come together like we never have before we might just be able to survive the end of the world with Josh Clark coming to the iheartradio app. Apple podcasts. Google play music Spotify, Stitcher or wherever you get your podcasts. And look for hashtag e OT w Josh Clark on social. Welcome to bring stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren Boko bomb here traditions have always played a big part in what defines any holiday, but how weans traditions are some of my favorites, the costumes the trick or treaters the horror flicks in the Macab decor, including Jack lanterns grinning and glowing next to front doors all across America like most folklore the history of the Jack lantern varies a bit. Depending on who's telling the story, but all stories involve a clever drunkard who pulls one over on the devil legend has it in seventeenth or eighteenth century Ireland a foul mouthed and disreputable Nizer named stingy Jack asked the devil to go have a drink with him. Jack was the generic name for the common man at the time. Hence jack-of-all-trades every man, Jack, Jack the ripper at cetera but back to stingy Jack and his request for a drink the devil obliged. And when the Bill came there was that awkward moment that we're also familiar with Jack expected, the devil to take care of things and the devil thought. Jack should pony up seeing how Jack had no money anyway, he can. Vinced the devil to turn himself into a sixpence coin to pay the Bill the devil fell for it. Injects skipped on the Bill, but slipped the coin into his pocket where he had a secret weapon a silver cross the devil was stuck in Jack's pocket trapped by the cross. But Jack struck a deal and let the devil. Go provided the devil wouldn't come after Jack for a period of one year or ten years, depending on who you ask the devil had no choice, but to agree Jack took out the coin and the devil returns to his normal form and went on his not so merry way. At the end of the agreed upon timeframe the devil found Jack for a little payback. But somehow Jack convinced him to climb a tree in search of an apple Jack before they set off for hell the horned one. Once again obliged only to see Jack carve cross into the trunk leaving the beast stranded. Again, Jack had a sites on a higher prize this time, he said, let the devil down only if he promised to never claim Jack soul for hell. The devil had nothing to do. But agree when Jack died Saint Peter rejected him at the pearly. Gates because of his suspect credentials, the devil, wouldn't and couldn't let Jack into hell. They're agreement at the tree in the end the devil gave Jack Olympic burning coal to light has way through purgatory. Jack carried the coal inside of a hollowed out turnip Irish families told the tale and began to put carved out turnips their windows to prevent stingy, Jack and other ghouls from entering the home. Some had scary faces carved into them to frighten such ghosts away. The tail spread to Scotland in England where folks might use potatoes or beets when those families immigrated to America, they realized that the pumpkin native to the area was more ideal for carving, and that is why you see Jack lanterns unfortunate around Halloween. Episode was written by Emily, Senna, Bogan and produced by Tyler clang, her Moyen this and lots of other glowing topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Father is Keith hunter just Persson. He's known as the happy face serial killer. On one side of the coin is a loving family, man. And then on the other side of the coin he is everything that could hurt you. He goes from protected or predator. Have you face a new series from house to forks new episodes out every Friday on apple podcasts or wherever you get gassed?
"josh clark" Discussed on The Big Web Show
"A also give you a new way to buy domains and choose from over two hundred extensions plus analytics that help you grow in real time built in search engine optimization free insecure hosting and there's nothing to patch or upgrade ever and if he ever run into trouble they have awardwinning customer support available 24 hours a day seven days a week so at square space they're encouraging folks to make it may yourself easily create a website make it stand out with a beautiful website okay so if that sounds at all intriguing to you in why wouldn't it please head to square space dot com for a free trial and when you're ready to launch use the offer code big web show all one word to save ten percent off your first purchase of a website or domain thank you square space and that was square space and we are back with josh clark talking about machinelearning design in the era of the algorithm let's do something that isn't earthshattering that is an scary and a big topic let's do a small topic your company is called big medium but be it used to be global moxie and your parent owner companies still global moxie why did you make that transition what's that about you don't global moxie was a name that i'd shows floor this company back in two thousand one when i sort of first went on my own and it it coincided with a move to paris in southern sort of this this sort of sense that it was taking a leap and i was taking a leap that went beyond my typical borders both literally and metaphorically and so is sort of you know this is going to take a little bit of moxie a move it out and do it hold new culture a whole new place to do a whole new business so global moxie seemed at once a truce but all in a but serve a playful notion on you know kind of the the global words world spanning uh.