22 Burst results for "Jonathan Strickland"

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

07:42 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Your host Jonathan Strickland I'm an executive producer here at how stuff works And I love all things tech Today we are going to talk about the development of corrective lenses in general and the contact lens in particular Now I used to wear contact lenses up until a few years ago when I got laser eye surgery long time listeners of tech stuff probably have recollections of the episode we did where I talked about my laser eye surgery and I totally squeaked Chris paulette out He was turning green by the end of that episode It was awesome Well by the time I was wearing contact lenses disposable contacts were readily available but it took a long time to get from the earliest experiments to the point where you could buy a pack of one used contact lenses and wear a fresh pair every single day So we're gonna talk about how contact lenses work how corrective lenses work how vision works How all of this was invented and the changes that have happened since the earliest experiments with corrective lenses Now before we talk about contact lenses in the renaissance because trust me that's going to happen Let's talk first about how vision works Now we have to start with light Vision is all about light and how our bodies direct light to the retinas The retina is where our light sensing cells are Those are the rods and cones Those are specific specialized cells in our eyes More on those in just a second So imagine the retina is kind of like a solar cell in a solar panel It's the part that takes light and converts it into an electrical impulse Now in our case it's not going to be juiced to a battery or run a lightbulb or something and said it's a signal that goes to the brain which then interprets that electrical impulse as vision The eyes are essentially part of the brain But if we think of them as being separate you could say the brain doesn't really deal with light at all It just accepts those electrical impulses The eyes handle all the light stuff on behalf of the brain So the eye itself has several layers The outermost layers are made of oil water and mucus Yum yum Now those layers keep the eye hydrated and they protect the eye from foreign bacteria Collectively those materials make up what is called the tier layer under the tier layer is the cornea and the sclera The cornea itself has 5 layers outermost is the epithelium then you have the Bowman's layer then the stroma then decimates membrane and innermost is the endothelium The cornea's main purpose besides providing some structure to the eye is to focus the light coming into the eye toward the retina The sclera is the white part of the eyeball It's continuous with the cornea in the front of the eyeball through a junction called the limbus And the sclera is really dense connective tissue Behind the cornea you have the anterior chamber which is filled with a fluid called the aqueous humor This fluid helps nourish the cornea from the inside So you've got fluids on either side of the cornea that keep it hydrated The tier layer on one side and the aqueous humor on the other side Next if we keep going into the eye which is kind of a gross way of saying that is the iris and the pupil the iris is a layer of tissue that can adjust the size of the pupil So I can dilate or constrict to allow either more light in or less light in So if it's really bright the iris can constrict and that limits the amount of light coming into the eye and very low light the iris can dilate the pupil and allow what little light there may be to pass through the eye and give some low light vision Behind the iris is a transparent lens which has four layers of its own The capsule sub capsular epithelium the cortex and the nucleus the lens focuses light so that it passes through the next section of the eye called the posterior chamber through a jelly like substance called the vitreous humor before the light hits the retina The retina has ten layers where those rod and cone cells I mentioned earlier the rod cells are responsible for vision and low light situations And the cone cells are responsible for a color vision and for finer details These cells when stimulated by light trigger chemical reactions that form a chemical called activated rhodopsin which generates electrical impulses in the optic nerve And that's where we no longer have to worry about light Now for vision to work the lens in our eye has to be able to focus the light properly on the surface of the retina If the focal point for light is in front of or behind the retina then we're going to have problems with our visual focus So if your eyeball is too long the lens will focus the light in front of the retina instead of on the retina And you'll have what is called myopia also known as nearsightedness This means you'll be able to see things in focus if they are relatively close to you but the further away they get from you the more out of focus it appears If your eyeball is too short then the lens will focus light on the point behind your retina and you'll have hyperopia or farsightedness meaning you can see things further away more clearly than things that are closer to you Corrective lenses change the course of light as it passes through the lens before it has a chance to hit your eye The lens you wear is making a correction to compensate for your near or far sightedness There are also corrective lenses that can correct for other things like astigmatism and astigmatism is an uneven curvature of the cornea which in turn can distort vision And I'll talk all about that a little bit later in this episode But first I want to talk about some history of corrective lenses in general because it's really fascinating I knew a little bit about this before I started doing research but the more research I did the greater appreciation I had for the countless number of people who made contributions to our knowledge to make corrective lenses of possibility So the concept of using magnification to augment eyesight dates back at least to ancient Egypt circa the 5th century before the common era Egyptians figured out how to produce a type of magnifying glass and there's some evidence to suggest that this was not a new idea even as early as the 5th century BCE This knowledge eventually made its way to Rome Seneca the younger who was interested in optics light mirrors and other such matters was said to have created some special glasses some lenses for the emperor Nero to use to aid his eyesight though the sources for this information may not be the most reliable As it turns out you get accounts from Rome that were written hundreds of years after the events They are describing And it's not always a 100% reliable information But generally the story is that Nero was using sunglasses made out of emerald to shield his eyes from light and to improve his eyesight somewhat Whether or not that meant emerald as in the precious gemstone that we're familiar with or some other substance has been an issue of debate and frankly it gets so wibbly wobbly that I'm willing to just leave it at that There are other people we can talk about however such as the Islamic scientist Al hassin.

Jonathan Strickland Chris paulette Bowman myopia Rome Seneca Nero Egypt Rome Al hassin
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

05:44 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Host Jonathan Strickland I'm an executive producer at how stuff works in love all things tech and today we're going to talk about a pretty amazing subject vaporware We're going to do this for a couple of episodes actually This one we're going to talk about hardware that is vaporware or that was vaporware or that never was it gets complicated And in our next episode we're going to focus more on software So what exactly is vaporware Vaporware is a future product that someone has announced but one that is not yet available for purchase And possibly never will be available These are products that could still be in development or they could be in a design phase And they might never see the light of day So vaporware is kind of you can't call it a definitive classification Not everything will remain vaporware Some stuff may eventually emerge from vaporware to become an actual product Some stuff may ultimately collapse in on itself and you can say well it was vaporware 'cause it never came out But vaporware itself is sort of a transition Now you don't want your product to be classified as vaporware because that comes with it some pretty bad implied messaging Things like we have the intent to bring this product to market but we don't know how to yet or wouldn't this product be a great idea give us your money So vaporware is not necessarily something you want to have associated with you or your products And this episode is sort of a preview of some stuff I'll be talking about in upcoming episodes for tech stuff because we are fast approaching episode 1000 1000 episodes of tech stuff And in that episode 1000 I'll be dedicating a discussion about critical thinking and skepticism in general and how we can apply those skills toward technology in particular And then I plan to do an episode about hoaxes and scams and technology stuff that was pretty clearly a falsehood from the beginning And I need to be clear that vaporware is not necessarily a falsehood There are many cases where companies and people probably 100% believe they were going to bring this product to market and it just didn't happen So I don't think that all vaporware I list in this episode represents an outright attempt to deceive people Like I said some of them may have been but I'm willing to extend the benefit of the doubt and assume that most if not all of the products that I will be talking about we're actually supposed to come out at some point and they just did not for various reasons Legitimate reasons as opposed to this was someone who was just trying to scare up a whole bunch of money really quickly And I've talked extensively about some examples of vaporware in their own episodes notably the phantom game console I did a full episode dedicated to that But here's a quick refresher The phantom was supposed to be a video game console that relied exclusively on digital delivery You would download games to your console directly over the Internet And the idea was ahead of its time and some of the folks in charge of the company had a bit of a shady reputation But I still think that a lot of people who were involved on the phantom team had every reason to believe that the thing they were working on would one day become a real product I can't say for certain the folks at the top shared that belief they may have been running a scam the whole time but I know people who were attached to it really thought that they were working on something that was going to be an actual consumer product At the end of the day the phantom never surfaced which led to a lot of jokes about the phantom never materializing But since I've done a full episode about that product that never was I'm going to look at other gadgets that were promoted at some point by a company but never actually became a thing you could actually buy So sticking to the realm of video games that is a wealthy treasure trove of examples of vaporware even if you're talking about the hardware side of things let's talk about the retro vgs AKA the coleco chameleon AKA the retro chameleon This vaporware game console gives proof to the old adage If it seems too good to be true it probably is Although again not necessarily meant to be a way to fool people First this console was meant to be a cartridge based game system with no connectivity to the Internet Kind of like a throwback to the old classic cartridge based game systems things like the Atari 2600 the coleco vision and television the Nintendo Entertainment System the super Nintendo the Nintendo 64 the Atari Jaguar all of these cartridge based systems And the value proposition for this device the selling point was that games were going to be complete experiences the moment they hit store shelves They would have to be because the whole game would have to exist on the cartridge There was no way to patch or update games There's no way to get downloadable content because the console itself would not connect to the Internet The developer for the console argued that this would be a return to the old days of gaming where a player could be assured that the title he or she picked up was a playable complete game There'd be no need for a day one download So this was sort of a response to a trend in video games where you go out you buy a brand new game And whether you have a physical copy of it or you buy it digitally Once you installed on your machine immediately the machine searches for.

Jonathan Strickland coleco Nintendo Atari
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

05:54 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

"There and welcome to text stop. i'm your host. Jonathan strickland. i'm an executive producer with iheartradio and the love. All things tech and it is time for a tech stuff classic episode this episode originally published back in september of two thousand fourteen september tenth. To be precise it is titled five technologies to end all wars. That didn't and i think the title pretty much sets it all up. Let's dive in people who are real. Innovators really I forward thinkers for lack of a better word. Often get kind of idealistic and optimistic. Sometimes perhaps unrealistically so right and so we we have some examples here of people who very confidently at the time. Proclaimed that the technology either they invented or that they were an advocate for would be the end of war for one reason or another and they fall into different kinds of categories. So we're gonna talk about all of them. Yes so there's several different ways. I guess you could imagine that war between humans could in on one hand. It's kind of hard to imagine that because it's just such a fundamental part of human nature and human history. Obviously it would be a fantastic thing for us to not violently. Kill each other in great numbers at intervals of time. sure But there are few ways you could look at how this might happen so one would be to sort of make war too risky Though that it's just not in your self interest pursue it. Gotcha so the idea being that even if you feel you have an advanced military that to wage war of any type would would incur such losses as to nullify any positive effect that that war might have your so. You just cannot be of a net advantage to you. The only way to win is not to play. I guess another way though. This is kind of harder to imagine how it would be done would be to say that you would make war completely impracticable or physically impossible. So it's just you somehow create a technology that makes so that people cannot actually do it. You want to shoot somebody but your gun doesn't work. It's just filled with crayons..

Jonathan strickland iheartradio
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

03:41 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

"Jonathan strickland as i explore the ever changing rapidly developing technologies that are transforming industries overnight from advancements in cloud and edge computing software as a service internet of things and of course five g. from small changes on the back end that can make a huge difference to tectonic changes that impact the way the entire company does business. We're often left wondering how the leading minds continue to thrive in a world of complex organizations ever changing technology so how do these executives innovate and enabled change both inside and outside there companies. And what are they looking. Forward to tackling next. The restless ones is the must listen to show for those in the know and for those who want to know who want to dive deeper and who want to stay ahead of the curve offering firsthand lessons leadership and innovation from the executives and technology. Making it happen today so make sure you listen to the restless ones every other tuesday. Find it on the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts. So a lot of home theater. Setups include at av receiver and audio.

Jonathan strickland
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

08:57 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer with how stuff works and I heart radio and I love all things Tech. Today. I thought I'd talk a bit about Internet search engines and how Google was able to sort of take the lead amongst a pack of competitors, most of which came out well before Google dead Now, these days, lots of people use Google as a word for Web searching in general, even though the company does way more than Web search, and there are still plenty of competitors that are still active that are out there. I'm sure Microsoft would rather we all talk about bringing the heck of the things but That doesn't happen. I think we're now at the point where people will talk about Googling even if they're using a different search engines. So how did that happen? How did we get to that point? Well to explain how we got there. It's a good idea to walk down memory lane. I mean, you know, I love to do this. Every episode begins with a history lesson and to really look at how the idea of search engines developed and what things were like in the early days of the public, Internet and the Web. First, the idea of search engines predates both of those concepts by quite some time, and it rose out of necessity. It kind of evolved out of older methods of indexing so A predecessor to search engines are the various library classification systems. Uh, three big ones are the Dewey Decimal System, the Library of Congress system and the superintendent of documents systems. The first two of those designate books with call numbers, according to subject matter, So you divide the books up based upon whatever subject they cover. This can get a little complicated. It is and and no pun intended subjective. You have to determine where does the book best fit in the grand taxonomy of subjects. Meanwhile, the superintendent of documents system is totally different. It doesn't divide it up by subject. It divides up books by the issuing agency responsible for the publication of the work, So they just divided up by where the book came from, Not what the book covers. Whatever the system, the purpose is the same as to make it possible for someone to track down a specific work in an enormous collection of works the word to figure out where to place a new work within an existing collection by classifying each work and then designating the physical location for that piece. People can find stuff. Otherwise, you just have an enormous pile of books with no organizational system at all, and finding anything would take ages. Now. Someday I have to do an episode about these systems and more detailed to talk about how they were developed and how they've evolved over time. Because it's actually a pretty interesting story. But we're going to jump forward a bit not quite up to the computer age. However, rather we're going to jump forward to the 19 forties. That's when a forward thinking fellow named Vannevar Bush Wrote an article for the Atlantic Monthly. The Peace had the title as we may think, and it contains some fairly present ideas in it. Bush recognized that as we increase our knowledge, we were beginning to specialize in certain fields out of necessity. That you couldn't just be a general knowledge Master. Eventually you were starting to develop our knowledge in different areas so far that you had to specialize. You couldn't be an expert in everything to get a really deep understanding about a particular field such as physics or chemistry. We might dedicate all our resources to that pursuit as an individual. Meanwhile, there are other people who are exploring different subjects like pure mathematics or cosmology or something like that. Now this, Bush argued, presented a new challenge. How do we create a usable record of our discoveries? One that's easily navigable and remains relevant over time. While an older library classification system might encompass several categories it couldn't get as granular as our knowledge was growing to be, for example, the Library of Congress classification system. Has 21 categories that you can use to group books together, but as our research and discoveries honed in on ever more precise slices of those categories The system becomes less relevant because you've you've got you know minor categories within those major categories, And so it gets harder to start classifying things, Bush said. We needed to have a record that could be continuously extended and easy to consult. But He went even further out than that, he said. To make it a really useful record. We need to structure it to respond to our queries in a way similar to help the human mind works. Bush argued that we think through associations we associate ideas with each other, sometimes in pretty unusual ways in ways that might seem intuitive to us. But on the very surface of it, there doesn't seem to be any relation between those ideas. And you may have experienced this where you're thinking about one thing, and you just start to think about a different thing that doesn't seem to be related. And then you're able to relate the two. This is really human ingenuity. It's where innovation really takes off. Well, Bush, that would probably be impossible for us to create an artificial system that could replicate that tendency. But we could, at the very least, design something that acknowledges that human trait so it works better for us. So if we did that, if we decide to search for a record for a particular type of information We might also see the opportunity to search for tangential data that is relevant to our needs. A good system would be able to anticipate that and serve up the information for us. So Bush proposed a hypothetical system called me MX. M e m e x, and that would use associated factors to organize information and a virtually limitless storage space again. This is hypothetical. It would be a system that one could reference and send a retrieval command to get the most relevant information related to whatever it was. You were asking for your query. Essentially, he was talking about the conceptual model that the Internet attempts to realize Skip ahead to the 19 sixties. Then you've got a computer scientist named Jerry Sultan Jerry Sultan taught at Cornell University, and he developed an indexing strategy using a vector space model. Now this gets a bit mind bendy for people who haven't worked with Victor space models. But follow me here now start with an imaginary virtual space kind of analogous to the physical space we live in in our day to day lives. Now, In our reality, we can perceive three dimensions and we experience the fourth one that of time. We cannot directly perceive any more than that ourselves. So most of the time we associate the physical world with three physical dimensions on the information retrieval method that Sultan set up. He defined the number of dimensions within his virtual space by the number of terms in a retrieval request, So if your request included five terms The vector space model would have five dimensions. Documents within the model would virtually appear as vectors within the space, according to which of the search terms were present within those documents and how frequently they were present within the documents. The the queries and the documents are both vectors of the term counts. And just in case here is rusty on your physics terms as I am. Victor is a quantity that has a magnitude and a direction. So your terms have vectors. Your documents have vectors, And the goal is to identify the documents that are most similar to the initial query in an effort to retrieve the most relevant results while leaving out anything that doesn't meet the criteria or doesn't mean a predetermined threshold of relevance. So you might say. I need to have X percentage match for the retrieval to actually come through and anything that doesn't meet that threshold gets discarded. It's not. It's not served to me. And that saves you time when you start sorting through the results to see if any of those actually represent the information you were actually looking for now, Suffice it to say this model really looks for the presence of specific terms. But not necessarily their use within the document their context so you could end up retrieving a document that technically contains all the terms you used in the search, but it has no real relevance to your actual needs. So that is a limitation of this model. But still it was a pretty good starting point. So some things work was incredibly important. Another big thinker who helped shape the course of what would become the Internet and the Web as a guy named Ted Nelson, who in the 19 sixties proposed an idea he called Xanadu and I'm not talking about the cheesy movie starring Olivia Newton John about roller skating, Greek muses, but As a side note. I really love that movie. No..

Jonathan Strickland Jerry Sultan Ted Nelson Olivia Newton John Google Microsoft Vannevar Bush Library of Congress Bush 19 sixties 21 categories Cornell University First two Today one thing each work fourth one both 19 forties
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

02:47 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

"Welcome to tech stuff. I'm your host. Jonathan strickland. i'm an executive producer with iheartradio and a love. All things tech. And i promised that i would have another follow up to our space suits episode which published on monday..

Jonathan strickland iheartradio
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on The Restless Ones

The Restless Ones

05:20 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on The Restless Ones

"What we are aiming to become is a platform where it has a digital twin of your job site and our software and our technologies that we're developing is pushing towards closer and closer to real time data capture. Welcome to the restless ones. I'm jonathan strickland. I've spent more than a decade really learning about technology what makes it tick and then describing and explaining that to my audience but it's the conversations with the world's most unconventional thinkers the leaders at the intersection of technology and business. That fascinate me. The most in partnership with t. mobile for business. I explore the unique set of challenges. That see i does and cto's face from advancements in cloud and edge computing software as a service internet of things and of course five g. We are often left wondering how leading minds and business continued to thrive..

jonathan strickland
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on BrainStuff

BrainStuff

01:58 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on BrainStuff

"You've probably seen stories about exemplary bravery and battles soldiers and volunteers who risk everything to pull injured. Compatriots out of harm's way so they can receive much needed medical attention but some of these heroes will never receive. Any medals parades accommodations for their work. And not because of injustice but because their ants species called capone-era analysis are termite hunting. Aunts that scientists say not only rescue injured comrades but also treat their wounds. The survival rate among those injured in this combat is remarkable up to ninety percent. These ants live in colonies in sub saharan africa that average nearly one thousand members the ends wage war on termites rating their nests and dragging the dead back behind the lines as a source of food. These rates however often come at a heavy price. The termites biting crushed the ants ripping off limbs and snapping off heads. Eric frank a scientist at the university of low son in switzerland has studied these ants and seeing them do battle with termites at a research station in the komo national park one of the largest protected areas in west africa in northern cote d'ivoire. He would watch the and drag the injured back to their nest. But because the ants make their homes underground it was difficult to define exactly what happened next. So franken has team set out to discover what was happening inside the nest i they captured entire ant colonies and set them up in artificial nests. They then hooked up infrared cameras to keep tabs on the insects. The scientists also captured termites and then allowed the answer to stage a raid. Many aunts were gravely injured during the melee. Many lost limbs they're able bodied comrades responded by staging a battlefield triage separating gravely wounded from the only slightly wounded. The seriously injured those who lost at least five limbs often died on the battlefield because as the researchers noted they didn't seem to want to be helped that bendon distort their bodies making it difficult for their sisters in arms to carry them to safety. Those whose wounds were less serious however allowed themselves to be cared for

iheart jonathan strickland neilson jonathan us Ge
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on BrainStuff

BrainStuff

01:55 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on BrainStuff

"In nineteen eighty three a perfect storm of technical issues and unit conversion mistakes left an air canada boeing seven sixty seven without fuel. Some forty one thousand feet. That's twelve thousand. Five hundred meters over central canada before long. It lost power to both engines after descending rate of twenty five hundred feet. That's seven hundred sixty meters per minute. The pilots were able to glide their boeing all the way to save albeit bumpy landing on a race car track. The pilots were hailed heroes and the airplane was dubbed the gimli glider after the town where it landed essentially any plane can glide if the need arises and in situations where all the engines have failed. Pilots have to expect the plane to do some gliding. Without the thrust those engines are built to provide. The plane can't help but lose altitude but how far can a plane glide when it's not designed to be a glider aircrafts whose engines conch out at higher elevations can glide for longer periods of time. This is one of the reasons. Why shellenberger and skulls hudson river landing was so impressive. They had to glide their way to safety and a matter of minutes from a pretty low altitude. Everything happened very fast on. Us airways flight forty nine fifty one. The plane hit the birds within two minutes of taking off and just three minutes later. The plane was in the hudson river. Obviously planes come in all shapes and sizes. So if you're flying one it's important to know your vehicles. Best glide speed in a nutshell. This is the speed that will let your airplane travel the farthest distance while sacrificing the least amount of altitude. A related concept is the minimum sink speed or the pace of travel that will maximize how much time you can spend gliding depending on your situation. You may choose to prioritize time over distance or vice versa

iheart jonathan strickland neilson us jonathan
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

04:29 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

"Everybody in welcome to textile production from iheartradio. Beat there in welcome to tech stuff. I'm your host. Jonathan strickland. I'm an executive producer with iheartradio and love all things tech. It is friday which means it is time for a tech stuff classic. This classic episode originally published on june. Second two thousand fourteen it is titled the history of carbon fibre. A truly fascinating material has lots of of incredible uses and applications. Some of which. I believe have been perhaps a bit over height over the years but that tends to be the case with all things technology. Let's listen in carbon-fiber fascinating stuff. I didn't even realize how fascinating it was until we in fact started doing this research and because it is so fascinating and since we are playing this into two episodes we'll probably have to look at other exotic materials in another one. What will make some mention of stuff that is similar to what carbon-fiber is but we're really going to focus on carbon-fiber because it's there's a lot there oh yeah there could have probably been way more than two episodes about carbon-fiber if we have really gotten into gritty details about about different uses for it and exactly. Yeah if we've gone into the history of this is the first vehicle to us. If we had done that this would have been a three parter easily but fear not fans. We didn't go into that kind of minute detail. We're going to tell you in this episode about the history of developing carbon carbon-fiber. In our second part will look more into how it's actually made and the process that That you have to go through in order to get a raw material to turn into carbon-fiber and some of the challenges and benefits thereof. Yes so first what. The heck is carbon fiber i. It's a material. Made up of thin strands of crystalline carbon docked. Will there you go episode over. Thanks guys but no. We're we're gonna we're gonna give a little more detail that the thickness of an individual strand of carbon fibre can be thinner than a human hair by many factors. Oh yeah yeah and if you're wondering yes it is..

Jonathan strickland iheartradio
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

07:04 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"I'm your host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer with how stuff works in the love all things Tech and today we're going to kind of do a continuation on our discussions about critical thinking and skepticism. I know I've been talking about that a lot. But this is another area where that's important and recently in the news. There's been a lot of talk about spearfishing. Now. Much of that discussion centers on a report from 2016 that detailed how Russian intelligence agents targeted the United States Democratic National Committee or DNC, with a spear fishing campaign that ultimately allowed the malicious actors to make off with a lot of sensitive and confidential information and infiltrate sensitive systems. I'm not going to get political on this episode. That's not what I want to focus on. I rather want to focus on the strategies that malicious actors used to either steal information or convince people to hand it over willingly through deception. So I'm going to talk about concepts like Social engineering, phishing, spear, phishing and whaling, and I'm listening them in that order because it involves moving from a more general concept to a more specific application of those concepts. So let's get it started with social engineering. Now, generally speaking, social engineering, at least in this context refers to using deception and manipulation in order to get hold of information. It's just really It's just about tricking people to give up stuff that normally they wouldn't Part with and that's really all it boils down to. Typically, this means that someone is pretending to be a trusted entity, and they work to convince a target or mark in the old carnival. Speak the mark being the person That you have marked as being vulnerable. You are trying to get them to hand over information or even give them control of their devices. So you might convince someone to install some malware. It's disguised as something else, like an innocent file. But your your job is to get them to do something that compromises information or system information systems, and this shows us yet again that critical thinking is a really important skill. It's good to apply critical thinking when someone is asking you for information, or telling you that you should install a program sometimes. Those are bad people, and sometimes they're up to no good. Now you can think of a social engineer as a con artist, so it's someone who uses psychological manipulation to get a specific reaction from Mark. Stage magicians and mentalists use those sort of strategies or to entertain. They're not doing it to do something underhanded. They're doing it in order to make people, uh, amazed or laugh or applaud. Stage magician, for example, has to learn the art of misdirection. This is the technique of getting an audience to pay attention to something that is ultimately unimportant, at least as far as the The mechanics of a trick and that's so that they don't notice the actual important stuff that's going on. It gives the magician the time and opportunity to pull off a trick. A good magician can hold an audience's attention with some mesmerizing stage work. They might incorporate clever pattern, but the whole point is to keep focus off of something that might otherwise spoil the illusion. Dr. Robert Sheldon E is a professor emeritus of psychology and marketing at Arizona State University, outlined six basic principles of influence. These relate to strategies their drivers that someone can employ to convince another person to agree with what they are saying, and essentially, the six broad principles can get someone to say yes, it's the idea of influencing someone to agree to do something. Understanding these principles can help you recognize when someone is trying to use those strategies on you. But these are strategies that rely on very human traits They work Because of the way we're wired more or less. It's even being aware of them doesn't mean that you will be immune to them because it's very much Dependent upon what it means to be human. So Ghiraldini sites other psychologists who identified what they called judgmental heuristics, You can think of these as sort of cognitive shortcuts. There are basic rules that we accept as being generally true. So it's sort of like a foundational statement that we would not question. But if someone knows how those work they can take advantage of it. So in other words, if someone is really good at using these principles, you might not be aware of it right away, and I certainly consider myself to be vulnerable to them. I know I'm vulnerable to them. I can think of examples where people use these. Techniques on me, and it worked. Salespeople in particular, tend to really focus on these their entire books out there that are all about how to leverage these principles in order to make sales make business deals. Etcetera. So what are the six big categories? Well, the first is the rule of reciprocation. That's our tendency to want to repay someone who has done something on our behalf. Essentially, this comes down to the concept of favors, So an example you might have encountered could be free samples. Merchants know that a free sample can create the urge within a potential customer to buy a product because that person feels obligated after having accepted a sample. So if I'm sitting at a table and I have samples of let's say it's olive oil. I've got Different little bowls of olive oil, and you can dip a little bit of bread in there and taste them. And I'm there saying I'm here to answer any questions. Do you like it? What do you think we have the social pressure within us to say. I like it a lot. Even if we don't we have that social pressure, like very few of us would say. Oh, I don't like this at all to someone who seems like they are invested in your answers, so We feel obligated to go along with it, and we may feel obligated because we have accepted something that in return, we will buy something even if we didn't like the thing because we feel this social pressure. And this goes along with what it means to be human. I'll touch back on that when we get toward the end of these principles, so most people don't like to feel that they are under some sense of obligation to someone else. They don't like to feel They owe somebody something. And so they will very Quickly try to act to even the scales right so that they are no longer obligated. So rule of reciprocation is the first principle. Next is scarcity. People tend to want more of stuff that they can have less of. That's the basic idea, and you can look at this with just like the prices for precious metals, precious metals or precious, largely because of their scarcity, because they're so hard to get, and there's not a whole lot of it. That's what drives up their value. People wanted more because it's harder to get the entire diamond industry is based off of this concept..

Jonathan Strickland 2016 DNC United States Democratic Natio Robert Sheldon E Ghiraldini first six big categories Arizona State University six broad principles first principle Mark today six basic principles Russian
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

05:49 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on TechStuff

"Everybody in welcome to textile production from iheartradio. Hey there and welcome to tech stuff. I'm your host. Jonathan strickland of an executive producer with iheartradio and love all things tech. And because we are taking today off as a holiday. I thought that i would rerun an episode to give myself and more importantly my super producer. Tari little bit of a holiday break. So what you are about to hear is an episode that we actually published february of last year This is an episode called fire starter. It's about the the the development of matches primarily and i thought it was appropriate because we just had the fourth of july weekend so that typically involves lots of stuff like fireworks and grilling and things like that stuff where matches might come in handy. So here's an episode about the development of matches and also got gotta gotta warn you This episode has a special guest Ala mona who is a matchmaker. Had the georgia renaissance festival Who also helps with the episode. It is a little silly and if you if you cringe easily at silly humor just quick warning up front. That's gonna happen in this episode but you will learn about the evolution of matches which is pretty fascinating stuff filled with lots of dangerous chemistry so hope you enjoy and i hope you had a happy and safe fourth of july weekend today. We're going to talk about fire. It somebody say phya. No god no ladies and gentlemen. I've been blessed with a special guest today. would you please introduce yourself to all these nice people. i'm alimony mettler. And i'm a matchmaker that i didn't quite understand what matchmaking entailed so i'm quite good at starting fires for those who do not know. I have a sordid history with the georgia renaissance festival and it was there. I believe where my path i crossed with. That of allah mona's The village matchmaker and I guess it's only fitting that for this episode. I have a pyro enthusiast. Join us for the show so alimony. thank you for being here. Thank you for having me. Unit quite familiar. I can't quite put my matchstick on it but if you see a lot of faces at the festival i'm i'm sure they're alive..

Jonathan strickland iheartradio Ala mona Tari georgia mettler mona
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

06:03 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"He there and welcome to Tech stuff. I'm your host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer at Howstuffworks. And I love all things Tech. And today we're going to tackle a fairly topical subject, something that really came into play in the spring of 2018. And chances are you have received an email or two or Two dozen or more from various companies about new policies that relate to G D. P are often they will ask you for your permission to continue to communicate with you. So what's it all about? A well GDP R stands for general Data protection regulation and it's a data protection law, as the name suggests, and it's from the European Union or EU, but the Internet As it turns out, is a global entity. So even if you do not live in the EU, you will likely be affected by this new law. In this episode, I'm going to go through the history of the law what the law is actually all about and how companies are doing as far as complying with that law. And here's a hint. There are some companies that are not even close to compliance. But we'll get to that first. Let's look back to 1995. That's when the European Union adopted the data protection Directive or DP D. It was a different world. Back in 1995. The World Wide Web was still a baby in 1995. Heck, I was still in college in 1995. The heart of the data protection directive was an effort to protect the privacy of citizens in the EU and the EU as a whole has placed a high value on privacy, something that Has been treated with Uh, let's say More casual demeanor here in the United States, except in cases where something has gone terribly, terribly wrong. The directive specifically covered how data can be processed and in what context it might be processed within the European Union. It didn't matter if the data was collected manually or automatically, as in it didn't matter if there was a human in charge of it, or if it was an algorithm. The rules were a broad overview. Leaving up specifics to the member countries to actually adopt those those rules and incorporate them into their own laws. But some of the general tenants included that personal data could only be quote Collected for specified explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a way incompatible with those purposes. End quote further, only the data needed for those purposes should be collected. There should not be a case of an entity collecting practically everything. If that entity stated purpose is to run a process on just a narrow scope of all that data, this might remind you of the old days of Facebook apps where you could Or add ons. You know those little things that you could attach to your Facebook profile, and they would ask you for permission to view certain parts of your information Well in the old Wild West days, that could be anything. It could be absolutely everything even though the APP itself may only use a tiny bit of information at any given time, especially for Whatever the APP was supposed to do, well, eventually Facebook crackdown on that and said, You know what? You should only ask permission to get access to the data. You need to do whatever it is that you do. And otherwise you should leave everything else alone. That's kind of what was going on back in 1995. With this directive further, the data was meant to be as accurate as possible. And if there were any indications That the information was inaccurate or it was out of date. It would be quote, erased or rectified, end quote, And finally, the data would have to be kept in such a way that the identity of the individuals involved would only be knowable for as long as it was necessary to run the process. Once the entity has done whatever it needed to do with all that information. It was supposed to anonymous the data so that there would be no way of knowing who it pertained to. So once you have finished running whatever the process was You had to make sure that the information would no longer be traced back to the people who gave you the information. In addition, the directive required entities to obtain user consent. Before collecting their information in the first place, and that consent had to be unambiguous. In addition, the data collector was under the obligation of providing the individuals with information about who was ultimately getting the data and to what purpose. As well as provide for an opportunity for the individual to review the data for any potential errors that way you as the person involved could say, Well, let me take a look at what you've gathered and make sure that you don't have any information that is inaccurate or out of date. Now already, you might sound to you like this directive might have been a challenge to implement for a lot of reasons. In 2011, the European Data protection supervisor published an opinion titled Quote. A comprehensive approach on personal data protection in EU end quote as sort of an update to this policy by 2011. The Internet was much more mature that had been back in 95, at least in the sense that There are a lot more people and businesses using it. There's still no shortage of immature content on the Internet anyway, by 2011 E. Commerce was a really big deal and Internet access was increasingly being viewed as a right But that also brought with it threats to privacy. Many of the Internet connected services we enjoy are constantly collecting data on us either about personal information about us in particular, or tracking our behaviors over time. And that data is kind of like currency. It's got value to it, so you and I might enjoy a service while simultaneously supplying information to the service provider,.

Jonathan Strickland 2011 United States 1995 Howstuffworks spring of 2018 European Union two Facebook today EU Two dozen first European Data data protection Directive data protection E. Commerce DP D. G D. P
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

06:29 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer over how stuff works, and I love all things Tech and today we're going to talk about a pretty technical subject and just to get this out of the way I am getting over a cold and it's pollen season here in Atlanta already. So I might sound a little extra grungy today. Just just blame that on on my health. And Nirvana. But recently a listener asked me to give an update on the switch over to I P. V six, which I thought presented a great opportunity to talk about what that actually means. Why it's important as well as what progress has been made in this switch over now, it all boils down to solving a pressing problem, which is that the old set of rules we relied upon for the Internet. Just aren't quite sufficient to keep up with the way we're using the Internet. So first we need to define what is I P. It stands for Internet Protocol, which Sounds a little daunting. But really, that just means it's the method or set of rules that the Internet follows in order to send data between computers or other devices that are interconnected within this network of networks in protocol speak. We typically referred to these devices as hosts. And from a high level, the rules are pretty straightforward, but they are absolutely necessary. Without these rules. It would be pretty challenging to find what you're looking for when you connect to the Internet, So let's take a very simple connection. And that way we can build on that. To understand what the challenges are. Back in the good old Bolton board system days, the BBS days you would typically have one machine acting like a server. Everything would live on that machine, and it would serve data to a single client at a time. So that meant You had one computer or host in the terminology of the Internet, And this one is the server that has all the message boards, files games. Whatever the bulletin board system might have. The people who want to visit the BBS would use a dial up modem on their personal computer. This is another host in Internet parlance, but we also would call it a client and they would use that to call up the server computer over a normal phone line. So it's just like if you were to make a phone call to somebody else, the connection was direct, or at least as direct as a connection can be when it crosses over telecommunications infrastructure like phone lines. The point is the client and server communicated directly with one another. The data didn't need to pass through any third party hosts. Good analogy is the old two cans and a string method of communication. You know, you got a can on one side a can on the other string connecting the two and you speak and the vibrations go through the string and are amplified on the other side and Thus, you can talk while the two computers in this example are those cans and the phone infrastructure would be the string. But the Internet consists of millions of computers, plus routers and switches and other devices that are all interconnected in various ways. Whenever you visit a website or you send an email you're sending and receiving data to and from other devices connected to that network and some of them. Might be across the world from each other, which means there have to be rules in place for your messages to get to the right computers, and those computers have to know where to send the data back to you in response to your requests. Part of the Internet protocol. Addresses this very issue. And yes, it is kind of a pun. It's called I P address is an IP address is a unique identify, rare for every computer or connected device on the Internet. Anything that's directly communicating with the Internet has to have an I P address, and it's similar to a physical address that we would use for mailing things. And that it provides a means for computers to locate the right destination for data. But unlike a physical address, a machine's IP address doesn't necessarily always stay the same. It can. It can be a static I P address But it's pretty common to run into dynamic I P addresses, which means they can change depending upon the local network that it connects to the router that's in charge. Lots of different things can determine what a machines I p address is at any given time. Now, The idea for IP addresses goes back much further than most people's experience with the Internet unless you were a researcher or an engineer, the debut of the World Wide Web in the early nineties kind of helped usher in a new era of computer users. But the Internet itself had been around for a decade before the Web was a thing. Those rules had to be in place for the Internet to work, and they were, in fact an evolution of the rules that engineers were creating when they built the predecessor to the Internet, called ARPA. Net. Our Burnett was the Department of Defense Project. Those working on the project. We're creating the framework and rules within which different computers built on different architectures could meaningfully communicate across the network. This was a pretty hefty undertaking. But I've talked about it in other episodes of tax stuff, So I'm not going to go all the way through that again. Right here. Right now you can find the episodes on our planet and listen to those. But in a request for comments, Document and RFC document dating from 1980, the team working on Internet protocols, detailed the necessity for addresses and helped clarify their role. Part of that meant explaining what an address is. And is not. So here's a quote. A direct quote from RFC 7 60. Yes, Fasten your seatbelts because it's really exciting speech. A distinction is made between names, addresses and routes. A name indicates what we seek and address indicates where it is a route indicates how to get there. The Internet protocol deals primarily with addresses is the task of higher level I e host to host or application protocols to make the mapping from names to addresses, and so a device would need a name and an address the route would be the pathway the data would take between the hosts. This isn't all that different from sending snail mail in the real world..

Jonathan Strickland 1980 Atlanta I P. V six two cans two millions of computers two computers today one computer early nineties first Department of Defense one side ARPA. Net one machine RFC 60 single client 7
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

07:10 min | 1 year ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"I am your host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer. And how stuff works, Mila, of all things Tech, And recently I did a live stream celebrating the 10th anniversary of tech stuff. I know I've been talking a lot about that. But to me it's a really big deal to be the host of a show that's lasted 10 years. And we did some question answer stuff on that episode, and some people were asking me about what it takes to start your own podcast. And so I've talked a little bit about that in previous episodes and kind of covered it and brief But today I really want to dive into this concept. What does it take to make your own podcast? Let's say that maybe you are interested and launching your own show. What are the things that you need to think about one of the steps you have to take. How much work is it to produce a show? And as it turns out, the answer to that question is variable on a lot of different factors. But the first thing I would say you have to do the most important thing by far out of all the stuff you're gonna have to do to make a show. Is to pick a topic. Or a subject something that your podcast is about. If you want to do the podcast about nothing, you're gonna find it incredibly challenging to stick to a schedule time and time again. It is just going to be tough plus You want to have a good focus to give yourself direction or producing the show? You want to make sure that you are able to have a goal in sight. Not only that, but It also helps when you're categorizing your podcast because a lot of people find podcasts by going into their pod catching application of choice. Typically, apple podcasts is the granddaddy of them. That's the biggest one out of all of the directories out there, but whether you're doing that, or stitcher or Spotify or Google play or any of those things, Chances are you're looking at things like categories. Because you know what your interests are and you want to look for podcasts that serve up your interest. That's true for audiences around the world, So if you are able to focus on your show and give it A subject that you are going to reliably be able to talk about week after week That will allow you to categorize your show and make it easier for other people to find it because ultimately you want people to listen to your show. Otherwise, why are you going through the motions of doing it? You could just talk to friends about stuff without ever having to go through the trouble of recording and editing and publishing and sending it to podcast directories. If that were the case, so Resume. Presumably you want people to listen to it. So finding a focus, something you're passionate about already is really important. And I think being passionate is Is incredibly necessary so that you will not lose enthusiasm for the subject of whatever your podcast is. And it doesn't have to be a specific thing like there's some great shows up there, My brother, my brother and me, which I mentioned in a previous episode. Is a fantastic comedy show where three brothers give terrible advice from questions that are sent in from the audience or cold from Yahoo answers. And it's hilarious. It does have some structure, and it does have a focus and that it is this kind of advice show for the modern era. As they say, Tech stuff. We focus on technology and its intersection with culture. The soundtrack show is all about Soundtracks, movie music and television music and how that's changed involved in the influences that have gone into it. So picking your subject is Is great and being passionate about it is even better. You don't have to know everything about your subject. In fact, I would argue that for some podcast that makes the show even better. Whether it's a serious show or comedy show if it's a comedy show than the comedy can be in you not knowing about a lot about whatever the subject is and learning about it, but in a non fiction or non comedy show It could be you learning things and then expressing that to your audience. That's very much. What tech stuff is I frequently if I'm going into a a subject, I might know a little bit about it, but I never know. Enough to do Ah, 45 minutes show about it. So tech stuff is really ultimately the documentation of me learning about something and then expressing what I've learned to you guys, I think That's where a lot of the value of tech stuff comes in. It's it's the excitement I get from getting to learn something so you don't have to have encyclopedia acknowledge about your subject. I'm not suggesting that if you do happen to have encyclopedic knowledge about something, and now that very many of you people are talking about it, you might be ideal for a brand new podcast. Yes. Step one. Pick your subject. Step two is kind of deciding how you want to talk about this. All right? How you want to treat your subject, not just what it's going to be about. But what sort of format is your podcast going to be? How many hosts are going to be involved? Is it going to be a solo host? Show like Tech stuff? Is it going to have multiple hosts and it'll be conversational in nature? Is it going to be an interview show where you're going to be recording interviews with various people? And if so, how are you going to do that? Because that's going to come into planning leader on Also figuring out Is it going to be a nonfiction show is in a fiction show. Maybe you want to talk about horror, for example, and maybe you want to do a fiction show where you actually create Either a fictional horror story. Or maybe you're talking about fictional horror movies. That is a very different thing than a nonfiction show where you're really taking a more Uh um or Methodical approach to discussing the topic. Is it scripted? If it's scripted, that's going to add more time. You're gonna have to write everything before you actually record But scripted ones can keep things nice and tight and really again focused on whatever the subject is, or is it improvised? Is it something where you only have a vague idea of what you want to talk about? And everything else just comes out during the recording process. That could be a lot of fun. That could also mean that you might have a lot of editing to do once you're done recording. You could do the interview approach, which again puts a lot of the pressure on the other person. You have to learn how to be a good interview or something that I'm still learning. Honestly, I would not call myself a good interviewer at all. It's something that I'm working on. But it's still something that I'm new to, or is it conversational? Do you have someone else? Sit down with you and you just break down a topic? That's the way tech stuff started. Chris pull it and I would do our research independently and sit down and have a conversation..

Jonathan Strickland Chris 45 minutes 10 years Yahoo apple Mila today 10th anniversary three brothers Step two Google play Step one one first thing lot of people Spotify
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

08:27 min | 2 years ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer with how stuff works and I heart radio and I love all things Tech. Today. I thought I'd talk a bit about Internet search engines and how Google was able to sort of take the lead amongst a pack of competitors, most of which came out well before Google dead Now, these days, lots of people use Google as a word for Web searching in general, even though the company does way more than Web search, and there's still plenty of competitors that are still active that are out there. I'm sure Microsoft would rather we all talk about bringing the heck of the things but That doesn't happen. I think we're now at the point where people will talk about Googling even if they're using a different search engine. So how did that happen? How did we get to that point? To explain how we got there. It's a good idea to walk down memory lane. I mean, you know, I love to do this. Every episode begins with a history lesson and to really look at how the idea of search engines developed and what things were like in the early days of the public, Internet and the Web. Now. First, the idea of search engines predates both of those concepts by quite some time, And it rose out of necessity kind of evolved out of older methods of indexing so A predecessor to search engines are the various library classifications systems. Three big ones are the Dewey Decimal system at the Library of Congress System and the superintendent of documents system. The first two of those doesn't eight books with call numbers, according to subject matter, So you divide the books up based upon whatever subject they cover this convict a little complicated it is and no pun intended. Subjective. You have to determine where does the book best fit in the grand taxonomy of subjects? Meanwhile, the superintendent of documents system is totally different. It doesn't divide it up by subject. It divides up books by the issuing agency responsible for the publication of the work, so They just divided up by where the book came from, Not what the book covers. Whatever the system, the purpose is the same. It's to make it possible for someone to track down a specific work. In an enormous collection of works the word to figure out where to place a new work within an existing collection by classifying each work and then designating the physical location for that piece. People confined stuff. Otherwise, you just have an enormous pile of books with no organizational system at all, and finding anything would take ages. Now. Someday I'll have to do an episode about these systems in more detail to talk about how they were developed and how they've evolved over time. Because it's actually a pretty interesting story. But we're going to jump forward a bit not quite up to the computer age. However, rather we're going to jump forward to the 19 forties. That's when a forward thinking fellow named Vannevar Bush Wrote an article for the Atlantic Monthly. The piece had the title as we may think, and it contains some fairly prescient ideas in it. Bush recognized that as we increase our knowledge, we were beginning to specialize in certain fields, Alan necessity That you couldn't just be a general knowledge Master. Eventually you were starting to develop our our knowledge in different areas so far that you had to specialize. You couldn't be an expert and everything to get get a really deep understanding about a particular field such as physics or chemistry. We might dedicate all our resource is too that pursuit as an individual. Meanwhile, there are other people who are exploring different subjects like pure mathematics or cosmology or something like that. Now this, Bush argued, presented a new challenge. How do we create a usable record of our discoveries? One that's easily navigable and remains relevant over time. While an older library classification system might encompass several categories, it couldn't get his granular as our knowledge was growing to be, for example, the Library of Congress classification system. Has 21 categories that you can use to group books together. But as our research and discoveries honed in on evermore precise slices of those categories, the system becomes less relevant. Because you've you've got, you know minor categories within those major categories, So it gets harder to start classifying things Bush that we needed to have a record that could be continuously extended and easy to consult. But He went even further out than that, he said. To make it a really useful record. We need to structure it to respond to our queries in a way similar to help the human mind works. Bush argued that we think through associations we associate ideas with each other, sometimes in pretty unusual ways in ways that might seem intuitive to us. But on the very surface of it, they doesn't seem to be any relation between those ideas. And you may have experienced this where you're thinking about one thing, and you just start to think about a different thing that doesn't seem to be related. And then you are able to relate the two. This is really human ingenuity. It's where innovation really takes off. Well, Bush that would probably be impossible for us to create an artificial system that could replicate that tendency. But we could have the very least designed something that acknowledges that human trait so it works better for us. So if we did that, if we decide to search for a record for a particular type of information We might also see the opportunity to search for tangential data that is relevant to our needs. A good system would be able to anticipate that and serve up the information for us. So Bush proposed a hypothetical system called mimics. M A M a X, and that would use associative factors to organize information in a virtually limitless storage space again. This is hypothetical. There would be a system that one could reference and send a retrieval command to get the most relevant information related to whatever it was. You were asking for that your query Essentially, he was talking about a conceptual model that the Internet attempts to realize Skip ahead to the 19 sixties. Then you've got a computer scientist named Jerry Salton. Jerry Sultan taught at Cornell University, and he developed an indexing strategy using a vector space model. Now this gets a bit mind bendy for people who haven't worked with Victor space models. But follow me here now start with an imaginary virtual space kind of analogous to the physical space we live in in our day to day lives. Now, in our reality, we can perceive three dimensions and we experience 1/4 1 that of time. We cannot directly perceive any more than that ourselves so much The time we associate the physical world with three physical dimensions, non the information retrieval method that Salton set up, he defined the number of dimensions within his virtual space. By the number of terms in a retrieval request. So if your request included five terms, the vector space model would have five dimensions. Documents within the model would virtually appear as vectors within the space, according to which of the search terms were present within those documents and how frequently they were present within the documents. The queries, and the documents are both vectors of the term counts. And just in case yours, rusty on your physics terms as I am. Ah, Victor is a quantity that has a magnitude and direction. So your terms have Victor's your documents have vectors, And the goal is to identify the documents that are most similar to the initial query in an effort to retrieve the most relevant results, well, leaving out anything that doesn't meet the criteria or doesn't mean a predetermined threshold of relevance. So you might say. I need to have X percentage match for the retrieval to actually come through and anything that doesn't meet that threshold gets discarded. It's not. It's not served to me. That save you time and you start sorting through the results to see if any of those actually represent the information you were actually looking for now. Suffice it to say this model really looks for the presence of specific terms. But not necessarily their use within the document their context. So you couldn't of retrieving a document that technically contains all the terms you used in the search, but it has no real relevance to your actual needs..

Vannevar Bush Google superintendent Microsoft Jonathan Strickland executive producer Victor Library of Congress Library of Congress System Salton Atlantic Monthly Jerry Salton Jerry Sultan Cornell University
"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

Progressive Talk 1350 AM

07:39 min | 2 years ago

"jonathan strickland" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM

"Host, Jonathan Strickland. I'm an executive producer with Howstuffworks and I Heart radio, and I love all things Tech and once upon a time gather around Children. There was a company that was so closely tied to the idea of connecting to the Internet that for some people, it was synonymous with the Internet itself. I'm talking about America Online or a O. L. Which is still around. But we're talking about the early days and oil grew into a giant force of a company. It was part of a merger that many people have described in the wake of that merger as being the worst deal in the history of tech mergers. So we're gonna look at the history of this company and where things are today, so in this episode will look specifically at how that company came to be and how it grew in the early years. Our story concerns several co founders frequently. If you look at stories about a A well they'll talk about one of these co founders over all the others, but they are very Important each and every one of them. So first we have William F. Von Meister, who founded a startup that would give birth to a o. L he would not be part of a well itself. That oil would grow out of a company that maester had built. And the co founders would include three men who worked for this startup. The startup was called Control Video Corporation. Those three men were Steve Case, Mark Saref and Jim Kimsey. William F. On Meister was born in New York City. He his father had worked for the Zeppelin company, infamous for being the company that would build the Hindenburg. Airship, the one that burst into flame and gave birth to the Oh, the humanity line. Von Meister was born on February 22nd 1942. He attended private schools, and he went to Georgetown University, but he never graduated. Despite that he was able to enroll in the master's degree program for business over at American University. And, upon graduating, he founded many startups and one of those was a tech company called Control Video Corporation, which I'll get to in just a moment. But first, let's talk about some of these other founders. James Verlyn Kimsey was born on September 15th 1939 that would make him the oldest of the co founders who would create a ol. He also attended but did not graduate from Georgetown University. So He and my sister had that in common. He completed his education at West Point Academy, however, he became an airborne Ranger. In fact, a decorated one he served three combat tours, two of which were in Vietnam. And after the war, he began purchasing or opening bars and restaurants in the Washington D. C area became a very successful businessman. And he was brought over to control Video Corporation to serve as a manufacturing consultant. During some troubled times. Control Video Corporation did not have a long history, but it certainly had a colorful one. Mark Sarah, who was one of the other co founders, He was born on May 5th 1948 in Austin, Texas. He attended the University of Texas at Austin. He earned degrees and computer science and mathematics. And then he would go on to enroll in graduate studies at M I T and he earned a master's degree in electrical engineering and computer science in 1974. He took a job at Telenet Communications Corporation, which in 1975 would become the first packet switched network available to the general public. You could think of. It is one of the early backbones of the Internet. So he was in early early on on the days of the Internet before most people even knew what such a thing was. Decades before they knew about it. In fact, and this was in the era when the protocols for data transmission across the Internet were still being hammered out. Sarah would work for several tech companies over the next few years, eventually moving over to control video corporation. Steve Case was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1958, Steve and his brother, Dan, We're entrepreneurially minded, even at a young age. Their stories about him on his brother, operating a little juice stand in Hawaii or selling greeting cards or seeds door to doors, Children. Steve would attend Williams College in the late seventies and early eighties, he would graduate 1981 with a degree in political science. After graduation, Steve worked in the marketing department of Procter and Gamble, and he later went and worked for Pepsico, specifically working as a head of marketing over at Pizza Hut or least unexamined of of marketing over at pizza. But after that his brother Dan introduced him to the founders of Control Video Corporation over at C. E s. Steve landed a gig with Control Video Corporation, which was doing something really interesting, a really interesting business model that would actually set the stage for America online many years later. Now. Another element I need to mention before I get into what Control video Corporation was doing was a book that Steve Case had red when he was a college student. He thinks it was sometime around 1979. The book that was written by a guy named Alvin Toffler, and it's called the Third Wave. In that book, Toffler describes a world in which computers would form a new communication platform, a new revolution, a technological revolution akin to the Industrial revolution. And it would allow for new, digitally oriented communities. Essentially, he was talking about the sort of thing we would see in various Internet communities like forums, things like that. Case did not have an engineering background or a programming background. But he thought this idea was really compelling and it would become an important part of his vision. Once he joined This company. So we now know are major players, which really comes down to Steve Case Jim Kimsey and Mark Sarah if Von Meister is important, but he was not part of the trio that would go on to found the company that becomes a well So what the heck did this control Video Corporation do? Well, I didn't know very much about this when I started my research for this, which is funny to me because I've talked about Atari. Lot and their their business was deeply tied to Atari. And yet somehow I had never come across this or if I had I had forgotten about it Control Video corporation. Had created a product called Game Line for the Atari 2600. And again I had never heard of this thing game line. Was a cartridge of very large, misshapen cartridge. It didn't look like the video game cartridges you would typically get if you want to play a game of Pac Man or pitfall. But you would plug this cartridge into Atari 2600, and it would extend far out of it because it was so big. And it had a port in it in which you could plug a phone line and old, hard line phone connection to sew. This cartridge was part modem and parts storage device. Uh, so you and plug it through the normal cartridge port. It also had a battery that you had to plug in. They had to put a nine volt battery into.

Control Video Corporation Steve Case Video Corporation William F. Von Meister Mark Sarah Georgetown University Jim Kimsey America Telenet Communications Corpora James Verlyn Kimsey Atari Jonathan Strickland Alvin Toffler executive producer American University University of Texas Howstuffworks Austin
Why Are Sloths' Toilet Habits So Dangerous?

BrainStuff

05:31 min | 4 years ago

Why Are Sloths' Toilet Habits So Dangerous?

"Hey, brainstorm listeners today I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten and Jonathan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you new stories of the trials and triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make when the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren vocal bomb. Here slots are known for their incredibly slow moving nature's. But it turns out that such sluggishness also carries over into their bathroom habits so much. So that they only defecate every five to seven days on average and actually lose up to one third of their body weight in a single movement. The stool is pushed out in one fell swoop so impressive that horrified and door. Transfixed bystanders can watch the animals, abdomen shrink. We spoke by Email with Sarah Kennedy, co founder of the sloth Conservation Foundation based in the United Kingdom. She said if you've ever seen a sloth PU you could only ever describe it as pure bliss. They tipped their heads back and smile. But the week long delay between bowel movements is not. Even the strangest thing about sloth pooping habits, you see slots are boreal creatures, which means they live work and play high up in the trees their chosen habitats. Are the rain cloud forests of central and South America? Most other are boreal animals like monkeys poop from the trees, but not sloughs. Instead, they make a slow descent from the canopy to do their business at the base of the trees and this despite the fact that it's quite perilous. Kennedy said this behavior puts them at threat to a lot of predators like jungle cats and wastes a lot of their precious energy, which they don't have much of it turns out that more than half of all sloth deaths occurred during potty time when these creatures are so vulnerable to predators. The process comes at a serious price zoologist and sloth Conservation Foundation founder Becky cliff wrote in a blog post, a slots entire lifestyle is based around avoiding detection and using as little energy as possible. It takes us Lafon entire month to digest just one leaf meaning they don't have much wiggle room. When it comes to expending energy. The laborious process of going up and down the tree is compounded by the actual pooping process. Slots do a little bench at the base of the tree to create a whole for the feces, and then shake their hindquarters once more to cover it up this process requires you guessed it, plenty of precious energy. A lot of theories have been put forth about wise lofts feel the need to expend so much effort and expose themselves to so much danger just to toilet one theory is that sloth moths which live in sloth hair actually, lay their eggs in the feces during the long poop process, then once they hatch and mature in their carefully prepared environment. They fly up to take residents in the host sloths for many experts though are skeptical of this explanation because the Slavs don't particularly benefit from the behavior and nature isn't generally known for its selfless, generosity, more likely. But as yet unproven is that these strange behavior comes back to reproduction as it so off. Does when living things are involved. Kennedy explained the main reason is probably so that other sloths can find them a particularly males looking for females. Usually this loss come down every five to seven days, but when females are in heat, it's every day. So it's likely to be mostly to do with reproduction. Indeed, it appears at sloth poop says a lot more about the animal than merely what they've been gnashing on cliff wrote fairmont's present in the urine feces can provide a lot of important information about the individual animal, if the sloth just let everything go from the canopy these messages would be easily lost we have heaps of data showing some really interesting patterns between a female's estrus cycle and the patterns of defecation. We'll be waiting patiently for the answer to this mystery because if observing sloughs teaches anything it's patients. Today's episode was written by Alya Hoyt and produced by Tyler clan for iheartmedia, and how stuff works for more on this and lots of other moving topics. Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com. He stuff listeners for all you fans of true crime investigations. There's a new podcast from glamour, and how stuff works Marcus Hanna. Devante Abigail, Jeremiah and Sierra were all black children adopted by two white women, Sarah and Jennifer heart. It looked as if the hearts were the perfect family, but their lives ended in a murder suicide car crash that shocked their friends and made national headlines starting seven fourth with new episodes. Every Tuesday co host Justin and Elizabeth follow the families fatal journey, even listen and subscribe to broken hearts, spelled H A R T S on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Sarah Kennedy Sloth Conservation Foundation Apple Becky Cliff Walt Disney Marcus Hanna South America Casten Vietnam Murder Jonathan Strickland United Kingdom Devante Abigail Co Founder Founder Fairmont Alya Hoyt Justin Jeremiah Elizabeth
Skim Versus Whole Milk: Which Spoils Faster?

BrainStuff

05:50 min | 4 years ago

Skim Versus Whole Milk: Which Spoils Faster?

"Hey, brainstorm listeners today I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten and Jonathan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you new stories of the trials and triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make when the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren Vogel bomb, and we've all had moments of uncertainty, and let's face it paranoia about the state of the food sitting in our refrigerators, you might be able to eyeball some of this suspicious items check for expiration dates on others and with some milk. Maybe you'll probably take a quick with and hope for the best. But if you've ever looked a shelf-life chart to figure out how long your milk might last. You might have noticed that skim milk is said to last a day or two longer than whole milk. But is that really true? And if so why before we really get started. I should state that there is by no means universal agreement on this issue. Some dairy scientists say skim milk lasts longer because certain fat loving microbes can develop as quickly in nonfat milk. Other say that whole milk lasts longer because free fatty acids might actually be natural preservatives. Still others say that maybe there isn't a difference in spoilage at. All it's just that. We noticed flavor changes more in one or the other. There's only been one major controlled study on these spoilage rates of whole and skim milk. And it was somewhat inconclusive skim milk was found to spoil slightly faster. But the researchers weren't exactly sure why bacteria that are psychotropic that is cold resistant are what causes spoilage in the fridge. And in the study, they multiplied at the same rate in both types of milk when the milk spoiled both whole and skim contained similar strains of bacteria. There was a pronounced difference in how whole and skim milk reacted when they were injected with the same spoilage microorganisms, but they affected the milk's taste and smell more than they did the actual spoilage rate whole milk for the record tended to turn sour and skim milk was on the bitter side. So for the purposes of your average milk consumer. There's really no hard and fast rule about which kind will spoil faster if whole. Ilk does last longer than skim the difference is so slight that any given gallon of skim milk could outlast any given gallon of whole milk. The spoilage rate depends on so many variables manufacturer production methods milk formulation plant sanitation storage, temperatures, ph level moisture content just to name a few a small change in just one of them could give any particular container of milk a slightly longer shelf life than another a couple of other factors make things even more ambiguous for one. It's pretty much impossible to pinpoint the exact moment of spoilage, depending on your sense of smell and taste and your tolerance for changes in milk flavor. You might turn up your nose at a gallon of milk that someone else might readily swig, and there's no federal regulation of milk expiration dates in the United States only twenty states, legally standardized, the date that's printed on the bottle, and those standards vary widely one state might mandate a sell by date of a certain number of days after pasteurization, whereas milk jugs in another state would be printed. With a used by date, the upshot don't base your milk purchases on which type might last longer. If you're concerned about shelf life, you'd be better off following a few simple steps to slow down milk spoilage. Whether you're a whole or skimmed drinker, I make sure your refrigerator is the correct temperature. It should be set at forty degrees Fahrenheit. That's four point four degrees celsius store, your milk on an interior shelf instead of on the door, which fluctuates more in temperature and make sure you put your milk back in the fridge as soon as possible after using it leaving it out on the counter for even a few minutes exposes it to light and heat giving 'Bacterial a chance to spring into action. Today's episode was written by Alison Cooper and produced by Tyler clang. Bonus fact for the episode, the origin of milk's, expiration date labels, and of expiration date labels general in the United States rests with a campaign started by Al Capone to learn more about that checkout. An episode of my other podcast. Savor the episode is called expiration dates best if listened by and of course for more on this and lots of other fresh topics visit our home planet. Custom works dot com. I'm Katie golden. I studied psychology and evolutionary biology at Harvard, and I pretend to be a bird on Twitter and my new podcast creature feature. We've you nature in man from a new perspective each episode asking comedian to get inside the minds of animals, so we can explore the startling connections to human psychology, you'll find blood bands and treachery that make game of thrones seemed like a dumb show for babies. Join us every Wednesday and subscribe on apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Apple United States Walt Disney Casten Lauren Vogel Harvard Iheartradio Vietnam Twitter Katie Golden Jonathan Strickland Al Capone Alison Cooper Tyler Clang Milk Forty Degrees Fahrenheit Four Degrees Celsius
BrainStuff Classics: Why Does Gasoline Smell So Good?

BrainStuff

04:41 min | 4 years ago

BrainStuff Classics: Why Does Gasoline Smell So Good?

"I'm Jeff Rosenthal. Co-founder of summit a thought leadership community ideas festival, and I have a new podcast called art of the hustle. We'll be breaking down how the world's most fascinating successful. People have hustled their way to the top hearing their wisdom and understanding their ways of seeing with guests like Ireland Hamilton and Tim Ferriss, new episodes drop every Wednesday. So subscribe now on apple podcasts or listen on the iheartradio app or anywhere else. You find podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren Vogel bomb. And today's episode is a classic from our erstwhile host Christian Seder. This one was a script in our old YouTube days, and we found that it was one of our most controversial why does gasoline smell so good for those of you thinking what gasoline smells gross, just believe us for some folks it smells delicious. Either. Gang. I'm Christian Sager and had you ever been to the gas station before filling up your jalopy when suddenly your nostril hairs twins with an aromatic burning sensation it's like the wise sages of Leonard Skinner once saying ooh that smell. Can't you smell that smell? I'm talking about gasoline people. Why does it smell so good? While the first answer is pretty simple actually gasoline or petrol as our friends across the pond like to call. It contains a chemical hydrocarbon called benzine used to boost its octane rating and benzene naturally has a sweet scent to it that our noses are especially sensitive to in fact, it evaporates so quickly that you'd smell benzine instantly. If you just put some in a dish in the same room, you're in it is so pungent we can get a whiff of it. If there's only one to five parts per million in the air, we breathe and benzenes not just in gasoline. We use it in plastics pesticides and detergents. It's also in a lot of mass. Produced toys. So it's possible. You're associating the smell of gasoline with that new toys smell from your childhood, but don't let it's odor. Get. It's enchanting hooks in you too far because Skinner also had it, right? When they sang that smell, the smell of death surrounds you. That's right. The smell of benzene can be fork. But it's also toxic. If you inhale large amounts of it it actually attacks your nervous system. Luckily, it's so pungent that we have plenty of warning before hazardous exposure. That's why it can start to make you nauseous or give you a headache after awhile and the consequences of sniffing too, much benzine and gasoline are not pretty inhalant abuse leads to loss of consciousness, seizures liver injury and distress within your heart and lungs keep going after that and you're looking at neurological impairment and straight up brain damage, the EPA OSHA and who also categorized benzene as a carcinogen the cancers. It's associated with the most are leukemia and. Mm foam and get this. There's possibly another less dangerous reason why we like the smell of gasoline so much. A study published in two thousand nine issue of addiction research in theory indicates that gasoline smells better to us when we're hungry. It found that people rate the smell of gasoline as being more pleasant and intense the longer it had been since they'd last eaten more research is obviously required. But there seems to be a link between our degree of hunger and our odor perception of gasoline. Maybe that's why gas stations make such a killing on selling junk food. Today's episode was written by Christian and produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hebron's listeners today. I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten and Jonathan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you news stories of the trials and triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make when the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Leonard Skinner Apple Jeff Rosenthal Iheartradio Tim Ferriss Co-Founder Christian Seder Ireland Hamilton Youtube Lauren Vogel Christian Sager Leukemia Walt Disney Hebron Epa Osha Tyler Clang Casten
Can Cheese Actually Make Wine Taste Better?

BrainStuff

04:21 min | 4 years ago

Can Cheese Actually Make Wine Taste Better?

"Hey, brainstorm listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions in science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Even listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren vocal bomb here. A wine lovers on the whole probably don't need any particular excuse to pair a glass with a rich cheese board. But a recent study in the journal food science shows what people have long suspected cheese improves, the taste of different types of wine. Researchers at the center for taste and feeding behavior in France asked thirty one French wine drinkers to taste for different wines. I on their own then with each of four different cheeses to see if and how the taste of the wine was changed by the cheese. The method used to evaluate the taste is called multi intake temporal dominance of sensations, which simply means that the drinkers were asked which taste sensations were dominant in length and intensity or in layman's terms, which ones did you enjoy? And why the winds were the same through all five tastings, a sweet white a dry white a full bodied red and a forty red in the first session, the tasters took three sips of each wine with no cheese. In the following sessions. They again took three sips, but in each session tasted a different cheese between sips all four cheeses ranging from creamy, two semi soft and stinky to semi hard too, hard or tasted with each wine. The study found that all of the wines tasted better after eating cheese less stringent unless sour and in the case of the fruity red, for example, that Ferdie flavor lasted longer the lead researcher Meribel Marini told the telegraph. We learned the duration of the perception of stringency of a certain line could be reduced after having cheese and the four evaluated cheeses had the same effect in short when having a plate of assorted cheeses, the wind will probably taste better. No matter which one they choose which is a relief to those of us who find creating pairings a clunky prospect at best the effect of the cheeses on the taste of the winds probably happened because the fat in cheese coats, your mouth, and reduces the dryness it might feel due to tenants from the wine a bit of tannin in wines and other. Things like tea or meant is a fun sensation. But too much can be puckering and unpleasant beyond making wine and cheese parties, a potentially less expensive endeavor. The researchers have a practical application for this study. To better understand how the taste of food can change when paired with other foods leading to new and possibly better meals as different foods are served together. Today's episode was written by Karen Kirkpatrick and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other flavorful, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, brain stuff listeners today. I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten and Jonathan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you news stories of the trials 'em triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make when the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.

Daniel Whiteson Apple Leuven Physicist France Walt Disney Meribel Marini Casten Researcher Karen Kirkpatrick Vietnam Jonathan Strickland Tyler
The History of Cyber Monday

TechStuff

04:18 min | 4 years ago

The History of Cyber Monday

"Welcome to tech stuff. I'm your host Jonathan Strickland, an executive producer, and that love all things tech today thought change things up a bit and talk about the history and evolution of cyber Monday. So where did this come from? And are the deals on cyber Monday. Really great. And I guess the answer to that. Second question is essentially it depends. But first, let's talk about some history. So before there was cyber Monday. There was black Friday both in the sense that black Friday is a thing is older than cyber Monday. And also cyber Monday is the Monday that follows black Friday. So technically, it's true in two different senses. All right. So what does black Friday one of the United States? Black Friday is the Friday following thanksgiving. Thanksgiving in the United States falls on the fourth Thursday of November. At least it has ever since. Eighteen thirty nine when Franklin Delano Roosevelt moved the holiday up a week from the final Thursday of November. Now since November two thousand eighteen started on a Thursday November. I was Thursday that means that two thousand eighteen will see thanksgiving fall as early as it can which means November twenty second the latest. It can fall in the month is November twenty eighth. Anyway, black Friday is the day after thanksgiving in the United States. Now, there is an apocryphal story that says the origins of black Friday are deeply racist and tied to the United States history with slavery. According to that story slave traders would sell slaves at a discount on the day after thanksgiving to help plantation owners who are going to want to purchase more slaves to do work leading up to the winter. That's a horrible horrible thing. But the story isn't true at all. And honestly, I find it hard to believe that slave traders would respond to an increase in demand by lowering their prices, they already seen like terrible terrible human beings. I don't think of them as being particularly altruistic. However, we can put that whole explanation aside. Anyway, if anyone tells you black Friday is based in slavery that is not true. The term black Friday in relation to the day after thanksgiving did not appear in print until the nineteen fifties. As far as we can determine there was however an earlier version of black Friday, though, that was not the day after thanksgiving that black Friday wasn't associated with a holiday at all. But rather with a stock market crash that happened on Friday September twenty fourth eighteen sixty nine the cause of that crash was that there were two speculators named Jay Gould and James Fisk and together they were able to drive up. The gold prices way way up while they were trying to corner the market on gold on the New York gold exchange. They had even planted a story to convince US president Ulysses s grant to stop gold sales. They had this report that it was going to hurt farmers out west. Meanwhile, they bought up as much gold as they could. And that raised gold prices as a result. So they thought they were going to be rich. They're going to buy up the golden than they could sell it off at these elevated prices, however, president grant found out about it any ordered the release of millions of dollars of gold to be made available on the market and that caused prices to crash suddenly there was way more supply and this crash ended up affecting the stock market as well. However, this was a moment of acute pain. It was a sharp debt in the stock market, thus the name black Friday, but in the long term. Meant that the nation was actually able to avoid a more persistent depression. So it ended up turning out better than it. Otherwise would have the earliest known reference to the day after thanksgiving being black Friday dates to nineteen fifty one from periodical titled factory management and maintenance that it was a real page Turner..

United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt Acute Pain Jonathan Strickland President Trump Executive Producer New York Jay Gould James Fisk Turner Ulysses S Twenty Second