30 Burst results for "Joe Mccormick"
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Joe McCormick. And today we're going to be talking dad jokes now, Robert. How did we end up here? So I was just thinking about it over the weekend. Basically, I was I, You know, Dad jokes are, I think a familiar concept for most of us. Um, I don't remember it being a named thing when I was growing up, But at some point in my pre parenthood life, it became a thing and even non dads who get called out for dad jokes at times and now as a as a parent, it's like a frequent call out, you know, not only in this house, but But I hear it with my friends who are parents and also among again friends who are not parents. It's often a critique of someone else's joke, often from a child for from spouse. But sometimes it's a self commentary on one's own joke. And I guess I hadn't thought too much about it. I didn't like I went into self reflective on the concept until until very recently. My my son is is eight going on nine. And he's definitely at the point where he is capable of sarcastic laughter for particularly punny jokes, particularly, you know any kind of like perhaps too lame of an attempted humor. He is liable to respond with sarcasm. And while he won't say, Oh, that's a dad joke. Like, Clearly, we are in Dad joke territory. And so I just started pondering. Like, what does this mean? What is that Dad? Joe, is the dad joke a thing. And if it is like, how might we, um, quantify it? And what does it reveal about things like childhood development or humor itself? So in your experience What is the age where the child stops rewarding you for criminally weak puns and and starts punishing you for them? Um, I guess we're kinda in that territory right now, like it's not I still get get lots of laughs. I'm still pretty good. I know my audience pretty well. But I'm rolling out more and more jokes that that he is liable to either half laugh at or enjoy the awfulness of the pine. And part of that, I guess is him picking up on my delivery as well, like if I know that it's particularly lame joke. I'm probably going to lean into that delivery, you know? Yeah, well, I mean, it was definitely a thing you see with like dads on T V, uh, when you were a kid that like that, Yes. They embarrassed their teenager, adolescent kids by telling groan worthy jokes and then get punished with the dad. Yeah. You know, this actually came up in one of the sources I ended up looking at for this because because after I was thinking about it, I was like, Surely I'm not the only one. Contemplating this, and I'm certainly not. But I looked at this one article. Uh, this one post title, please stop calling my humor. Dad. Jokes by Andrew Booth. John. This is from 2019 published in the Washingtonian. And they basically made to two points and I have to stress that this wasn't like a super serious article like he was. The author is very much engaging in the in the humorous nature in the low stakes aspect of the topic, but they did bring up the idea of ageism. And dad jokes, but also the idea that they tend to depend. Some interpretations of them tend to depend on outdated gender roles in the household in which the mom handles all the whole hard work around the house and dad just kind of wanders into the room from time to time to score an easy laugh with the kids. And I feel like that's the kind of thing reflected in the sitcom model that you you're discussing here right with a lot of American sitcoms like it fell upon the mom character to be the responsible one in the family and the dad got to be the goofball. You know the Homer Simpson, right, right. Say. I mean, not to say there wasn't truth to the trope, but it's probably a situation to where having this trope so readily occur in our sitcom culture. It kind of, you know, echoes back on us. You know, it reverberates back on the culture itself, and we lean into it even more, you know. Okay, so I assume at this point, most people are familiar with what a dad joke is. But then again, I don't know. I often feel disconnected from terms that people use in this Internet age. Especially. Yeah, since I'm like trying not to look at the social media is and all that So like for people who are not so familiar. What makes a dad joke? A dad joke in the parlance of our times. All right, In the parlance of our times, Dude, they are. They're They're jokes that are a bit on the lame side in some estimates there often punny and that they use puns and they're generally family friendly. In the punch line. I was trying to figure out how to best phrase that's like the punchline hits like a crashing clown car and your intended audience like the ideal audience that is actually going to laugh at this joke. Is 5 to 7 year olds, You know, thereabouts. Um, but that is And this is key, regardless of the current age ages of those present, so you might be in the You might be in the room with, say, a 40 something and a teenager, But you're still firing out jokes like you have a whole room full of 5 to 7 year old Now you mentioned that these jokes are often puns and that they're often family friendly. Of course, Dad. Jokes do tend toward very much like A simple word play and what might be called clean comedy. But another tendency have noticed in Dad jokes is I don't even know what you'd call this. The tendency to make a joke that is, uh, that is edgy to a really tame extent. And so this might involve, say, references to people's butts or extremely minor crude language. So one example cited in a New York Times article that we're about to talk about The author mentions the joke. What has two butts and kills people? An assassin? Uh, okay, that that is a little edgy for the for the young crowd, But, yeah, I mean, for instance, Bart Simpson would love that joke. Uh, Yeah. So it is. It is aimed appropriately and yeah, there there is this tendency oftentimes for the jokes to take on this this child scatological, um, zone, you know, so it's going to involve, but And maybe it's going to involve poop. There'll be more of a tendency for poop jokes because this is something that the young folks enjoy. We can weaken again. Think of it as kind of the rude Bart Simpson territory of of Joke craft. Yeah, and and lots of lots of Dad. Jokes are completely clean. But they've got a special purchase on this place that we might call the edgy side of team. Yeah, yeah. Now. One other thing I want to touch on here is that, um, Obviously the terminology we're using here is largely gendered. But I think I tend to reject the idea that it's distinctly gendered phenomena we were talking about, you know, it doesn't seem to be especially tied to masculine ideas. And I'm willing to bet anything that their parents of all identities out there that make what can be classified as dad jokes? Of course. Obviously, this is something that transcends, Dad. Um, I do think there must Some kind of observation of at least a slight trend toward these kinds of jokes among Dad's in particular, But yeah, all kinds of people tell dad.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"I'm Joe McCormick and often on the invention podcast. We explore inventions in the realm of getting food into your body. That's right. And this is the perfect month to discuss some food technology right? Because it's it's November. Where in the United States, we celebrate Thanksgiving, which is, of course, the time when you were thankful for your food, ideally, but also you engage in some gladness or semi gluttonous behavior to celebrate, said food. You're thankful for the elasticity of your stomach lining, right? I should go deep in there. I mean, ultimately it is. You see this in various cultures, right? It is the it is the final big feast before winter truly sets in. And the threatens your survival. Yeah, the end of Harvest feast day, of course. Uh, but, you know, so one of the overarching stories we often tell about the correlation between technology and the timeline of human history has to do with nutrition. Of course, like You sustained a civilization in which most people don't spend the vast majority of their time on food, procurement and production need a lot of specialized knowledge and a lot of technological leverage, which humans did acquire in stages over the past 10,000 years or so, largely in the form of agricultural innovations. How to farm how to get bigger crop yields how to grow better food products, etcetera. But when you think about the problem of how to feed the humans of the world, there's a whole second part of the equation that has nothing to do with the initial production of the food products we eat. Because there is this vast terrain of obstacles and challenges between the moment and egg is laid or the moment of potato is harvested or the moment a cow is milked and the moment that that final food product is eaten by a human In fact, you might be shocked to discover how much perfectly good food is produced on Planet Earth on Lee to never be eaten by anyone I'm embracing myself Does this stuff always makes my skin crawl to hear it Z? Shocking, actually. So, according to the U. N, Food and Agricultural organization, it's estimated that roughly 30%, or about one third of the food produced by humans on Earth every year is wasted. By major food category That's about 40 to 50% of root crops, fruits and vegetables about 20% of oil seeds, meat and dairy products about 35% of fish are lost or wasted annually. And that's that's now that's like with 21st century technology for preservation, cold storage, mechanized transport and all that. You know this. This lines up nicely with a recent Discussion we had on our other podcast stuff to blow your mind about rats. Yeah, and how rats thrive on disruption and how they have they have done amazingly well living in the shadow of human civilization in this This is one of the reasons Oh, exactly. Now that waste occurs at all kinds of stages throughout the chain of supplying food in more developed countries. A lot of times there is less waste. A lot of the waste takes place at the consumer side, including like the leftovers on your plate that you scrape off into the trash waste produced during the food preparation process in the kitchen, like peeling off totally edible bits of food, cutting off crusts, etcetera. On Ben. Also, just the I'd like less than perfect produce that sits on bought at the market because of aesthetic defects. Yeah, speaking out if I remember correctly, there's like a box service you can get now what you suggest the ugly vegetables? Yeah, Like someone said, Hey, we're throwing all these ugly vegetables away. We should be selling these two hipsters, foot inflated price, So that's a great idea. I think it's great too. Yeah, Safe to eat Doesn't look good. Yeah, sure. Bring it on. I I prefer funny looking carrots myself more. They look like like pants. The better. I like it, too. Now in the developing world. More food loss occurs actually earlier in the supply chain, mostly due to a lack of infrastructure for storing and transporting food products in a way that preserves their qualities. So like a huge part of this food loss is due to spoilage food going bad, and much of the spoilage occurs early in the supply chain because food rots and containers while it's waiting to be shipped to market or spoils in the sun on the back of an UN refrigerated truck on the way to a storage facility. Food spoilage is, Of course, they double problem because on one end, you might say the more minor and, of course, is a huge problem worldwide. It wastes valuable food resource is that could if the distribution channels were working efficiently get to the people who need them, especially the hungry people. But on the other end, of course, if food spoiled by microorganisms is eat, eyes eaten, it can potentially make you sick or kill you. And these are not new problems. So today we're gonna be talking about an invention that played a major role in the history of this food supply chain and in preventing some of this food waste along the distribution chain. From, you know food production to eating the food and that invention is scanning the process of preserving foods by heating them in a hermetically sealed container. I have to say, I always enjoy discussing hermetically sealed anything. Because it always brings to mind like this phantom of of like, a like alchemy and an actual hermit. Oh, I love it. Yeah, yeah, because, of course, hermetically sealed in this context means airtight sealed air cannot penetrate. But of course, it has the other connotation of like hermetic philosophy in her mother's religion. All right, well, before we get to the canning, though, We gonna do? We normally do. We're going to talk about what came before. What came before this technology, this food technology of canning and there was a lot that came before, if you if you wanted to preserve food in the ancient world You had to turn to four different sources sort of four different powers. This'll, according to Brian Fagan, author of the Excellent 70 Great Inventions of the Ancient World. Hey, classifies them as snow. I smoke and wind and so let's start with the third this snow and the ice.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"And I'm Joe McCormick, and we're back with another part of our exploration of the invention of the motion picture. So as we were discussing in the previous episode, so I think one of the things we've been trying to lay the groundwork for is that the idea of the motion picture like the movies we watched today was not one of these inventions that just like comes out of nowhere, right? The eureka moment that strike some brilliant inventors brain. The motion picture very much grew out of several streams of existing technology, right. Absolutely. There's not just one individual as this is this dream of motion pictures and then develops. It, invents it and then unveils the motion picture for hungry for the hungry masses to view right. Ah, and it's something also that I think people's taste foreign away had to develop over time, and I think we can explore that. Maura's thie episodes go on. But like where we're starting today, I think there are three major streams. Of technology that air feeding into the development of the motion picture. So one is something we talked about last time that we might call animation devices like the FINA kiss to cope or the FINA kissed a scope. It's been called both or the Zoetrope. These were toys that created an illusion of continuous motion. By rolling through a succession of still images that took advantage of loopholes in the way that our eyes and our brains perceive images known as apparent movement. Basically, it was an optical illusion that allowed a bunch of still images to appear to us as something that is moving right. And these were devices that grew out of the age of photography. So these were not ancient, by or really any older than photographic technology, right. But the these early animation devices were mostly known for animals. Bing like drawings or silhouette cutouts. But an interesting question you might have wondered about the times say it's the 18 seventies, the 18 eighties or so you might begin to wonder if you could combine the optical principles here in the these animation devices of a parent movement generated by looking at successive still images really fast. With another technology and development, which, of course, is photography so to replace these hand drawn her hand cut still images with direct records of scenes in reality, exactly, And then, finally another technology that we've explored a lot less so far, but will become really important in today's episode that feeds into the history of the motion picture. Is something that's known as the Magic lantern, and that's an invention that had existed for centuries by the time of the motion picture was invented, but essentially, you can think of it as kind of an early version of the slide projector you ever like, Go over to, you know, back in the day over to somebody's house, and they want to show you pictures of their vacation. And they go through the slide projector. It shows them up on a screen or upon the wall. Oh, yeah. I mean, I finally remember my family's own slide projector. I was never really allowed to mess with it on. Maybe that's why it was so fascinating. And then you broke it. No, I never never never got the chance. Okay, Summ School's used these to occasionally. Yeah, I definitely remember projectors. Slide projectors coming up in a classroom environments as well. Yeah, but basically it combines a transparent plate. On which in images drawn or otherwise captured Onda Linz and a light source that shines through the plate that has the image on it and through the lens, projecting the image on the surface or screen. Yeah, I mean, I should also add that of course you have You have other old Performance methods that involved you know, Shadow puppets? Yes. Which would have also been a projection based medium. Well, that's a really great point. I mean, one way to create a very crude version of a motion picture would be to use a magic lantern to project images and then actually just moved the plate or elements within the plate around. Kind of like you would move your hands in the shadow puppet show. You know, like, If you're projecting through a glass plate, you've got things on the plate. You could Gonna have them dance around and fight each other and all that kind of stuff, But obviously you'd be fairly limited in what you could do with that. So all three of these are not motion pictures. And yet they all kind of converge into the idea of the motion picture. Right? If you combine these three principles you've pretty much got the earliest makings of a live action movie. But we're not there yet. A sort of early combination of thes. Three elements was another device that we mentioned in the last episode. Zo a Praxis scope, which was invented by Edward My Bridge, the photographer and inventor around the end of the 18 seventies. So you remember we talked about Edward my bridge in the last episode where he didn't just use one camera, but he would use a battery of cameras. To capture a bunch of images really fast. Absolute. Yes, Raised as a horse ran by this battery of count of cameras would go off, resulting in this thing this Siri's of images that portray the locomotion off the horse, right. So if he wanted to, like, show off those images in a way that wasn't just like, you know, looking at them one at a time. He could sort of animate them together. And that's what the so practice scope was. For that he used a very complicated process to sort of treat and rear ender the silhouettes of all those still images taken really fast by a battery of cameras, and then it would put he would put them around the edge of a glass disk in sequence. Which could then be rotated in front of a projected light source, showing off the sort of realism of movement captured frame by frame. But of course, even if you look at this, this is sort of the principle of the motion picture. But I think most people wouldn't think that it was a movie just yet. Now, at this point in the story, we have to reintroduce a character who has already shown up on invention in the past. I believe he made an appearance in our X ray episode. Really? Yeah. Yeah, He shows up a lot in the especially like the second half of the night. 18 hundreds. If you're dealing with inventions, whether or not he necessarily deserves all the credit for some breakthrough, he may show up in this story, right And you know you can't remove him from the story. It was a major player, right? So this is where Thomas Edison enters the picture. S so you may have heard that the prolific inventor and businessman Thomas Alva Edison invented the motion picture. And I think if that is what you believe you are sort of unwittingly a part of Thomas Edison's diabolical plan, though he did play a very important role in the early development of the motion picture. I don't want to Play that game..
The Interior World
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe. McCormick, and today we're going to be taking a look at interior space. Get Era Two thousand twenty brings to mind the old curse. May You live in interesting times and one of the factors here has, of course, been the corona virus cove in nineteen pandemic and in an effort to fight the spread of the illness, save lives and prevent overwhelming are hospitals. We've made a lot of changes to our lives and these range from the simple such as just wearing a mask when you're out in public and you can't so full. Distance from people to the harder choices about employment, and in life choices, we've all been social distancing and stay at home orders teleworking in quarantine have meant that we've all been spending a lot more time at home. Now depending on your home, this could mean a lot of things, but we want to explore what this means from a biological standpoint for the most part here. Now, make no mistake spending more time at home has absolutely been the right move. But just as it's forced you to focus more on, say that weird stain on your ceiling we wanted to focus on the other often unseen aspects of life in home right much the same way that being say on a Spanish galleon out in the middle of the ocean might have made you pay much more attention to the biology and behavior of of ship rats than you ever would have otherwise I. Think being at home more and more is forcing all of us to Turner is and maybe our microscopes and magnifying glasses to the corners and the cornices and the showerheads and the drain traps and all of the wonderful places in our house where life dwells. we're going to really get into the difference really between the natural world outside of our homes in the unnatural world inside and getting into some ideas about how how we could perhaps enable our interior world to be a little more on the natural side of things. But. Before we get into all that, I wanted to take a moment here to discuss the history of houses in general, you know just to get into the concept of what a house is. Our first and most important interior artificial environment. So you can certainly look at a home as an artificial cave to a certain extent indeed, we have lots of early evidence that early hominids sought out shelter in caves in the same way that many other animals do these can shelter one against the elements and against predators and as recently as one hundred, thirty thousand years ago cave-dwellers were already augmenting these natural interior environments with things like rough stone walls using timbers so So you know, even one, hundred, thirty, thousand years ago we were taking naturally occurring interior spaces and. A little less natural. And of course, on top of just the shelter caves can provide. It also seems that caves had a strong sacred meaning too many of these prehistoric peoples those might be important, but ultimately, proximity to water is far more important thus as Kate Spin Brian fagin point out in. In the section of the seventy grade inventions of the ancient world about homes, most early hominids lived out in the open near streams and lakes built temporary structures, and most of this has been lost a time. But some of the earliest evidence of potential structures for homes goes back a one point seven, two point seven, million years ago with Homo Erectus sites in southern Africa, and these were potentially contemporary with the domestication of fire. The have been temporary tents, but they still would have been artificial interior environments. Now, more secure evidence comes from the Ukraine roughly forty four thousand years ago the the mammoth bone structures from mullet ova with recently see us on the show actually yeah we did talknet these that would have been structures in one of the northernmost habitable regions of the earth the time because this was during a time of glacial. Advance where the polar ice caps from the north were coming deep down into Europe and Asia, and and so this would have been far far north way up among the ice and for some reason, humans were building these structures out of the bones of mammoth and we don't know that there are still things. We don't know about those structures like how how consistently they were inhabited and for how long and so forth. Right? Now beyond this, the history of human homes is is largely dictated by local resources and local climate. Long process of trial and error ends up leading to the development of regional and cultural building forums construction methods. Before nine thousand B C e we see evidence of clay houses and Palestine what is today Palestine and before seven thousand BC we see rectangular dwellings in Anatolia. But but a home is far more than just a shelter. As the authors here point out houses became key to social structure as well.
Ice Like Stone
"Welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick and we're going to be talking about materials today but this is a really fun materials episode that will shatter like glass in our hands or will it I? Guess. It's a big question mark. Yeah we'RE GONNA be talking a lot about ice, but a lot of exciting stuff about is you're gonNA learn some new things about ice I think and you're also going to think A bit more deeply about what can be done and also. Perhaps cannot or should not be done with ice. So if you've read any of George are Martin's a song of ice and fire. If you've read that saga or if you've viewed the TV adaptation, a game of thrones, you're well acquainted with the wall but to reacquaint everybody, this is a fantasy world that's day stunt sort of a medieval European model, and in the far north, you have this massive three, hundred mile long seven, hundred foot tall wall of ice that we're told has stood there for eight thousand years is a barrier against the peoples and the supernatural horrors of the far north. Yeah. It's basically. HADRIAN's wall except much bigger and made of magic. Yes. Yeah. We're told it was built by brandon the builder with the aid of giants and the magical children of the forest were definitely to understand that there is actual magic in its construction. But also there's this idea that brandon was a master engineer that he's in the vein of these various engineering cultural heroes that you see in various cultures. But of course, the the real up feature that makes this while unique is that it is built out of ice not out of stone but out of frozen water. Yes it is a wall of ice so. Ignoring the magic for a second here. It sounds like a great plan, right? I. Mean Humans have been known to make shelters out of ice glaciers and snow has served as natural barriers to travel. So why wouldn't a it'd be ideal to construct this far northern barrier which is going to be dealing with you know with far northern climate why not build it out of ice good. Question is a block of ice not just as good as stone brick. Yeah. So I, I was looking around about this and Fortunately. There is already a great book out there that dives into this very question it sidled fire ice and physics the science of game of thrones by Rebecca Thompson, PhD A physicist, and author of the popular of Spectra Series of Comic Books About Physics and I should also note that Sean Carroll wrote the Intro Cool. So she first of all, this is just a really fun book. If you if if you're interested in game of thrones and science I encourage you to pick it up I love books like this. One about Dune. I I've been eyeing one about star wars. But she goes through various aspects of the books and the world of West rose in breaks about scientifically Indus-. So in a very engaging humorous but also West rose loving style. So, there's there's one section there where she tackles the wall and she points out that ultimately this question would an ice while work is a lot more complex than you might think. So for starters, there's not just one type of Ice Crystal. There are seventeen types of crystalline is that we know of plus there are three different types of amorphous ice and three hundred. Theoretically she says there might be as many as three hundred different phases of ice. Depending on some of the the research out there
The Horned Helm
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and Joe. McCormick and today. We're doing the horned helm. This is going to be one of our essentially one of our invention themed episodes, but I decided. You know we really need to come back to armor, and the best place to start with armor is really the helmet I think the helmet is one of these wonderful things to consider because on the one hand, there is the more sort of combat, centric and medieval. And even fantasy idea of a Hillman Sifi. Fantastic with the concept, but at a very basic level, I feel like we all have some experience wearing a helmet taking this bit of artificial exoskeleton, slipping it over our own skull, and then enjoying its protection. Do you remember the scene in cone heads? Where it? It is revealed that Dan. Ackroyd Cohen Head Bell Dr Enjoys driving a motorcycle, but he's not a fan of helmet laws. No I. Don't remember this. Does he have a? A weird helmet or he just he can't wear human humans. I would imagine that's the source of his frustration. Because seems seems like bell. Dr Is actually normally pretty much rule follower, but but yeah he doesn't like the helmets, and I think it's probably because he has to get one custom made man. I haven't seen that in forever, but I do remember it had a really fun. Stop Motion Monster towards the end. Yes, yes. Bell Dr Scott to fight one with his Gulf skills. It also has a great line that for some reason is is just used for all occasions around our house, which is your phone is too young. Well, you know I. Don't remember if they wore helmets in that at all the more like space centric cone heads, but I feel like there was some sort of a horned crown that one of the more yeah I think. That's right so one of the we're. We're going to be discussing helmets in general, but but one thing that we're also going to discuss. Here is the idea of the horned helm a helmet with horns on it. It's it's an ancient motif in human civilization, and it ties into some earliest ceremonial practices. Practices and models of imaginative thinking. There's also do something so elegant about the idea thing that may be worn upon the head, and in doing so transforms the individual from a mere human into something, symbolically different a hybrid of human embiid. He's channeling the archaic chaotic gods of the Hunt. Oh Yeah I mean it's very therapy. It's what you see in those ancient cave paintings that so exciting when you start to see the human and the animal forms join together, suggesting fantastical thinking it's clearly there in the horned helmet as well. And and and so when you see these ancient motifs, one example that I was looking at before we came in here today. Was Robert Familiar with the the Sutton? Hoo Helmet? Oh, yes, yes, the sudden new helmet I. Had Papa Picture of it, but I this is one of these that I remember from an early age seeing perhaps on the cover of National Geographic, but it was certainly featured in some sort of Historical Book that I had access to his a kid. Yeah, it's just spectacularly creepy with these hollow is the way the mustaches rendered on the the plate of the face covering. I think it also had leather component when it was actually worn, but it's this decorated Anglo. Saxon helmet from I think it was from the seventh century. was buried in this in this ship burial somewhere in east. Anglia and I've actually seen this up close. And there are replicas of it that are really cool, because they reproduce the artwork that would have been originally visible on the sides, and although it's got all these panels over it, basically, it's a helmet covered with like comic strips, and in all the little panels there are scenes depicted in. In one of them shows these figures will like human shaped figures with horns, apparently wearing some kind of horned helmet. Oh, also evidence of Hornet helmets on a helmet. Yes, wonderful, yes, but it doesn't necessarily show the the characters wearing horned helmets say going into battle it appears to have more kind of a ritual religious significance surrounding the horns. Yes, in in this seems to be basically underlying the earliest versions of of this you know horned helmets go back thousands of years as far back as a twelfth century. See we see this in Cyprus Bronze Age Europe. and. The generally the idea is that yeah, this probably has its origins in in against symbolic tinkling thinking and ritual, and the idea that you're transforming. You're becoming something else. Which of course has a role in combat as well in a row and intimidation sort of role in the basic? behavior of making yourself look larger than you are. But, but then there's also this. Imaginative. Side to it there is this ritual aspect of mill, melting, man, and beast,
Heaven and Hell with Bart Ehrman
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and this week. We are going to be featuring a couple of interviews. That I recorded last week because last week Robert, you were out of quote, the office you or at least you off work for a bit and so so I recorded conversations with authors of some books one book. That's already out this year in one book. That's coming up so on Thursday of this week. We're going to be airing a conversation that I had with the author of A. A fascinating upcoming book about the evolutionary biology of cancer, but today we're going to be exploring topic in the realm of ancient history and religion. If you've followed us for a while, I think you probably know this about us that one of our favorite kind of trails to go down his tracing the evolution of religious ideas through ancient history I mean I think I've outed myself on this podcast before. As a the kind of nonreligious person who loves the Bible. Can I love to read ancient religious texts and learn about them and see how the ideas from. From the ancient world of super filtered through to us today and shape to the societies we live in, and that's exactly the kind of thing. We're GONNA be diving into in this episode I'm talking with a secular Biblical historian named Bart Erman about his most recent book, which is called Heaven and hell a history of the afterlife. This book was released in March of this year by Simon. And Schuster, and it's all about the Christian ideas of life after death where they come from ancient history, what influence their development and how they changed over time so? So there was a part that cited in the intro of Bart's book where he talks about a pew research poll that was conducted a few years ago. I think. Maybe it was in two thousand fifteen. Where it found that seventy two percent of Americans believe in a literal heaven and fifty eight percent believe in literal hell, and yet I think most Americans would be deeply surprised, even shock to learn what historians can show about the origins of these beliefs in the strange thing. Is that like the historical conclusions that Bart's GonNa talk about in this episode? Are Not fringe or unusual among secular scholars of the Bible, in historians of the ancient Near East This is utterly mainstream, critical scholarship, and yet I think regular people are especially in the united. States, are going to find it very surprising. Yeah, absolutely, and I want to stress something here for everybody, so I just got back. To work this morning and I plugged into a pre production cut of this interview and it's really it's really excellent, so if you're even slightly scared away by the idea of an interview with a secular biblical scholar don't be because Barda is tremendous. He's he's funny. Very High Energy. I think you're really going to enjoy this chat. Joe Had with Bart here. Yeah, parts full of knowledge, good humor passion for his subject. I think you're really going to enjoy the episode, but before we can do it I'll just give a little bit of background on Bart's here's his biography Bart. D Ehrman is a leading authority on the New Testament and the history of early Christianity, and the author or editor of. Of more than thirty books, including the New York Times bestsellers misquoting Jesus, how Jesus became God, and the triumph of Christianity, and that last one's really interesting. It's about how Christianity took over the Roman Empire and went from a really small religion, too dominant religion of the empire, and just a matter of a few centuries anyway, so he is a distinguished professor of religious studies, the University of North Carolina Chapel, Hill and he. He has created eight popular audio and video courses for the great courses. He has been featured in time. The New Yorker The Washington Post and has appeared on NBC CNN and the daily show with Jon Stewart as well as the history channel National Geographic Channel BBC NPR, all the hits his most recent book is Heaven and Hell just one more thing before we get into it I. WanNa mention obviously we are dealing with. With the audio constraints of of remote recording in the age of Covid, nineteen, so for example around the twelve minute mark in the episode there is briefly some background noise that sounds like a fan was turned on or some rain. It only lasts for about a minute or so, and so please just put up with a little bit of background noise, and it's very brief I promise. It's not the sounds of hell right. Now audio recordings of the underworld leaking up through some sort of mining microphone right? The well to hell was not unleashed office. So yeah, I would say without any further ado. Let's jump right in. Bardem and welcome to the PODCAST. Thanks so much for joining us today. Yes, thanks for having me so your Book Heaven and Hell I just finished reading yesterday, and I I really really enjoyed it. and I want to say that I started reading this book. It very opportune time because though I didn't plan it this way. I'm also currently in the middle of rereading. Rereading the divine comedy, actually my wife and I are reading it together and of course, the divine comedy Dante his wonderful poetry, but it's also psychologically fascinating because when you go through the theology of Dante, you get the sense of somebody who is simultaneously ingenious and thoughtful, and in some ways very intellectually bold and open minded for his historical context, but in other ways. Dante's also very limited and provincial in a word medieval like the way you see him taking so much pleasure in designing horrific tortures for his enemies from these. Petty Thirteenth Century political struggles in Italy. Working with ancient religious texts do you find yourself encountering? This kind of irony embodied within the same author or traditional lot
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing the episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things and new angles that wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films on the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I've never seen before I'd seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with with forests in them Bruce Dern and then three demean diminutive robots that can assemble around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he he's using the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the mood of the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think that you know that ties into to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange Floyd carrying a rare car the pharmacist the plans the growing things to extinction all the forest return our commercial this forced silent running every moment the danger as Mannix blows the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe so.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing the episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things and new angles that wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films on the you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I never seen before I'd seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three demean diminutive robots that can assemble around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he he's using the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is for the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languished and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the noted that the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think you know that ties in to to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here based on the strange for carrying a rare car the pharmacist the plans the growing things to extinction you're just return our commercial this forest silent running every moment the danger as man explores the mysteries of an unknown and limitless universe.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on 106.1 FM WTKK
"And I'm Joe McCormick and Robert I am ready to lather up that's right in this episode we are going to be exploring an invention that we're getting into a little techno history here but we're gonna be considering soap so but has been on everyone's mind a bit more these days I think this is actually a topic that was suggested to us for our our previous side show invention which is now back a part of stuff to blow your mind itself is so busy it's something that is I think easy to take for granted it D. given in normal situations right so it is just the thing that you you know speedily wash your hands with the you know I had a little a bit of a nice smell take some of the greaser grit off because he can move on to something else perhaps give you a little bit of peace of mind before you do things like prepare food or put your contacts in but lately it is of course has been stressed how is sensual it is via hand washing in the prevention of the spread of covert nineteen all right so let's let's talk about soap soapy is of course a human invention but did we ever get by without it I mean it's hard for us to imagine life without soap especially now because it aids us in the cleaning of our bodies it also helps the Soviet you know detergents and cleaning up our garments we use soaps to clean you know objects and surfaces as well it helps maintain basic hygiene to prevent the spread of disease and it can also impart a pleasing odor you know what's not to love about soap and how on earth can we get by without it now obviously we can look to the animal world for plenty of examples but but a few common examples do tell us a lot birds for instance clean themselves with their beaks and they use water or dust today themselves cats dogs in cal's are frequent examples of animals that it themselves to clean themselves and let's consider a few terms to put things in perspective as well we're talking about grooming which is a comfort behavior that is that the practice of cleaning the body surface including the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or all of the hair with the town and there are a few broad categories here there's personal auto grooming that is an animal's grooming off its cells and you know ultimately that's what was going on when you take a shower in the morning or in the evening or whenever you're bored both you know go go out there's also all agreement which is an animal's grooming of another for parental or social reasons yeah and what one thing that's very interesting is the the array of social dynamics that seem to take place through grooming behaviors like say primate grooming behaviors were primates will sometimes pick pick little Nixon bits and bugs out of each other's hair as a way to to manage and mediate social bonds within groups yeah it becomes a part of this society for for creatures like that in for creatures like us so all of this amounts to a general physical removal of particles scraped away picked away washed away and there may be bacteria Sidle properties as well you know particularly you see so there's some of the studies about saliva then to what degree they may opt at the able to kill bacteria but this this basic removal I can deal with everything from sand and dirt dead skin cells loose hairs loose feathers and like you mentioned actual excel pericytes and imprisoned in cleansing oneself it's helpful to use nails and claws and beaks and all these these various the a bio tools we've already mentioned but in dealing with with humans in dealing with homo sapiens and some of the homo sapiens closest can we have course have to get into tool use we get into the the the techno history of the situation here and one of the sources I was looking at for this episode was soaps from the Phoenicians to twentieth century a historical review by Ralph at all came out in nineteen ninety six they point out a few key examples from quote the pre so bear this is and there you might think of is the squeegee era he had where there we did have some tools we met we probably were interested in cleaning ourselves but we didn't have soap yet so what can you do with me being kind of squeegee your scan with a with a little bit of abrasive action yeah and indeed neolithic people apparently used flint scrapers to clean themselves a basically remove dirt grime dead skin cells you know why depend on just those those so I am guessing horrid fingernails that you have during the neolithic period when you can also start using some some some tools using tools to scrape other things you need a good scraping as well so grab some flint and get in there no I really hope that they were not using the same hand axes by faces or or pieces of flint to process animal carcasses and then to scrape their own skin clean but I have to guess from there probably was a bit across over yeah it seems inevitable as and but so did the use of kind of a bit of mechanical leverage some some scraping with the tool did not stop with the neolithic Kirby stone age people this actually did continue in the classical civilizations like the Romans did something similar yeah before the age of planning in the first century see the Greeks and Romans depended on what they had vapor bad say heads into an admin extravagant bed bath system for sure but also they would scrub and scrape the skin with a stray street journal or skin scraper made of bone ivory or metal and this it basically what it sounds like you get that you you get the the the skin itself either you know a nice and more wasted from a bath or perhaps via the application of the oil and then you can start scraping away and remove the data you know that outer layer of grime dead skin at its center the I guess some people still use something like this to cleanse themselves I mean in terms of just dealing with our skin I mean I know first hand for instance that they're just going to the YMCA I'll hear some of the the older gentleman in the locker room they would talk of ways that they would deal with like the thickened calluses on their feet and so some of the sometimes bad advice they would give each other it would involve essentially scraping away the skin generally with with locals and implements that were not designed for that purpose wedi it sounds like you've got a specific tool in mind or they like using a food processor blade or what what one was definitely there is a guy that was telling me what you need to do is you need to get yourself safety razor and then remove some of the safety features and you can just they can yes you know scrape away some skin which sounds like a bad idea and I do not recommend anyone do that another person say what you need to do is need to get one of these and he held up Ford says what do you call these it's the it's for the the the grading of say ginger for culinary purposes Michael yes the micro plane so he hello Michael he says you can get one of these at bed bath and beyond it works great again I would not recommend using that on your body I would recommend getting of a a standing offer scrubbing implement that is designed for use on the skin and use on the feet what you do is you get a stick blender and oh man but that's not to say that that other folks weren't engaging in the use of essentially chemical approaches to the cleaning of the skin the ancient Egyptians made use of soda to clean their skin as well as to treat diseases of the skin okay so soda is interesting here because that suggests we're we're getting a little bit closer to soap like territories this will make more sense when we explain soap in a bit but but soda of course is an alkali it's it's a base and in certain combinations in the presence of fats and water this can actually have a lot of the ring so played a fact yeah so this is a nice change an example well we'll get into some more debt but and then the other example that growth at all points point out fifth century BC during this time period Herodotus wrote of the priest physicians of the temple of Amon at death Carnac Egypt during the reign of the Ramseys this would have been eleven thirteen thirteen in eighty five BC and route it is stated that they would quote baby than cold water twice a day and twice a night and cleansed their mouths with natron now natron was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sodium.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing the episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things and new angles that wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films on it and you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I never seen before and seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robot because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and then three demean diminutive robots that can assemble around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then he his it was in the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languish and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the noted that the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think you know that ties in to to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a.
Overconfidence: The Icarus Paradox
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick and we're back with part two of our discussion of overconfidence. That's right If you did not listen to the previous episode do go back and listen to that episode. Because we're GONNA lay the groundwork we're going to discuss overconfidence. Hubris and mythology in human histories. And then get into the psychology of it and what various psychological studies have revealed and continue to reveal about the nature of overconfidence. And how we can. Divide this sort of amorphous concept of overconfidence out into categories that can be more easily studied and understood. That's right now in the last episode one of the main things we talked about was this huge new review of the scientific literature on something known as the better than average effect. Which is the tendency for people to rate themselves as better than average with respect to their peers on all kinds of stuff One classic example is that something like ninety. Three percent of people think they are a better than average driver. And so if you're if you're listening to this as you drive is back on the road and make sure you use the turn signals principle. Stay save lives turn signals. Let other drivers and the districts. No what you intend to do. Even if you think you're a great driver drive like your less good than you are and it will make you a better driver drive like you can't see all the other cars and around you because sometimes you cannot drive like you're driving a murder weapon because potentially you are. It's quite true. Are Now one of the things we talked about it in the last episode was A paper from two thousand seventeen by dawn Amorin Derek. Shots called the three faces of overconfidence which Which actually broke. Overconfidence down into three distinct categories of of bias or misperception and And we talked about those a little bit last time. We're going to be exploring more of what that paper had to say. And it's critiques of overconfidence. Research specifically with reference. To these three types of overconfidence and has a brief refresher. The three types are overestimation over placement and over precision overestimation is thinking that you're better than you are and this would be with reference to some kind of You know objective measure out in the world so if you think you are taller than you are if you think that you can jump higher than you can if you think that you would get a better score on a test than you actually could. That's overestimation the next one over placement is similar but instead it's comparing yourself with other people so the better than average effect would be an example of over placement. It's you know thinking you are better than average compared to your peers at some task or it would be thinking that you know that you work harder than other people or thinking that you are smarter than other people of course with the. If it's overconfidence. Meaning that those are not actually accurate assessments and then finally the other one would be over precision which is being too sure that you know the truth Again this this might be called EPIs- stomach over-confidence it's just being too certain that your beliefs are correct now to get into more and chances paper from two thousand seventeen one of the questions that they address. What actually drives some of these different Effects as as they are manifested so they they start with overestimation what causes us to say think we would get a better score on a test to than we do or to think we have more money in the bank than we do a common answer that people give to this is the idea of wishful thinking. It would feel good if this were true. Therefore I believe it right the authors don't think that this Explanation is very plausible and they offer several problems with it and we can interrogate these. Maybe disagree with them as we go on but first of all they say you know self delusion is demonstrably maladaptive for example a tendency toward wishful thinking about the safety of kissing sharks. So with tongue is is not a trait that the environment will tend to select for people overconfident about their academic abilities. We'll tend not to study and actually do worse people who believe themselves invulnerable. We'll take risks that sometimes get them killed. This might seem obvious but there is actually plenty of research on this. I mean people who are over confident about their abilities. Do face a lot of downsides when those abilities are put to the test right. Yeah I mean one example from literature that comes to mind is that of Macbeth who believes himself protected by prophecy? And of course snuffs it exactly but then again I think okay so it is true that these people will face a Lotta downside but then again people do engage in self destructive self deluded behavior all the time. This is a common feature of human life. Yeah I mean for instance. We were just recently talking about Sepo Affect Our our movie episode. We're talking about the fly and a about the possibility that the placebo effect is is basically due to You know this innate tendency toward self delusion that may very. Well be adaptive in at least in this scenario where yeah we we benefit from being able to believe something is going to work and And experiencing at least a small physical benefit from it like a small cured of benefit from it. And then you know I also can't help but think that you know self-delusion entails far more than just over-confidence it also entails. All manner of paranoia and there is a strong case for the adaptive nature of say making type one error in cognition a false positive the belief that the Russell in the tall grass is that of a tiger. When it's not because of you make the type to air. You're more likely to be eaten by the Tiger. Right right yeah. Having accurate information about the world is actually very useful and having inaccurate information can kill you. Yeah but but I'm not so much you know trying to disagree with the maladaptive Self-delusion argument That we mentioned earlier but but rather you know to point out. The human experiences is rife with self delusion. So might a dash of overconfidence. Even in the form of overestimation serve do balance out this alchemy of of our perception of reality for example. Have a singer in granted cariocas very low stakes right but it could involve social embarrassment which you could fear would lead to ostracism. And that's actually one of the most powerful negative motivators human behavior right but again curiosity is also one of these things. Where like sometimes? It's cool to do it badly. So this is a perfect example. But so you have a carrier. Karaoke singer then imbibe in a little liquid courage before taking the microphone as most Kariuki participants are are want to do but yeah they they get a little liquid courage because they know they don't have the greatest voice in the world and then they feel a little awkward getting up there but but they they know that a little bit of booze induced. Overconfidence might help matters. I think you're exactly right there and this is funny to start here because I think while the authors make tons of good points this is one of the ones they make that I might disagree with the most. I think that there are antagonist adaptations in human behavior. One pressure might favor having an accurate picture of the world. Assessing things in a clear and accurate way while across pressure favor self-deception especially self-deception in the form of overconfidence. For example. You might be more likely to survive if you have accurate assessments of your own abilities but you might be more likely to take big risks with potentially big rewards if you overestimate your abilities Or Self Delusional. Overconfidence could be adaptive. Because it helps us persuade or even deceive other people about are worth. Yeah old ultimately you have to believe in yourself you know other people are not going to believe in you for you right. I mean we. We talked in the last episode about how. It's probably not a coincidence that you really often notice overconfidence in people who occupy high status leadership roles. Right how did they get there? I mean it's not hard to imagine. The overconfidence helped them get to that point. Yeah it's Something it's a fine sometimes terrifying exercise to like if you if you engage with people like this and then when you realize Oh. They're just really overconfident. They don't they're they're not to say they're not skilled but when you realize here is they're not sometimes they're not but sometimes you realize. Oh there. There is this gap between ability. And and and what? They're they're saying they're going to deliver on what they are. Estimating the future will consist of. Yeah I mean I. It is kind of shocking. How often in life? You will suddenly come to a realization that you know the boss. Or the leader whatever's main skill is B. S. ing. Yeah like that they can just go out there and wing it in a way that you would be too timid in reserve to do right now this idea of the accurate assessments playing into our. You know our own abilities i. I couldn't help but think of the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance kid scenario because really as it relates to two specific points in the film one is the the whole. Would you make that jump if you didn't have to scenario where they're being tracked? They're being hunted and they've come to this cliff overlooking this river and they realized that if they jump if they jump off this cliff may land in that river and they don't die they'll get away because the stakes are such that those pursuing them will not follow them. They will not make that jump if they don't need to. So so there's there's that and then at the very end there's kind of a going out the old fashioned way. Guns a blazing scenario where corner. They're going to slowly be killed and they decided to just go for it to just bust out shooting and just
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"Lands and I'm Joe McCormick and today of course we're going to be doing a movie episode that's right we've been trying to do one of these a month just because there are so many so many films we love in so many films that either have wonderful tie ins to scientific and cultural topics we've discussed on the show or the you know they they allow us to discuss new things in new angles it wouldn't necessarily necessitate an entire episode on their own all right so what's on the docket today well this month we're looking at really one of my I I have to say is one of my favorite films on it you know in terms of thinking about films you saw a definite point in your life that had an impact on your your your outlook in the film is nineteen seventy twos silent running I saw it for the first time this weekend yeah I never seen before and seen like stills from it I think it's in stills of the robots because it's a very robot heavy film despite being one obsessed with nature environmental themes of the robots can awful lot of screen time they do yeah and I think if you're having trouble picturing the film if we just mention like geodesic domes in space with with forests in them Bruce Dern and in three demeaning diminutive robots that kinda shambling around that's that silent running in a nut shell now this was directed by Douglas Trumbull right who is like a visual effects guy for many years yeah yeah he he provided special photographic effects for such classic sci fi films as two thousand one a space Odyssey one of the best yeah close encounters of the third kind Star Trek the motion picture Blade Runner and then later on the tree of life yeah and then you know his it was in the family too because his father was a special effects pioneer who worked on nineteen thirty nines the wizard of oz you can really feel the spirit of the sixties in this movie from nineteen seventy two but maybe you can also feel the despair of the seventies and it is the both of those spirits come crashing together in silent running yeah I thought about I've been thinking about this a lot recently in part because we're we're researching episodes about psychedelics and about psychedelic research and then the the decades in which actual medical research regarding psychedelics just completely languish and it always makes me think of hunter S. Thompson's commentary about the noted that the waves of the of the nineteen sixties crashing and falling back right and and once again I think they know that ties into to to this film as well now before we continue though let's let's have just a quick audio sample from the original trailer for silent running just remind everybody a little bit about what we're talking about here the strange void a rare car the pharmacist plans the growing things to extinction and then return our ship this forced silent running every danger as Mannix the mysteries of an unknown this universe so.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on KTOK
"Is Robert Lamm and I'm Joe McCormick and today we've got a very special episode three all out there we are doing a partnership with National Geographic yeah so they've got a new show coming out called one strange rock and it is produced by Darren Aronofsky it's all about the science of planet earth in the sort of intricate interconnected processes both geological and biological the keep the earth stable as a sanctuary for life as we know it and so because of our partnership with National Geographic for this episode we got an opportunity to talk to one of the astronauts on the show doctor Jeff Hoffman who flew five space shuttle missions including a Hubble Space Telescope repair mission this is a great interview we're just delighted to share it with everybody yeah doctor Hoffman is very knowledgeable from multiple vantage points about the thing that we're gonna be focusing on today which is the radiation risk from space and how earth protects us and he's knowledgeable in a couple of different domains because he's done high energy astrophysics and now knows all about the radiation environment of our solar system in the universe at large but he also has a direct experience of what it's like to be an astronaut in space to sort of go beyond our protective barriers and that kind of perspective is kind of hard to come by because I would say one thing it's really easy to lose sight of in your day to day life when you're reading about politics or playing with your dog or making some dinner is that your body is made of molecules and in order for molecules in your body to do what they do they have to remain what they are in most of the time the internal chemistry of our bodies is pretty stable right but we have to recognize that the chemical stability of our bodies is an enormous and unique privilege provided to us by virtue of the fact that we live on planet earth yeah and this we get into a truth that we touch on a quite a bit on the show and that is that earth is just the right planet yeah for life as we know it kind of and surprising of course being creatures that involved on planet earth that planet earth is just the right plan it for us but despite realizing the kind of anthropic obviousness of that fact it is still a kind of strange and comforting feeling what wait a minute is a comforting or is it discomforting the fact that most of the universe is going to be so hostile to us so unbelievably hostile so incredibly violent that it's just impossible to even consider and I'm not even talking about the vaporizing heat of stars of the Cold airless void of deep space I'm talking about the fact that the universe is an acid bath of killer radiation including ionizing radiation which often takes the form of these high energy charged particles the blast through animal bodies damaging in changing the molecules within them as they go along and even changing the DNA of ourselves altering the blueprints for cell replication and bringing about tissue damage sterility in cancer and so that body integrity in chemical stability we so take for granted to keep living is only possible because of the planet we inhabit which shields us from being blasted by the sun nearby and by the galaxy at large yeah it's it's interesting to think about this that we we are creatures of the shallows yeah so life as we know it essentially thrives in a tide pool protected from the full onslaught of winded way from you know if you've ever been to a to to a number of beach environments you seen those areas right where we were that the waves are crashing but there have been but there's this pool this this area of calm water that is protected from all of that yeah and that's where a lot of life can thrive that otherwise would not be a be able to bear the hostilities beyond the rocks exactly and it actually reminds me of this a quote by John Steinbeck and and he's not directly talking about we're talking about here but the the comparison is is just beautiful he he wrote the knowledge that all things are one thing and one thing is all things plankton a shimmering phosphorescence on the sea and the spinning planets and an expanding universe all bound together by the elastic string of time it is advisable to look from the tide pool to the stars and then back to the tide pool again yeah earth is protected not from wind in ways but from the full blast of solar in cosmic radiation instead of rocky sea walls were protected by a robust atmosphere and most importantly the magnetic sphere yeah the interesting other side to the fact of the we've got this kind of connected consciousness that we're aware of like there is no real division between the earth and the heavens they're just different places the only real division this distance and so all the universe really is connected and does have a common origin in the Big Bang but at the same time that connectedness we use the word connected in such a happy way it's like nice to be connected to things but you could also think about that is extreme vulnerability like you are right next door to everything in the universe that would cross shin annihilate you and what we've got standing in the way of those those crushing annihilating forces beyond our power to control is essentially a big magnetic field and a thin layer of gas around the rocky surface of the planet that's right so basically we have going on here is your earth solid inner core in liquid outer core they play a crucial role in protecting life as we know it from the least deadly radiation differences in temperature and composition in the two core regions drive a powerful Dynamo in needing earth project protective electromagnetic field yeah and remember this is the one of the the the key factors we have to consider in proposed interplanetary space travel and establishing stations on other worlds the only planets in our solar system with some form of magnetic sphere in place or mercury earth Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune right so then of course you've also on the surface of the earth got the atmosphere to count on because that means that there's more stuff the radiation has to get through to get to you and so the atmosphere will block some kinds of incoming radiation but the other big protector is the magnetosphere that keeps these particles directed away from the earth some of course still get through right and also the man is fear serves to protect the atmosphere as well yes because if you don't have a magnet as fear your atmosphere over time can be stripped away which is one of the things that they can probably happen to Mars long ago right so it's a protective barrier against the elements are battlements and the only humans who have walked to these battlements our astronauts such as doctor Jeff Hoffman now most astronauts never even go beyond that the shield that protects us right we know that astronauts in space are exposed to extra locals of radiation and that's one reason you want to limit your time in space you like you can go live in the I SS for ever they want to bring you back eventually because the more time you spend up there the more you're exposed to this dangerous radiation that could harm you in the long run but even up in the I SS you're still you're still benefiting from a large part of the earth's protective shield right yes it gets a lot worse if you want to go to the moon right on Mars or colonize another planet yeah because then you are going beyond or as protection so I guess we want to go now to our conversation with doctor Jeff Hoffman to talk about the radiation risks posed by the universe and what astronauts have done and can do to protect themselves but first I guess we should give you just a little bit of background on doctor Hoffman yeah so his original research interest were in high energy astrophysics specifically cosmic gamma radiation and X. ray astronomy in his doctoral work at Harvard entail balloon borne low energy gamma ray telescopes and design and and the testing of this technology from nineteen seventy two to nineteen seventy five during post doctoral work at Leicester university who worked on several X. ray astronomy rocket payloads any works in the center for space research at the Massachusetts institute of technology from nineteen seventy five to nineteen seventy eight as project scientist in charge of the orbiting H. E. A. O. one eighty four hard X. ray and gamma ray experiment which launched in August nineteen seventy seven but in in seventy eight he was selected to become an astronaut and he went on a total of five different shuttle flights so in eighty five he went up on on it and discovery nineteen ninety on Columbia ninety two on Atlantis ninety three on endeavor and then in nineteen ninety six on Columbia all told one thousand two hundred eleven hours in space twenty one point five million miles that's a lot of miles yeah frequent flyer yeah so he he he is a not only pedigreed scientist a pedigreed astronaut five shuttle flights that's impressive that's five more the vast majority of human beings all right we're gonna take a quick break and when we come back we will be heading straight into our interview with Dr Jeff Hoffman right now when you come in and switch to T. mobile you get the amazing iPhone eleven pro on us iPhone tennis traded aren't these mountains majestic joke are you even looking I'm posting these amazing pics I took with my iPhone Levin pro it has three cameras whoa those picks are amazing and you have service to T. mobile their new single goes farther than ever before then you can look.
A Look Back at '2001: A Space Odyssey'
"Wasn't step to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and Joe McCormick and Robert. Do you remember about seventeen years ago. How disappointing it was that? The year two thousand one was not like the year two thousand one in the movie. The two thousand one a space odyssey. Well certainly it did not resemble the nineteen sixty eight film. Two thousand one space Odyssey did not resemble that that vision of the future. Not Not exactly. We were not not traveling. We didn't have a moon base. I I want my milk. Carton of corn destructor Straw. Well that can be arranged if if that's if that's the definite futuristic experience you're looking for but yeah this is the this is a classic science fiction film perhaps the League Classic Science Fiction Film. I mean you can. You can certainly make the case for other pivotal works of sci-fi cinema but Stanley Kubrick and and Arthur C Clark's two thousand and one has a film that has stood the test of time inspired countless other sci-fi visions. And and and yeah definitely gave us this sort of benchmark to look for in the future so the reason we're talking about two thousand one space odyssey. He is because this year. That movie is actually fifty years old. Yeah it's hard to believe it half a century old. It was released in April. The one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and so because of the fiftieth anniversary because the movie so endlessly fascinating to talk about. We thought we would vote today to a discussion of two thousand one the film itself. It's ideas and its legacy Robert. How old were you when you first saw two thousand one? ooh I saw it when I was pretty young so I don't have a very very concrete memory of it. I think my dad he either he had headed the H. S. copyrighted playing or it was on TV. I'm not sure but I'd I'd say cu maybe eight or something. I'm not sure about Barack being a very interesting film to watch because it was it. has this dream like in quality to it. That is is there no matter. What level of a awareness You're approaching with viewer. You know whether you understand the more complicated science fictional or philosophical aspects of its message. They're still this hypnotic quality to the film that draws as you in I have a weird question about it I wonder if a kid For whom the plot pretty much goes over their head actually understands the the movie better than an adult who can grasp more of the content of the plot because the movie is in many ways. It's almost almost like a more like a painting or like a work of art that is radically open to interpretation where the stuff that the characters do. Well I'm not so sure that it matters as much as more the kind of visual themes established in the questions raised by you know the the spectacle gold before your eyes. Yeah the spectacle is Is a huge part of it. I actually was tempted. I I'd I thought well should. I let my six year old seat at least part of two two thousand and one I am just see what his take is on it and I did not quite get around to to to performing a test of that sort But I have a feeling he would be drawn in by the visuals for sure. Just thinking about the visuals alone. It's hard to believe this movie's half a century old. Like we were saying a minute ago. It still feels so weird and so fresh and so intellectually adventurous. Apparently you know when it premiered. One of the things about the movie is that it's it's mostly silent. They're only actually very limited parts of it were characters are speaking to each other. And according to the stories about the premier the first audience is just Hayden. Hayden not everybody. There were some people who saw okay. This is revolutionary something very different and new and original is happening here but a lot of the Hollywood hotshots shots who were in attendance just hated it There were tons of people. Walking out of the theater. Allegedly Rock Hudson walked out saying out loud. Will someone tell me what the hell this is about. Talk it's interesting because it is a film in which a lot of stuff does not happen. A lot happens. It's a film that that that kind of sums comes up the scent of humanity and where humanity might go beyond the beyond our planet but at the same time every any time. Something seems to be happening. We kind of get a cut. The scenes where characters are having pivotal discussions about what's happening is becomes just sort of a staple of so many other film like most films are missing. The murder that occurs to in the film is not actually seen so it. When you're watching two thousand one space odyssey there is almost this sense that someone is messing with you by removing these key? Bits of information. That should tell you what you're supposed to think about well. I can understand people hating it at first because it is in a way an intentionally challenging film it's it it goes against narrative conventions in a very Deliberate Way and another thing about it is just. I'm not usually a person to call out special effects. I as a thing I love about the movie but the visual effects in this movie movie are just unparalleled in so many ways. They look astonishingly realistic for for a time in the nineteen sixties when we hadn't even been to the Moon in yet when this movie was made we had not been to the moon. Space photography was very limited. So it's amazing. They could get something looking as accurate to the experience of outerspace as as they did. But then at the same time it so D- realized so monreale and It has almost kind of a Dario are Gento kind of quality though. Of course predates are Gento. But I mean like the you know the strange lights and The way the colors color our moods. I it's so oh good I'm glad Argenta did not directed by the way is very different than the monk. The the the the the dawn of man sequence might have been similar but The yeah the special effects in this film are just so breathtaking. I feel like if anyone out there is wondering what is it like to watch two thousand and one a space odyssey with Robert Atlanta. It's like every five minutes may saying aloud. Why can't we make? Why don't we make movies? That looks like this now. Why can't why can't why don't spaceships look like this anymore? Films and basically they don't look this good in anything else for instance nineteen seventy-two silent running another one of my favorite sci fi films was directed by Douglas. Trumbull who worked on two thousand one worked on the effects and silent running looks fabulous but it. It's not as pristine as two thousand and one in garbage can point to a lot of different reasons for that. But then there's you know you can. You can say well. These other films were not directed by Kubrick they. Maybe they did not have the budget. They didn't have the right key key. Artistic people in place this kind of perfect storm of creativity and intent. But but but you end up with this film that yeah just look so unlike unlike anything else and every single frame of this film I feel like you could you could print out and you could put on the wall and and no one would question the choice. It's also somehow a movie that many people I think have tried to copy and been unable to. It's a movie the style of which is uncopyrightable In my I've talked about this a bit with my friend Dave. He's he often points out that you have the the sequel to the two thousand and ten which which correct Kubrick did not direct came out in the eighties. Oh who was the guy who directed two thousand ten who is the same gentleman and directed outlandish alcohol Peter and not just outland. He made time cop. Oh The guy who made two thousand ten made time cop was interesting just if you just look at the trailers the between the two and you see just to start different because on one on one hand you have again the pristine white you know. Almost hermetically sealed all edible seeming. Like you feel like you could just crowd bite into the white chocolate goodness of the spaceships in two thousand one space Odyssey and then by two thousand ten everything is industrial grimy and not just the says the order of the day was the not only the sets but also also the character interactions because suddenly it's not this this very subdued performance limited interaction limited discussions between characters. No you have Roy. Scheider Heider Running Center Mayor Not Mayor of Amity from Jaws Chief of police. Chief Brody. Yeah chief Brody's just right up front getting into you know loud our discussions with with all of the characters We're GONNA need a bigger space craft
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb. And I'm Joe McCormick back for part two. Or is this partout or does it come a standalone to allergic? I think in stands alone. Yeah. Okay. So we'll last time if you were with us in the last episode we were exploring what we were sort of calling the loss daughters about the the that once were thought to exist somewhere in the school system, whether in ancient times or in recent centuries, but we later found out probably never existed or definitely never existed in some cases. So examples we talked about included in ticket Thon in the central fire. What was the deal with that? Oh, well, you just have to go back and listen to the episode, but this complex notion where son is not the center of the universe. The earth is not the center of the universe. But something called the central fire is at the center and earth is actually closer to the central fire than the sign. So it's this sort of complex model of the cosmos. Based on. You know, the best of observational data of the day of like, you know, ancient times, ancient Greece. Yeah. Combined with certain religious mythological ideas, a Pythagorean cosmetology of. But then also we talked about the scientific thinking that led to the belief in such thing as the planet Vulcan, it planet believed to be inside the orbit of mercury super close to the sun as was proposed by or bomb Leverrier. A then, of course, we also talked about fate on the the Fatana are facing the the the best subject of renaissance painting of all time. Yes. But for the purposes of main purposes of our discussion, the the idea that that they thought wolf the asteroid belt maybe used to be a planet. And maybe this is this is what we would call planet if it were still exactly right. So today we wanted to carry this discussion forward to talk about other ideas about planets that are thought to maybe exist somewhere in the solar system, but have. Not yet been confirmed in the last episode all the planets that we talked about were pretty sure now have never existed anytime. I mean with two of them were quite sure, right. But there are still questions, for example. There has long been a question about what lies at the furthest reaches. We talked about you know, what happens when you go down as far as you can into the solar system like the sun. Is this pit this? Well, we go all the way down there things that are hard to see because they're so close to the sun. When you think about the opposite end could there be things that are hard for us to see because they're so far. And of course, we have to realize how how confusing this may seem at first because it's easy to think that we have our solar system pretty much figured out at this point. Right. I mean, most if you're listening to this. You probably grew up memorizing the planets mercury Venus earth Mars Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. And then there's the whole issue of Pluto. And some of us get a little bit out of shape. Right. When when. When someone tells us, actually, Pluto isn't a full full-fledged planet. It's more of a dwarf planet it cetera. And you know, we're maybe don't roll a change all that. Well, but it's easy to think. Okay. That's it. Right. There's nothing new to discover in the solar system because meanwhile, we are continually spotting new Exo planets that are light years upon light years away like far distant reaches of the observable universe. So if we're figuring that out then surely, we've got everything squared away in our immediate neighborhood. It only makes sense that that's the way it should go. Right. Why are we seeing Exo planets when they're still a question of whether there could be a planet in our own solar system, we don't know about. And unfortunately, that's just a side effect of the different ways, we have of detecting things it actually may be much easier to detect the presence of a planet orbiting a distant star. Because you can definitely see that star. And you can tell by certain thing, you can tell by if the star wobbles if they're. Our other gravitational influences on that star you can tell by the what's known as the transit method. If something is passing in front of the star from our perspective and causing it to dim..
Why Do Coffee Drinks Often Have Italian Names?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners instead of an ad today. I wanted to tell you about new podcast. I think you might dig for my friends, Robert lamb, and Joe McCormack, you might already know them from the weird science podcast stuff to blow your mind. Their new show is called invention each episode of invention examines different technological turning point and the people and cultures the provoked the change they consider the origins and impact of everything from the guillotine to the vending machine. Chopsticks to sunglasses. Braille to x-rays and lots more new episodes of invention come out every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you happen to find your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, bring stuff on Lauren Vogel bomb. And if you can't start your morning without a Cup of Joe, you're certainly not alone. I'm right there with you. But Americans consumption of coffee is up. It's the highest. It's been since two thousand twelve and global exports are up to according to the International Coffee Organisation world coffee exports increased by seventeen percent from October two thousand seventeen to October of two thousand eighteen and overall global shipments were four point two percent higher year over year, clearly coffee has become an important daily ritual for many Americans which begs the question, why are so many coffee lovers? Ordering those drinks using Italian words from lattice Tamaki autos. How did this happen after all coffee doesn't have its roots in Italy legend has it that the great being originated in the Ethiopian plateau and was discovered by goat herder who noticed his goats veritably danced after eating a certain plant. It's spread throughout the Arabian peninsula and adjacent areas before Europeans encountered coffee in the. Seventeenth century, nevertheless, many of the coffee drinks, we know today and popularized by Starbucks more on that in a minute do originate in Italy, and it has everything to do with the invention of the Espresso machine. Espresso doesn't refer to a particular type of coffee bean. It's actually a coffee preparation method, and it was first developed in Italy in the nineteenth century because brewed coffee could take up to five minutes to make coffee lovers. Sada way to shorten the time between ordering and drinking the first Espresso machines were bulky and difficult, but by the early twentieth century Milanese manufacturer Luigi bizarre had developed a single shot Espresso the produced one Cup of coffee in seconds, though. It did take a while for the machines to improve in terms of ease of use and flavor of the coffee produced we spoke with Paul Bassett former world barista champion, he said, the Espresso machine kind of revolutionized coffee to some extent. Everything was centered around the way Espresso was made the way it was consumed as well, he explained that with the Espresso machine. Coffee could be made on. The spur of the moment and was intended to be drunk immediately after being served typically standing at a bar Italian coffee culture grew and Espresso as we know it today became popular in Italy and France in the nineteen thirties, the nineteen fifties beatnik movement and its coffeehouse culture launched Espresso craze in the United States. We also spoke with Mike Ferguson with OEM specialty coffee, he explained early in the specialty coffee movement authenticity meant Italian in the nineteen eighties. Many if not most coffee houses had Italian names and adopted as much Italian as possible into their cafe menu. So the trend continued the coffee drinks, they served also retained their -talian nomenclature because they were specifically made with Espresso the names referred to what is added to the Espresso, for example. But the word Mark Jato into Google translate and you'll get stained or spotted so the drink name refers to the spot of milk that stains the Espresso Bassett said, I think fundamentally Espresso is directly linked to Italy as beverage and the way it's part of their culture. It's been transported all around the world and reinterpreted despite reinterpretation, the drinks with talion names have an Espresso base. And typically, some kind of milk added. For example, a cafe latte usually just called a lot in the United States consists of Espresso milk and milk foam. It's not brewed coffee with milk. Although that's the literal translation to be fair ordering an Espresso with milk and milk foam doesn't sound as catchy the distinction between Espresso and brewed coffee is important consider the Americano which was named for Americans in Italy who sought a drink. Similar to the brood or filtered coffee. They drink at home because it emerged in Italy and is made by adding water to Espresso, it retains its talion title. So this answers the question about coffee drink names. But what about Starbucks use of sizes like 'Grande inventing, which are also talion words, this sizing nomenclature short tall and 'Grande was introduced when ill Nali opened its doors in one thousand nine hundred six and the venue size came in the early nineties ill. Denali was the name of the coffee houses launched by Starbucks chairman emeritus Howard Schultz during his mid eighties hiatus from the company the company's website states. That sheltered been quote captivated with talion coffee bars and the romance of the coffee experience a tradition. He wanted to bring to the United States he returned to Starbucks and purchase the company in one thousand nine hundred seven and that branding now extends to fo- Italian product names, like the Frappuccino, which is a trademarked name and not actually Italian word by the way bonus back to the episode the caffeine in coffee that perks. You up is considered the most commonly used drug in the world. Today's episode was written Vicary, Whitney and produced by Tyler claiming for I heart media, and how stuff works or more on this and lots of other peppy, topics. Visit our home planet has to work dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Invention
"Welcome to invention. Mine is Robert lamp, and I'm Joe McCormick. And today we are going to be talking about death rays now on this show. We we've talked about a lot of very real in some cases, very mundane yet interesting inventions things like chopsticks or less Monday and things like the x Ray machine. But today we wanted to talk about a an invention that sort of existing throughout its entire lifetime at the crossroads of myth and legend and reality. Yeah. This is a curious one. This is this is a perhaps our first topic where we cannot point at the thing and say here it is. Here's the here's the invention. Let us explore its history. Now, we all know today. I mean, we are at a point where maybe we do risk the topic becoming somewhat mundane because everybody knows about lasers now. You know, this is the twenty first century laser research is going on all the time. Yeah. I mean insert as we'll explore a little bit. There have been large scale military projects that have looked at the use of of a particle beam and laser technology to to inflict damage to the, but we have not reached the point of the the classic SCI death. Ray we haven't reached the point where a a beam based weapon is targeting a city or shooting a, you know, an airplane out of the sky, or being, you know, used in Bank robberies by high-tech bandits that sort of thing at least on a large scale me some very good reasons for that not just that like we don't have the technology to do it. But maybe because you know, they're easier ways to accomplish the same goal, right? But yeah. So we're going to be talking about death rays, and this turned out, I think to be a much more interesting and culturally relevant topic than I would've expected because I wanna start a positing something essentially that what people have in mind when they talk about..
Why Do Scorpions Glow Under Black Light?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners for all you fans of true crime investigations. There's a new podcast from glamour, and how stuff works Marcus Hanna. Devante Abigail, Jeremiah and Sierra were all black children adopted by two white women, Sarah and Jennifer heart. It looked as if the hearts were the perfect family, but their lives ended in a murder suicide. Car crash shocked their friends and made national headlines starting Semper forth with new episodes every Tuesday co host Justin and Elizabeth follow. The families beta journey. You can listen subscribe to broken hearts spelled H A R T S on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren vocal bomb here. Some animals are just over the top take scorpions is it not enough that these stinging arachnids can survive some of the harshest climates in the world and live twenty five times longer than your average cockroach or that some species don't need males to reproduce and can live up to forty eight hours without oxygen and that all of them will eat almost anything. They can subdue even other scorpions. No, it's apparently not enough because scorpions also glow electric Siam green under ultra violet light. Why they do? This is a bit of a mystery. But it makes them pretty easy to study all scorpion researcher has to do to find scorpions go out into the desert at night with the black light and watch those suckers light up like Christmas. Trees, chemically speaking. Nobody's exactly sure. What causes scorpions to glow? But we know it's powerful stuff. When a scorpion is preserved in alcohol. The alcohol itself will floor s scorpion fossils have even been induced to glow under black light after hundreds of millions of years. What we do know is the chemicals that make a scorpion. So rave ready are in the outer layer or cuticle of its excess skeleton scientists call it the Highland layer scorpions their Xs skeleton every so often in order to grow and researchers have observed that intil the slightly mushy outer shell has entirely hardened. The Highland layer does not Flores under UV light. This is all pretty weird. Why would an animal Volve to glow under ultraviolet light? Researchers have posited a bunch of different ideas. Scorpion. Fluorescence might help them. Find each other in the dark protect them from sunlight or even confused their prey, but there's another promising theory that scorpions are somehow using their fluorescence to detect UV light mostly because they want to avoid it. There might hunters after all and a scorpion will always find the darkest place to hang out during the day or even in the moonlight. A study published in the journal of Iraq -nology in two thousand ten tested normal chorusing scorpions, and a group of scorpions that they had produced the fluorescence of with prolonged exposure to UV light, the normal scorpions, then reacted more strongly and negatively to UV light than the desensitized scorpions. But wait, you might be thinking scorpions still have is. And as it turns out, they can visually see light within the ultra violet part of the spectrum. But it doesn't seem like the scorpions were reacting visually a. Britt study published in animal behavior in two thousand twelve basically blindfolded a group of scorpions and found that the critters still reacted to the presence of ultraviolet light. So it seems that they're using their entire bodies as giant UV seeking eyeballs. And that if they sense that they're glowing at all it's time to scurry off somewhere darker. Today's episode was written by just windshields produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other glowing topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us
BrainStuff Classics: Does Eating Before Bed Give You Nightmares?
"You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts. Welcome to bring stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Bogle bomb here with another classic episode from our former host Christian Sager. Today's topic gets to the bottom of an old wives tale will eating before bed. Really give you nightmares. What's up brain stuff? I'm Christian Sager. And it is time for some brain stuff. Have you ever been up alone at night scarfing down some buffalo wings dipped in kimchi and Vindaloo? But you fall asleep on the couch and you start having these terrible nightmares. What is up with that? Why does some foods? Make us have such weird dreams. Well, so far scientists yet to find a direct correlation between certain types of foods, and how we dream, but an excessive amount of rich nocturnal eating can interrupt your sleep in a variety of ways really any type of physical discomfort while you're sleeping can lead to bad dreams. But when you're tummy's a rumbling. That's when the monsters really comes scurrying out of that trap door in the back of your head, for instance, late night snacks increased both your body's metabolism and temperature which makes you hot and sweaty, especially when you have a high carbohydrate meal, Ditto if you have. A bunch of donuts or candy bars before you pass out. A recent study shows that seven out of ten people who junk food before bed are more likely to have nightmares. These researchers hypothesized that the high levels of sugar led to physical sleep discomfort which brought the monsters out from under their beds. Another type of upset stomach that leads to a bad night's sleep is acid reflux also known as GERD or just plain old heartburn more than a third of Americans have this condition. I'm one of them where burning acidic bile comes creeping up your SAFA gifts. If you've had this happen doctors recommend that you don't eat within three hours of bedtime. And that you try lifting your head forty five degrees to keep the acid down. Also, you probably shouldn't have citrus onions, carbonated drinks meant alcohol or cigarettes before you go to sleep. I know I know boring, right? But cutting down on this stuff will keep the sleep goblins away. So it's either be careful what you eat or back to a pit of. Spare filled with evil clowns for you. Actually. There's an interesting food connection between general anxieties and why we sleep poorly when our bodies are stressed. They flush out the mineral magnesium, which increases are mental burden. So we sleep poorly. You can head this off if you eat healthy prior to and during stressful periods, your retained some magnesium helping you maintain a normal sleeping pattern, and there's our old friend insomnia, which can be caused by a variety of food and drinks how about meat or other high protein foods. Well, it turns out protein supplies, your brain with the amino acid tyrosine, which makes you more alert and food high in protein is usually also high in fat which digests slowly causing a rumble in the Bronx. If the Bronx is what you call your belly. Plus remember how carbohydrates bring on the night sweats. Will they also speed up trip to fan and amino acid in your brain that helps you sleep? So if you don't eat enough carbs. Before bed. It's harder to get to sleep my recommendation, a small carbohydrate snack in the evening will promote calmness and help you catch. Some Z's finally alcohol and caffeine before bed can make insomnia even worse. So no, double fist in coffee and beer, and you probably shouldn't drink energy booze drinks, like juice, four Loko or fusion either. In fact, I'd recommend staying away from drinks with purposely. Misspelled names is just a general rule, even the United States food and Drug administration called these drinks. A public health concern back in two thousand and ten and the center for disease control has an entire factsheet about the dangers of mixing alcohol and energy drinks. And it doesn't even get into the whole not being able to get to sleep thing. So there you have it food doesn't necessarily give us nightmares. But the uncomfortable feelings that come with eating certain meals. Episode was written by Christian and produced by Tyler clang. If you miss Christian, check out his pop culture podcast super context available wherever you listen to podcasts. And of course for more on this and lots of other topics that will help you sleep better. Visit our home planet house to works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology to time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple
What Exactly Are Frankincense and Myrrh?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, bring stuff Lauren Vogel bomb here. If you've heard of frankencense and Moore, it's probably thanks to the biblical account of the birth of Jesus. According to the book of Matthew chapter, two wise men. Followed a bright star in the east of Bethlehem to where Jesus had been born and presented him with gifts of gold frankencense and Moore during the Christmas season depictions of this event, Argub it quits in American culture, decorating, churches, and shopping, malls alike. But don't let the shiny tinsel and festive candidates distract you from our question today. What exactly are frankencense and mirror? Both frankencense are derived from tree sap or gum resin and are prized for their lowering fragrances frankencense is a milky white resin extracted from species of the genus bus. We Leah which thrive in arid cool areas of the Arabian peninsula, east Africa and India the finest and most aromatic of the species is bus willia- sacra, a small tree that grows in Somalia, Oman and Yemen, these plants which grow to a height of about. Sixteen feet or five meters have papery bark sparse branches of paired leaves and flowers with white petals and a yellow or red center murder is a reddish resin the comes from species of the genus come four, which are native to northeast Africa. And the adjacent areas of the Arabian peninsula. Come a foreign Mira a tree commonly used in the production of Moore can be found in the shallow. Rocky soils of Ethiopia Kenya. Amman Saudi Arabia and small it boasts shiny branches was sparsely that grow in groups of three and can reach a height of nine feet or about three meters. The process for extracting, the sap of these trees is essentially identical harvesters make a longitudinal cut in the tree's trunk which pierces gun resin reservoirs located within the bark the sap slowly uses out from the cut and drips down the tree forming tear-shaped droplets, they're left to harden on the side of the tree. These beans are collected after two weeks people in east Africa and the Arabian peninsula, had produced frankencense and Merv for some five thousand years for much of this time these. Medic resins were the region's most important commodity with a trade network that reached across Africa, Asia and Europe today. Demand for frankencense and Moore has subsided a bit, but numerous Chinese Greek Latin and sanskrit texts reminders of their past importance frankencense and Moore were desired for personal religious and medicinal use in a time before daily bathing people would use the sweet smoke from the resins to make themselves. Smell better. Egyptian women would mix frankencense ash into their I shadow these substances were also widely used in religious ceremonies and burials, according to the Greek writer here notice Egyptians used both frankencense and myrrh in preparation of animals sacrifices and human mummies Jews incorporated them into their religious ceremonies by the third century, BC and Christians by the fourth century, CE the residents also had medical uses in the papyrus Ebbers from fifteen hundred BC priests recommended both resins for the treatment of wounds other ailments. They were once reported to cure included, hemlock poisoning leprosy were. Terms snake bites? Diarrhea plague scurvy and even bald this the high demand for frankencense and Moore created a booming trade in the Middle East lasting several hundred years in the first century, CE around the height of this trade. Plenty the elder claims that Arabia produced approximately one thousand six hundred eighty tonnes about fifteen hundred metric tonnes a frankencense and around four hundred forty eight tons or four hundred metric tons of mir- each year, one of the most important trade centers surrounded and a waste and modern day. Southern Oman this outpost exported frankencense across best Petya India and China for about three hundred BC e to the third century. See the ruins of the settlement remain as UNESCO world. Heritage site known as the land of frankencense, clearly frankencense and Moore were widely available when the wise men visited the baby Jesus around five BC and would have been considered practical gifts with many uses the expensive resins were symbolic as well. A frankencense which was often burned symbolized prayer rising to the heavens like smoke. While mirror, which was often used in bombing symbolized death. So scholars think that frankencense was presented to the infant Jesus to symbolize his later role as a high priest for believers while Mur symbolized, his later, death and burial frankencense and Moore may not be as popular as they once were. But they're still used today in some ways that you might not expect their common ingredients in modern, perfumes, and cosmetics. Continuing a tradition that's lasted years. Scientists are finding new uses for the substances as well. Recent studies suggest that frankencense or its extracts may help intriguing asthma. Rheumatoid arthritis Crohn's disease, and osteoarthritis researchers have also discovered possible benefits of murder in the treatment of gastric ulcers tumors and parasites. This episode was written by Clint pump free and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other spicy topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever
Why Do We Sing in the Shower?
"Hey, Matt I have yet to ride one of those birds scooters 'cause I hate those things that does not surprise me at all Joel. But you know, I've been getting Instagram adds to give me to become a bird charger to join that gig economy. Oh, that's right. Just like Hoover folks are getting targeted to start side hustles to make an extra buck or even to try to make a career out of it. But should you? Do it not all side hustles created equally exactly every week? We dive into practical money topics like this on our podcast. Listen subscribe to our show on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast. Just search for how to money. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff. I'm Lauren vocal bomb. And I think we can all admit that. We've pulled a Peirce bueller once or twice while lathered up in the shower, everyone, sometimes grabs a handy bottle of shampoo was an improv microphone and busts out a tune or two there's just something completely satisfying about singing in the shower. Even celebrities do it, according to people magazine after Jack black likes to belt out Led Zeppelin and Wycliffe Sean digs a little Bruce Springsteen. Everyone's a rockstar in the bathroom, whether you have a voice like Aretha Franklin or couldn't carry a melody if it had a handle, but have you ever wondered about this non some of us wouldn't sing in public? If someone paid us will sing in the shower without embarrassment. Believe it or not there is a scientific explanation behind our soapy musical stylings first. Let's look at why we're relaxed enough in the shower to bust into song. I think about it. You don't sing when you're sad unless you're singing, the blues, maybe for many people shower time is the only time they're alone all day, you're in a warm small safe in. Environment. You're comfortable enough to be in the buff stress. Literally washes off of you when you relax, your brain releases dopamine, which can give your creative juices, a jump start warm waters rushing over you. And now, you're relaxed and feeling good. It turns out that singing makes you feel even better singing because of the breeding that you put into it gets more oxygen into the blood. This gives you better circulation which in turn improves, your body and mood, and because you have to breathe a little deeper to belt out a song. You get some of the same relaxation and mind clearing benefits as meditation. Another neat thing is that when you're singing, you can't really think about your problems more stress relief. But the best thing about sending in the shower, the acoustics you couldn't ask for a better sound system than a bathroom because bathroom tiles, don't absorb sound. Your voice bounces back and forth around the room before fading away. And because the shower is a small space. It boosts your voice and even adds a little base making your singing sound more powerful. The sound bouncing also. As your vocal styling, a reverse effect, which mixer voice hang in the air longer and evens out variations in your singing, think of it as a primitive auto tune. It makes you sound better than you normally would which is a confidence boost we don't sing in the shower simply because we have that song. Stuck in our heads. You know, the one it turns out, we do it for many reasons. Stress relief happiness, great acoustics or maybe just because we like to hear our own voices. No matter what the reason keep it up. It's good for you. And if you've never tried it put the song and put on your own private concert. Today's episode was written by Deborah Ronca and produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other rock and topics are home planet has two forks dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. We're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every
Do Dogs Get Embarrassed When We Put Them in Costumes?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren Vogel bomb, and I suspect that some of you love dogs. Some of you might even like dressing them up for warmth or fun Hellene costumes holiday outfits birthday dresses, boots, scarves, wigs painted nails. More boots. Some of these outfits are decidedly sillier than anything. Their owners would wear which leads us to the question of the day do dogs get embarrassed. When we dress them up in humans embarrassment is an emotion, just like love, guilt, sadness, fear or happiness, when someone we know dies. We feel sorrow when people make fun of us. We feel humiliated or embarrassed when something good happens, we feel happiness humans have six basic, emotions, love joy, surprise, anger, sadness, and fear. Some researchers argue that we display only four basics. Happy sad a combo of afraid surprised and a combo of angry and disgusted, but that's a topic for another day, whichever set you go by these. Primary emotions then branch out to secondary, motions such as pride relief and optimism tertiary emotions include excitement, loneliness and embarrassment yet, emotions are fleeting they last for only a brief time. We don't stay embarrassed forever. Or at the very least we shouldn't in humans embarrassment is a so called self conscious emotion, just like guilt. We get embarrassed. When we tripper fall when we burp at the dinner table or spill a Cup of coffee on a nice white shirt as a crowd of people look on. But do dogs feel the same emotions that we do. It's a good question and one that scientists have been mulling over for years if your dog owner, there's no question that dogs become emotional. They wag their tail when they're happy. They look guilty years back had down when they pee on the rug or to a book to shreds. We also know that they can get jealous of a new addition to the house like a baby or another dog or the cat who claims their favorite person's lap. Still many scientists have yet to come to grips with the idea that dogs experience emotions like humans while some argue that dogs do feel a range of emotions guilt may not be one of them. Instead dogs may simply be reacting to their owner's body language in the opinion of some dogs, experienced only instant reaction, emotions, fear, joy, sadness, and anger, which brings us back to whether dogs get embarrassed their scale is certainly different if they do given that they don't have our hangups, and thus aren't embarrassed by things that would mortified most humans like getting caught scratching or licking decidedly delicate itches in public. We spoke by Email with Dr Jessica Pierce, a bioethicist who has written extensively on these Ikoyi of dogs and cats she said as far as I know there's been no systematic research into whether or not dogs feel embarrassment. But I would guess they do that said when we dress them up as lobsters Donald Trump for Halloween, and they put their ears back and tuck their tails down it may not be embarrassment. That they're feeling they might simply find the costumes uncomfortable or unfamiliar, and they might be upset by or reacting to the fact that all the people around them are laughing and acting excited if she had to bet on it Pierce things dogs, probably experienced the same basic emotions as humans. She said dogs. Most certainly experienced what are called the primary emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, and joy, they also likely experience a whole range of secondary, motions, including empathy guilt and embarrassment as for which emotions dogs lack. I wouldn't feel confident putting anything on that list. My guess is that the more closely scientists studied emotional experiences and passages of dogs the more they will find so should you dress your dog up to put it bluntly? If you would feel humiliated dressed up as a lobster or Donald Trump. Then chances are your dog will to appear said when people ask me whether it's mean to dress our dogs up in costumes or fancy sweaters. My answer is ask your dog. If your dog seems uncomfortable then take the cost. Hmm off after quickly taking that cute photograph to post on social media. If your dog doesn't seem to care or perhaps even seems to like being fancied up, then it's fine. Today's episode was by John Pera, Tanno and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other emotional, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology at a time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever
Why Are Stop Signs Red?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m l s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, Brian stuff. I'm Lorne Bogle bomb. And today's question is why are stop signs read one not green or purple why not mango Tango or tickle me pink in the early days of motor vehicles. The rules of the road where let's say they were really more what you'd call guidelines than actual rules. Believe it or not the first stop signs in America were not put in place until nineteen fifteen according to historical estimates by the federal highway administration in nineteen fifteen. There were already almost two point five million cars driving on US roads. When those much needed. I stop signs finally did show up. It happened in the motor capital of Detroit. Michigan, and they were not the red octagon that we know and love today but white squares with black letters now traffic sign codes throughout the twentieth. Century have recommended several different variations on the basic design. A for example in nineteen thirty five the United States got its first official manual on uniform traffic control devices. Which said stop signs should be a yellow octagon with black or red lettering. It wasn't until the nineteen fifty four revision of this nineteen forty eight edition of the manual at the red octagon with white letters became the law of the land. According to that document, the red color is consistent with the accepted use of a red light as a stop signal end of the Colorado as a special warning of danger. Furthermore, they explained that the original decision to use yellow instead of red was because red pigments were more likely to fade over time with exposure to the elements. However by the nineteen fifties. These state of California had solved the problem by using porcelain enamel to protect their precious read signs and higher durability red paints were becoming more widely available and like that red became the new yellow, but there's a question that goes deeper than uniform traffic, signaling protocol, why read is there any reason to think of red stop sign would work better than any other color getting drivers to stop zooming straight through intersections at eight miles per hour. One fairly obvious answer. Is that red is not as likely to blend in with the landscape as some other colors. This explains why the highway administration has repeatedly rejected our proposal for a green and Brown camouflage pattern. Stop sign. Another important point is that likely aforementioned manual says red is a color we consistently use dentistry warnings and peril. A think about the wrong way sign and the do not enter sign having consistent color coating helps drivers learn to identify specific colors with specific messages. So even if you only catch the hint of red sign out of the corner of your eye. You're more likely to react with caution. The way you've been taught there are also some behavioral research findings that might point to the inherent power of the color red command RBM, it's for example, a twenty-seven study published in psychological science found that male rhesus monkeys under test conditions or less likely to steal apple slices from human experimenters who are dressed in red. The monkeys didn't seem to care about the gender of the human experimental and were not deterred by green or blue clothing, but a red hat and t shirt were enough to make the monkeys cautious about swiping that fruit. Now, it's important not to read too much into that result. Those study was done on monkeys who. Could be reacting to read roll kinds of reasons. But it at least suggests the possibility that there is a primate instinct to associate red with dominance aurthority, and if humans share this hypothetical primate instinct, the difference between a red stop sign a yellow stop sign might be the difference between stop in the name of the law. And hey, hey, guys that might be nice. If you came to a halter in a turned off your nitro boosters. Today's episode was written by Joe McCormick. And produced by Tyler clang for more on this and other arresting topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hello. My name is Kevin Pollack. Yes. The award winning funny fellow from that film. And or TV thing that makes you smile every darn time. You see it, folks. Did you know, I've got a new comedy podcast that was created with you and mine, cuz I do it's called alchemy this, and it was designed with a single purpose, you laughing a lot I'm talking please. Let someone else drive when listening if you enjoy laughing uncontrollably while running errands exercising or building a crispy cream doughnut machine. In your basement from parts you stole while working there
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, wasn't this stuff to blow your mind? My name is Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. And Robert I have just been out on vacation for a bit. And I came back to find you. Absolutely raring to go about copper, Fiji a-. That's right. The consumption of poop. Yeah. Which I figured is ideal. You should be listening to this episode during the week of American thanksgiving. It's a time when people eat too much, they a lot of grey and brownish foods that are too rich. They probably shouldn't be eating all of this stuff. But they do anyway. So it's a perfect time to talk about poop eating crammed down the gullet with loving care in the presence of one's family, and and inlaws and all that now before anybody turns us off I do want to drive home that most of what we're gonna be talking about in this episode. Relates to animals heating poop as the title of the episode implies at the very end. When when everyone's ready, we may talk a little bit about humans. I we will deal with animals before we deal with the comp- the added complexities of human beings. Now. I'm sure the listeners out there are wondering the same thing. I was so I got back from vacation to find you super excited about animals eating poop, and I was like, well, what got you going on? This Robert y did you fling yourself headlong into a pit of copper Fengxia for the week of thanksgiving? Well, I originally had the idea to do it after watching a David Attenborough narrated special titled spy in the pod, which is fun. It's a fun little show in which they have a remote control robot is hanging out with elephants, and they briefly cover. Copper Faiza practiced by elephant cats, and which we'll get to in this episode. And I thought well that's interesting that that puts a new spin on something that I'd largely just. Dismissed as being essentially, a an active both of human defilement, but also abnormal animal behavior. And I thought well this comes like kind of a grim top Kip topic. But certainly thanksgiving is the time to do it. I think we've talked about what like poisonous foods and stuff like that. Yeah. It kind of fits in with what we've done, and we're rerunning those aren't we just running at least two and three just wait for Saturday. Yeah. But but anyway, in in looking into the topic, then I realized oh, this is a fascinating topic in the grant. Or addition of our episodes on cannibalism. Bestiality necrophilia. I think that there's a there's an awesome challenge in tackling something like this something that is generally considered very admirable behavior for humans and looking at it from just the the boil down no nonsense animal side of things yet. What is it? How does it make sense within the realm of animal, biology and behavior, and then how might we might we apply that to the human scenario even? Yeah. The the sort of like brute chemical energy realities, and and a microbiological ecology of the world in in that kind of context poop eating begins to come into focus as a beautiful thing. Yeah. As I discussed in our Halloween to those in eighteen episode horror anthology volume one there's an episode of night gallery in which a character is tricked into believing himself curse to an irreversible transformation into a human earthworm. Yeah. And it's Leslie Nielsen it is lifting. With an ipad like shooting walls. Yeah. A man with no fear who has overcome with fear of becoming a worm. And I said that one of the reasons we find this concept so horrifying is it reduces us to our elementary track. We fear the worm at the heart of our being. And I think that we see that reflected in this episode is well anything that kind of reduces us to just our digestive system and tends to have an innate har- to us because we're definitely going to be touching on the microbiome and all of this the importance of gut bacteria, which continuing research tells us is far more important than than we ever imagined..
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert land. And I'm Joe McCormick. And I want to tell you a story about a monster slayer. Robert are you game? I am gay. Okay. So once upon a time in medieval Japan, there was a warrior named Minamoto. No raiko. He was daring swordsman, and he was famous everywhere for his bravery and his resolve and Reiko had in his service companion named what's Nabi note. Suna who was also courageous and he was a formidable fighter in his own, right? And he wilted a bow and arrow and wore suit of armor and one day Reiko in sooner were traveling on the road to key to Yama when they saw a skull floating in the sky flying in and out of the clouds above now, Reiko, and sooner were curious how such a thing could be. So they decided let's follow the skull. And they followed the flying skull all the way to keg Arocca where it led them to a crumbling. Old mansion from ancient times, the decaying manor was surrounded by wild overgrown weeds and an old gate choked by vines so Reiko ordered SUNA to wait for him outside and Reiko entered the mansion alone as he approached the threshold he started to become aware of a presence. There was an old woman lurking behind the door. And he called out who are you? She replied I've been living here for a good long time. I am two hundred ninety years old and have served in their turn nine lords of this house, and then Reiko Sar. She was a horrible sight to behold before the warriors is the old woman. Grasped her own eyelids with a tool and she flipped her eyelids. Back over the top of her head like a hat, then she pushed her mouth open with a large hairpin and her lips became gigantic. And she took her lips. And she tied them around her own neck and her breasts began to sag down into her lap like. Rags the old woman began to speak again. She said spring comes in autumn goes. But my sad thoughts remained the same years beginning end, but my misery is turn. All this place is a demon's din. No human dares pass through gates. My sorrowful youth has gone, but my old self sadly remains I lament that Bush warblers and swallows on the beam fly off in her sorrow, the wretched old woman begged Reiko to killer with his sword and put her out of her misery Reiko could see that the old woman was out of her mind. So he left her alone. And he instead decided to go into the house to see what had happened and solve the mystery of the flying skull, and what was afflicting this woman making her think she lived in a demon stint. So he went inside the house and outside the sky grew dark and fierce winds begin to blow but soon awaited loyalty for his master. And inside the house Reiko began to hear the sounds of footsteps echoing like the beat of a hand drum. Then he saw a coterie of spirits and goblins coming into the room with him, but the creatures didn't attack. Instead, they only danced around and then laughed at his fear before passing out through another door in their place. There came into the room a tiny woman. No more than three feet tall. But with a gigantic face more than two thirds of her whole height, and she had thick heavy eyebrows. And when she opened her mouth Reiko could see that her front teeth were black..
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and Robert. I wanna put you in a scenario. Obits seasonal, seasonable, Halloween scenario you do. You want to go with me on a hike. It's going to hike. All right. It's late October, and you are on a solitary fall hike through the woods in the leaves are starting to turn orange and red, the Air's dry, and you feel like an adventure. So you head off trail. Okay. Not always a good idea, but let's just say you're brave if this is how all terrible stories start, how all tragedies begin, you leave the trail? Well, it starts very nice. So you're off trail and you find a little mountain brook and it's twisting among the rocks and you decide, oh, how sweet I'm gonna follow this upstream. Maybe I'll find it source and on the way you come across a cluster of what looked like oak trees, thick trunks with roots, spread out, exposed over the Bank of the Brooke, and there's an odd smell. It's a little bit sweet with. Just a hint of deep, earthy nece, kind of like over ripe fruit. Okay. So you approach the stand of trees and the ground is covered with a mad of these beautifully colored fallen leaves. And as you come near the trunk of the nearest tree, your foot knocks against a smooth stone, tangled in the outer routes, but wait a second. That's no stone. It's smooth in white. Partially buried with two is shaped hollows. And then suddenly with a rushing sound scattering of leaves up into the air. Something invalid, Hugh, the light gets blotted out. You feel these wooden fibers pressing into your skin from all sides. What's going on? You struggle to free yourself, but you find that you're becoming sluggish disoriented. There's a powerful smell your throat burns and then the digestive enzymes come..
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey, wasn't to stuff to blow your mind. And my name is Robert lamp and Joe McCormick, and we're back with our second episode about the story of Kirk Allen or at least based on the story of Kirk Allen. Yeah, the story of Kirk Allen being a recurring element, but ultimately we're talking about, you know, imagination we're talking about daydreams. We're talking about how we try to objectively understand the universe, even as more subjective narratives are presented to us narratives like you photos or demons, it cetera, or traveling into the future and being a space Lord. Exactly. Now, if you haven't heard the last episode, you should probably go and check that one out. I will retell the whole story of Kirk Allen. We're going to be following up on some of the threads from it in this one and pursuing some research on the idea of maladaptive daydreaming because the idea with Kirk Allen is that essentially the short version is you had a guy with a with a very important job, like a nuclear physicist for government institution that. It was daydreaming so much that it became a problem is that his employer said, we want you to go talk to a professional about this. Now, the story goes, at least as it's presented by his therapist who is writing later and fictionalized elements of the story both to protect the identity of the patient. And as far as we know, maybe maybe not also embellishing the story to make it a better story. We don't know. But the story goes that Kirk Allen, the pseudonym for this patient that he was referred to Robert Lindner the therapist and that Linden her became so involved in Kirk Allen's beliefs that he could travel into the future and in his mind and be a space lowered and go from planet to planet and explore all these technologies in galactic civilizations that he got so involved in that that he started to believe it himself. And then it took Kirk Allen admitting that he made the whole thing up and didn't actually believe any of it to snap the therapist out of believing in the delusion. And it makes a great story like illustrates the. Power, the contagious nature of compelling fiction. Exactly. But today we wanted to explore this other element of it. So if we go with the story and we assume that Kirk Alyn never did believe any of what he was saying. He never actually believed he was a space Lord. He just spent a lot of time fantasizing about it though. He can tell the difference between this fantasy and reality. What would that situation be? Imagine you've got this guy. He's doing important, nuclear physics or whatever other kind of government research, and they can't keep them on task because he's always thinking about how he's gonna finish his paper on the hyper drive thruster that'll get him to tau SETI nine or whatever. Yeah. I mean the the cool thing about all this, and I think ultimately, the fascinating part about it is that we think we can all relate on some level to the, you know, the the attractive power of daydreaming. I mean, we, we, we all do it when certainly we all did it when we were children. I mean, I, I've always had a pretty active imagination as a kid. I was I was content to pay around the back yard of generally have a red or a green rubber band in my hand, and I would just daydream a litany of imagined worlds inspired. You know, by the typical things that are going to inspire a kid, you know, the TV shows movies, cartoons, and action figures that sort of thing. And and I think everybody in my family probably thought it was a little weird because of it, but they, you know, they tolerate it if only so they could continue to make make fun of me as an adult and then to there to everyone's credit, they encourage my creative activities later on in life that employed much of the same energy just without the rubber band and all the pacing. I guess maybe I still do some of the pacing, but Robert, you do the pacing. Have you not noticed? Yeah, I well, I, you know, it's it's good for one to get up all the time during work. Now trying to call you out, I pace to well, like for well, one thing I do now is I do a lot of swimming in while I'm swimming. I am inevitably doing some form of imaginative thought some sort of daydreaming..
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind my name is robert lamb and i'm joe mccormick and we're back part two of our exploration of the loose serie truth affect probably the liars best trick if you haven't heard are less sodas you probably go back listen to that first but if you haven't or if you have let's just do a quick recap of what we talked about last time we discussed all of the research on this thing that's sort of been part of folk wisdom that if you say something and if you repeat it and repeat it and repeat it people become overtime more likely to believe that thing and that is thoroughly validated by experimental research right and we also talked a little bit about why does it even make sense that we would come to believe things that were not true about the world that we live in just because they were repeated yeah and so the the basis that we ultimately ended up on last time that seems to be favored by most of the psychologists who study this is based in the idea of processing fluency that for whatever re reason a one researcher we talked about last time came to believe that it was because of conditioning based on real world effects but for whatever reason we tend to associate things that are easy to process things with high processing fluency with truth so something's easy to read we think it's more true or if something is an idea we've seen or heard or encountered before because that's easier to process because of a millionaire aji we believe that it is more likely to be true than if we're encountering it for the first time but of course in all of this extreme implausibility is going to be a boundary condition that's gonna kick in so this is like the ted cruz is zodiac killer level of of of implausibility what just because the ages don't match up right well just the end is just kind of like all right i'm not bleeding that that sounds ridiculous but some people do believe that so your boundary condition may not be where somebody else's sure emission is the boundary conditions will vary from individual to digital so yeah so the question that we should address start off in this one is in the last episode we discussed how this affect has been thoroughly validated in the lab but here's a question does it work in the real world and is it really all that powerful like a lot of researchers seem to assume that surely if you already know something about a subject repetition of contradictory false statement wouldn't actually undermine your real knowledge would it surely the they would tend to assume that this this loose truth affect only works for st statements that were uncertain about to begin with and statements that seem highly plausible bike if you didn't know anything about either ted cruz or the zodiac killer really and then you would just sort of all right maybe that's possible yes there is an individual who is read multiple books on zodiac killer would say no that doesn't that doesn't match up that is just ridiculous yeah so that's the assumption but unfortunately some more recent research has really turned that assumption action on its head so i wanna talk about an important recent study in the loose retrieve effect that brings its bearer of bad news the study is from the journal of experimental psychology general in twenty fifteen by fosse oh brashear pain and marsh in it's called knowledge does not protect against lucero truth so they pointed out that the illusory truth effect that we talked about last time based on processing fluency is widely accepted well established but it had been previously thought that this affect was constrained by a few things now one constraint shown to actually exist in the literature is recollection of the quality of the source of the information so previous studies have shown that if you specifically remember where a statement came from and you consider the source of the statement a dishonest or untrustworthy source that can produce kind of a reverse truth affect where repetition of a statement known to come from a liar or an untrustworthy source causes us to disbelieve it so this sounds like this should be good news right right yeah did i ultimately the question did i hear that on the radio did or did i see it on a shirt yeah or was this on the cover of the national enquirer right like you remember that's where it came from and your you know that's an untrustworthy source owed actually has the reverse effect you hear.
"joe mccormick" Discussed on Omnibus
"But that didn't bother them deep in the back of your mind you've always had the feeling that there's something strange about reality well there is high on robert lamp and i'm joe mccormick and we're the host of the science podcast stuff to blow your mind what's it like to be possessed by funk how did neanderthals faint here's what we stand for scientific skepticism openminded curiosity and a love of the weird because the world is weird weirder than we imagine it and will never understand it unless we're willing to go down down to that place far intuitions fail could you create a god inside a computer is the present moment actually exist unstoppable your mind we put science on a collision course with philosophy history religion mythology and the worst space where wolf movies of all time we examined neurological quandries cosmic mysteries evolutionary marbles and our trans human future all in order to decipher the nature of our reality and expand the minds subscribed to the stuff to blow your podcast wherever you get your podcasts and learn more at stuff to below your mind dot com so during our time even when i was still a kid the first controversy about pledging allegiance to the flag started to bubble up when some kids somewhere declined to pledge allegiance and i think it was for religious reasons it goes back to the 30s and 40s when jehovah's witnesses jobs witnesses interpret biblical scriptures about idolatry to mean you should not swear an oath to anything that would include a big piece of cloth in a classroom and they took it to the supreme court which relate to one the nope sorry joe's witnesses this is part of our national identity you're gonna say the dam.