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S3 EP1: The Unexplainable Reappearance of Mars Patel
...Yes.Where'sJonas Jonas Hello podcast listeners. If you're like me, you want to hear the full story of what happens to Mars Patel...
The Unexplainable Disappearance of Mars Patel
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Day 8: Milos Raonic marches on
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S2 E5: Torpedoes
Yeah. Mama TI, what do you mean? They never came home. I drove by house and. Sign in the yard fam- paying. And the mcgowan's. Knicks. Hello. Can you hear me? I'm so sorry. He lied. Aurora Pruitt lights me again. That's what I've been trying to tell you. Pruitt is a liar. It's what he does best. Do you believe me now wanted so badly to trust him? What do you think we should do now? No more lies Knoller holograms. It's time to finally meet all the promot- face to face going to the space station and your going down. We still ship to get us there. You forgot the cold for town. I didn't forget it. I'm just having trouble remembering with you. Breathing down my neck, unwilling to space. You know what I mean? Acts. Let's give our boy some space. Good ideal. You guys by the subtle bay doors when I get into the lifeboat I'll open it for you. And yet, how do we know that you want you sick the whole colony on us. I mean, now that you know of Russia's thing, you just have to trust me. My trustee, mors. Let's go, we've got a life but to catch. Okay. Remember by the word, like he said, colleague flower, no properly to one six. Catty. It's made from everyone. We thought it was crazy to sneak into Jonas house will I'm sneaking into the subtle way of colony on Mars. I'm going to find out what happened to you too thick. Jonas JP and this time, no one's going to stop me. Julia, did you forget that I Mona to all entries and exits in the colony I was, I mean, I am I hitting act setting often a frantic manhunt across the planet Iran still looking for you in shuttle and yet all during. What is it that you do? All of our Pruitt lied to me, my friends back on earth. They didn't make it home and you found this out how the martians will now all they just a picture of trustworthiness. Auroras one of them, she's, she's what moss. They just wanna go home. They helped me talk to my mom. They can contact us who mom told me that my friends never came home Pruitt promised. We would be safe. I have to find out where they are. I have to talk to. What are you saying MAs without JP toothpick in caddy I never would have found a Rura. They're my best friends, Julia, and they might be in trouble. What do you intend to do fly ship to the space station and confronts him. I need a lifeboat. He turned her how to fly auroras waiting outside the bay doors with repeal it. Axel, the lifeboat is only for emergencies. This isn't emergency. You told me how after your diagnosis, your parents put you in a bubbling. Let you make your own decisions. What a prude doing that to all of us. But if the cut needs the colony that will be looked better, move fast. Come with us this time all if the scarce, I think you're going to me down, hey, I'll open the door for you as soon as I'm out with shot away. What did you do more. Guys, she did it actual, I told you he would come on Mars. Let's go. If the engines don't fire this to be a real short trip, everyone in their seats. Here go. The in Claude still cash. Landing. Clo release in the floor quick. Hello? There it is come on. Stocks fish station. Approaching ship. Approaching shift. Remind me to change that along. So podcast listeners MAs Patel is coming from me. He sided with my enemies and he wants to face off mom among. After all I've done for him for the entire human race. There isn't another person in the world could have pulled off what I did building a civilization on Mars without anyone knowing. Patel is part of the biggest secret in human history, and this is how he thanks me. Don't fret podcast listeners I haven't given up on MAs. He'll thank me soon enough. The entire world will thank me. But now, sadly, I must leave you. I wasn't planning to take this drastic step so soon, but nothing can get in the way of the mission. Nothing. I can't wait to see. Pruitt's face gets talked Pruitt, firths stocking on space station five, four, three. Showtime. Space station, corny, come out to space. Stola Julia. Okay, everything's fine. It's agree. Fantastic. I don't want to worry you on five. Totally fine. Seemed funny as I'm sure it's just a misunderstanding right up. People were mix up. I mean, what else could it be? Maybe you should snow down. Tell me what's going? Okay, don't panic. Total panic is just making my usual rounds on level two, and they went through the cafeteria and they stopped to get a Cup of reconstitute coffee. Skip to the end emergency situation. Julia, don't panic. Daisy. I don't believe I'm the one panicky. This is an emergency. This is definitely an emergency. Okay. I'm going to three seconds to freak out and go do that to me. I've seen do that to people before I don't wanna be handled Deasy the life. Life owed is missing. Iowa, wait, you're weirdly books missing, but this is a disaster. I mean, what if there is a disaster that life. They're only way off the planet. What if there's a reactor meltdown or a deadly store. A twist. I'm on it. We have to tell someone did tell someone told me, but full Ryan finest to that mission is shuttle no need to worry him yet, but the lifeboat rank you days well-done. I'll take it from. Okay. If you say, so I'll go back to round. I can't keep this up forever. What's happening? The. The. Why are the station lights blinking like that the whole police seems to be operating on reserve power. Let's find Oliver Pruitt looks a lot different from what I remember before we spent three months here while the new colony was being built, there's more than one Pruitt had a full start. His first go round was inside an elevated pit. Crater didn't work out so well for anybody. So where do we find him computer? Where is Oliver Pruitt security, clearance level. Six is required actual. Can you hack into the system? I'll see what I can do. Pruitt close up your old back door into the main system. Axel, searching the ship for all Pruitt scanning in process. That's my boy. I've only got us level six clearance. That's the best I'm going to be able to do. What's the creepy space station noise sounds like the whole is under stress that makes two of us computer. Where is all of Pruitt Oliver Pruitt is not on board. We had put industries with remind you that colony security priority. Number one, the marshalls carry a message of destruction. Oliver Pruitt carries a message of hope about the future. You're feature. He chose you because you're unique skills. You are the best of the best and together we can protect what we built. Keep your eyes clear and your heart pure, and together we will save the human race is brought to you, but Pruitt prep Pruitt industries in the foundation of colonists for a better tomorrow. It has to be here. He has to be easy. Access will find without Pruitt. There's no ships. That means we don't get home computer. Is anyone else on board? Yes. Detecting life. It cargo bay fifteen a computer who is in cargo bay fifteen. That information is classified security level, ten required. Let's go get plate. We don't know Pruitt or if he has something planned, we need someone in the command center. It's hold the bridge, whatever we need to be in control of the station in case something goes wrong. He's right axle. You head to the bridge swan. Take mortars for Moore's Patel now do it. I said, so. Vacuum up. It's not personal just no, you're right. Cater lead the way to cargo bay fifteen. Do you have a plan? Like you said, I always have planned, of course, Shaffi will point out, but having a plan isn't the same as having a good plan. Is that what do you think it is? Crazy. There's a great on board follow me. I knew how to handle Tarn agrees. That's according to cargo vein. I recognize that mouth often she starkly that attack Tony, some prep if Pruitt Lefter God, the cargo bay, he definitely doesn't want us to come in letting Muffin stand between me and Hemion backpack. Brock's with you. I picked up if you Xs scooping. Don't worry. I've done this before. It's coming, whatever you're going to do too fast. You wanna treat girl. Okay. That's keep for busy for creek inside. Can you see anything computer lights, computer turnout is currently running on reserve power leading in the cargo bay is unavailable Morris, your phone as a flashlight, bright in my backpack. Beeping sound. It's coming from the back corner. Pruitt are you in their show yourself. Over there by the tubes, I'll shine the light. What are these things. Torpedoes or something. What Prut what was torpedoes. Hollow. The beeping is coming from here on the side of this one. It's some kind of digital Vida. Light Mars, look, there's a window to see inside it's called up. What is it. Howdy. She's here. All here. Best robot ever dot com. PR ex.
The Unexplainable Disappearance of Mars Patel
Aired 4 months ago 41:57
Polio Vaccine | The Fight Goes On | 3
It's late at night on April twenty six nineteen fifty five but in an office in Washington DC agitated scientists are still hard at work. The room is cloudy was cigarette. Smoke. No one seems to notice when the clock ticks past midnight. If the researchers in this room can't figure out some answers, thousands of lives are potentially at risk. Here's another one from Chicago polio-free infant gets sock vaccine few days later is in the hospital for Alice's both legs and one arm. We've got similar stories all over the country San Diego two seven year olds got their shots at school. Now, they have severe cases. It wasn't supposed to be like this two weeks ago. The country was United in joyous relief. An American scientist, Dr Jonas Salk had delivered the cure for polio. People had begged for vaccine prayed for. It paid for its creation for the better part of a century after decades of development the vaccine arrived. This should be the beginning of coz. And instead recent data suggests something else hold on look here all the afflicted children received a vaccine that was manufactured it cutter laboratories in Berkeley. So what do we do? We could shut cutter down. They looked Victor Haas. Head of the national microbiological institute he thinks for a moment. Eight or nine botched vaccinations is not enough democ shut them down. Now. It's like yelling fire in a crowded theatre. Got the way the alternative if we stop all vaccinations, then kids should get vaccinated won't be their parents will be too scared. That scares me the most. Some of the scientists not but not everyone is convinced on the other hand. What if some of the cutter lots do contain live virus, we're talking about potential full-scale pedantic and the other manufacturers they're using the same instructions as cutter how can we be sure there are lots or any safer Hocine two courses of action. We other wait and see how things go or shut down the whole vaccination programs. Let's call Sheely, but it's the middle of the night. And we have mass inoculation scheduled in a few hours in California. There's no time to waste trust me. Leonard will wanna take this. Call. Leonard Sheely is the US surgeon general he tells us they need to consult with other polio experts who aren't in the room, they get on a conference call to hash it out. But at a certain point they reached an impasse. The fate of the vaccination program seems to hang in the balance they must decide whether to recall suspicious batches of cutter vaccine or call all the cutter vaccine suspend the vaccination program in general or just monitor it. But with the information they have during that middle of the night conference. Call any decision is basically, I guess the next morning Sheely calls the leaders of cutter laps, and they agreed to recall the unused doses of their vaccine later that day the press reports that there's a problem with the cutter vaccine though, according to Sheely, this is no reason to panic yet. Sheely dispatches scientists from the epidemic intelligence service an investigative group of disease detective. It's their job to inspect Cutter's protocols. It's clear the Berkeley complex, which sits on thirty acres and makes not just vaccines, but plaza sterile bags and intravenous solutions as well is doing something wrong. But what they need to get to the heart of the problem and fast for now. It's just one lab, but this could spell disaster for socks vaccine bad news for everyone. But it might also be an opening for someone else's research. Waiting in the wings his Jonas sulks rival Albert Sabin. He's extolled the dangers of a killed virus vaccine since the beginning. And maybe just maybe he was right? All wrong. What if the experience of driving luxury vehicle wasn't limited to just inside your car, but extended out into the world around you. Introducing the well connected. Two thousand nineteen Lincoln m Casey with a suite of social tack capability that connects the world inside the world outside with Amazon Alexa enabled with sink three apple Inc. You have accessed all the skills and services, you get on your echo, Alexis activated by the sound of your voice, Alexa. What's the weather like tomorrow currently in response using your car? Speakers with ways integration that appears right on the Nath screen. You'll transform traffic jam streets into clear roads got a load of friends. Keep them connected with the four G L T wifi hotspot that allows up to ten devices to connect at once Lincoln connect with the two thousand nineteen Lincoln MK see life gets a little easier. From the moment, you leave home. To the moment. You return Alexa, opened my garage door. Available by phone with synchtree with suffer version. Two point. Commands may vary by phone and appaling software. Don't drive while distracted us voice operated systems when possible don't use handheld devices while driving iphone is a trademark of apple Inc. Registered in the US and other countries. The two thousand nineteen Lincoln M K C. Learn more at Lincoln dot com slash wondering. That's Lincoln dot com slash W and the R Y. From wondering, I'm Steven Johnson. And this is American innovations nineteen fifty five the world received its first viable polio. Vaccine courtesy of Jonas Salk. His serum used an inactive form of the virus to stimulate antibodies in the blood. The vaccines arrive on the market changed American society. Overnight polio had left families shattered in the medical community baffled. Saux vaccine was supposed to bring an abrupt end to the fear and for time. It did socks name became legend. But he was far from the only scientists with an idea about the best way to cure polio. In the journey to conquering the disease Salk had arrival Albert Sabin Savin was vocal about his own theories. And ultimately created different vaccine. The fact that we now live in. A world in which were unlikely to ever meet a polio victim is thanks to these two men Salk and save it when the effectiveness of socks vaccine was called into question Sieben journey to Russia the land of his birth to find the opportunity he had been looking for the final clash between the two vaccines and the two scientists his alternately could true story of how polio's conquer this is the third and final episode in our series on the polio. Vaccine this episode is called the fight goes on. Back at cut her labs. Everything generally looks fine. This point I think we have to assume that there's a live virus in some of the cutter vaccine batches, either the viruses withstood the killing process, and somehow beating all the safety checks or it's coming in during the bottling process after the testing is complete. I noticed where they do the bottling. This could be the source of the problem cutter is the only vaccine manufacturer to bottle their product in the same building where the live virus is inactivated from time to time accidental. Polio infections have occurred in diagnostic labs. So maybe the answer is airborne exposure, maybe some viruses making it into the air here, and then landing in the bottles of axion being manufactured. This is just guess, but it's reason enough to shut cutter down. Steak and the surgeon general doesn't wanna take any chances. Sheely knows this is bad. But how bad is it really especially with so much of the evidence? Inconclusive does this merit pulling the plug on the whole vaccination program. Sheely convenience a scientific committee to help them parse through all the data possibilities. Meanwhile, the reported number of incidents from vaccines rises, the committee helps Sheely come to a decision and they pressure him to make an announcement to the public. She is preparing to address the country in his office when the phone rings. He's greeted with a verbal ambush from basil. O'connor? This is all being blown out of proportion live virus. Vaccine advocates foot by Albert Sabin wanna cast public doubt sock solution. If you go along with Sabin Alfie to lose your job. Sheely is undeterred on may eighth. He gets on TV before an array of microphones. He tells the public that there will be no further polio inoculations until all six vaccine manufacturers can be fully reviewed. Well, she league knowledge is that this is a serious and costly setback. He wishes to make it clear that this is not an indictment of the vaccine overall. I know that people will fully understand the reasons for this decision, which has been taken on behalf of the children of the nation. There will be in time. Ample safe vaccines for all needed and wish? Following sheila's televised address, the headline in the New York Times Reid's turmoil over Salk shots, the ecstatic countrywide celebration of the vaccine just weeks before. Now feels like a lifetime ago, confusion, conflict and doubt fall over the polio vaccine, it's an especially hard time for Jonas Salk who takes personal responsibility for the tainted vaccines, and the polio cases they've caused. At an emergency meeting, the national institutes of health sock and see the disappointment blame and condemnation in the eyes of his fellow scientists sock leaves the meeting feeling hopeless, alone, borderline suicidal. He wants to disappear, but there's no place to disappear to he's the most famous scientists in the world. Amazed thirteenth after an inspection of all factories responsible for making vaccines selected lots from two companies are declared safe for public use Sheely wants to restart the vaccination programmes slowly and with extreme caution. He doesn't want the government to simply dictate when and how that will be done though, he needs some help. On may twenty third. He gathers the committee to make recommendations for this new phase vaccinations. The committee includes Tom rivers Albert Sabin, Jonas Salk, John enders and a number of other leading polio. Scientists Sheely asked them to vote on whether the vaccination program should continue or end altogether until further notice sock ab- stains, the committee comes down eight to three in favor of continuing Albert Sabin is one of the three opposed. He emphasizes that killed virus vaccine is just too dangerous, especially with the strains Salk selected. Following the vote reporter seek out basil O'Connor, hoping you'll have some choice words they are not disappointed. Restore o'connor. How would you respond to doctor savings charges that these socks shops are dangerous? How would I respond? This is old stuff. Sieben used it in an attempt to stop the field trials of the sock vaccine since then he's been using it on every possible occasion to stop the use of the sock vaccine. Listen, this isn't about science. This is about rivalry and envy for years savings, but trying to get what is called a live virus polio vaccine. And there are no present prospects of getting one. O'connor's frustration with Sabin doesn't change the fact that there was a flaw in some of socks vaccine's after tireless investigation by the intelligence service, scientists discovered that the original theory that shutdown cutter labs was incorrect. The mystery was never truly solved. The most accepted theory suggests that the virus mixtures sat in storage too, long, sediment, gathered and particles clump together to strongly for the formaldehyde tin activate it. Ultimately, two hundred cases of polio are traced to cutter seventy nine children who were vaccinated got infected with the virus which spread to a hundred and five family members and twenty contacts within their communities. Most of those infected were severely paralyzed an eleven people died from it. As a result the rules for making polio. Vaccine change manufacturers are required to filter their virus solution prior to the formaldehyde getting mixed in to prevent clumping. These new measures are extremely effective. And there are no more catastrophes. However, the public battles within the medical and scientific communities have taken their toll the cutter disaster is fresh on everyone's mind, parents way, the risks and decide to keep their children away from the needle that summer Boston and Chicago blasted by polio, epidemics. Suddenly, it's like the pre seen days movie theaters off limits beaches off limits, the fear of polio descends upon American households once again, perhaps now what the public needs is a new vaccine one that doesn't have the baggage and confusion surrounding songs by may nineteen fifty five the public is ready for Albert Sabin. In the latest issue of time magazine their savings photograph. He's wearing a spotless, white lab coat and stares straight ahead. The article is rich with praise by relgious for still trying to decide whether Dr Saux killed by respects. Was safe or how it could be made safer. Other experts argued the killed virus idea should be abandoned all together leader of this school Russian-born, Dr Albert Sabin forty eight director of Cincinnati children's hospital his alternative instead of killing a virus living virus that is non to begin with. American innovations is brought to you in part by wicks dot com. If you're an innovator with a great idea wicks can help you realize it they've developed artificial design intelligence that will help you create a stunning website tailored exactly to your needs. And now, you can create your website right from your phone, which means you can open up your own online store portfolio or blog wherever you are. Even while listening to this podcast. Just go to wigs dot com. Decide what you need a website for pick your style images. And just like that your website is ready. You look amazing on every device desktop and mobile and it takes less than five minutes. Plus, you can do it with one hand great innovators can change the world. But I the world has to know about you. So it's time to get started. Go to wigs dot com. That's W I X dot com and create your very own beautiful professional website today. These. Days when it comes to marketing your business the status quo. Just isn't good enough. You need to think creatively. You need to be innovative. It's all about reaching the right audience at the right time and connecting with them. When your message will resonate the most the answer linked in marketing solutions when you linked in the world's largest professional network. You have the opportunity to build long term relationships with your customers relationships that often translate into high quality leads website traffic and higher brand awareness. Lincoln has the marketing tools to help you target your customers with precision because better targeting equals. A message your customers care about. In fact, four out of five customers who are on Lincoln are decision makers at their companies. So you're building relationships that really matter to redeem a free one hundred dollar linked at credit and launch your first campaign. Go to Lincoln dot com slash AI. That's linked in dot com slash AI for your free one hundred dollar ad credit. Terms and conditions apply. Before he was Dr Albert Sabin. He was Abram sapper Steen. Sabin was born and Bialy stock. Poland in nineteen. Oh, six at that time colon was part of the Russian empire. Save emigrated to the US fifteen years later and soon after changed his name. He forged a career is one of America's greatest medical. Researchers. Never anticipating the one day he'd be called back to the land of his birth. Nineteen fifty-five brush is also facing a polio epidemic and Albert Sabin is in a unique position to help until nineteen fifty five. There had been less polio in the Soviet Union than anywhere else in Europe. But this was before the Russians industrialized with industrialization came greater spread of the virus to fight back. Mckell Makovsky the nation's foremost viral gist is appointed head of Moscow's polio. Research institute the Russians attempts at reproducing socks vaccine were less than satisfactory. They need more help from the US. And the timing is rate Sabin finally has alive iris vaccine. It is performed well in limited tests conducted in fifty five and fifty six on volunteer inmates at a federal prison in Ohio. What's Sieben does? Not yet. Have he's an ideal venue for mass trials, but that his about to change. Shumakov context Sabin and decides to make visit to the United States when he arrives. He gets to observe Sabin slab. Dr Sabin is an enthusiastic tour guide. He ranges demonstrations conferences for as Russian guest. And of course, he invites him to elaborate dinner, the two scientists discuss a potential partnership over a multi course private meal at savings home base of Cincinnati. It doesn't take much convincing before Sabin decides. He's ready to go to Russia. I love to visit your country. It'd be like a homecoming. I can promise it with my help the Soviet Union will overcome polio. It is settled I will have Soviet ministry of health invite you to my country, we will test your vaccine. The invitation arrives the following month. Saving is enthusiastic, but he has to take precautions it's still Russia after all in though, the Cold War is starting to thaw tensions linger Sabin request permission to go from the surgeon general public health service and State Department. They all approve his trip after two FBI interviews in which he's heavily questioned Sabin is at last cleared to save the Soviet Union from the menace of polio. In June, nineteen fifty-six he gets on a plane and flies to Leningrad Sabin spends the month in Russia and lobbies on behalf of his live vaccines. He meets with elite members of government. He gives lectures before the Soviet medical community when he returns to Cincinnati. He gets the green light from the State Department to send virus samples straight from his lab to Russia for testing. Three years later in nineteen Fifty-nine Russia is at last ready for mass trials of the Sabin vaccine the differences between Russia's vaccination trials and America's are stark in Russia. There is no vigorous PR campaign to put the populous cities instead Soviet officials dictate when and where vaccination will take place parents are expected to show up with their kids or else schools, clinics factories and nurseries are transformed into vaccination centres. The medicine comes not an eagle, but in the form of candy or liquid in a medicine dropper. Some children are vaccinated for all three types of polio. In one visit but the majority get three separate doses. One for each type spaced month apart the record keeping is meticulous names are logged along with addresses ages type of vaccine and data vaccination for ten million kids Shumakov has one. One goal to wipe out polio to this end. There is no double blind testing. No placebos, no control groups Sabin remains in the states as the trials continue and hopes for good news. Later that year. He gets a letter from Macau of do Dr saving. I'm very glad to tell you that your vaccine is winning new victories in our country. The number vaccinated is steadily increasing which reflects the great advantage of the live oral vaccine over the killed one. It's music to savings years. Chewbacca follows this with the ultimate endorsement the health ministry is decided to vaccinate every person under the age of twenty. I'm taking some measures for you to be elected an honorary member of our academy of Medical Sciences. Sieben is ecstatic every person under the age of twenty that's seventy seven million people saving writes back to chew McCoy at the rate year going the USSR republi be the first country in which the radical of polio will be achieved. Sabin success in Russia raises. A question does his vaccine have a place in the US back in America, the confusion and panic has died down and once again, so expect scene is viewed as a success the stats? Prove this reported cases of the virus nineteen fifty-six down to fifteen thousand which is half the cases from the year before by nineteen fifty seven that number plummets to just seven thousand reported cases as fifties. Draw to a close. Polio is no longer front page. News child, waking up in the middle of the night with joint stiffness or fever is not caused for media panic. Polio is no longer plastered across newspaper front pages. It's the past and basil O'Connor is also ready to turn the page. It's time to steer. The national foundation in the direction of new challenges birth defects, prenatal care, juvenile arthritis O'Connor tells the world infantile. Paralysis was our wonderful beginning but only the beginning. Yes. The sock vaccine is a triumph so far. But it's expense may hurt its usefulness. Even after three shots, there's a recommended annual booster shot. Not everyone can afford multiple trips to the doctor for injections, particularly those in the inner city, which is where polio is most likely to spread O'Connor and sauk hope to continuously improve their vaccine. But it's the wait for perfect song shots even necessary. Albert Sabin live virus polio. Remedy tested in. Russia could be what the US needs it results in a lifetime of immunity. No boosters needed in nineteen sixty Sabin requests permission to hold stateside trials. He has the results from Russia tobacco up and soon cleared to begin the tests in Cincinnati and the larger Hamilton county, Ohio. There's only one issue the health Commissioner of Hamilton county believes the Sabin, vaccinations are unnecessary. When Sabin finds out he picks up the phone. He's absolutely determined to prove this Premacy of his vaccine. Hoover socks. He has to do a little fear mongering to ensure this Soviet. He makes a phone call. Hello. The health Commissioner of Hamilton county, Ohio. Yes. Yes. It is. May I ask who's calling Dr Albert Sabin understand your reluctant to distribute vaccine? Well, Tucker Sabin. I I wouldn't quite put it like that. Don't you understand that I've tried to make Cincinnati America's first polio-free city? Here's but my county is already polio-free we've had great success with the Salk vaccine vaccine. I guess you don't keep up with the news much Salk vaccine is potentially dangerous. There's only one sure way to polio. That's about using vaccine if you fail to do what's right here. You could have an epidemic on your hands. I know you don't want that Sieben's calls to the health Commissioner are so frequent and so intense that eventually the Commissioner contacts the surgeon general to complain but over his protests the trials move forward on April twenty fourth nineteen sixty Sieben Sundays begin children lineup outs. Schools and hospitals for the vaccine, which is delivered and sweet syrup and sugar cubes every Sunday for several weeks. Two hundred thousand kids in Ohio, get the Sabin vaccine and the results are unquestionably positive in August, nineteen sixty Sieben's live virus solution is approved for mass production in the US the following year in the Lanta. There's a symposium on the two vaccines organized by the centers for communicable disease, basil O'Connor, sits and grows. Increasingly livid scientists after scientists extols the virtues of the Sabin vaccine over the Salk won his temper worsens on the trip back to New York as he dwells on the growing momentum behind Sabin and his live virus vaccine when he arrives back in national foundation headquarters he confronts, Tom rivers, the most revered and authoritative scientists. He knows rivers when are you going to step in and put a stop to this nonsense? What non? Sense that got him semen is saying socks vaccine is only sixty to seventy percent affective. We both know that's a complete lie. The public health service declared it ninety percent effective. He's saying that if the savings sugar cubes aren't licensed, hundreds of kids will die you have to get out there and let the world know Sieben is lying basil. I don't like it any more than you do. But here at the foundation, we need to stick neutral on this. We shouldn't be seen picking sides between Salk and Zemun. We just need to support whichever vaccine is strongest regardless of who designed it. Maybe you're just too much of a coward. Do the right thing coward. You give up the old when you find something new that is better. That's how it works. What what what are you doing basil? O'connor is so infuriated he rushes rivers right there in the hallway rivers takes a swing misses gets a win knocked out of his O'Connor tackles into the floor colleagues rushing into pull them apart. Ila go of him someone call an ambulance rivers convulses. He's rushed to the huh. Hospital distress of the altercation causes a hemorrhage from an ulcer river survives. But he's lucky he didn't bleed to death right there in national foundation headquarters. Raw partisan acrimony. Now defines the vaccine debate and tensions continue to rise with two choices on the market. Parents are confused as to which is best for their kids. Positions are equally perplexed is they go with shops or sugar cubes saw her Sabin, the president of the American Medical sociation. Realizes action must be taken. He's tried to keep the AMA neutral. But it's clear an independent party must put a stop to the bickering. He orders sociation council on drugs to compare the two vaccines and make a determination once and for all his socks killed virus. Remedy to live on or is this the dawn of the save an era. Even out of his way to ensure that popular opinion in the medical community his turned in his favor. It also helps that he's personal friends with the man at the American Medical Association who will write the report recommending which vaccine ought to be favored when the author of the upcoming report ask for some back scene for a friend about to go to India Sieben personally sends a vial of his own direct from the lab song still very much believes in his vaccine. He's outraged to learn that it's decades of research and innovation are now being brushed aside by Albert Sabin and his friends at the AMA in July of nineteen sixty one. The AMA declares that the Salk vaccine will be replaced by the Sabin vaccine. The second the live virus vaccine becomes widely available sock is angry and quickly convenes a press conference. Even basil O'Connor is taken aback by the reach that spills over soft takes direct aim at the AMA accusing. A bias. He goes as far to say that polio in the US would already be completely radically had the AMA simply backed his vaccine as forcefully as a now back savings finally Salk in desparation visits to surgeon general and his staff. He's there to request that the group refrained from hastily allowing large scale manufacturer of the Sabin vaccine. He dresses the group during a meeting in nineteen fifty four of revolutionary experiment was undertaken to determine if it killed virus vaccine could eliminate a deadly viral disease. This experiment has yet to run. Its course the American people have already invested so much in deserve to know whether or not the vaccine unveiled then is worthy if you allow competing vaccine to prematurely, enter the market. We'll never know the answer the introduction of this new vaccine designed by Albert Sabin will cloud the final results of the product my colleagues, and I created. Looking at the blink and disinterested. Stairs now focused in his direction. Saw conc- that he's lost the surgeon general and his staff are more interested in a radical polio. As fast as possible, they're less interested in the final results of an experiment less than a month later Sieben's type one live virus vaccine is licensed and within a year, his type two and type three vaccines are licensed as well. The American people just wanted to vaccines that worked they could care less. Whether it was live or killed as long as it was safe and effective nineteen sixty one is the last year of exclusive use of the Salk vaccine by the time the year draws to a close six years after the debut of the Salk vaccine, there are only one thousand cases of polio. Recorded in America, the lowest total in history by nineteen sixty three it is considered obsolete. As of that year when kids are inoculated against polio. Their protection comes courtesy of Albert saving Salk complains bitterly to those. Who will listen there's little else he can do. 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Simplisafe dot com slash innovations. Two years of past. And at this moment Jonas Salk is leading visiting reporter on a tour of the Salk institute in San Diego. The facility is situated upon a portion of the Torrey Pines Mesa not far off the waves of the Pacific Ocean crash. The structures are geometric in design grand modern unusual intones of concrete grey with reddish gold accents. What do you do here? Dr Salk here at the sock institute. I asked the brightest minds across a variety of fields like genetics philosophy and biology to collaborate and compare notes the goal is ultimately deformed a blueprint for human health, and advancement. Well, it certainly is a beautiful place. I'll say I told the architect Louis Kahn to build me something worthy of visit by Picasso. For Jonas Salk. His institute is an excellent place for contemplation a refuge in the years to come. He writes four books and grows apart from his wife, Donna, they divorced in nineteen sixty eight and two years later, he marries Swazi low the painter former partner of an artist Salk greatly admires how blow Cosso sock briefly works to cure cancer. But it's theories on that front don't really go anywhere. After all of that. He still can't let his beliefs about this periodicity of vaccine go towards the end of the nineteen sixties saw teams up with his son, Darryl. Pediatrician to reignite the great vaccine debate, the father son team publishes articles pointing out that the rate of polio in the US is so low that the majority of remaining cases are directly related to the use of Sabin slide virus vaccine, the socks argue that if Americans are truly interested in a Radicati polio once and for all seem. Wtn's vaccine should be pulled from the market to be replaced with socks. But the fact is Americans aren't all that interested to them. Polio has been beaten nobody in the US scared of it anymore. The Saux call to drop the Sabin vaccine or Nord. Basil O'Connor the man who helped start the March of dimes had lived to see the world's victory over polio. He'd also lived to suffer. The heartbreak of losing his daughter to the virus in the early nineteen sixties like Jonas Salk. He never stopped believing that the wholesale shift to savings vaccine was a mistake. He continued to work right up until his death of a heart attack in nineteen seventy-two with O'Connor gone Salk has lost his greatest ally in friend at the national foundation. The Salk institute in southern California is supported in part with generous contributions from the foundation and its new leaders taking over for O'Connor decide that changes are in order. The new foundation boss travels out to California to meet with sock as office in the sprawling institute campus before they exchange agreeing Salk knows what's about to be asked him. You know, that all of us at the foundation have the utmost respect for you. Dr salk. Still we believe it's time for a change of management here. At your institute. You want me out understand you'll still retain your highly visible and prestigious role as director, but we're requesting that you step away from all duties and responsibilities in regard to the ministration direction of general research. So you want me to be a figurehead? Well, doctor I don't know if I would use that word, but to tell you the truth, I'm relieved, I think this will free me up to continue to frankly study the larger issues of human existence. I don't need to run labs and write grants any more. I want the greatest minds in the world to come here. Number one, roof Claverie. Albert Sabin Jonas Salk die about two years. Apart Sabin in ninety Ninety-three sauk in ninety five saving is remembered in the New York Times is being noted for his diligence hard work and long hours as well. As brilliant and research when soft dies he's described in newspapers as a godsend savior and a benefactor to mankind. Those society turn from his vaccine never forgot that. It was suck who I permitted people to believe that a world free of polio was possible. The rivalry between Salk saving and they're competing. Vaccines was a significant point in almost all major obituaries for the two men. The final score was neatly summed up by the Pittsburgh post gazette Jonas Salk was the hero. But in many ways, Albert Sabin was the Victor. There was one. Last twist to the story in nineteen Ninety-six the centers for disease, control voiced an opinion based upon arguments. The SOX had made for years the CDC reported that polio could no longer be found naturally in the western hemisphere. All new cases of polio. Could only be attributed to a single culprit the continued use of live iris vaccine in the year two thousand the CDC declared that it was time for American doctors to make a full return to the Salk vaccine Sabin serum. When only be used occasionally, for example, on kids visiting countries in the midst of an outbreak savings vaccine would continue to be used in a large part of the developing world, but no longer in the United States. When asked to comment, countless thoughts and emotions go through Daryl Saux mind, he considers the question and thinking of his dad response as plainly as he can with the truth. My father would have been pleased. Today. Polio is behind us scientists politicians and ordinary civilians contributed to an effort that benefited all generations that followed holy still exists in the world today, though. The incidence of infection are few and far between global radicalization of the disease is at hand, and is almost certain to occur in our lifetimes. This was nearly unimaginable a century ago. When American scientists of the twentieth century took on polio. They did. So with no promise of success over ward. This makes victory all the more remarkable the conquest polio is a testament to their canasta fearlessness invention and intelligence a reminder that we can rely on our selves to overcome any present challenge. No matter how daunting that challenge may seem when science and technology, join with courage and a genuine desire to make life better for all the people of the world true American innovation. Is possible. If you like our series, please give us a five star review and tell your friends to subscribe or available in apple podcasts. Spotify Google podcasts and every major listening app as well as at wondering dot com, we'd also like to learn more about you. Please complete a short survey at wondering dot com slash survey. That's wondering dot com slash survey. You'll have an opportunity to tell us what you like about the show and what you'd love to hear in future episodes. If you're listening on a smartphone tap or swipe over the cover art of this podcast. You'll find the episode notes including some details. You might have missed a quick note about those historical re-creations you've been hearing. In most cases, we can't know exactly what was said the scenes are dramatization, but they're based on real historical research, you can find some of the articles. We found useful. In the episode notes. American innovations is hosted by me, Steven Johnson for more about my books on the history of science and innovation. Including my latest farsighted. How we make the decisions matter the most you can visit my website at WWW. Steven Berlin, Johnson dot com. Sound design on this episode is by spoke media. This episode is written by Hannibal with editing by Lindsey credible. Producers are Stephanie jen's and George lavender executive produced by marshal Louis for wonder.