19 Burst results for "Joseph Priestley"
"joseph priestley" Discussed on The Wonkhe Show - the higher education podcast
"And everyone's very keen that catholics aren't allowed anyway universities and the test extra in place. There's a slight variation on that william and mary with the act of toleration which allows cintas to worship and they ease off on dissenters. Baptists and methodists are being allowed to teach people at all and they allowed effectively to set up what would become known. In retrospect as dissenting academies. These are one man bands to stop with a master who then teach students slowly over time. Some them survive so they someone else takes over and they get kind of corporate status and some of them get to be really good. Some of them are probably offering a better education that you could get an oxford cambridge. Because they're up to date. They believe teaching science that leschi on our startle than the oxford curriculum. So they start to get going now. There's a great project at queen. Mary college looking at the center. You and they can. There's about two hundred and twenty of these colleges between the seventeenth and nineteenth century. So there's lots of them and they educate they've tracked something eleven thousand students so these are in total probably speakers biggers cambridge themselves so somebody can really important but the fact that they built this demand sets the tone for the beginning of the nineteenth century and effectively the sense that why are we excluding dissenters. So good partisans excluding these people in universities and it sets the current the background for what would become the university of london and university college cambridge and king's college. So you get a beginning point you get a sense of. We're going to take these things. But people big name people. Joseph priestley they come through the dissenting academies that this is the best place in england ticket atop cross education. If you wanna talk class education otherwise sending the eighteenth century. You've either got to go to belgium. Or you've got to go to scotland because what happens at oxford and cambridge effectively joining hunting club with boost attached because there isn't much education going on and generally this essential scholars. Everything's kind.
Fizz Fizz, with Fantastic History of Food
"Dating back at least the seventeen hundreds people of Europe drank natural mineral water believed to cure of variety of illnesses like gallstones scurvy. Even bathing from these natural springs was seen as therapeutic. People literally went for the waters, though that freezes only hanging on its fingernails through the expression I'm not here for the water's usually set of someplace. You don't want to be like work. Many people tried to sell the water off site, but packaging and transportation at the time were prohibitively difficult and expensive, so they went with the next best thing. They'd manufacture their own water. Fine I'll make my own mineral water with blackjack and hookers. Most y'all are confused, but one person just snorted coffee through their nose. Mark my words. In seventeen sixty seven British chemist Joseph priestley tried carbonated water as you would beer by fermentation with yeast. The results were weak, but they worked in seventeen, seventy two. He published a paper entitled impregnating water with Fixed Air. priestley's apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide was soon joined by a wide range of variants. However, it wasn't until seventeen eighty one that carbonated water could be produced on a large enough scale with the establishment of companies specializing in producing artificial mineral water. Others improved on Priestley's work, and while he did get respect from the scientific community, he didn't make anything for the invention that made possible a four hundred billion dollar a year industry. American, Inventor John Matthews designed a Soda Fountain that Could Produce Enough carbonated water for all his customers all day in eighteen, thirty, two, leading to the opening of the First Soda Fountain. In Their Heyday Soda Fountains were elaborately decorated places for rejuvenation more like a walk-through health retreat a snack counter and they were usually found in pharmacies. Pharmacists already used sweet tasting flavor syrups like lemon lime to mask the taste of bitter medicines like Quinine, an iron liquid medicine, being the standard form time rather than pills. At some sparkling water and you've got something new on your hands. Sas Parrilla for example was used to treat syphilis, supposedly and phosphoric acid and ingredient in most colas was thought to help with hypertension. The oldest major soft drink America Dr Pepper was created by Pharmacist Charles Alderson in eighteen, eighty, five and marketed as an energy, drink and brain tonic. Soda, the Effervescent News Hadn't medicine. We might be frustrated by. It takes a new medication to get to the market or top of mine a new vaccine, but it beats the old way of doing things at least from the consumer side from the manufacturer's side. The late nineteenth century, the era of the patent medicine was the best time to be alive. You could put anything you wanted in a bottle and call it medicine. You could still go around calling yourself doctor without having to prove it. Mix Up some tap water. Whatever's handy something bitter to make? It tastes like medicine, and then something sweet, so it's not too bitter, and of course if you can booze and hard drugs. Have Pretty printed with filigree and vague, sometimes contradictory claims and watch the money roll in. Behold the age of the patent medicine. Patent medicines are named after the letters patent probably letters patent since it was granted by the English crown. The first letters patent given to an inventor of a secret remedy was issued in the late seventeenth century. The patent granted the medicine maker a monopoly on his particular formula. The term patient medicine came to describe all prepackaged medicine sold over the counter without a doctor's prescription early English patent medicines sold like Jordan's in the colonies like dice Dr Bateman drops, whose original patent was granted by King George, the I in seventeen, twenty six, and was still available into the twentieth century. Not About to let the Brits make off with all the Lucre America began to cultivate their own patent medicines, an industry that boomed in the decades leading up to the civil war in the US very few patent medicines actually had a patent. You could get yourself a bottle. Love hosters celebrated stomach. Bidders Phero China John cleese Kella CEO. Bark and iron tonic reaches embrocations Emerson's Rheumatic Cure. Brooks's Barefoot Appointment SP Goff's magic oil, ligament or something just called salvation oil patent medicine actually played its own small part in the war. The government tax their sale along with the sales of matches, playing cards perfumes at L. to fund the war effort and repay military debt. Just like cigarettes today, patent medicines had to have a tax stamp on them for decades. Thirty years after the civil war, the government returned to Patent Medicine Taxation to fund the Spanish American war, which ran from eighteen, ninety eight to nineteen o two using a distinctive battleship stamp. The second half of the nineteenth century with the rapid growth of industrialization and populations in American cities was a high point for such hokum. Literacy was also improving with meant that they were more magazines and newspapers for patent medicine makers to advertise in and more people who could actually read the ads. There was also a pervasive and widespread distrust for medicine of the day. This was the era of heroic, medicine. Doctors went to extremes like bloodletting and purgatory gives to cure disease. We. Know now that making it already sick person poop their brains out or cutting them with a blade that you didn't know you needed to wash between. Patience is a bad idea, but back then it was no pun intended cutting edge stuff.
Is Sparkling Water Good For You?
"Today's episode is brought to you by ibm. Smart is open open is smart. I._b._m.'s combining their industry expertise with open source leadership of red hat. Let's unlock the world's potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at i._b._m. Dot com slash red hat. Welcome to brainstorm production of iheartradio mark. Hey brain stuff. Lauren vocal bomb here as consumer preferences veered towards more quote unquote natural ingredients in their foods and beverages diet. Soda sales are dropping in place of soda. Carbonated waters like seltzer water are tingling evermore tongues americans are buying three three times as much of the staff as they did a decade ago and although there are plenty of reasons to give up the artificial sweeteners and diet soda could all those bubbles potentially bad for us to i let sit on a bit of carbonated water lingo. Sparkling water is a type of mineral water. That's bottled at the source. Think brands like perry. The minerals in them are naturally occurring and the carbonation might be too although some manufacturers might add bubbles for more zip salter waters biting bubbles rules are all created artificially but they have no other added ingredients save for sometimes flavorings of some sort either natural or artificial a side note here natural flavoring means. This chemical was derived from plants or animals including laboratory farmed microorganisms and official means. This chemical was synthesized in a laboratory from other chemicals. A natural chemical and an artificial chemical may be molecular identical and batches of the one labelled artificial might actually be more pure because they were synthesized in the carefully controlled lab anyway other than sparkling water and seltzer water. There are the offshoots of carbonated water that have other added ingredients. The club soda is a seltzer water with added minerals and sodium potentially table salt or even baking soda both of which reduce acidity and conjure flavor that for many drinkers anchors is more reminiscent of natural spring water tonic water is altogether another entity typically loaded with sugars and a dash of cleaning making it more soda soda pop then seltzer all of these bubbling waters. Oh their existence to an eighteenth century english preacher named joseph priestley who created a technique that forced carbon a oxide gas in two regular old flat water when held together under pressure the gas remained in the water indefinitely in till it was released into a glass and the gas began and the process of floating out the drinker finally enjoyed the refreshing tingle of carbonation on their tongue leader researchers found that forcing carbon dioxide in water has has some notable side effects. It makes the water a bit more acidic which adds some bite to flavors it also helps to preserve the drink to make taste fresher longer priestly erroneously crony asleep touted his revolutionary drank away for sailors to beat back the effects of scurvy during long voyages and even rigged up a portable system that allowed them to create carbonated water on aboard ships on demand so our modern health conscious consumers mistakenly believing other health benefits of sensors and their kin a two do those one study found that sparkling mineral water caused slightly greater dental rozhin than stillwater but according to the report quote levels remained low and were of the order of one hundred <unk> times less than the competitor soft drinks and two thousand seven study found that flavored sparkling waters could be just as creative as orange juice to the teeth but all the flavored waters in the study contained citric acid which can be highly erosive. We spoke by email with marissa more registered dietitian here in atlanta she she said that beyond those issues bubbling water is rather innocuous quote. The carbonation may cause bloating for some and or feelings of fullness but overall. It's a fine way to hydrate eight and especially helpful for those who don't particularly enjoy still or flat water and if you're trying to lose weight by cutting your caloric intake that feeling of fullness might even be a benefit and fizzy water might be a good way to entice you into drinking more h. Two o. moore said seltzer water is a fun and effective way to hydrate particularly for those who wouldn't drink water otherwise if you have any digestive issues or effects from seltzer water then you might cut back or even steer clear of it otherwise i'd say consider enjoying your seltzer with a meal instead of solo or rinsing with plain water afterwards. Today's episode was written by nathan chandler and produced by tyler clang brains devos's production of iheartradio's. How stuff works for more on this and lots of other efforts topics visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com and for podcast from iheart radio is iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Today's episode is brought to you by ibm. Smart smart is open. Open is smart. I._b._m.'s combining their industry expertise with open source leadership of red hat. Let's unlocked the world's potential. Let's put smart to work learn more at i._b._m. Dot com slash red hat.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Science Rules! with Bill Nye
"Your teacher was asking there's a story associated and the story the story associated with going from one place to another an all of the meaning of all of those points between the destination of beginning and end we we we are constantly human beings as I said in story Teller Mode Wow yes matthew. Why did you ask that question I asked because it really annoys my friends but every time I try try to tell them about something I've learned I have story that's involved or I can only tell it in the form of a story <hes> and I was I was a classical studies major in Undergrad <hes> where I learned about Greece and Rome and their history and mythology and I will just soak that in I could always just understand the history and the books that we writing so much easier than I could? My stats class easier than statistics. You gotta be kidding me. Statistics is so oh what the hell goes. I took statistics still a little shaken up so matthew I mean ask you this when you tell these stories to your friends and it sounds like from your description. There's a little bit of an eye roll on their part are you have you tried telling a short story that would involve being concise which is in my dry. I'm feeling so but really why did you ask this question. Because of the way your friends react or because of the way you feel because <hes> I always wondered why my brain kind of thinks of things in terms of stories and why it's the stories that stick with me <hes> and I'm just wondering like what in the brain like makes it that way. I don't know if there's a general really but that's fascinated me before we get Lavar in this. Let me ask the all the way around. Do you remember anything without a story I mean is there. Anything you can think of that doesn't have a story associated with I think about like so many people the atomic number of technician. I just remember remember a story about it. Apparently it didn't exist and they created in a laboratory then they went looking for it really without that story. I wouldn't remember atomic number forty three take iridium tomek number seventy seven is is famous because it was found all over the world because it can almost certainly came from an asteroid all right who could forget those stories Joseph Priestley and his oxygen. Tell me number eight crying out loud. What am I come on? People Zirconium in the nuclear navy come on number forty. It's fabulous so Lavar. Do you have a comment about remembering things without stories stories stories. I genuinely believe provide the context for who we are. Why we're here where we're going and probably most importantly what will mike contribution bee to the evolution of Humanity Right Matthew? What do you hope to accomplish with your storytelling ability? I'm actually in divinity school right now at Duke University so I'm just going to check Lavar..
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Science... sort of
"Ever heard heart murmur is basically, your heart like the electrical signals in your heart of just decided that they're a little wacky? It's painful, and it's scary, and it shortens people's lives, and it doesn't have to be that way. So the people and people are taking the nitroglycerin pill or honestly, I'm just getting into off to answer that question about six months here fair enough. Yes. That's that's down. The pike continuing Thun disciplined. I got a book coming up in April four superlative and then. Right after that the aging book lifespan published. So that's the immediate future, and people can follow along with my work at MD la- plant dot com. Awesome. And if people want, and I think you need a certain point, you need to put together like a BuzzFeed quiz for grad students who aren't at your university to, like, take the Myers, Briggs test. What did you get? I'm glad you asked about that, actually, that's so related to my visit here at triple A S, what I'm really hoping to do is to find some other professors who will do the same thing that I'm doing so that we can start to build an actual data other journalism. Professors journalism professors right by science advisers the processes in that the process. I just described as complicated. Right. So, like I think anybody can do it. You don't need to be an expert in communication. I'm not an expert and communication to bring students through this. But I'd like to watch their long-term trajectories of people who've gone through this process to see what that does to their careers as science communicators, cool. Well, if people do go to your website, LA dot com, they can get in touch with a sound. Twitter also MD LaPointe. Yeah. We have plenty of professors, and other educators who out there who listen to the show. So maybe if they're interested in this, they can get in touch, and you guys can figure something out, and they should pitch me as guest undisciplined. Absolutely. All right. Well, thank you, Matthew for joining us, and it look forward to our next conversation. Let's get out of here before we get yelled at again. Thanks again, to Matthew for taking time to join us while we are all at the meeting together. It really was kind of fun chance. Encounter where former guest to the show, Carl's introduced me to you, and then Matthew and I hit it off and since his show has a quicker turnaround time this podcast and recorded quite a bit of head right now. I can go ahead and tell you that I was fortunate enough to go on an episode of Matthew's show undisciplined, he does a monthly science news roundup with that particular show. And so I was on there talking about black holes the pig brains coming back to life and water being found on the moon. So if those are stories you might be interested in, you can find that on Utah public radio. And I will link to these specific episode in the show notes for this episode. But now it's time for the part of the show, where we or in this case me, I were words anyway, feedback from you the listener, and that's what's happening. Now I bit of feedback. I don't usually do the feces here when I'm by myself, I know that I had Juliane last time and she didn't do it either. I didn't wanna put her on the spot for that, so apologies for being a little bit behind on those, we will get back on track as soon as we can the main reason that I'm doing this myself is just scheduling has been really tough lately. People are busy. I'm busy things, just haven't been lining up. So it's been hard to get us all on the Mike at the exact same time. We're working on it. And like I said, if you had a lot of content already recorded, we're just putting it out, sort of in the order in which it was recorded because that just seems to be the smartest or at least the simplest most straightforward way to do that. So that's why these shows are coming out as they come out with that let me find something to talk about. I have here an Email from Julius, and she says after listening to the what are we drinking discussion episode one fifteen it strikes me that there might be a market for a product called Joseph Priestley's dead mouse ale..
"joseph priestley" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Legend, this is your life. You've been seltzer forever. Well, yes. In my family. It's in my blood. I'm fourth generation. So my grandfather started the business in nineteen Fifty-three. Although he's been a seltzer men long before that just delivering schlepping cases. Now doing the same thing. Seltzer men. That's officially what it's I am. All right. Even if you're a woman. I'm with her there to all right? So you credit an eighteenth century Britain Joseph Priestley, a man who invented seltzer tells a little bit about him. So Joseph Priestley figured out for the first time. How can we take carbonation and and get it into a glass of water previously. If you wanted carbonated water, you had to travel to a spa, and you had to have the means to leave your business. We've the city and go out to this place where you were going to drink this carbonated water, maybe bathing, his carbonated water or Joseph Priestley figured out that if you held water, and you mix it up with c o two and you and you held under pressure in that water was nice and cold. You would get carbonated water. And for the first time we have ability to manufacture the water that was likely spas. And at the time it was all medicine. It was medicinal. You drank these things because it tastes the good because you wanted it with chocolate syrup or to mix an egg cream you had it because you had some problem in the water would help you. And so now for the first time we have the ability as a result of priestly to make it ourselves. And it's very smart, man. In Switzerland who many of us. No, no, Schweppes moved to England made the first seltzer company and the rest is history. Well, I think it's great the way Priestley discovered it because of beer, that's right. He worked he lived next to a brewery, and he was fascinated. He was a religious man by trade, but he loved exploring science he actually had a relationship with Ben Franklin who inspired him to do his own research. And he was fascinated by what would happen in the back of this brewery when the hops was was forming, and he saw the gas was forming above the liquid and he thought wow. What if I held a book some water and switched it back and forth inside the gas with with something happened? And that's when he first saw that wait a second. It's not only going into the water. It's staying there. Either went back who's home next door his own laboratory. And he then figured out how he could not only do it himself, but communicated to others, and I'm gonna read from your book after that happened you right? Priestley took great pleasure in its discovery later calling it his happiest but never a businessman sawn little immediate scientific or practical value. He may never have fully. Appreciated that it transformed. The rare into the common up ending the economics dictating who could access seltzer and where with no drive to publish his findings for years has technique remained. The providence of the honest, Whigs and other members of the Royal Society the world had no idea that humanity had just gained the power of phys. So that goes to your point that it stayed among the upper echelons. That's right. But then there was the head of the navy and is in Great Britain. And being a navy power. They were very concerned about the problems they had on the ships of the cellarman contracting scurvy, which we know is because of a lack of CO two they didn't know that at the time but previously thought well, maybe it was because of that maybe if they were seltzer machines on the British naval ships, they can stop seltzer and it didn't work. They might have had a better trip because some seltzer to drink. But eventually he wrote it those findings and those findings what he shared with the world back at a time when it was so important for people to share the science as people learning new things because that not only helped humanity be healthier. But also lead to. Tremendous innovations of business and help people prove their lives. And I think this is the most hilarious title what he finally published. It impregnating water with fixed air, right impregnating water. That was the the scientific term at the time for getting those bubbles into that water. Okay. You mentioned Jacob sweaty. Explain to folks how he took it to the next level. So Schweppes with someone who read Priestley's pamphlet. He lived in Switzerland. He he he dealt with watches, but he had this idea that maybe he can build a company around it. And he he moved to England and went from Joseph Priestley having the scientific idea to swaps having a company and within a few decades swept was the official seltzer of the Queen. So how did the seltzer come from? So seltzer is one of those words for food product that actually describes a particular place. We have largely forgotten it. Seltzer. Neater shelters is actually the name of a town in Germany, which was one of those many spas that I referred to earlier and like many of those spies. They would bottle their water in clay jugs in the seventeen hundreds and sixteen hundreds and they would sell all over Europe. And as they sold people would change the name in different, localities, neater, Celtics became Celtics and soldiers became seltzer. And that's what we know. It has today. Alex, let me bring in. And so I've got a bottle of let's see that sounds good. It's actually a real. This thing is heavy. Yes. That's a siphon bottle. Explain to people what I'm holding. So that is an original siphon bottle. It's actually hand blown in Czechoslovakia. So it's a very thick glass. It's got a metal siphon top. You could hear the glass when you. And it's got a siphon trip a trigger on it. So what's great about these bottles? It holds the pressure at sixty pounds. So it's a very very strong tasting seltzer. When you when you dispenser from the trigger on the seltzer comes out. You could go ahead and set your sure. Right. Sound? To me, we've reported to me. So that's sixty. That's that's a very very strong seltzer. It should hurt when it goes down. You shouldn't be able to go. Good seltzer in our seltzer is very a lot of pressure in there. It's very charged, and it's just a very good pure taste. What's inside that bottle is New York City tap water that we triple filter through sand charcoal and paper, then it's mixed with CO two. There's no salt. There's no chemicals. Nothing. It's just plain filtered new city tap water seal too. So where do where do you get the bottles? So the bottles are no longer made manufactured we have acquired them through many seltzer men over the years. There were many many many seltzer men back in the day. Gombrich? Seltzer works is now the last remaining filling station in Brooklyn seltzer boys same same family. But we deliver the bottles one of the last seltzer men out there, and Alex is one of the many seltzer men and women in seltzer Tokyo and one of the other ones, Walter backer, man, who Alex knows well says he doesn't own the seltzer siphons he's a custodian he has taken them and Herod them from the men and women who deliver them before him and he's holding onto them for the next generation. Right. And that's that's the biggest thing about what we do. We preserving the history of these bottles if you hold it up, and you look at it. You could see an etching from an old seltzer all etched differently K A U R F right from Brooklyn. Right. Looks Bronx the Bronx. Okay. So right. Most of the balls we have our either Brooklyn Bronx Manhattan, just in the general area, but we've acquired bottles from other seltzer men that are all over the the US. I mean seltzer. There was a lot of seltzer men all over the country. These things are heavy, and they're heavier when they're full and we deliver ten of them at a time up. Many flights of stairs. It's it's hard work the seltzer workout that's right, right history. Written in bottles right there. It's pretty cool. We're talking to berry Joseph. He wrote the book seltzer Topi the extraordinary story of an ordinary drink and Alex the vice president of the Brooklyn seltzer boys. It's engineers talked about a bite. I have a friend Zoe she's nine and she calls it spicy water. That's her name for you know, you go across the big pond in its congas or whatever. What makes you kind of touched on this? What makes for good seltzer? You need to have cold water and the c o two that impregnation process has to happen under pressure, and it has to be held there. As Alex was talking about before the glass siphon that you're holding is really thick. It can hold pressure better than anything else that you can buy store better than a can or a bottle made a plastic until you need that at the same time. You gotta keep it cold. You don't want to keep it on the side of your fridge. You want that cold when you put into a glass, and you want to drink it right away. And if you mix it with something like if you wanna make an cream mixing it. We're talking syrup and milk. You only have a few minutes to drink keep that carbonation. So we were kind of going the timeline of seltzer Sriracha Schweppes. What was the next? Would you say what was the next milestone and seltzer? Well, let's bring it to New York City. Yeah. All right. So in the nineteenth century John Matthews who's a born in Britain comes to America and becomes the soda fountain. King. Right. And so he was able to do. And then with his sons who continued after him. Was manufacturer way to not only make it in a factory, but how you can do it at a soda fountain. How you can have the devices where the carbonation would happen in the pharmacy itself and later this candy stores and soda fountains. So you can walk up and order, a two cents plain. And when that happened you were no longer having people drinking seltzer because it was good for you. You were drinking 'cause it tasted good, and you had to start taking out the harsh chemicals that gave you that medicinal quality. Take me this little taste and said putting in sweet flavorings indifferent syrups, and then you had this explosion of soda jerks, competing to make the best. Cream the best banana flip phosphate, the best lamb, Rickey, whatever it was and competing with someone on the other three corners coming up with one flavor after another with very rapid innovations. What do you to make of the incredible interest in bubble water? Now, I don't even want an I don't know. I can I call across seltzer in front of you, Alex. Okay. Maybe. My guest, but I have a feeling that. That's not you. It's apples and oranges. Just when I think of seltzer I think of my seltzer. It's just the way it's supposed to be playing. There's no flavoring just as it is. I mean, it's just watering CO two. I'll ask bury the historian sure a little more Alex gets to be a purist and respect that. But seltzer has always evolving, in fact, as we mentioned the original seltzer tastes nothing. Like what Alex delivers today, and I'm thankful for. I'm glad it tastes like what he delivers today. But it changed from something that was full of of of all sorts of properties that are coming out of the ground is something we can manufacturer selves and keep it as pure water to. Yes, things that people can add flavor to not just at home mixing syrup, but also buying store of buying the Croix seltzer something that's very much defined by the people who were drinking it who they are how they identify and where they're located in both place and time, it's constantly changing. It's both its own thing. But sometimes it's associated with water. Sometimes it's associated with soda and often the battles over. History about should it be taxed or not taxed or who could sell. Who or where those lines were drawn? But the more you try and fix it. More seltzer tries to escape something else. And that's part of what makes it such a fascinating thing to learn about could you can never pin it down. When was it? First mass marketed to Americans it came to it was John Matthews who made the ability for people to go into a soda fountain here down in Wall Street, for example, to get a glass of of seltzer in the eighteen twenties eighteen thirties that was the first time that the masses can't access not just those who had the means to travel to a spa, but it really wasn't until the end of that century when what Alex is doing generation upon generation really began where people could have soda works where they could have these glass fins that came over from eastern Europe carbonated after filtering the local municipal water and having the practice of first bringing them out via horse drunk the trucks. And then eventually, you know, how do you get around? Now, alex. Van but you guys use the old crates, right? Oh, yeah. We so everything that we do is all original. I mean, we read haven't changed. We haven't reinvented the wheel..
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Dentist Money
"For want of sufficient premises advise you what to determine, but if you please I will tell you how. So he says, basically, I'm not gonna tell you what to decide, but I'm going to tell you how. And then what he invented in this letter as he laid out the pros and cons method, real decision-making. So Chuck another invention to Benjamin Franklin, he invented. That's where the birth of pros and cons pros versus cons. That's cool. Yeah. I had no idea. This guy turns out though, Joseph Priestley he discovered oxygen. He was the guy who discovered the element of oxygen in this new career. That's what that like. That's how it turned out. But Benjamin Franklin's more famous. He's way more famous because he invented the catheter and. Seeing. Okay. So anyway, this got me thinking, I was reading this article is really fascinating had no idea he invented the pros and cons. But this got me thinking we start every show with the famous line now where we help Dennis make smart financial decisions. And I started thinking about the process of decision making and started doing a lot of research on all these different ways. People say are good processes for decision. Making candid conclusion we're gonna talk about today that there are three pieces to good decision making. And we're gonna talk today about how these relate to making smart financial decisions. Now wanna guess what? I think they are. Go ahead. Homegrown meal. Okay. Roasted on an open flame. Go on you hit number one. Do not make decisions while you're angry. Okay. In peace in peaceful circumstances. Okay. And upon horseback. Those would be the three are really close. They're not even in your top ten. We did. We did the we one of them was made yesterday. I texted you. We're talking about the podcast topic said I'm angry. I'm not going to give you my opinion. Right now, talked me later, so temperament may have been one of them. So I think that's a good part aside. Tell me the real top three data and information having a process and accountability. So I need numbers and statistics and data. I need my numbers you need your numbers. I gotta have a method a method for sorting through the information and third accountability. Like a human could be to like or someone else. Something someone else. We'll go through some. Yeah. Okay. This. So are these are your opinions? This isn't this isn't Benjamin Franklin past that, this is your life. This is my put it slightly higher than Benjamin Franklin's pros versus cons yet. Because I think you you're more involved species. I'm slightly more than Benjamin Franklin. No one's ever told me that I'm just on the air on the air. Thank you. We'll start with data. So and again, we're going to try to tie into the context of how we're helping dentists make smart financial decisions and how data plays a part of this. Here's one question like to start with is. I think I think is my kind of anecdotal opinion from lots of conversations, I think dentists make a lot of decisions without any data. Or of the very limited information. Do you think this is true? And why do you think that is you you sent me this list this morning, and I didn't know you didn't see me the list, you sent me the topic? Yeah. It's all I knew. Yeah. And I started doing some. List making myself, and the number one thing that I was going to put on the less when you could your topic that you sent me was in effect of. How do people make decisions and I saw you posted on the Facebook group this morning. Oh, yeah. Shout out to Dennis.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Dentist Money
"Benjamin Franklin's horizontal. Armanda to be confused with the hormone anyway, a multi cultural experience here, but I was in the we went through the cave or went through goldfield to check out this gold mine, and there was a lot of people that were breathing in. I mean back in the day. They didn't know that breathing in straight like metals with no like powder is metal. They did dad for you. They were like blowing up sticks of dynamite into gold bricks and hailing it, and and so apparently that cause a lot of problems with people's ability to urinate. Oh, and then the catheter catheter was like a huge invention. But no one really it was like the most one of the most feared it was feared more than while, Hitchcock or hickok. However, you say it, it was a very feared creature. I'm just saying what are the worst outlaws? The old west was the little known fact, teen fifty tail seventy fifty tale. I think it actually was a pretty big invention. One of the most important on your list. I think it's better than the are Monica. It could useful application swim. Fins he invented swim. Fins the Odom eter talking about like flippers. Yes, in the ocean, and such and in pools in oceans and bodies of water, whoever puts flippers on pool that would be the guy that you just kind of. That guy to Opole party. Age of twelve you let them get by with that. But if he's thirty seven, and he comes with like, a snorkel and flippers and you're like, it's a it's a small pool, sir. This is not made for sponging or snorkeling spoiler deep dive in a pool that three full, sir. All right. Here's what we're getting at. There is one. This is what spurred the whole conversation. Now, there were ten minutes into this the whole podcast for today. There was another thing he invented he invented something else that I did not know and it came from a conversation. He had a friend named Joseph Priestley not to be confused with Jason Priestley from nine hundred one. Oh, and he asked Joseph Priestley had written to Benjamin Franklin. He said, hey, I have this huge career decision to make. He was a scientist and a writer and philosopher anyway, Benjamin Franklin this is his quote, and it's a little little advanced. Okay. But he said in the affair of so much importance to you wherein. You ask my advice? I cannot..
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York
"Biggest sellers is LaCroix, but it's a crowded market with many brands and flavors. Some are even spiked with alcohol. It makes all the flavors with it. And you can really feel it for berry Joseph. This is way more than a trend. I like to say to people welcome to the age of effervescence. He's an expert on the subject even the book on it. We wouldn't have seltzer today if it weren't for Joseph Priestley at the end of the eighteenth century, this scientists on the side was fascinated with how when you would hold CO two over water, and you combine the together that carbonation let's stay in that water if you held under pressure. So it's water plus an experience that experience of having the water into their mouth and create this tastes station that can be sometimes shocking sometimes Chris sometimes harsh, but always satisfy so some people will say, oh, I'm not a seltzer person. I'm a sparkling water Carl. What does that mean? I would say it's all the same. It's all just branding. It's all just marketing. It's all just carbonated water. What would the world be went out there and sparkling water as some people would say much flatter. Seltzer sparkling water, whatever you call it. It's making a splash with all ages. Including my three year old daughter who tried it would melt and chocolate syrup. Old fashioned treat known as an egg green. Yup. Sunday.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on CBS Sunday Morning with Jane Pauley
"Stooges? Is all business for Alex convert? Well, almost ready one two three. He's a fourth generation seltzer man working at the Brooklyn based company started by his great grandfather MO. You can say it's in his blood. So what's really changed since your great? Grandfather was doing this as far as the process nothing. Even this new machine is about a century old. Each vintage bottle is filled with just two things New York City tap water chill, the water to forty two degrees. Charge of carbon dioxide this is our carbonated. There's a pot going around. That's actually making the seltzer. Dombi doesn't just make this stuff. You delivers it. And what's crystal clear is across America pressurized mix. Having a moment. Gosh, it's everywhere. So it's like a wall of sparkling water. Melanie, Henchi isn't editor at food and wine magazine. Should we call this category salsa, or should we call it sparkling water? What do you call it? I think they're all very on thing. And I think ultimately, it's just all bubbly water to me anything. That's what a base has bubbles in. It is just bubbly and bubbly water with CO two added or carbonated naturally is booming. Sales of bubbly water of sparkling water has more or less triple in the last ten years, and that can be really attributed to one big through trend, and that's the trend towards health and wellness and essentially the demonization of sugar in drinks, one of the biggest sellers is look Croix, but it's a crowded market with many brands and flavors. Some are even spiked with alcohol. Mix all the flavors with it. And you can really feel it very Joseph. This is way more than a trend. I like to say the people welcome to the age of it for veterans. He's an expert on the subject even the book on it. We wouldn't have seltzer today if it weren't for Joseph Priestley at the end of eighteenth century, this scientists on the side with fascinated with how when you would hold CO two over water, and you combine together that carbonation with stay in that water if you held it under pressure. So it's water.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Newsradio 830 WCCO
"The the podcasts from all our shows, including the three hours today, we've had a fun three hours so far lots of lights stuff in mixed in with the serious stuff. We were just talking about Everson Griffen in his situation along with the Vikings to first hour. We had lots of texts. Lots of responses to weird quirky things the gate either as a kid or maybe your data eighty your grandfather, eight to your mom eight or whoever, and maybe you still busted out time to time it, and I forgot about this one hot cocoa and peanut butter toast. My mom always would make me hot cocoa and peanut butter toast. Always like on a winter morning fog. Grading than a dip the peanut butter toast into the cocoa. That's that's a solid choice. Having that kind of brings you right back to childhood some serious stuff to talk about this hour to the midler situation. An audit done on the already troubled men, LARs. Vehicle registration system licensing system that the state implemented, and it continued problems that they're facing an audit today shows major problems and discrepancies in what people are being charged for their vehicle. Registrations. We're talking about private vehicles. You know once a year when you got to renew your tabs, you get that notice in the mail, and how much you have to pay for the vehicle you have well almost half of the times since been LARs implant implemented that number that you've paid has been inaccurate either. You're getting under charged or yes. In some cases, overcharged. So we're going to get to the bottom of that. I want to hear your horror stories about mental ours. Eight one eight zero seven six five one nine eight nine nine two two six lots of problems with the system so far, especially if you're a a licensed registrar, we know that those folks have had to deal with headaches because you're on the front end of it, you're dealing with the problems of the computer system and trying to get people their drivers. Licenses vehicle registration on time. But the people who are having the issues you're kind of the frontline. So you're probably getting the gripes from them as well as having to deal with the problem, computer system. So let's talk about that this first half hour eight one eight zero seven six five one nine eight nine nine two to six then in the second half hour, Scott Dibble state Representative he's going to be talking to us. He's on that committee that oversees the changes trying to be implemented to memoirs we'll be talking to him. They have a meeting tomorrow on the heels of this oughta release, we'll find out what changes if it all happened because of this latest audit to seven WCTC all right now, let's get caught up on local news headlines, Susie Jones is here. She's got the latest for Susan. Thanks. Adam fifty one degrees right now. Cloudy skies. Our top story the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings. Mike Zimmer is speaking today about Everson Griffen was recently involved in a confrontation at a downtown, Minneapolis hotel and near his home. Police say Griffin. Had already left the hotel Ivy after threatening staffers and laying on the lobby floor at his home in Minna trista. He also became erratic at a press conference today. Zimmer had this to say in the five years that I've been here. I've always loved Everson the effort that he puts out the work that he does the chance account automatic gametime Griffin was drafted by the Vikings in two thousand ten and made the Pro Bowl three times as a defensive end. He was arrested twice by police following his rookie season once for public intoxication once for driving with an invalid license reaction this morning to the death of a corrections officer at oak park heights prison. Thirty seven year old officer Joseph Priestley died after suffering a medical emergency. We'll on-duty yesterday was among officers responding after an inmate assaulted an officer at the maximum security prison. It is. The second death of an officer in the prison system in the past couple of months. Tim Burton Bruton is a former warden at oak park heights. He told the BBC seals Dave Lee. The job of a prison guard is not easy. You're walking around you're in contact with the most violent and dangerous inmates. And you never know when someone might do something or just out of the blue punch somebody in the face or whatever. But for the most part of the staff through such a great job to keep things under control. Now oak park heights prison is still on lockdown following yesterday's incident. Minnesota Senator Amy closure says the women making sexual assault allegations against supreme court nominee. Brett Cavanaugh should have the opportunity to make their case to the American people and her colleagues on the Senate Judiciary committee appearing on CBS this morning Clovis. Our question Kavanagh's credibility following his interview with Fox News. He. Actually downplayed his drinking, and he said he'd never really blacked out. So he didn't remember things. Those are things that really go to credibility given some of the stories circulating out there. And again, even in the Anita hill hearing, dozens of witnesses came forward, and we're allowed to testify this time all of that's being shut out in his interview Cavanagh denied the accusations. Colbert says all senators should want to know the facts about a supreme court candidates background before taking the confirmation vote. WBZ news time is two ten time for traffic and weather together. Here's JP things are quiet album system right now as you move around the metro this update is brought to by sun country airlines, traveling thirty five W southbound still some slowing through the downtown stretch of Minneapolis mostly in part because of the construction Chavan along 169 some minor slowdowns northbound make the run between highway seven and three ninety four four ninety four..
"joseph priestley" Discussed on WJR 760
"We called our own Aretha Franklin succumbed to the pancreas cancer that was first diagnosed in two thousand eight She lived a very long. Life with a slower growing version I guess of pancreatic cancer. Which is generally has been fatal and fast She survived quite some time with it And it happened at about fifty minutes after we got off the air yesterday when they finally released a, word that she had died, in, there we go with August sixteenth again being. A day of a lot of losses Including losing the Queen of soul on the same. Day of the, year is we lost the king of rock and roll Elvis Presley died in his home as well on August sixteenth nineteen seventy seven she was born just a few miles away, from the king in Memphis by the way we think of a reason to, try to because, she was hours at a traitor that plane that deca told us about reminding us in, the news north west flight number two fifty, five crashing. Shortly after takeoff from metro airport on August sixteen nineteen eighty-seven, killing all aboard but one little girl and we lost our WJR radio beloved in in my. Case predecessor Joseph Priestley j. p. McCarthy on August sixteenth nineteen ninety-five so a lot of things happening on August sixteenth around here the team is all here and we've, been remembering are various thoughts, and, memories about the Queen and that would include Of course our news director dick Haefner Richard thanks for, reminding Paul W all you do is our, news director. Steve Courtney sports director got a big day ahead of you, Steven rue yes indeed looking forward to it and let me just suggest this August seventeenth should. Be a national holiday August seventeenth the day after because sixteenth has been so bad You can make you do the sixteenth it ought to be celebrated Well there you are And and, this Brian points out he wants the, day, off Mr. Courtney Always thinking Brian always thinking put together a little montage we'll, have for you at six thirty seven Dana Clark is here And doing a. Nice job I would I would wonder as you keep track of traffic for us in some of the memories of your mom as a news person probably ran into, a wreath. Of Franklin. Ally Hampshire she did I didn't talk to, her yesterday about this but I'm not. Talking to your? Mom. What are you okay I talked to her yesterday but, now about. This all. Right it'll be interesting asker of the weekend, I'd bet you a dollar she's got. Some pretty good? Stories I. Bet she does and of course our, executive, producers program. Host senior, producer helping all the producers here WJR been here a long time right out of grade school our executive producer and Thomas happy Friday. Dumb happy Friday you know people sharing their thoughts and because we think of her as a detroiter because. She was. A detroiter though she was born in. Memphis she did live in. New York for a while and Maybe a couple of other places based on circumstances and marriage but. She was our Aretha fucking I I gotta tell you My first involvement when I, first got back here Well after. Here while snack back here fulltime in ninety six this was nineteen ninety nine former Ford Motor Company CEO's Jac Nasser Jack Nasser was able to pull off getting, the three tenors to appear. The old tiger stadium July seventeenth nineteen ninety nine I was obviously honored and. Thrilled when he invited me to emcee the event I thought it was very cool obviously and I'll never forget being backstage and take. Into meet in their own little dressing room areas. Jose Carreras Placido Domingo and the king Luchino Pavarotti these really, were royalty in in the tenors and opera worlds but then the true Queen arrived because it was a Retha Franklin who took the states before. Any of those guys to sing the national anthem You know there were pictures of that last night I think it was on CNN yeah it was I said Paul was there it was I. Never been really cool oh it. Was, very cool At first of. All the old tiger stadium. But Secondly. I remember this because you. Remember, these sorts of things Unfortunately we were also waiting for them to, find right John f. Kennedy junior his wife and sister in law because I was. Back here, on the air probably covering the story and that story Yes they, had crashed but they did all day They have not yet found, him and I went on the stage and said I'm sorry to say we have no new news to report regarding who you. Know for those of, us? Have a certain age this. Was John John right but there was no. Tragedy, no news to, report on on finding him Terrible tragedy indeed and Unfortunately I will always remember that too as a part of what was going. On Meanwhile you know how she became. The Queen of soul and I do not This from the New York Times they did a very nice piece. By Jim Farber, about, her twenty essential songs which we're going, to go through and I said Brian and you put a guess a montage, or you ask, them to put that montage, together these some of these songs some of them but the Queen of soul she was crowned the Queen of solely nineteen. Sixty, seven by a disc jockey Purvis span at the, regal theater in Chicago That's where it began nineteen sixty seven the regal theater in Chicago the DJ. Dubbed her the Queen, of soul and no one has come, close to contesting that title true very true six fourteen WJR.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"This was able to they were able to use this to store electrical charge yeah they had the different metals on the inside outside and the the differential between them could allow electric charge to accumulate and then you could discharge it yeah in and pretty massively like apparently the first time newson brock use the jar he basically shocked the hell out of himself i mean didn't die but tremendous amount of shock coming out of this jar of water at nail well but once you look at what this kind of jars capable of delivering a shock like that obviously some applications could come to mind and they sure did come to some minds especially the mind of one benjamin franklin so you might know about some of benjamin franklin's experiments with electronically probably the most famous story is one we only have secondhand actually and that's the story about franklin flying a kite tied to a key in thunderstorm to demonstrate the electrical nature of lightning that's right so you only have been in me that disney cartoon really go by i don't know what that is they did a whole cartoon about benjamin franklin and the kite but there's this mouse that's really the brilliance behind then he's got constantly urging been on i mean just to in the ben franklin and activities that are acceptable for children to watch you know i think this story was a propaganda invented by the kite makers now no but seriously so we don't know if the story actually happened or not it probably did we get the story from franklin's friend joseph priestley who reported it later so not from franklin himself but franklin certainly did do lots of experiments on electronics he invented the lightning rod which is a rod mounted on top of a building is connected to a wire leading down to a ground rod embedded in the earth and what this does is it gives the lightning a an avenue of travel from the top of the building to the ground sort of a harmless path rather than going through the building starting fires potentially damaging people or structural elements the expressway going around.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Edison the electricity is your thing tell me what is it this is all really come up with yeah and so even after people were performing experiments with city even creating some electrical technologies that they were using for for purposes in in say medicine whether or not those purposes were quite on the money in terms of improving people's health people were using electricity but they they didn't know what it was even in seventeen sixty seven after a lot of these famous experiments like benjamin franklin's experiments joseph priestley described electricity as the youngest daughter of the sciences which i think is kind of a sweet thing to say but what was the invisible fire the electrical fire it seemed it was a natural force of the world people understood and yet it commanded a sense of mystery because it was invisible most of the time it could act at a distance like a ghostly force almost you know the attraction between objects could be like a ghost reach out through the third to pull things toward one other it could spark in the dark and these were strange mysterious phenomenon even when people began to be able to control it they didn't know what it was so the the modern era of electrical research i think is often traced back to the add to the creation of the late in jar right so the late in jar was a thing that was invented in the seventeen forties usually cited as seventeen forty five or forty six discovered independently by different people at different times but the laden jar was what was then known as a condenser but it's what we'd now call a capacitor so in simple terms this is a device capable of storing and quickly discharging a large amount of electricity yeah i've read the the laden jar particularly the one that was created by dutch instrument instrument makers ed will von kleist and pita von moose brook this was basically eight glass jar full of water and had a nail in it and this was this.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on The Model Health Show
"Him coming if you get to do so pop over and leave me that review and on that note let's get to our topic of the day today we're going through the history of soda and this is a really fascinating topic and you know i learned a lot in this process you know i didn't know quite a bit about the industry but more of the the the health side or lack thereof but it's really amazing just to understand where this whole entity actually originated and so to start with this history we need to go all the way back to the seventeen hundreds and this is win noncarbonated water was combined with lemon juice and honey to make what was i the recognized quote soft drinks all right and so soft drinks just even like what is soft drink is simply this can be a carbonated or non carbonated beverage that is an alternative to hard liquor or hard drinks that's what a soft drink is so as we know soda that involves carbonated water and so for centuries there was a belief that naturally carbonated water had healing properties and people come from all over to drink and even bathe in naturally kind of carbonated springs now they're again they're naturally carbonated water sources i e bubbly water but then there's also this way that was invented to artificially carbonate the water and this was invented in seventeen seventy six by englishman dr joseph priestley all right and he did this by infusing carbon dioxide with the water to create carbonic acid i so that was in seventeen seventy six and then in seventeen eighty three as we go along this timeline jean jacob schwebel perfected the process for carbonated water and created the world's first carbonated mineral water are so we've got carbonated bubbly water it's thing is rolling around people are digging it then we jumped to.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Science for the People
"Can you talk a little bit about joseph priestley and humphry davy what did they do yes perhaps just to brief note to say something about the broader picture surgery june that time as you mentioned the turn of nineteen to the twentieth century the i think from from today's perspective at least as a very dynamic era for the development of modern surgery you mentioned disrupts in a sepsis had mistakes this was also you can refer to as revolution in surgery by then also anesthesia and even earlier nitrous oxide was was is credited to to jason presley the discovery of the nitrous oxide already in the in the nineteenth century he was a english philosopher he wants a chemist he also even a political theorist so a man with with many interests and he has been credited them with the discovery of oxygen although other scholars have also strong strong claims to to that discovery and i think that's like a pattern also when we're talking about the history of st shelter many scientific priority disputes is hard to say who discovered what when and why but priestly joseph priestley's also oh credited credited for the discovery of nitrous oxide i think it wasn't the seventeen seventies it's also known today as the laughing gas and the story or the therapeutic story of nitrous oxide has strong links to another scientist humphry davy who published on nitrous oxide oxide in late eighteenth century in he described to major effects when you inhale this gas on the one hand there is euphoria perhaps even some mild have summations and on the other hand the painkilling effects and davey suggested that in relation of nitrous oxide during surgical operations might be would be helpful but it would take a while before it was used on a on a larger scale.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on No Agenda
"Congealed physicist i have a bachelor's degree in geology from indiana university and they pac joe physics from the university of utah my field of specialization and jail physics is temperature and heat flow in recent years i've turned my studies to the history and philosophy of science in nineteen ninety five i published a short paper in the academic journal science in that study i reviewed help borehole temperature data recorded today warming of about one degree celsius in north america the last one hundred to one hundred and fifty years the week the article appeared i was contacted by reporter for national public radio he offered to interview me only if i would stay in warming due to human activity when i refused to do so he hung up on me i had another interesting experience around the time my paper incients was published i received in the sun inching email from a major researcher in the area of climate change he said quote we have to get rid of the medieval warm period unquote the medieval warm period was a time of unusually warm weather that began around one thousand ad in persisted until they cold period known as the little ice age took hold in the fourteenth century warmer find that brought remarkable souring but prosperity knowledge in art to europe during the high middle ages the existence of the medieval warranty period and had been recognized in the scientific nature for decades but now it was a major embarrassment to those maintaining that the twentieth century warming was truly anomalous had to quote dig gotten rid of unquote in seventeen sixty nine joseph priestley were in the scientists overly attached to favorite ponce's would not hesitate to warp nicole chorus of nature in nineteen ninety nine michael mia and his colleagues published a reconstruction task temperature in which the medieval one period simply vanished this unique estimate became known as the hockey stick because of the shape of the temperature graph normally in science when you have a novel result the to overturn previous work you have to demonstrate why earlier work was wrong but the work of man and his colleagues was initially accepted uncritically even.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on KOMO
"Okay i like we will get the divorce cast in a couple of minutes first thirteen past the hour this thursday march twenty second in fourteen fifty seven the gutenberg bible became the first printed book hey you know this sound yeah that's seltzer water in seventeen thirty three joseph priestley invented it and in eighteen forty one cornstarch was patented what a day first stanley cup playoff game was this day in eighteen ninety four nineteen fiftysix singer perry coamo became the first major tv variety show host to book a rock and roll act on his program and it was how the trio stepping out in their booze one to further really gatorade and that cold there you go carl perkins appeared with perry como and the floodgates opened nineteen thirtythree speaking to floodgates sort of president franklin roosevelt authorized the sale of three point two beer it wasn't enough for people who wanted prohibition repealed in one thousand nine hundred seventy two the supreme court ruled that unmarried people also have the right to possess contraceptives also in one thousand nine hundred seventy two the senate passed the equal rights amendment but the states did not ratify it and the number one song was by harry nilsson and without you was number one for a month on the billboard hot one hundred those are some of the things that happened on past march twenty seconds it's fifteen past the hour accuweather meteorologist dean devore that big winter storm hit some of us and spared other so give us a fax good morning to you it looks like new york city got six to twelve inches and then long island in parts of connecticut looks like they're going to get the most era foot or more boston though just snowing a bit here this morning it looks like you're gonna miss the the major part of the storm still little windy and snowy as you head down to the south coast and south shore down around new bedford and the cape here this morning so those areas may be still reeling from the storm.
"joseph priestley" Discussed on Omnibus
"I would you know it's a wet climate i think we have evidence that they would waterproof clothing and when rubber did become known in the west in europe it was thought of as a novelty like mister mcintosh invented raincoats by soaking cloth in latex that he imported from south america but it wasn't big business in in seventeen seventy scientist joseph priestley same guy credited with discovering oxygen he really important discovery good job nobody nobody breezed until seventeen seventy so thank you very much joseph he accidentally marked a piece of paper with a bit of source sticky rubber he had been playing with it was it was just like a souvenir from different part of the world like you might have exotic seashell or something weird sap exactly gotta have some weird sat on your desk and he accidentally rubbed it on a piece of paper and the pencil came up and he was the one who coined the word rubber because he realized if you rub stuff with it was an eraser wow so yeah the same guy discovered oxygen and the eraser anytime you breathe or make a mistake you can think joseph priestley but it wasn't it didn't become a staple of industry because it was not the kind of tough durable rubber we imagine today it was it was a sticky bit of tree gum it would be like somebody having a piece of maple sap on their desk and accidents having fall on a pancake and discovering maple syrup there was no multi billion dollar market for it and rubber is a is a substance kind of like water in that depending on its temperature like at room temperature it's sort of sticky but holds together if you heat it up a little bit becomes kind of viscous and if you cool it down just a little bit it.