35 Burst results for "Jewish"
Rashida Tlaib Should Resign for Supporting Hamas, Being Anti-Semitic and Anti-American
"But there's other reasons that these politicians should resign, too. And Rasheeda to leave is one of them. She is a Hamas supporting Anti American anti Semite, Marxist. Second generation Palestinian Here's what she said. Hat Tip Twitter. Cut one go. We also need to recognize And this is for me. As a Palestinian American. We also need to recognize, you know, as I think about my family. And Palestine that continue to live under military occupation and how that really interacts with this beautiful black city I grew up in, You know, I always tell people cutting people off from water is violence, and they do it from Gaza to Detroit, and it's a way to control people to oppress people. And it's those structures that we continue to fight against. So I know you all understand. The structure we've been living under right now is designed by those that exploit the rest of us. For their own profit, and she goes on. And she goes on. She's alluding to a global Jewish structure. The profits from oppressing people of color. Water is not cut off. Two Palestinians. Electricity is not cut off the Palestinians unless they're shooting missiles into the cities. Of Israel as a way for Israel to try and get the terrorists to stop. Short of strafing and carpet bombing these areas which they could do and wipe out the populations and literally three days What do you think? Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the other Palestinian terrorists would do if they could. Exactly
Blinken Decries Swastika Vandalism in State Dept Elevator
"Secretary of state Antony Blinken is condemning an incident in which a swastika was carved into an elevator wall at the state department's main headquarters the swastika has been removed and how it got there is being investigated blinking is the step son of a Holocaust survivor who was raised in the Jewish tradition in a message sent to all department employees he said the vandalism is a painful reminder anti semitism remains an issue and it has no place in the United States at the state department or anywhere else and Americans must be relentless in standing up and rejecting it last month in Berlin blank and and his German counterpart and not your rated a new U. S. Germany Holocaust dialogue aimed at ensuring the lessons of the **** era are not forgotten it Donahue Washington
The Nationalist Right Is No Place for Nick Fuentes' Jealous Anti-Semitism
"I don't know anything about nick fuentes but you've cautioned against him and i sometimes see people on the right praising him who is he he is a nasty little guttersnipe with an iq of one of five who hates the jews who hates the jews. They're kind of like hitler a seriously. Why do we have people on the right. Like nick fuentes. Yeah i don't understand. I don't know anything about them. Okay i'll tell you what because jews on the right to a better job of asserting their priorities than we christians. And that's not their fault they're supposed to so jews on the right who care a lot about israel do a good job of keeping israel on the front burner of american policy. We christians. we don't do such a good job of fighting against abortion or finding religious liberty or fighting for the integrity of marriage so envy envy okay so by but some pointers is. You're saying he's anti semitic. Is there anything else we need to know. I just know that you've brought him up. In the past. I want my audience clear. The or is an unfortunate tendency on the on the nationalist america. First ready of which i'm apart. I was pat buchanan delegate to the ninety six republican convention. There is a nasty element. Rising within the nationalist. Right the america i right. That is resentful of jewish americans success at asserting their particular priorities. What i say is you don't have. It will get better at do better. I care in the middle east. I primarily care about the fate of christian minorities in muslim countries who are religiously oppressed. I think we christians need to do a better job speaking up for that if you think the jews are really good at asserting. Israel's interest go be better at asserting. The interests of christians in the middle east go compete with a
The Early Life of Bernice Arthur
"Bernice frankel was born on may thirteenth nineteen twenty two in new york city. She was the second of philip. And rebecca rankles three daughters when be was eleven. Her father moved the family to cambridge maryland to run a clothing store. The was the tallest girl in her class resulting in typical middle school awkwardness. In addition to the run of the mill challenges of adolescence. These family was also one of the only jewish families in town and they were subject to anti-semitism to overcome her insecurities be developed. A cutting sense of humor. Even winning the title of wittiest girl in her class at cambridge high at the age of twenty be became one of the first women to enroll in the us marine corps women's reserve paperwork from the interview process notes that she came off as argumentative and overly aggressive one reviewer went so far as to write officious but probably a good worker if she has her own way after basic training be worked first as a typist in the marine headquarters in washington. Dc before transferring to the motor transport. School where served as a truck driver and dispatcher and cherry point north carolina. She was honorably discharged in nineteen. Forty five at the rank of staff sergeant in nineteen forty. Seven be married fellow marine robert allen arthur after leaving the marines be attended the franklin institute of science and arts and worked as a lab technician for a year before moving to new york city to pursue show business.
Jackie Mason, Rabbi Turned Comedian, Dies Aged 93
"How much some other bison Jackie Mason followed a path from rabbi to Bush Belt comedian. He died yesterday at the age of 93 taking a risk. He left his family's rabbinical tradition, writing jokes, performing in the Catskills and eventually Broadway. Jackie Mason's Jewish identity was a big part of his indignant comedic routine. His sharp observe Nations were usually at his own expense, And he was also known as the Voice of Krusty. The Clown's father, Rabbi Hyman crossed off ski on the Simpsons. No clowns, not a respected member of the communities to make people laugh. Mason's career was not without controversy. He had to apologize for using a racial Yiddish slur against black politician And was kicked off The Ed Sullivan show. After insulting the host Jackie Mason died yesterday in a hospital in Manhattan. You're listening to weekend edition from NPR
Jackie Mason, comic who perfected amused outrage, dies at 93
"Jackie Mason who spiced tea brand of stand up comedy led him to Catskills night clubs west coast talk shows and Broadway stages has died he was ninety three Mason died Saturday at Mount Sinai hospital in Manhattan according to long time friend attorney Raoul Felder he was known for his sharp wit and piercing social commentary often about being Jewish Mason was the son of a rabbi and became one before starting his career as a borscht belt comedian he shot to fame on The Ed Sullivan Show later in life Mason won the second of his two Emmys for playing Krusty the clown's father on the Simpsons when I grew up in IBM cloud the respected member of the community life is not the spring promotion over the years some accused Mason of taking its humor too far but he always defended himself saying he's a comedian Julie Walker New York
Finding the Meaning in the 2020 Pew Study With Tema Smith
"To some extent the genesis of judaism unbound in a bit of roundabout way as the previous pew study. That came out in two thousand thirteen. Took us a few years to our act together and start the podcast but it was kind of jumping off that understanding of the jewish community as looking different from the way a lot of people thought it did and facing that optimistic way in a lot of people were reading about it and we were whatever. The opposite of fretting is we were. We were ready to embrace this and figure out what it all means and we wanted to have you on starting to talk based on the two thousand twenty p study because he wrote this great piece or put together this great piece to think about how the data of the study could be presented in a way that would give it a different reception. Let's say within the jewish community. So could we start with you just describing a little bit about some of the examples of what you put out there and also like what motivated you to do this. Yes shera so one of the things that really stuck with me. After the last few study was how the data was presented where there was actually what it was showing was actually an increase in for example jewish identification for children of interfaith families and things like that but the data was being presented as doomsday scenario. That you know Children of interfaith families are less likely to be jewish and so when this time around the study came out. That was the first chart i looked for. And guess what it said the same thing but the chart had said intermarried parents much less likely to be raising their children jewish and i looked at it and actually it looks like the numbers had gone up from the previous time and yet we were still telling the doomsday narrative and it was very clear to me. They're the majority of jews who have married somebody of a different background or raising their children. Jewish this is a very different picture than comparing to a jewish jewish couple
The Battle Raging Over Antisemitism and Israel in the Kids’ Literature World
"A few weeks ago. I did a chabad table. Talk segment about a statement condemning anti-semitism released by the society of children's book writers and illustrators. And the apology that followed but there's much more to the story in fact. A battle has been brewing over anti-semitism israel in the children's literature world for quite a while. Gabby deutsche the reporter for jewish insider who wrote about the wider issue is with us now to discuss. Gabby welcome to people of the pod. Thank you excited to be here. So let's first talk about that apology. Did all of this come to light. Share so in the world of As these writers all kids literature is shorthanded. Everybody uses there has been a movement toward diversity calling out racism and all forms of aid and several months years as there has been of course in american society has evolved and about a month ago the beginning of june this organization the society of children's but writers illustrators put out a statement unequivocally condemning antisemitism was a very strong statement it was not political at all. It's not mention. Israel did not mention the politics of the u. s. or elsewhere in the world and jewish writers in fields. Were excited to see it and it was actually. I found my reporting the results of a lot of work by jewish writers. There was an open letter sent around urging this organization to put out a statement. It's an organization that you have to be a part of what you are starting your career. As a writer of children's books and young adult novels it helps people find agents. It helps them promote books. It helps them get bite to give talks. And we'll a lot of influence so when they put out a statement condemning. Assumpta cemetery to wait what happened after that was a lot of controversy on a statement that on the face of it looked very positive which writers in the jewish community ultimately agreed that it was so about two weeks after that statement semitism issued the same organization. Put out another statement. That looked in part to be walked that back. It seems sort of like an apology for their statement on anti-semitism. It's we apologize. The people we've heard you know specifically palistinian american writers muslim writers and many people. The jewish community got the sense that they were saying we can't condemn anti-semitism unless we also condemned islamophobia and other forms of pay and of course the jewish writers also scab against other forms of paid as well. But they were surprised to see the statement following what had been said about anti semitism which did not mention israel. It did not even mention the recent conflict between israel from us it was purely referring to the rise memphis is in the united
Pastor John Hagee Remembers the Time Rabbi Arnold Scheinberg Came to Him
"You were telling us about this gentleman who came into your office. Rabbi Arnold Sheinberg was his name. Uh, I had never met him. He is a rabbi from New York came to San Antonio. And he walked into my office with a beautiful optimistic approach, uh, to his fellow man and his deep and abiding passion for the Torah that made him an individual that you could not help But love over 40 years ago, rabbi made An exceptionally courageous decision to encourage the Jewish community of San Antonio to extend trust to a gentile Christian pastor desiring to support Israel. While the rest of the communities was concerned without rabbi there would never have been a night to honor Israel. And that night, two on original lead to a second, and they began to spread across America and the year 2000 and six when I'm within a job started talking about Uh, Israel being a one bomb nation. I told the rabbi we need to form a national organization of Christians in every state and every city by voters own And we are going to create a national organization that has the strength to help Israel and the Jewish people, he said. Immediately. We can do this without Rabbi, they would never have been a night gonna raise real the first time in 1981. Neither would there have been a Christians united for Israel that happened started in 2000 and six and the and the landscape of the modern relationship in Christians and Jews in America would never have been transformed. Rabbi Schoenberg was my best friend in the ministry that I've ever had.
Why Michael Brown Understands Atheists
"When i met at the age of nineteen i have been following jesus than for two and a half years. She was a hardcore atheist. Jewish atheist are mom been married four times. By the time she was eight she concluded there was no god she thought it would be wonderful. If god exists existed this eight years old but concluded that there was no god. So when when i met her she was a really a god. Macher and really thought that that faith like this was just for weak people and to the core of for being. She's a realist. I mean to this day. She is the most realistic person. I know in terms of just call This being honest with re- with reality say and yet god intervened in her life and brought it to himself. He revealed himself In fact the first thing that happened was she realized that personified evil was real and therefore is personified evil. The light went on there is personified. Good and god began to work in her life. But going through this book eric. She helped me a lot because she understands how an atheist thinks and a lot of times. Because there's no such thing as ats That always bothers her because she knows and the court for being what she believed in didn't believe and then many many atheists actually had a very lofty view of god and that god didn't seem to exist that they wanted him to others are intellectual atheists and others are just angry and things like that but there are many that atheists at a disappointment and pain. And i remember when i debated bart ehrman. It'll high state university years back on the problem of suffering. Does the bobble provide an adequate answer to the suffering and i. I was preparing for the debate. And i tell nancy okay. I'm gonna use this argument. Things great gets no is really good because down on. Let me let me tell you what that sounds like. Oh i got it. I see it so she really helps. Sensitize me in writing this. And she has so many times cried herself to sleep at night just with pain and burden for hurting world. That that it's helped me to really wrestle with issues
IDF Paratroopers Head to Europe to Jump for Hannah Szenes's 100th Birthday
"We learned this week that next sunday as we recorded on july eighteenth another delegation of one hundred fifty or so idea of soldiers code-named the lightning of the heavens will leave israel on a mission marking. What would have been the hundredth birthday of hannah. Censh- mayor memory for blessing. Hana sanish the budapest born poet and soldier in these secret british special operations executive who on march fourteenth nineteen forty four. When she was just twenty two parachuted with others into yugoslavia where she joined a partisan group and was soon captured by nazi soldiers at the hungarian border and then tortured and murdered by firing squad on monday. To a f- hercules transport. Planes will fly over the forests of eastern slovenia. Where sanish made her last. Jump and one hundred soldiers mostly from the idea but also hungarian. Slovenian and croatian soldiers were reenact sandwiches. Jump the purpose of the reenactment. According to colonel yuval guys the commander of some hueneme the idea paratroopers brigade is to strengthen the ties between the idf and local countries and to try to recreate the heroism of the shoe paratroopers and quote the name of the mission. The lightning of the heavens is taken from his most famous poem. Highly colicky sorry. I walked the case. Aria which goes my god. My god may these never end the sand and the see the rush of the water the lightning of heaven. The prayer of man among the soldiers travelling to slovenia is one who was called up for reserve duty to serve as an educational officer for the mission tel aviv university professor of jewish history. Lieutenant colonel seem Golden husan lieutenant. Haddara golden may refer blessing was killed at twenty three in the two thousand and fourteen gaza war and whose body has been held by hamas for the seven years since and again like mariam said it would take hours months even dissect and elucidate the historical religious and political currents that converge in. This baffling act of symbolism
Giving Jewish Teenage Girls Their Voice
"Giggles magazine is such an intriguing idea. And i remember hearing about it from jimmy allen black. I think at jewish women's foundation of new york. And i said this is a really creative idea. What draws you to the point of starting this. Why did you think there was a need in space for i. I have such fond memories of sitting in cafes with you and talking about the world and thank you for this opportunity to be here today. So i started thinking about j. girls about six years ago. I have three daughters. They are now fourteen almost twelve and almost nine. I remember watching these young girls. And how outspoken. They were and how willing they were to say what they needed and how assertive. They were voicing their opinions and asking for the things that they needed to make themselves feel complete. I knew from research but also from my own experience and from being in the world and watching the young people around me that as they grew toward their teen years they're going to absorb all of the social cues that were telling them to make themselves smaller and quieter sometimes quite literally. Don't take so much physical space. In addition to not not letting your voice be so loud. And i started to think about what i could give my daughters to let them know that their voices would always matter and their needs would always matter and their opinions would always count and their understanding of themselves and their peers was valuable wisdom that enhanced everybody
Speaking to the Senators Behind the Senate Caucus on Black-Jewish Relations
"Last month. Three us senators announced the launch of the bipartisan senate caucus on black jewish relations. I sat down with senators. Jackie rosen of nevada. Tim scott of south carolina and cory booker of new jersey to discuss the mission of the new caucus. Here's a portion of our conversation senators. Welcome thank you. it's good to be with you. You very very much reinvigorating. The black jewish alliance is that was at the bedrock of the civil rights movement. And it's key to combating racism rising anti-semitism both here in america and around the world. And that's why today's announcement is so critical. The three of you have joined us here on the global forum stage to announce the first ever senate caucus on black jewish relations which you share with our audience fees each of you. What you hope to accomplish. During this caucus i would suggest the wisdom to i yielding. Jackie i it sounds good. Well thank you. I appreciate that. And i want to tell you that. I'm so proud to be here with tim and corey because when i went and talked to them about this idea there wasn't a hesitation for a second and i'm just so excited to do this first time it's ever happened in the senate and i just know that we are going to have so many good conversations positive things going forward and we're going to show real leadership in this issue and just very excited to announce this those senators white. Why didn't you hesitate for me. It's been a lifelong journey in many ways. understanding appreciating the parallel tracks that the jewish community in the black community have been on if you think about it from a biblical perspective for centuries of slavery in egypt and you think about the four centuries. African americans were enslaved. There are tracks that are parallel and pain. That creates promise an opportunity. The tragedies that became triumphs. it's a story that continues on and for my life For me it seems. It's just personal in that. By some of my first mentors larry freudenberg. Who helped me become a part of his insurance agency. And then it gave me a piece of the pie and taught me not to work for someone but worked for yourself
The Real Inglorious Basterds: Operation Greenup
"Operation green up an operation carried out by a special group of men many of called the real life. Inglorious bastards a reference to the two thousand nine quentin tarantino film in which group. Us jewish soldiers plot to assassinate high up nazi leaders operation. Green up. wasn't exactly like the hollywood blockbuster known was catching nazis and carbon swastikas of their foreheads. Hitler doesn't get submachine gun down burning theater that also gets blown up. Gotta love tarantino's over the top devos's otheir was no assassination plan but a lot of daring cinematic. Incredibly courageous moments did go down. There was a cast of characters that feel more like hollywood creations in real people. Sometimes it was an amazing high risk high stakes operation that did truly involves jewish men risking their lives parachuting in behind enemy lines to quote. Kill some nazis. They may not have been pulling off executions in the woods but they did help give the allies valuable intel that saved a whole bunch of lives short version of their story. Is this two jewish refugees. The united states living in brooklyn frederick mayor twenty-three hans wynberg twenty to end up in the office of strategic services the os forerunner to the cia and parachute deep behind nazi lines into the austrian province of tyrol in february of nineteen forty-five their mission to compile reports on german rail. Traffic over the brenner pass between italy and austria. And make sure. The germans don't have a secret alpine fortress and intel. They could glean there would help shape. The allies plans for a final world war two showdown with nazi germany. A third man also pairs you then with them. Franz weber there mark lieutenant. Who had belatedly come to his sentences about the tyrannical antisemitic sociopathic nature of adolf hitler and his war operation. Green up ended up bringing the allies important information shattered some troublesome propaganda. The germans had concentrated a large number of men and weapons in the south could have extended world war. Two's bloodshed by months leading to possibly tens of thousands of additional deaths. Not only that. But after being captured and tortured by gestapo agents in refusing to give any intel frederick mayor also negotiated the peaceful surrender of innsbruck the tyrolian provincial capital to the us seventh army on may third nineteen forty-five saving even more lives.
Palestinians Face Eviction From Jerusalem Neighborhood to Make Way for Biblical Park
"By Jewish settlers, an archaeological park near ancient ruins. It could be the next focus of the conflict over Jerusalem, plans to evict Palestinians from another neighborhood shakes Jura helped spark the Israeli Palestinian violence. In May, NPR's Deborah Amos reports on the latest neighborhood developing as a flash point. Usually we begin a story like this in the neighborhoods that are the flashpoints, But first we're going back in time to an active archaeological site and a tourist destination. The city of David National Park, named for a biblical monarch who ruled here more than 3000 years ago. There are plans to expand this site to create a biblical theme park. In the valley below. There's an underground spring here to a water source for ancient Jerusalem, where Christians believe Jesus toured a blind man, James L. Rod works as a tour guide. It's an underground, my handmade carved tunnels. Over 3300 years ago. How many tourists come to see this? In 2019? A million visitors arrived to see The city of David sites. This tourist site is just outside the walls of the old city on the edge of Silwan, a Palestinian neighborhood in east Jerusalem, which Israel captured from Jordan in 1967 and annexed. But most countries still consider this occupied territory. Israel claims the city as its undivided capital. Palestinians want part of it for their capital, the city of David tourist complexes run by a settlers group, the Air David Foundation. That critics say weaponize archaeological findings to cement Jewish control in this part of the city. The most important archaeological sites in the country are controlled by the settlers of still one. That's
Great Women in Art History Make a Comeback
"The exhibition charts. How the concept of the new woman or the modern girl too call in the one thousand nine hundred twenty s and. I think it was more or less typified by this. Stylish image of a woman with bobbed hair Striding confidently out into the world to revolutionize photography. How did the idea for this exhibition. Take root seats of the exhibition. Really lie in my interest in the photographer. Elsa bang When i started working at the national gallery of art back in twenty ten I became very interested in things. Work the national gallery has over ninety photographs by bing and many of those were given by the photographer and her state in the early nineteen nineties. And you know being someone who really made an important contribution to the field of photography she worked almost exclusively with a thirty five millimeter hand held camera and she was one of the few women photographers that the national gallery had collected in depth. So i was interested in in her work. I was interested in exploring. You know how her life story really exemplified. What one thinks about as into war new woman photographer. She was brought up in an a fluent jewish household in frankfurt germany. She went to college but she ends up abandoning promising academic career for photography. She moved to paris in nineteen thirty. Paris was this vital center for artistic experimentation and you know she really develops and builds this promising career. I mean she's being published regularly during the nineteen thirty. She's participating in photography exhibitions. But of course. This success was cut short when the nazis took paris. Nineteen forty she and her husband were actually sent to a concentration camp in southern france. They're able to find their way their passage to the united states. But after you know this exile to the united states she really was never able to gain a comparable professional foothold
Mark Levin Explains LatCRT in New Book 'American Marxism'
"And we're going to continue to talk about this on this program, and I hope you will pre order a copy of American Marxism because it lays it out. But it lays out more than that. You ever heard a lot crit l A t slash c r I t This is a Latino slash Chicano movement that pulls in the critical theory and critical race theory ideas. What's the bottom line with this? The bottom line is Americans. You're the interlopers. You're the illegal aliens, in fact, the entire existence of the United States of America. As a result of imperialism and colonialism. My white Protestant Europeans who came into this this continent and impose their will and created this country that the real natives indigenous peoples of this area. Are south of the border. And so they have every right to come to this country. They're not illegal aliens. You're an illegal alien, and so they do not accept or recognize the sovereignty of the United States because there is no United States. There is no United States now. This is also being taught in our colleges and universities, in addition to critical race theory That's what they mean by Intersectionality. So we have all these victims all the oppressed. The existing civil society that's doing all the oppressing And so everybody has a chip on their shoulder. Everybody has a reason to want to overthrow and overturned the existing society. And so that's the notion that there are two Americas, North America, South America, and they argue even there, there's really one America in the indigenous peoples, Of course, are the people who are coming into this country, not the people who are In the country. By the way, it's a footnote. That's an interesting argument from these radical Marxist because when it comes to the Middle East, they forgot about who the indigenous people are that the Jewish people well, they've only been there 4000 years, you see, but apparently they live on occupied
Parallels of New York Times Reporting Today and Reporting by Nazi Sympathizer Guido Enderis
"The New York Times had no intention of doing anything about end Derris fact. And valued his close connections to the Nazi government. As it had throughout the 19 thirties and you see now I can see The New York Times and it's It's sort of apologetic view of Hamas. And the Islamo Nazi regime in Tehran. And it's hate for the state of Israel. In fact, the New York Times valued his close connections to the Nazi government, as it had throughout the 19 thirties. All American newspapers found reporting in the Nazi Germany. Uh In Nazi Germany difficult The government tightly controlled information and Harang and threatened reporters who managed to publish what it didn't like. And that's the regime also didn't hesitate to use its strongest weapons. Banning a newspaper from distribution in Germany kicking reporter out of the country denying a reporter's reentry. As a putatively Jewish owned newspaper, The New York Times considered itself a special target. Bureau chief and Darius, So he wasn't just the report is a bureau chief. His job, therefore was administering reasonably soothing syrup, quote unquote, the Nazi officials. Is another New York Times reporter put it. Endears. His actions weren't purely strategic and their consequences were grave throughout the 19 thirties, The New York Times editor in Berlin helped steer times coverage to play down Jewish persecution and play up Germany's peaceful intention he count out to Nazi officials wrote stories presenting solely the Nazi point of view. And reigned in times reporters whose criticism he thought went too far shaping the news in favor of a genocidal regime. Then on establishing 1000 year, right
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Hi sean you're welcome to the podcast. Great to be here. This is such an interesting topic is to such a fascinating lens. We can use to look at all sorts of issues. What is important about dance and dancing sort of on the largest scale what is going on here. That makes dance such an interesting and important topic whether we're looking at jewish culture or beyond zoo. I think the first thing to about is that dancing was incredibly popular leisure activity today. When we have we have television we have all sorts of other sorts of activities. There's more options for sports that it's easy for us to forget dancing. Probably the main leisure activity that men and women did together across various S.'s in various geographic areas and that this was also something that for jews as they were becoming trying to become european in french german. Even american on this was seen as one of the ways that they could do this. In addition to this popularity which hasn't really been explored in a jewish context is the fact that it was something people were really trained to interpret. That are almost to view dancing as a text. Especially when you get dances at balls. I'm where there was this big expectation of following certain etiquette norms and being able to perform the dance choreography and also a sense. That being able to do these. Things was an indication of your class
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Today i'm joined by adam teller. Who's going to be speaking with us about the century jewish refugee crisis following the sixteen forty eight on. It's key pogroms. Aman how it helps us to understand the transnational transformations of jewish life in early modern times as well as when we want to think more deeply. Broadly about refugee issues on water scale both in history and also this is something which is still very relevant today. Adam teller is a professor of history and judaic studies at brown university. He has written widely on the economic social and cultural history of the jews in early modern pulling lithuania and his most recent book. Which we're going to talk about today is titled rescue the surviving souls the great jewish refugee crisis of the seventeenth century. This is going to be the starting point for our conversation today but in many ways it's not just about the book we're gonna be talking about the big issues that surrounds it. It's really an exciting book. It was recently a finalist for the national. Jewish book award in history is a pleasure to have adam here with us. Thank you so much. Adam for joining us on the podcast. Welcome really glad to have you. Here it's a real pleasure. Thrill pledged to be here. Jason absolutely i want to get us started by thinking about kind of what is this history in the first place when we look at the story of the malinowski pogroms and aftermath in the mid seventeenth century. What is going on here. And why does it matter when we wanna think about early. Modern jewish history well in the early period poland lithuania which was then called. The police between commonwealth was the largest wealthiest most develop jewish center in europe with in world terms. It was only rivaled by the ottoman empire and had gone through about one hundred fifty years very strong social economic cultural development. Making it this powerhouse. In the history of european jewry and the place where all of your looked in a number of different fails perhaps most particularly in terms of the jewish law. But not only that
"jewish" Discussed on Jonny Gould's Jewish State
"Hi my name is. And i'm a final year english literature student at the university of bristol. And my spare time. I also freelance. And i've written articles for the telegraph the times the independent huffington post what is regional papers and i also am features editor of the top bristol So the last two years being jewish student has been quite hard at university of bristol as a result of elektra a sociology professor called professor dave Because in his class he teaches and matic conspiracy theories about jewish organizations. He has a lecture in his home against powerful module where he accuses zionism as being one of the five pillars phobia and he implies using this sort of weighed conspiratorial web that israel on british jewish organizations have a malign influence on british government. And sort of in that slide. He touches on a series of consoles tropes about jewish people and two years ago. My best friend nina freedman. Who was then president of bristol. Jason is now you diaz president-elect made a complaint against david miller on years later in the university still hasn't done anything about it and hasn't advised or supported jewish students in any way but the situation picked up again. I'm a week or two weeks ago. Because david millar appeared in a video where he said that zionism we must cool front end design. Ism were in. He touched on several of the anti semitic tropes of course it really is of course some people into target to join us at in relation to this community in particular done. This through interfaith were pretending that jesus was working together. We'll be an apolitical way of countries. Ism stylings though. It's is the horse for normalizing zionism in the community. I in islamic mosque for example where. The mosque unknowingly held this project of chicken soup with a together. This is really backed project to normalize is within the muslim community. And they're doing that time. During the attack on cobra on this sort of started a new upper on twitter and reaganite hit the movement to get david miller removed from bristol. University campus clinician nasty. Seeing jews everywhere even in loction soup made in mosques while bashing corbin the share arrogance of this man and in one glib soundbite he opposes generations and generations of jewish teaching centuries of daily prayers which users sites to return to. Zion is car us special envoy in combating antisemitism until january. Twenty twenty one. Sinus didn't start in nineteen forty eight zionism spring out of the first zionist cows. Zionism was born in russia. When god says to abraham go forth to a land that i will show you. Zionism reached its consummation in the exodus. When moses let the jewish people to the promised land and zionism found one of its clearest expression
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And how do they deal with the basic problem of resource allocation. And so you know in a sense that history is as broad as like the history world right. I mean those are like really fundamental questions you know but it's also thinking about that through a kind of particular economic glenn's how do communities stitch themselves together by asking questions about resource distribution and sometime so in the jewish history philanthropy those questions were sometimes asked very specifically within jewish communities and sometimes we're really about interaction with non jewish communities or non jewish leaders right. What kinds of taxes in the middle ages did jewish communities owed to particular rulers. Or how did the kind of resources of the jewish community come to serve as a proxy for jews being able to claim that they had a place of importance when it came to you know operating in particular kingdom under a particular regime. I think it's so conditions by the environment in which it's occurring which to me is why it's really interesting. And why the ability to talk about the history of philanthropy. I think is also the ability to talk about philanthropy. It's actually quite impossible to name it as a historical force even though we might say that there are certain ideals like sadaqa that kind of cross time but are mobilized in totally different ways at different moments right. The different configurations of philanthropy generally speaking and specifically within the jewish context. Speak too much bigger issues about the place of jews within whatever society. They find themselves. So for instance one can talk about ways in which certain philanthropic activities have to do with jews trying to make themselves seem to be not a burden to the society in which they live right at the edge of the jews take care of themselves also ways in which jewish philanthropists have used. This is especially true..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Joseph assuage and about what it means to have only one source that refers and relates this account, right? Josephus was a Jewish man who lived in the first century c e was born apparently in thirty-seven C in Jerusalem. He was an aristocratic Zhu apparently from a Priestly family eventually when the Jewish Revolt broke out against the Romans he was put in charge of sort of administration. In the area of Galilee when the Romans send troops to take Galilee Josephus his name originally was Joseph Joseph's automatic bias, Josephus surrendered himself to the Roman bath and it's considered therefore Trader kind of inflator Jewish tradition to the Jewish cause and after the Revolt ended and Jerusalem fell and seventy Josephus went to live in Rome where he became a client of the Imperial family the the family of the Roman Emperor Vespasian and was commissioned by his room and patrons to write a series of history books of the Jews and we have these histories they've arrived and the one that is relevant to Masada is a massive seven book account of the Jewish War which is called the Jewish Court, which is about the first revolt and Josephus chose to end his account this page of account of Jewish war with the mass suicide at Masada. But as I said, he's the only ancient author we have who tells the story of The Siege and fall of Masada including the dog. Woodside we don't actually have any other Roman sources they give a lot of information about the first Revolt. Although we do have sources tacitus for example describes the siege and fall of Jerusalem. So the question is why is just our only source is it that the story of you know this sort of Siege and mass suicide at Masada was something that the Roman authors other Roman writers chose not to write about because the Romans didn't want other people's living under their rules to get the same idea that they could revolt against Rome in the same way. So it was kind of a thing you didn't watch, you know, a lot of people to know about or and I think this is more likely is it just that it was such a minor episode in the view of the Romans that it wasn't worth writing about and that's probably the case in other words what happens Romans Redmond point of view is the fall of Jerusalem in 70 is and the destruction of the temple. That's the main event and from the Roman point of view taking these handful of fortresses that were still holding off. After 70, that was really just little mopping up operations from the Roman point of view and it wasn't something worth writing about and that's probably why we don't have anything written in other remnants horses. Nevertheless. That's leaves Josephus as the only source on the mass suicide at Masada. We don't have any other external corroborating evidence at least not from.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"We choose to view Jewish history and the lachrymose view really does encourage us to create an historical memory rooted in the idea that Jews are victims and victims. When in fact, it's true I think across racial and ethnic and gender groups that all of us in some ways are victims and. All of us in some ways are victimisers since racial status is socially defined and fluid. It is constantly changing and lots of different ways. So I am less concerned about those who see complexities in the fact that all of this can be happening at the same time and as a scholar grow or concerned if anybody settles into a singular understanding of what a group is or isn't based upon any single factor. We only have a few minutes left. So I I, WanNa try to bring us towards a conclusion to this conversation, which, of course, I feel like we could go on for quite a long time with this set of issues, which as we said, is incredibly complex but what I want to ask. Is this what has been the response that you get from people when you talk about these issues whether you're speaking to your academic colleagues to Jewish communities? Jewish. Jewish organizations, and of course. I'm sure you get different responses from those two different sets of audiences in particular. But what is the response that you get? All, point out. One thing that you mentioned in the book I think it was in the epilogue were you mentioned the conversation that you had with some hec rabbinical students were you told them a bit about what you were doing in your research at the American Jewish archives in Cincinnati at the rabbinical school there and so you were talking with some folks there and when you laid out your argument over conversation did not go well, right So basically, what I'm saying is that is one thing for us to scholars to academics to hash out some of these issues. But when you talk about in the broader public, what happens in those kind of conversations and what is the response been on particularly within the context of what's going on now as people are trying to make sense of protests and you know black lives matter and you know the legacy of civil rights and so on. The response to this book I never imagined. And it's such a great question because the difference between my own consciousness when I wrote the book and then what happened when it came out is revealing and self reflective of myself as scholar, and also you know as as a white male you. I was interested in the line between what's Jewish and what's American. That's why I wrote the book and I thought that that was the book that I wrote. I figured based upon that story. I told of doing a lot of my research at the American Jewish archives in Cincinnati and hanging out with my friends who are rabbinic students there. They didn't like my thesis as I was reinventing the history that they like me had learned growing up I figured that the book would be received as a challenge by my peer group you know in organized Jewish life and I want to offer appreciation to Leah Danila. Legionella. Is An editor now on the NPR podcast called code switch and she reached out even before the book came out to say that she wanted to to talk about the book and she did a blog for it on the podcast. And what happened was members of the juice of color community reached out to me in ways that I did not expect and I did not imagine. The feedback that I got was that the story I was telling that was so new to me and new to my hec friends was very old to them. And in fact, they had known and seen it their entire lives and they appreciated that finally a book written about it white Jewish leftists reached out and they like the book I appreciated the support. I also found it a bit curious because I didn't write the book to appeal to White Jewish leftist if anything I found it deeply ironic that the almost all white male senior leadership of national Jewish Organizations was understanding systemic racism and they were the ones who were publicizing it at a time that nobody was listening. In terms of pushback and critique of the book it it came in in several I think well-founded places. I was a Alana Kaufman's critique that I wrote a book all about white people and the book was called Black Power Jewish politics and the way in which having a racial sense would have deepened and made the book more complex second. It was mostly about men because I chose to. Focus on Jewish organizational leaders for reasons that I did and of course that excluded women, it is not a gendered view and that that story needs to be told and there have been some really good Gendered Stories as well and in terms of politically between those on the left and those on the right I've mostly received some pushback on whether or not by saying what I said. I'm arguing that all the good stuff didn't happen. So I have to be careful that I also want to make sure on this podcast all the good stuff happened. It's absolutely true that White Jews were disproportionate involved in civil rights and risk their lives and sometimes gave their lives in order to achieve the goal. And that in academic history when we deepen and make more complex story doesn't say that the earlier versions didn't happen. It just says that we WANNA look at it in a more sophisticated way. After having written this book and what do you think is the biggest takeaway here and we've talked about why history matters for understanding for instance parts of the Civil Rights Movement for understanding the American Jewish context American Jewish culture. But of course you think this set of matters because you you dedicated years of your life you know doing research writing the book and so on. So when we think about this entire conversation What do you think is the biggest takeaway here from the book and from this set of issues about Jewish Whiteness Jewish ally ship the complexity of black Jewish relations. If we want to call it that you know for the lack of a better term, what's the big takeaway here for yourself for your students and for listeners? By redefining the split between blacks and Jews in the mid nineteen fifties, we can actually create a pathway for a new black Jewish alliance in the contemporary period. which is to say. If our historical memory was rooted in mythology. It's not going to be actually helpful today in confronting the challenges we face. When we understand that a lot of these insights about systemic racism where well known in the fifties that there was white Jewish support and advocacy for black power in the mid sixties that there was a lot of borrowing by Jewish or. From black power for Jewish empowerment. And the sense of what is the best role for White Jews to act as allies. Now that they know what happened over these previous fifty years or actually creating an opportunity that the split itself comes back together in.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And also our place within the present. So highmark. Welcome to the PODCAST. Great to be here. Thank you. Yeah. I'm really glad that you can join us for I. Think Really Important and relevant conversation. I read through the book I think it's a fantastic book. I think that you're offering a revision of some of the ways in terms of how people have understood. Especially, Jewish people have understood the question of the history of black Jewish relations. You maybe WANNA get US started off by saying a brief word about your argument in the book and what it is that you're putting forward. Yes, sure when I was growing up as a white suburban Jewish kitten in in La I learned that the civil rights movement was the story of a black Jewish alliance that brought heroic Jews to the south where they fought on behalf of racial justice until the mid nineteen sixties. The. Rise of black militancy of. Black Power of anti-semitism. Community purge Jews and ended what was a wonderful alliance. When I looked in the archives though and began researching the book. I discovered an entirely different story emerging instead of sort of the Dr King Rabbi Hessel arm in arm narrative that I was raised on. I. Found that even White Male Jewish leaders of National Jewish organizations understood as early as the nineteen fifties. There was a fundamental difference between being white and Jewish in America and being black? In. America. And they in fact, knew that there would be limits to the black Jewish alliance and That was my first sort of shocking discovery in terms of revising I knew growing up. It's a really jarring perspective for a lot of people Jewish people I want to say who grow up thinking about and being taught about this alliance within the civil rights movement and the involvement of Jews within the civil rights movement. So I think that what you're offering here is a almost radical perspective, a radical revision of how we understand the role of the Jews in the civil rights movement. I'd like to frame it s a both and and it's really important I to acknowledge the extraordinary American Jewish participation in the civil rights movement and in social justice causes. When you look at the ethnic groups in America, Jews are the most liberal. Progressive. Democratic. Party. Now Voting Group only African Americans vote more. And by that standard I think there's justifiable pride amongst American Jews for the work that we have done and those perspectives have been covered in the historic. Already. What's also true is even as many heroic. Jews. Did go to the south to register voters and in some tragic cases, of course, gave their lives most Americans use didn't. And there became almost sort of in the north, a sense that watching on TV, what the Jewish heroes were doing extended to them as well. So what my book is trying to do is take a broader more inclusive look of all Americans, or at least white American Jews, and now we get to see more complexity to what's going on. So I don't see this as as undermining. The existing truth about Jewish involvement but I see it hopefully deepening it and making it more complex. Why do you think that it's important to offer this complexity to the narrative of first of all? It's surprising in and of itself there's something that custodians recall historical memory, which is what actually happened and what we remember or think happened what we were taught happened is often different. In fact, there's a history of historical memory which says the way in which we choose to remember or forget or analyze or spin. If you want to be more cynical, our historical past actually is meaningful in and of itself. So what I found, when I was surprised to find was that as early as the nineteen fifties, Jewish leaders were calling out the limits of white Jewish liberalism and the inevitability of of African American autonomy and what would become the rise of black power. So at the very time that the public narrative was consensus arm in arm. But I love the called peace love and Bobby. Sherman. Everything's great. At that moment, even the Jewish leaders who were engaged in that kind of consensus politics understood its limits. That's the part that we've forgotten. I think over the last fifty or sixty years and I think it's really important especially in today's climate for us to understand better that it was always deep and complicated an intense and we knew about it at the time. And then the real story is how in journalism and historiographer and in public memory, we sort of forgotten that element until we've remembered it again with the national reckoning on race I think there's so much to dive into here to unpack you mentioned the distinction between the historical events that actually happened and the way that they are remembered and you've highlighted some of the ways in which the popularly held historical memory about black Jewish relations. especially, as it is perceived within the American Jewish community is perhaps different from the actual events but to what extent is this some kind of scholarly navel-gazing about Saint Okay there's a difference between what is remembered and what is actually happening. Why is it important to revise this received historical narrative overseas historical memory? It's important because our definition of ourselves is framed in some measure by how we look at our history and if it turns out. That the history we've been relying upon to define ourselves was different. then. I think it forces us to wrestle with ourselves. The book is called Black Power, Jewish politics to be honest it's not about black power. It's.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"So highmark. . Welcome to the PODCAST. . Great to be here. . Thank you. . Yeah. . I'm really glad that you can join us for I. . Think Really Important and relevant conversation. . I read through the book I think it's a fantastic book. . I think that you're offering a revision of some of the ways in terms of how people have understood. . Especially, , Jewish people have understood the question of the history of black Jewish relations. . You maybe WANNA get US started off by saying a brief word about your argument in the book and what it is that you're putting forward. . Yes, , sure when I was growing up as a white suburban Jewish kitten in in La I learned that the civil rights movement was the story of a black Jewish alliance that brought heroic Jews to the south where they fought on behalf of racial justice until the mid nineteen sixties. . The. . Rise of black militancy of. . Black Power of anti-semitism. . Community purge Jews and ended what was a wonderful alliance. . When I looked in the archives though and began researching the book. . I discovered an entirely different story emerging instead of sort of the Dr King Rabbi Hessel arm in arm narrative that I was raised on. . I. . Found that even White Male Jewish leaders of National Jewish organizations understood as early as the nineteen fifties. . There was a fundamental difference between being white and Jewish in America and being black? ? In. . America. . And they in fact, , knew that there would be limits to the black Jewish alliance and <hes>. . That was my first sort of shocking discovery in terms of revising I knew growing up. . It's a really jarring perspective for a lot of people Jewish people I want to say who grow up thinking about and being taught about this alliance within the civil rights movement and the involvement of Jews within the civil rights movement. . So I think that what you're offering here is a almost radical perspective, , a radical revision of how we understand the role of the Jews in the civil rights movement. . I'd like to frame it s a both and and it's really important I to acknowledge the extraordinary American Jewish participation in the civil rights movement and in social justice causes. . When you look at the ethnic groups in America, , Jews are the most liberal. . Progressive. . Democratic. . Party. . Now Voting Group only African Americans vote more. . And by that standard I think there's justifiable pride amongst American Jews for the work that we have done and those perspectives have been covered in the historic. . Already. . What's also true is even as many heroic. . Jews. . Did go to the south to register voters and in some tragic cases, , of course, , gave their lives most Americans use didn't. . And there became almost sort of in the north, , a sense that watching on TV, , what the Jewish heroes were doing extended to them as well. . So what my book is trying to do is take a broader more inclusive look of all Americans, , or at least white American Jews, , and now we get to see more complexity to what's going on. . So I don't see this as as undermining. . The existing truth about Jewish involvement but I see it hopefully deepening it and making it more complex. . Why do you think that it's important to offer this complexity to the narrative of first of all? ? It's surprising in and of itself <hes> there's something that custodians recall historical memory, , which is what actually happened and what we remember or think happened what we were taught happened is often different. . In fact, , there's a history of historical memory which says the way in which we choose to remember or forget or analyze or spin. . If you want to be more cynical, , our historical past actually is meaningful in and of itself. . So what I found, , when I was surprised to find was that as early as the nineteen fifties, , Jewish leaders were calling out the limits of white Jewish liberalism and the inevitability of of African American autonomy and what would become the rise of black power. . So at the very time that the public narrative was consensus arm in arm. . But I love the called peace love and Bobby. . Sherman. . Everything's great. . At that moment, , even the Jewish leaders who were engaged in that kind of consensus politics understood its limits. . That's the part that we've forgotten. . I think over the last fifty or sixty years and I think it's really important especially in today's climate for us to understand better that it was always deep and complicated an intense and we knew about it at the time. . And then the real story is how in journalism and historiographer and in public memory, , we sort of forgotten that element until we've remembered it again with the national reckoning on race
"jewish" Discussed on The Jewish Story
"Israeli. Now. You can blame us for all kinds of things, but you can't blame the Jewish people for bringing the atomic bomb into existence. That being said you certainly can put it on the plate of a lot of Jews aside from the numerous Jewish scientists who filled out the ranks of the American, Manhattan project at Los Alamos Secret Research, center the man considered to be the intellectual father of the idea. The bomb was Leo. Hungarian Jewish refugee from Nazism, who conceived the idea of nuclear chain reaction in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thirty, three, he went on to patent the idea of nuclear reactor together with the physicist Enrico Fermi, who was not himself a Jew, but was nonetheless refugee that had fled Mussolini's Italy in order to save his Jewish. Add to this the German Jewish. Refugees Rudolph perils I'm sure I said that wrong and Otto Frisch who designed the first theoretical mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in nineteen forty and of course team director of the Manhattan project was j Robert Oppenheimer a Jew born in New York City. Those are all the Jews involved the American bum. The scientific father of the Israeli bomb, its own oppenheimer, as it were, was skinny, Paleface, chain-smoking organic chemist named Ernst David Bergmann who was also a refugee from Nazi Germany. Porn in Oh three. Brigham was introduced to the world of the atom in the twenty s as student organic chemistry at the University of Berlin. He's disciplined, placed him just on the edge of what was rapidly becoming an international quest unravel the mystery of nuclear vision. In fact not only was Bergman organic chemist. He was a rabbi's son. His father was one of the leading rabbis of Berlin and also happened to be a close friend of High Weizman Russian Jewish, biochemist, Zionist leader and future. I present of Israel. If you don't remember, go listen to the second half of season. Two and whites reside in England during the Inter war period, so when in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, three a series of Nazi. Nazi decrees made it impossible for any non-aryan Bergman included to have a job in academic world of Germany Weizman arranged for the young chemist to join him on the Faculty of Manchester University in England and their Bergman continued his close association with the scientists racing to split the atom, and he did it in the context of the experience of the rise of world fascism in nineteen, thirty six, only a few years later, the Haganah be underground. Of the Labor Zionist movement asked Whitesman for chemists that could help them produce an effective high explosive for use in their struggle against the Arabs and the British C-. Dynamite was far too dangerous for them to be handling in their situation, and Weitzman assigned the mission to Bergman who success led him to signing on as a member of the haagen-dazs Technical Committee from there on out. Shortly after Germany invaded Poland in the fall of nineteen, thirty nine. Bergman left England my nineteen forty was running a laboratory at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn two years later, he actually became dean of faculty, and he managed to turn the institute to haven for Jewish refugees, including Haim Weizman himself, and you know one good turn deserving another at the end of the War Bergman followed his mentor up to pre-state Palestine and help to establish what would become the Weizman Institute of Science at Rko. Vote just south of Tel Aviv and in those days, and frankly even now Israel ambitions for scientific development seemed unlimited for. For me outset, the institute aimed place at the head of all world technology, and that included nuclear as early as nineteen forty seven, whitesman was willing Oppenheimer, and his colleagues at the Manhattan project, inviting them to spend time doing research in Israel. Few took him up on it by the way, it wasn't so easy for a nuclear scientists to just go somewhere else with their knowledge in those days, but truth is the Whitesman Institute wasn't Bergman's final home. That would be the Ministry of Defence at the request of prime minister. Ben Green Bergman established the nation's First Institute for Research immediately following independence in forty-eight. In the beginning. He's goal was purely scientific. Eventually Bergman would work together with being Greens protege. She went Peres to create these rayleigh nuclear option. But truth is though that lay down the road pairs. Tell an Israeli newspaper later much later in the eighties that even in one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty, eight, Bergman was constantly speaking about missile capability for Israel. It seems that Bergman's life as Jewish refugee had taught him that indeed Ain, break. There is no choice is what would never be the biggest dog on the block, and therefore it had no choice but to be the meanest. In nineteen, forty nine. The commissioner of the French, nuclear program, Francis Parent traveled to Tel Aviv there under circumstances which remain completely unclear he met earns Bergman. And maybe it was their shared experiences. Refugees parent was a socialist fled France when it felt the Nazis in nineteen forty war. Maybe it was simply their mutual love, the atom, but the to become fast friends, and as a result, Israeli scientists were permitted to attend clay, which was a newly set-up, French national atomic research on near Versailles. From the outset. Bergman's men were there to participate in the construction of SOCLEAN small experimental reactor. It was a learning experience for nuclear scientists of both countries and the beginning of a mutually beneficial relationship. Bergman told been green many times. There's only one atom, no matter how you split it. In other words once you can produce plutonium as a byproduct of peaceful atomic research. You can use it in a bomb, and that's why the turning point in the French. Nuclear program was also turning point in the Israeli nuclear program. It came in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, one, when France began the construction at McColl of a reactor, capable of producing after chemical reprocessing about twenty two pounds of weapons-grade plutonium a year. In one thousand fifty-two Ben Grimm named Earth Bergman Commissioner of Israel's new atomic energy commission, and he raced ahead with that France connection by fifty three, the Weizman Institute had developed an improved mechanism for producing the heavy-water that was needed for regulating atomic reactions as well as a more efficient method for mining uranium that the Fed the reactor, the immediately sold both concepts to the French, and this led to a formal agreement for cooperation in nuclear research signed by the two nations, in fact Israeli scientists with the only foreigners that were allowed access to the secret French nuclear complex are cool where they were said to be able to. To Roam at will, and this wasn't just friendship. One reason for the depth of cooperation was purely pragmatic, the sheer brilliance of the Israelis and their expertise in new computer technology made the French dependent upon them for the next decade in specific for their computer skills. The second one is a little bit more ambiguous in murky, and it plays to the deeper and more complex side of this story. It was emotional because many of those French officials and scientists had served in the resistance. They held intense feeling about the Holocaust. Even further, many of France's leading nuclear scientists were Jewish and strong supporters of the new Jewish state. Now, if you want, you can go back episodes fourteen and fifteen to recall the impact at that practical and emotional bind had on Israel's conventional arms relationship with France in the fifties, Israel was merging to delight certainly of these French nuclear scientists as Francis closest ally in the Middle East. But the truth, matter is not. Everyone was so delighted with this French connection. There was significant skepticism about the bomb among a small subset of Israeli leaders. In fact, it was a very small group who even knew about this French connection some felt it was simply immoral for people who had so recently experienced genocide to pursue weapons of mass destruction. Some preferred to invest the limited resources Israel had in conventional weapons. Let's just be the strongest on the battlefield. They said others simply doubted. Israel's technical pass thirty two ever split the atom much less build a bomb. But for now, these remained largely theoretical concerns. In November of nineteen fifty four Ernst, Bergmann introduced himself to the citizens of Israel, public radio address. We announced only two years too late that in Israeli atomic energy. Commission had been established and he was quick to assure the citizens of his country that Israel was making progress in peaceful nuclear research. In fact, they were soon designed the United States. Eisenhower Administration's Atoms for Peace program. They were doing a lot more to try to control the spread than Truman had done. There was a program for the cooperation in civilian uses of atomic energy in general men that Washington would help. People develop peaceful uses for nuclear technology and try to head off the bomb at the pass in specific, the agreement between the two of them meant that Washington would finance and fuel small nuclear research reactor located novel Sorek South of Tel Aviv I believe. It's still there in return. Israel guarantee that the nuclear materials would not be diverted into weapons research and you know what technically this was the truth. The American materials would never.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"I'm Jason. Let's dig and I'm joined today by David. Sorkin to talk about the history of Jewish emancipation the process of Jews gaining and sometimes losing civic and civil rights in modern times. David Sorkin is the Lucy G Moses professor of modern Jewish history at Yells Department of history. He recently published Jewish emancipation a history across five centuries. He's a leading scholar in modern Jewish history and he focuses particularly on the social intellectual and political transformations from the Sixteenth Century. To the present which she looks at in this book through the Lens of Emancipation. He's also written about these same issues in some of his other major books including the transformation of German jewelry. Seventeen eighty to eighteen forty and Moses Mendelssohn and the religious enlightenment this new book Jewish Emancipation synthesizes the legal and historical pathways of emancipation against a broad geographical and chronological backdrop both in Western and central Europe. Which much of the traditional discussion of emancipation has emphasized and he also includes the Ottoman Empire and the US where many have passed over the history of emancipation on the basis of assumptions. That maceration is first of all a European story and secondly that Jews never needed emancipating in the US. So this book undermines a number of key assumptions about how we understand emancipation. The book also extends our timeline instead of focusing on the French revolution and its aftermath as a one time event. David traces the history of emancipation as a process from the sixteenth century. To the present. He suggests that this is a story that isn't over yet. Especially when we consider Israel and the question of rights and citizenship there. I'm really excited to share our conversation. David's book presents a starting point for a wide ranging discussion about how we understand Jewish emancipation and white matters as David suggests. We talk about emancipation and we know that this is an important juncture in modern Jewish history but it paradoxically has also been neglected so when we look at this history more closely we can think about why emancipation matters not only for how you understand. Jewish history but as a story that illuminates and illustrates the development of mcgarity on a much larger scale. If you enjoy this episode I hope you'll share it with a friend you can find it online along with a transcript of our conversation at Jewish history dot FM slash emancipation. I hope you enjoy our conversation. Thanks for listening so hi David. Welcome to the PODCAST. Thank you Jason. It's pleasure to be here. I'm really excited about this conversation. I saw this book a while ago and I said we have to talk about this. This is really really important topic and I think that one of the reasons why it's important is because it's an issue which we talk about a lot about emancipation. We teach about it in our classes everybody reads about it when they're studying for their PhD or when they want to understand monitoring history general. We always look at it in detail. We've got a couple different cases with the French Revolution et CETERA. But it's often oversimplified and so I'm hoping that today we can really dive into the details about a massive patient and also white matters Jason. I I agree entirely with what you just said. I think emancipation is always there in thinking about studying teaching modern Jewish history in some ways. It's ubiquitous it's unavoidable but. I do think that the understanding of emancipation has usually been too circumscribed to narrow. And I say that circumscribe narrow both Clinton logically and geographically but also conceptually and I think part of the problem has been is that there's a tremendous scholarship on emancipation in individual countries regions individual cities. But there hasn't been sort of broad. Synthetic thinking about emancipation. If you think about how central emancipation is in modern Jewish history. It's really shocking that there hasn't been an attempt at a synthetic account of emancipation since Jacob cats as nineteen seventy three out of the ghetto. So that's you know that's almost half a century that is the only synthetic account in any language that I know of and Jacob. Cats only dealt primarily with three countries. It's really about France Austria and Prussia He mentions England and Holland a little bit. He doesn't deal with Eastern Europe. And then he doesn't deal with anywhere else in the world And if you look at the structure of the book. It's more about the causes of emancipation its consequences and now about the actual process. There's only one chapter on actual legislation. I think that catches book really does Loom Large when we think about yours and a lot of ways but before we delve into kind of a historic graphical aspects of all of this. I think that what you just said One thing that maybe we can pick up on. Is this question of the synthetic approach and also thinking about. What is the patient to begin with where you said that people kind of talk about it? They think about it. But we don't always look at it in detail. And I want to broaden our lens a little bit and think about what even is a massive patient as you write about in the book. This is a term that applies in all sorts of different contexts and not just in terms of Jews. Jewish mathematician is just one in a whole series of cases that we can talk about emancipation as phenomenon in modern times in Europe but also in other places too so before we dive into the details of of Jewish mets patient. What would you say is the fundamental meaning of emancipation as a phenomenon of modernity at large and what are the big picture issues that it allows us to engage with and think about well? I guess I would argue that. A Mansa patient in general is really about equalization and a release from some kind of inferior status whether that's discrimination disabilities et Cetera. So in the modern period emancipation as applied to serfs. It's a term applied to slaves. It's apply to women it's applied to workers you know. I think it's Heinrich Heino. The poet and satirist who wrote that that the nineteenth century is the century of Mansa patient. I think one could broaden that and say the modern world is the world of emancipation where different groups however defined are always struggling to emancipate themselves. I mean I think one of the things that I try and show in in my book and I think that's important and is often lost. Is that the struggle for equalization or Mansa patient or rights in Europe actually begins with religion. It's really about I attaining some kind of notion of toleration and then toleration of different religions than the equality of members of different religions and that you can't understand what happened to Jews in isolation from the larger issue of religious toleration and religious equality in general and that one can see that first of all in the very term emancipation which is applied to choose after emancipation of Catholics in England in eighteen. Twenty nine. But you can also see it. In the Legislation Joseph the seconds edict of toleration which is often seen as a seventeen eighty two as a landmark in the toleration of Jews follows an edicts for Protestants and the Orthodox and the Habsburg Empire or even in France citizenship for Jews follows toleration for Protestants and citizenship. Protestants so these. These things are always linked so when we think about the development of Jewish emancipation in various countries various places as it relates to the toleration emancipation of other religious groups. Various classes masturbation of serfs emancipation of slaves. You're literally in America. We have the emancipation proclamation. And you're thinking about this process of equalization now of course. This was very much in theory in not in practice so we should always keep that in mind. But I'll go back to what I had asked for just a second ago in. What ways do you think that thinking about this process as it develops for the Jews and also for other groups helps us to think about really important questions about the nature of the development of of modernity or of of of Western societies? Or just in general in modern history. Well I think it is possible to think about modernity or the modern world as a series of overlapping and related processes or efforts at Amancio patient of different groups defined differently. Trying to find release from forms of discrimination and inequality and to gain equality after all with as I've just pointed out with the emancipation of Jews is related to the emancipation of other religious groups particularly in Europe Ryan of Catholics and Protestant countries dissenting Protestants in Protestant countries. But at the same time it also converges or has happened and concomitantly with the emancipation of serfs and late nineteenth century. It's happening with the emergence of the proletariat the attempt of workers to gain equality in recognition. That's at the same time in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as women trying to gain equality right Mansa patient of women suffrage movement etc And in our own time it converges with finance a patient of the Movement for gay and Lesbian People Right and so are transgender. So all of these things are always going on and I think one of the things that one can say. Is that even though in trying to understand the issue of JEWISH EMANCIPATION? The emancipation of any of the other groups That legislation is always important. Landmark is the legislation is only part of a much larger process and that for example the emancipation proclamation for slaves in the United States is a pivotal moment. But it's only one moment in an ongoing process and the Jewish Mansa patient needs to be seen the same way as not as previous historians have treated is not a linear process It is not narrowly circumscribed chronologically it? Not Start at Point A. An end at point B. It doesn't start with the French revolution in seventeen ninety ninety one and end with the Russian revolution in nineteen seventeen. It begins much earlier and it continues to the present day. I think that you're getting at here. The major interventions of your book. And if you're thinking about them as a patient as a whole you're talking about the connection between Jewish masturbation and emancipation of Catholics and Protestants to begin with and this suggests the way in which the history of masturbation begins in say the sixteenth century with the inclusion of the wars of religion in Europe. And as you have societies that include many different religious groups are trying to figure out how to deal with this religiously diverse society. The Jews are also a part of this as well and I think the you're also talking here about the way in which the patient also extends up to the present in a lot of ways and I think that some of the things that are coming through here has to do with the ways in which the development of debates about emancipation which I think might even be better with and just talking about masturbation as a thing. It's not just a thing but it's a process. It's a discussion one. That is not really fully complete. But that it's tied to these broader developments of the modern state the transformation of subjects and citizens the creation of unified codes of law. You know it Cetera. And as I think about some of these things we can look at this process of the development of the modern world from a lot of different perspectives so looking at Jewish emancipation in particular. How does it help us to understand Madera County and these various processes that you've touched upon and thought about in different ways? Well I think there are number of different ways of thinking about that. I think Jewish emancipation is an important case. Study as it were for Mansa patient in the modern world and especially since it's such a long term and geographically broad process. It's a process that extends across Europe As you've already mentioned from the sixteenth century to the present day it extends across the Ottoman Empire and now North Africa and the Middle East. It's a process that extends into the new world through the Dutch and British colonies and into the United States and it's a process that also encompasses the state of Israel. So as an instance or a case of emancipation I wouldn't say it's universal but it's extremely broad chronologically and geographically and for that reason has tremendous significance for historians. Were thinking about the nature of emancipation of groups gaining equality in the modern world. I also think it's significant in the in the sense that it can't be understood in isolation from the larger issues of Mansa patient in general as you've pointed out the creation of notions of citizenship the creation of nations and nation states on nationality states and nationalities empires I think it's often been the case that in the writing of history of Jewish Mansa Patient. There has been a very strong assumption that there is this thing citizenship or equality out there and the Jews are being excluded from it rather than seeing that nations are in formation there is this fluid notion of citizenship which is slowly emerging and. It's a painful process within various countries and that. Jews are part of that larger process as it unfolds. It's not as if they're simply being excluded and they're knocking at the door and trying to gain entrance. There isn't yet a door. The terms are not yet set. The terms are being defined the terms are fluid and Jewish. Emancipation is important. Part of that larger process..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Of relations of Jews and Muslims in those countries of Jews and Christians in those countries and the existence of Jews in the region which goes beyond the scope of Zionism or Israel Biblical Israel Yeah you spoke before a bit about the diaspora and this is an issue which is very personal for me. I lived in La for a long time. So I am very familiar with the Persian Jewish community. And when interest me it's partially terminological question but I think that there's a greater significance here that we can think about. Which is that you tend to use the terminology of Iranian Jews as opposed to Persian Jews. And do you. Maybe WANNA clarify a bit of the difference between these two ideas and perhaps about the relationship of this history that you've talked about with the development of the Jewish asper around the world and especially in places like la. First of all we have to realize that pershing's an ethnic category and Iranians initial category some of the Iranian Jews in La are Persian. Some of them are Kurdish. Some of them are Iraqi so are ethnically but they all come together as part of this national group of the Astra which is Iran. We also I mean this is something that I'm I'm working on now. And they merged of the category of Persian in the diaspora is something very interesting. And I think it's mostly from the post nineteen seventy-nine wave of immigration. And this something that. Now it's been studied by by number of good friends of mine who work on Iranian identity in the ass brine and Iran after dilution in one thousand nine hundred nine when running to start to come to la. This is also the beginning of the twenty four hours news cycle and the twenty four hour news cycle was inspired by the hostage crisis and immediately in the American society Iran became synonymous with the hostage crisis and the barbarian Iranians that took over the embassy and the way for the new immigrants Jewish managers to distance himself from the from the crazy. People on television was to defend Persian and to invoke this ancient identity that is peaceful and you know go back to their to their biblical scraped and can create this war between them and the Iranians with television. I guess there's only one more thing that I might ask and I feel like I keep asking more things but I think it's just such an interesting topic. Is this book going to be translated into Persian? Parts of its have been translated to Persian from time to time. I see chapters published in the Iranian in Iranian Jewish magazine that is published in Tehran. I hope that it will be translated. Iran is not subject to copyright agreement. So well don't ask revisions the reason why I ask. I mean it's it's always good to have books translated into different languages but it speaks to audience. I think that a lot of what we spoken about in our conversation today has to do with what we learned from your book as Western juice right or as Jews in the English speaking world right and and I include Israel within that but part of the question is if this book were translated into Persian. It has a possibility of reaching a different audience in a way and I guess. Part of the question is here. What do other audiences perhaps have to gain from this history and not just from those who are reading a book in English? This is such a good question. I think the Iranian readers would appreciate getting a nuanced account of their society of their experience of not just the Jewish community in Iran in the twentieth century but also to see how it's connected to Iran in history Iran in modern history. That's IT I don't know I I. I'm hoping to get readers responses and and see if I can come back in a couple of years and tell you more about. We'll have to talk again then. Well thank you so much. This is just really a lot of fun and disability chapels conversation so thank you thank you so much. This was a pleasure and thanks to you for listening to this episode. If you enjoyed our conversation I hope you'll share the episode with a friend and subscribe to the podcast on Apple.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And you're making this argument that that the emphasis on the expulsion of the Jews from Iran and also from other countries has to do with the erasure of Middle Eastern Jewish history in the service of a kind of a Zionist master narrative. I just I'm just bringing this forward because I think that this is really the critical aspect here. The part of what you're doing here is highlighting what I might even call it of the of the Arabic Jewish diaspora saying that. This history is over. We're creating a new Jewish history in in Israel and so on and so forth so like what's going on here. Why is this issue important? Same time the historic project here is not just to raise Jewish past it also to create this idea that Jewish Muslim Massey is something that pre dates everything else that there was no chance for Decent existence of Jews in Dr Blends in Iran? Even the name that they chose for this day expulsion of Jews from the Arab countries and Iran. When in fact Jews were never expelled from Iran? I mean as we started this conversation with the fact that Iran is still the home for the second largest community in the Middle East. But this is something that gets very little mentioned in the text of this day and essay that I coauthored dinar with Documenta Shansie from been Green University. We go against the LACHRYMOSE. Historic graphical tradition. But we also say that narratives or counter narratives of Golden Age are as useless and childish in the same way what we want to say. Is that histories complicated. Histories massive business. We cannot say that Joe suffered for four hundred years. They suffered from persecution and Vinnie status. And it was enforced in the same way in all the Arab Muslim lands and and we also go against the idea that choose experience this golden age under Islam. And it's as useless as a lachrymose narrative. I think that we keep throwing around these kind of insider terms among historians. Like if you were to pull it anybody at the Association for Jewish Studies which is actually where we're sitting right now and you start talking about the lachrymose conception of Jewish history. They'll understand what we're talking about because this is a reference to this kind of monumental essay by celebration but what I want us to think about here is not just how this fits into the trajectory of the way that historians approach history but white matters in a very broad sense. And I think that what you're talking about here about these essays that you wrote and Co wrote. Is that these issues matter. There's a reason why on the one hand these essays were shared so widely online and also why there was also a huge pushback from certain people who perhaps understood the claim that you're making t. v. threatening to the way in which they understand the world. I wonder if you WanNa comment a bit about why it is that these debates about the nature of Jewish life in Iran about the question of expulsion. What is the true stake here? When we're talking about about these debates why people react so much to the pieces that you've written recently on the issue. This is my personal opinion. And you or any other person who may have read. This essay can say other things. I think that now we're sitting here. In December two thousand nineteen now the relations between Jews and Muslims not just in Israel but also we see claims of Muslim anti-semitism across Europe and questions of relations between Jews and Muslims in America in Europe in Israel. And there's always wanted to go back to the Demi question choose leave this. Lamy's throughout them. The Muslim world and the Muslims always tried to show and exercise superiority and they will never accept any solution. That would give Jews dignity in this arrangement and I say well that's not true. I mean part of it is true for some periods for some places but this is not the way to characterize fourteen hundred years and you know over the years. There were many notorious attempts to write those long histories of linear narratives. There was this book by Martin. Gilbert came out about ten years ago in Ishmael tent in the House of Ishmael. I think it was called which literally tried to write history of Jews for over a thousand years from Iraq Iran as well. That's that's quite an aspiration to write something like that without having Middle Eastern languages without having any ability to read sources or to even speak to people who live there. And what I'm saying is that but unfortunately this kind of compelling simple narratives where pretty dominant in the conversation about Jewish Muslims relations and while I'm trying to show or to say or to claim is that all of these generalizations are useless when we talk about history in the Twentieth Century Modern Times even in early modern times. We have to really look at it case. By case and to see the Jewish life were characterized by lots of terrible events but also by many events of success and integration and assimilation and cultural mutual influence and and we cannot overlook one or the other. I think that you are describing here again as part of a much bigger trend of scholars trying to emphasize that it wasn't always so bad for the Jews and I think that we look at the history of the Jews in Iran and we try to period. Is it right between various eras times? One can certainly look for instance in the fifties and sixties and the seventies and say okay. Iran is a place where there are many Jews and people going back and forth to Israel event and then of course everything changes in seventy nine in a lot of ways so to. What extent does your argument and analysis hold up for the period after Nineteen seventy-nine up till the president essentially where I think that there are many people who will come to your book? Come to what you're saying to this conversation and say Okay Great. You're saying that it wasn't always so bad right right. But once you get to the revolution then it just turns dark so to what extent is the revolution changed things and also if I can just add one last thing you also make this argument about the role of Jews in the revolution. So how does that also affects sort of our understanding of how the history of the Jews in Iran shifted in that period and beyond the revolution certainly changed things for Iran Jews as well as for Iranian non-jews this was the most defining event of the second half of the twentieth century and today so this is something that we have to acknowledge that this was an event that changed everything? However I think that what proves that my argument is still relevant. Even after is again I go back to the fact that there is still a vibrant Jewish community in Iran even after this major transformational event as they stomach revolution. We still find a Jewish community that is trying to assert its place in the nation that is trying to respond to many contradicting streams in Iranian society fighting for the place fighting to voice their opinions and fighting. Even I would go back to the period of the presidency of Medina shod fighting anti-semitism and do it in ways that were in. Many ways were overlooked by by US by Western observers of Jews in in in the in the Muslim lens so I think that if anything it proves the document but another way to look at it is from the diaspora that we see today that Iranian identity is very much a defining feature for Iranian Jews in ways that perhaps I don't know how many how many other desperate groups have this kind of strong relations to the culture to the language today today idea of the Iranian nation as much of the Iranian Jewish diaspora communities. I WANNA come back to the to the spur of the Persian Jews or the Iranian Jews. In just a moment I want to focus a bit more still on the revolution because I think that this is really a critical argument that you're making here and something that really shocked me and a lot of ways which is to say that you were saying that the Jews in Iran part of the revolution and I think that you are also quick to qualify that by saying Jews were not the cause of the revolution and the of course we're not the leaders of the revolution you. This is the Islamic Revolution. But can you say a bit about the role of Jews in the revolution? Which again found to be so surprising and so interesting. And then what are we take away from that? How does that help us to reassess our understanding of the Islamic Republic of Iran? All right so I think that what it shows is that at some point in the twentieth century Jews started to think of themselves first and foremost is Iranian and when the struggle against the tyranny of the Shah started they didn't of themselves as Jewish Iranians Iranians and. It didn't matter much what it did but again it's complicated. They didn't think on the about the relationship between the China Jewish community which considered himself protector of a Jewish community beneficiary of the Jewish community. They thought of themselves as Iranians fighting against the dictatorship and when they run in revolution started it was an Iranian revolution. It wasn't an Islamic revolution and pretty much. Every group of the rang sightsee participated to some level in the revolution and we see that in the Jewish community. It was very it. Manifests itself in many ways. The story of the Jewish hospital that actually collaborated with revolutionary leaders and use the special status of Jews and the protection that they got from the government to treat one protesters from the demonstrations against the Shah. This is something this is. I think where we seen action. The level of loyalties to the Jewish values the day considers as a loving yourself and the commitment today run in nationalism and run in Hendaye run in nation building. This is again the nuanced reading of Stomach Revolution is not not an Islamic revolution. It turned out to be slam curve. Lucien but again if you see how. The fortieth anniversary of the rule was marked in the in the US and in popular newspapers and sophisticated newspapers like Washington Post New York Times. Sometimes the the question always pops up. Why did they running people decide to go on this uprising against liberal rulers? Such as the shy he was so good them he was so good too. I mean Iran was more of of liberalism in in that part of the world. Why did they and there is. No attempt to conceptualize it. It's always like they posed the mulas versus the shah. As if these were the only two options that existed BECCA. Dan and I think he tells us to say today that different shades of the groups that you know together. They form the Islamic republic when we read about the sanctions. And if you don't read too much into it it's easy to justify crippling sanctions against Iran. But when you realize that Iranians pay the price the it's not necessarily the leader of the country that pay the price but the many groups. There are Jews Christians. There are people who support the regime of people that oppose the regime. I hope that it helps us to humanizer on in ways that other sources do not allow us to. I think what you're saying here is really important because I think that it's very easy to demonize countries rogue nations or rogue states Iran. Being one of them you know I think about some of the other similar ones like North Korea and so on and having historical understanding helps us to understand the better. I mean that sounds kind of tolerable in a way. But I think that it's important because it's not about rehabilitating rogue states but it's about having a complex it's sophisticated understanding of the world in which we're living that's what I'm hoping So I I want. I wanted to draw on that in a way especially since we're getting towards the end of the time that we have an in a way. I feel like we've already talked about this but I was hoping that you might give us a little bit more of really what we're coming from wishes to say. You've written a book about the history of the Jews in Iran. I'd like to delve even further into this question of what we learned from it. We've talked about the ways in which it helps us to understand the revolution. We've talked about the ways in which helps us to understand. Zionism helps us understand various aspects of Jewish culture within Iran. But when we talk about the history of the Jews in Iran I think about this in three realms. I like us to think in the last few minutes that we have about how looking at the history of the Jews in Iran. Ron Helps us to gain a better understanding of Jewish history as a whole how it helps us to to have a new approach to the history of Iran and all sorts of the broader region. Maybe if you want to comment on that a little bit in terms of history of Iran what I'm hoping to do is to show that Iran is a complex society. It's a society of Minorities Society of many classes and it misses and languages and we cannot just treated as one cloth of people in terms of Jewish won't juicy story was never just about Holocaust or redemption or a golden age. History is never in the black or white. It's mostly in the grey zone. I mean this useful to think about Jewish history everywhere but especially in the Middle East where there is relatively very little curiosity and it takes very little place in our collective historical memory and what I want to think about is again a history.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"So I think this is a really important point right because you are talking about the way in which historical ignorance feeds into fear and it feeds into simplistic narratives simplistic political programs and agendas as well. So when you're saying that there are perhaps a misunderstanding of Iran and the Jews in Iran which is leading to these types of things. What would you say are the one or two things that really arises from the misperception of the Jews in Iran? And how your work perhaps helps to correct some of those perceptions and then finally without asking too many questions at once. Why does it matter for all of these things? Take place in your intervention within it. I don't know if I can find one thing that I find more important than others but I would say something that people keep asking me in in book events and so on. Which is the question of Iranian Jewish Zionism? And there's this argument that Iranian Jewish community was always very Zionist and something that Iranian Jews take pride of Iranian Jews into the aspect. Of course this is something that came up in the writing of Habib Levy and other community leaders. And I'm not arguing against is. I'm not saying that Iranian Jews Don. I'm asking what did it mean for them to resign. What was their concept of Zionism? Was it necessarily immigration? To Israel was giving money to Israel. What was the nature of Zionism? And what I see what I show in my book. Is that many different things in different times. And there was the concept of Zionism as the Land of Zion which is the Holy Land and it was what I called spiritual Zionism was definitely in sometimes. A very unique relationship with Israel and is something that puts Iran is in a very special place in Middle East because after nineteen forty eight. Iran is the only place in the Middle East where Zionist organization could operate openly yet. The majority of the population chose not to immigrate to Israel. This is something that I'm totally intrigued by. Like what how can be in a place that the population sauce and pathetic design is operate openly? We say that there's no kind of response we saw in other places in the Middle East. Yeah no I think this is a really important element and it goes far beyond the history of the Jews in Iran. When you're saying that it's a question it did Jews in pre-revolutionary I mean you're talking about pre-revolutionary run so you're saying that when Jews in pre-revolutionary Iran had a Zionist orientation it didn't just mean immigration to Israel it could have meant like you said supporting Israel and other ways through philanthropy etcetera. Was I think important here? Is I think that especially from the American perspective from the perspective of Jews in America is often this assumption that American Jews have received of ways of approaching Zionism but that many other countries this is not the case that throughout the rest of the world and I think this is an extension of kind of fell see of American exceptionalism broadly speaking. There's this idea that the American Jewish relationship with Zionism is unique and compare them with other places around the world. And I think that what you are saying here is that we can look at a place where we kind of assume that the Jews are persecuted and that is so different from Safer America. But in fact there's actually a very diverse set of approaches design. And that this is not just something that we see in America yet. Another thing that I show in my book the nine hundred sixty one. I think there's this memo. In the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs that basically effectively halted all their attempts to get Iran interest to immigrants and they say in the memo that Iranian Jews should now be regarded as the same level of American Jews and Jews and South African Jews. Jews are they have sense of security they are connected to the homeland in ways that Israel cannot replace and they effectively stopped all the alleyoop operation. So this is similar to the Blaustein ingredient in the US case where Israelis basically say. You know what we're not going to actively tried to encourage Jews to emigrate from America Israel. Yeah I think this brings forward the title of the Book. Between Iran Zion. And I think that this is important because in a lot of ways. I think that the core of what you're dealing with this question of the nature of Zionism opposed Zionism amongst the Jews in Iran. As well as the way in which Zionist historical narratives and Zionist approaches to understanding the Jewish condition and Jewish history around the world affected the way that people have perhaps misunderstood the history of of Iran and this ties back into something. You were just saying before that you. The U initially approached the history of the Jews in Iran through the Lens of Iranian history. And yet when you look at the beginning of the book you through the introduction you spend a lot of time engaging with issues of Jewish historian graffiti and in particular. You're talking about what you call to. Historic graphical fallacies lachrymose history of the Jews. The idea that the Jewish history is a parade of tragedies and also kind of Zionist teleology. When you're talking here about reconsidering the nature of Zionism in Iran's part of that second aspect of of the Zionist teleology. So how is it that Jewish story graphical issues came to have a central place in your thinking on these issues when you began the project from the perspective of Iranian history? And then also why. You think that it's important to correct these kinds of of approaches that you think are incorrect. So they sent that the question of Zionism and and his ionised teleology even came to to be essentially in the title of the book. What is going on here in terms of what? You've tried to correct in the book. And why do you think it's so important to to look at the history of the Jews in Iran through that particular lens as I mentioned I came to this topic as a story of modern? Jewish studies was not my field. This field that I had to train myself in it and it emerged essentially from the point that when I started to look at history of Jews of Iran there was not a single monograph that addressed the history of Jews in modern Iran that was written in the past fifty years. The last book that dealt with Twentieth Century run was written in nine hundred sixty one and it's the comprehensive history of the Joseph Iran that was written in nineteen sixty one. So this is something that I wanted to correct and I just want to point out that the second part of the title is Jewish histories of twentieth century Iran. Which is for me. It's also to say this is not a definitive history of Iranian Jews. This it's just illuminating many histories that existed for these communities and I wanted to address the very simplistic understanding of the runge experience in twentieth century. We see that in the nine hundred fifty nine hundred sixty s many running Jews in the writing. Talk about their identities. This something that they deal with. I mean it's in the middle of major initiative bidding projects in Iran feet the peak of Zionism in Iran and Israel. There are many things to deal with and we see running shoes. That defined himself as Iranian nationalist as communist and honest from our understanding I wondered. How can they consider themselves like all the three categories in their one identity and then you realize that cone is doesn't mean necessarily communism in the way that we understand it in the twentieth century or rather in the understanding of the Cold War as this ideology that leaves no room for compromise or and also what does it mean to be run initially as a Jew and communist? Like what part of it does take and at tweet? The Zionist identity and science identity was something that I understood in. The beginning of the project is something that I have to dismantle. I have to investigate. I have to see pretty much on individual basis. What it meant for everyone of my interviewees of my of the people on whom I write. It can't be just taken as a one category that one-size-fits-all and the same I did for Iranian nationalism and communism. Yeah I think that you're focused on multiple histories is really important and again. This is part of a bigger trend where we see emphasis among scholars of on plural histories. What I like about it. Among other things is that the idea of multiple histories or multiple pathways through history really gets at the heart of your criticism of the Chew. Fallacies that we discussed before Because both the lachrymose history of the Jews and the idea of Zionist teleology are based on the idea of a singular history. The lachrymose idea that everywhere you look. There's always a history of tragedy right and persecution for the Jews and likewise the fundamental idea of geology. Is that you have an endpoint and the history is going towards when you talk about multiple histories of the Jews in Iran. What are those multiple histories? Can you sketch out very briefly? Sort of where you see those different paths going and how they perhaps go in different directions that Akron mercy's story in fact we say that it never it never ended. I mean we just see now how Dr Organizations in Israel trying to create this day of remembrance of the explosion in and departure of missing choose and we see in all the publications official publications. There's one lachrymose narrative Jews experienced nothing but persecution and plunder and relation and that was Jewish history and then they were redeemed by Zionism. And it leads me to the question of science theology because in Iran case. It's an cashed claim because Iranian Jews. Overwhelmingly did not move to Israel. So how come we still talk about? This component of identity of Zionism or design steady orgy in a way that characterizes Iranian Jews. When in fact the majority of your on injuries never chose to immigrate to Israel. And then last thing is that what I read in the history of running shoes referring to the category Zionism again. I really think the context of Iranian history and Iranian society and all the other projects that seemed tensely took part in their lives. And what I see is that for example the immigration of Iranian Jews from nine hundred forty eight nine hundred fifty three which was the first major wave of immigration of Jews there were about twenty thousand Jews emigrating to Israel and one of the things that consider is can we find. What do they have in common? And you say that these are based on reports from Israel from the Jewish Agency from Iranian sources. These where the poorest and neediest of the Iranian Jewish communities. Okay so we can find on. Top of the Zionist argument can find social economic reasons for them to immigrate. Then we can talk about the the second wave of immigration out of Iran after the nine hundred seventy nine revolution and we see that. Seventy percent of the communities is a major tragedy. This is a major blow to the product of Iranian Jewish Life. And we see that seventy percent of the committee chose to live in the decade after the revolution and then we can assume that it happened because there were Jews but also What I ask is. Can we see in? You know as as a class thing. So we see that. In these years there are millions of Iranian immigrants moving out of Iran. They were all members of the middle class and upper middle class. Just like the Jews were and they moved to places like Los Angeles for example and Iranian Jews in this time chose to leave to Los Angeles and not to Israel again. I want to read it within the context of Iranian society. They chose to leave to places where other Iranians of the same class moved to. So this is how. I'm trying to challenge. Zang's sheriff is well is Jewish horror story and so on. But I'll push you on this. So you're making this argument that that the history of the Jews in Iran is not a particularly Jewish history but it parallels the broader trajectories and pathways of the history of Iran itself right that the Jewish people in Iran who left after the revolution were very similar to the same kinds of people who were also fleeing after the revolution. I'll put you on this here. So what are we learning from this? What's the big takeaway from this kind of approach that you're suggesting in terms of how we understand this history? First of all that attempts to understand the very broad and flawed categories of Mizrahi and Sephardi. Identity is as lumped together all the histories from Morocco to Iran are part of the same narrative again. This is something that was misused and abused by many historiographer but also by by organizations and governments. So I WANNA ask if we see it in a more nuanced way. Can we understand differently? The history of the Middle East they still relations between Jews and non-jews societies in the Middle East Can win vision different existence of Jews in in Rejean. So I think that what you're referencing here. And what listeners might not know is that you've written this book about the history of the Jews in Iran. But you've also been writing a lot recently about these issues about how the history of the Israhi and the Jews have been kind of put to political use in Israel you recently wrote an essay in Haaretz and also for history news network with our of peeling back a little bit of the story of for instance this day of commemoration for the expulsion of the Jews of Arab lands. And this of course received a lot of attention when you're talking about how this history is used and abused with Israel or and this I think is is the heart of your critique of designers approach with it you're saying that the history of the Iranian Jews and the history of the Middle Eastern Jews in general is kind of becoming a piece in the political game so to speak in terms of how Israeli politicians and leaders in Israel is broadly speaking understand their place within the Middle East..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Bible on topics including metaphor the nature of Biblical historical texts and gender issues his many books include the Jewish Study Bible which he co edited with Adele Berlin how to read Jewish Bible the Bible and believe her you're how to read the Bible critically and religiously and the creation of history in ancient Israel among many others Amy Jill Levine is university professor of New Testament and your studies and Mary Jane Worth in Professor of Jewish Studies at at Vanderbilt Divinity School and the College of Arts and Sciences. She's also an affiliated professor at the Center for the Study of Jewish Christian relations nations at Cambridge and she's taught at the pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome. Aj's books include the misunderstood Jew the church and the scandal of the Jewish Jesus the meaning of the Bible what the Jewish scriptures and the Christian Old Testament can teach us co authored with Douglas night the New Testament methods and Meanings Co authored with Warren Carter short stories by Jesus the Enigmatic Attic parables of a controversial rabbi entering the passion of Jesus and most recently the gospel of Luke Co authored with Ben Within the third Mark Aj as to tremendously prolific scholars of the Jewish Bible and the New Testament have deep knowledge of the historical Oh context of the New Testament as well as of how it has been interpreted over the centuries together they edited the Jewish annotated New Testament in twenty eleven van and they subsequently produced second expanded edition in two thousand seventeen. The Jewish.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason LA steak, and I'm very excited to welcome Lindsey king and Sarah off to the podcast today to talk about Sarah's new book masculinity, and the making of American Judaism Lindsey king is a PHD candidate at the UCLA department of history with a focus on modern Jewish history. And her research focuses on Jewish masculinity in nineteenth century Vienna. And Sarah, m Hof is a professor of Jewish. Studies and religious studies at the university of Indiana. Thanks Jay said, I'm Lindsay on especially excited to talk with Sarah about her book on Jewish masculinity in America between nineteen hundred nineteen twenty four my own work, obviously relates to a slightly different time and place in Sarah's. She deals with early twentieth century in America, and I write about mid nineteenth century Vienna. But we're both interested in understanding what Jewish men thought it meant to be a good, man. And how that sheep their behaviors Sarah argues in her book that normally of masculinity in the early twentieth century United States, such as the idea that men are rational or morally upright or physically fit where common to both Jews and non Jews and Christians a good. Religion with a masculine religion. Jewish men. It was important to demonstrate that Judaism was a good religion. Which meant that. They wanted American Judaism to conform to many of the values in colonies associated with good American masculinity. Like rash, analogy, strengths or integrity. She explains the surf series of really interesting examples that take us across the US from New York to Galveston to Atlanta, she talks about really fun things like Jewish crime. For example. Yeah. I mean, I saw Sarah's book a recognized immediately that there is a lot going on there. I think that she looks at some examples some historical incidents like Lille Frank trial, for instance, in well outside of Atlanta in the early twentieth century that people have talked about before. But with a new lens that I think is really interesting. I think this book is a really important one today on that was written now on because he has so much masculinity in the news and media and conversations with friends. What's your does is explain how ideas about masculinity have been shipping American Judaism or really religion in general in America for a long time? And I'd order to understand how American Judaism became. What is today we need to understand what the norms of masculinity were in the early twentieth century, especially during the time when many Jews for integrating the US this frame? The conversation will have about the differences similarities between Jewish and Christian masculinity is the role. Christianity. Played at shaping American Judaism. And why we need to understand gender in order to understand religion in America. Great. That sounds really fantastic. So thanks Lindsay for putting this together. Welcome to Jewish history matters, Sarah. And thank you for joining me. Thanks so much for having me on. This is a really exciting conversation for me to have. I thought to begin. I would ask you some broad questions about how you use the concept of gender in your work in universities gender. Studies departments and gender history. Have historically focused on women. You, of course, talk about men and masculinity. Why do we need to discuss masculinity? And why do you think we need to discuss American Jewish masculinity? Specifically. I think this is a great question. And the first thing I want to say about this is there's a really good reason that gender studies departments and gender history. Tends to focus on women. That is that the professional study of history has been lopsidedly focused on the study of men. So I'd certainly do wanna go on record in the support of the greater study of women and for gender studies departments and gender history in particular to keep paying attention to women. So I don't see my work as a critique of like, oh too much women or something like that. Instead I wanted to talk specifically about masculinity because it often goes on marked and in the field of research where I am American Jewish history. Icy that an awful lot. So when you say unmarked, I mean, it goes unnoticed or taken for granted or taken as the rule where women are the. Exception to the rule. So one way to think about this is we all already know that women's social roles and feminine ideals change over time, and they might be different in different cultures. But by not studying men and paying attention to men as men or paying attention to how men's gender roles and ideals are constructed. We can kind of leave ourselves with the impression that masculinity is like trans historical or essential. And I wanted to do a case study to think about American Jewish masculinity and to show the ways that it wasn't trans historical and essential that it was in fact contingent that it came out of many of the movements the social movements the economic movement that we can see at this time and that it's a product of booth how Jews talked about themselves, but also non Jews talked about
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason Los dig and I'm glad to welcome Samuel Moines, Eugene shepherd and Moses Lapin to the podcast today to talk about the Brandeis library of modern Jewish thought a multi volume series that's been bringing together edited and translated sources related to modern Jewish thought broadly defined each of the books focuses on a theme and topics have included Jews race, they asked for nationalism the Scipion movement legal theories and more. Eugene shepherd is chair of the department of near eastern nj studies ever does university, and he's also an associate professor of modern Jewish history and thought there and Samuel Moines is a professor of law at Yale Law School and professor of history at Yale University together Sam and Eugene are the managing editors of the multi volume series Brandeis library of modern Jewish thought from Brandeis university press. And we're also joined today by Moses slapping, a graduate student in the department's history and philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Thanks jason. I'm Moses Lapin. And I'm the host of new books in Jewish. Studies. The podcast that lets you hear directly for some of the best authors in Jewish studies. Today, I'm thrilled to join you in Jewish history matters. Yeah, we're really glad to have you on the program. It's exciting to have this opportunity to reflect on and to discuss a book series in its entirety. I think that the Brandeis library of monitors thought is a fantastic series for a whole bunch of resents. And what speaks to me the most personally is that these books really are tremendous resource for teachers and students of all kinds. They open up and expansive definition. I think of what is quote unquote, Jewish thought which appeals to me as someone who deals my own work with Jewish intellectual and cultural history in a really broad frame Moses in your conversation today, you'll be talking with salmon Eugene about a number of the books which have come. And what ties them together? So do you wanna maybe say something about that? Yeah. I think my feelings about the series, really echo yours. Our discussion touches on each of the seven volumes that are currently in the series. But it also had the chance to reflect on ready. The goals of this series is a whole and its interventions in innovations and also to look ahead at some of the forthcoming volumes. I think that in my own reading that would two themes that stood out a central firstly the relationship between an internal Jewish discourse in its context. And Secondly, the very notion of Jewish thought itself as you can tell from the individual titles the series doesn't silo itself into sort of prefabricated disciplines or methods or topics. It's a bold disruption to many known themes, and it also introduces new thinkers and new ideas to the students of modern Jewish history thought while the figures in the volumes are Jews, and there's a deep engagement with Jewish tax. Jewish traditions. The series shows the ways in which the internal discourse was embedded in a very specific context or multiple contexts and thereby challenges us to think about what we mean when we say Jewish thought the thanks Moses. I think that that really brings out the core of so many of the issues that the series really delves into in that we'll talk about today. So I'm looking forward to this conversation. But before we jump in and just want to say quickly that if you want to learn more about the book series about the Brandeis library in modern Jewish thought, you can find links to the books, and and also to some excerpts in the show notes or at Jewish history dot FM slash Brandeis, where there's also a transcript of the episode and links to some of the other items and topics we'll talk about and if you enjoy the episode, I hope you'll check out the rest of the podcast, which you can find at Jewish history dot FM slash subscribe. Welcome guys. Thank you. Thank you would like to begin with a general question about the library. What are some of your goals and hopes, and what do you think sort of holds the project together as a whole? So I think initially one of our main motivations was from the standpoints of being teachers we were frustrated especially in terms of undergraduate teaching. That the kinds of texts we wanted to assign where either only available in very obscure places and usually not available in English. Translation, so one just basic heuristic task then was to bring together texts which we wanted to teach. And we we knew other rising scholars in in our fields wanted to teach and get them out in an affordable and reliable way that could be used in the classroom and as well used by instructors who aren't necessarily specialists in the field. I think you know, Eugene and I shared the goal of making tech successful to teachers and students who might not have facilities with original languages and have the time to organize things. I think we also wanted to cast some light on some under appreciated aspects of modern Jewish thought, you know, in the tradition in which he and I are trained, especially there is a kind of canon, and if you utter the phrase modern Jewish thought, you'd think of Moses Mendelssohn to him, you know, we we did dedicate a volume, but of his underappreciated writings and then a series of mostly German Jewish thinkers through the twentieth century. And what we hope to do is show that the the very idea of modern Jewish thought is very constrained, and we can use these volumes to give a new sense of just the different forms it. It has taken and still could take. And if I could just add onto that I think our choice of. Of editors who have really done incredible jobs with these volumes shows how different currents in the various fields of modern Jewish thought. They reflect the kind of dynamic change more generally, just how capitus modern Jewish thought can be in going to all kinds of areas that really went beyond that cannon that that Sam had mentioned Sam, you mentioned canonization, and I think somebody who's looking
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason Los dig, and I'm very glad to have Jennifer Kaplan. Join us today to talk about some broad issues of pedagogy. How we teach and talk about Jewish studies and Jewish history both in the classroom and outside of it. Jennifer Kaplan is an assistant professor at Tyson university's department of philosophy and religious studies. She's working on a book manuscript tentatively, titled funny. You don't look funny humor an American truism, and she teaches courses Ottosson, including introductory courses. Judaism Christianity and Islam introduction to Judaism, it also arranged courses on Jewish graphic novels American Jewish humor Jewish literature and race gender, sexuality and Judaism, a good friend. But I especially wanted to talk to her today because she has some great things to say about what Jewish studies scholars do as teachers in two thousand fourteen. She published fantastic article and show far titled, well, it might temple in scarsdale teaching beyond the heritage student in three institutions, and I think it's so thought provoking and is a great starting point for thinking about how Jewish history matters for so many people not just for Jews and how the field is changing today. If you go to Jewish history dot FM slash pedagogy. You can find links some of the items and topics will talk about today in any case today Jenny and I are going to be talking about broad issues of pedagogy. Why it's important. How we teach and talk about Jewish studies and Jewish history. How we justify it studied to our students to our colleagues and do the water world how we could reach diverse students, and what are the challenges and opportunities that all this presents. Anyway. Hi, Jenny welcome to the program. Thank you. I'm glad to be here. I hope this could be an opportunity for us to. To to talk about teaching and to talk about why it is the Jewish history matters. You know, not just in terms of the research that's being done in the field. But also in terms of the way in which we we teach in presents Jewish history and Jewish studies to our students and to the public, and I guess that's a way of entering into the question of why does this matter? Right. You know, in your view, listen matter in which way that we teach and talk about Jewish studies. I think it matters in a lot of different ways. And I think it it pushes in a lot of different directions. For one thing. I think Jewish studies in all of the sort of older ethnic studies classification of programs in courses and things like that. I think the way that we are approaching those in a twenty first century kind of post identity politics. Way says a lot about the way that we as a society are thinking about the humanities, and I think that Jewish. Studies is a microcosm for that. Because it's increasingly important across the humanities writ large that we figure out why we're doing this. And why students should be doing this the idea that we can exist as a sort of ivory tower devoted to the creation of knowledge, and that that can be enough of a reason to exist. It just doesn't it doesn't work anymore than maybe it would be nice if it did. But I think the horses out of the barn on the fact that programs have to make some sort of sense. It doesn't have to be financial sense necessarily. But I think programs have to make some sort of sense for university. And I think Jewish studies is. One of the programs that commonly I don't wanna say comes under fire, but finds itself in a situation of needing to explain why we are still doing this. And and we might get through this a bit later. There are also corollary issues with Jewish studies that actually insulated from some of those conversations in the way that some other similarly interdisciplinary ostensibly identity based programs are not insulated just based on external funding and things like that. So that that's kind of a separate kettle of fish that we go back to. But I think that really thinking about how and why we teach Jewish studies, and who we are trying to reach and what it is. We want those students to leave the classroom knowing. Or understanding or thinking, I think that that's just incredibly important to the larger questions about how we're preparing students to be parts of our society. And what it is that we're doing in humanities in religious studies in Jewish studies classrooms to make them. I don't want to say better people, but to make them a different kind of person than they were when they walked in. And I think Jewish studies is just a really great canvas for that. Yeah. Yeah. I mean, I would agree with you. I think about that entirely that students who take courses in in Jewish history or or injury. Studies can really find a lot there that's valuable to them. But I wanna push you. You know on something that you you you mentioned just a second ago. You talked about how we're in an age of post identity politics in academia, first of all, I'm not sure that's actually true. You know, I tend to think first of all that all scholarship is kind of driven by one level or another kind of person set of issues by the author who whoever we're talking about. You know, this is just again, you kind of betraying my own sort of focus, you know, in terms of studying the history of historiographer. I'm always looking at the context of of scholarship, right? And thinking about one of the factors that are causing people to study one thing or the other. And I think that this is just as true for for students as it is for for scholars, you know, I also think that there's something interesting to be said about kind of identity politics in the US in general there have been sort of a fair share of. Of think pieces that were published after the two thousand sixteen election kind of saying that like the Democrats lost because they hitch their ride to identity as sort of a motivating factor. When in fact, we see also that the Republicans continue to utilize identity politics in this case, white identity politics to motivate their their base, and all this is to say that for whatever we might think, you know, we're trying to say that that the university is shifting away from identity politics, the society in which in which we live. This is a a major factor on all sorts of different levels. What what I'm thinking about here and thinking about what what you were just saying is that our students often, take classes based on sort of wanted to explore their identity. I find this with some of my students, it's a challenge. But I think that we shouldn't really forget about that that when we talk about sort of why people take classes in Jewish studies. You know, they're not all doing it for that reason. But it's still very much. Part of this world of identity, politics and identity building, which is one of the reasons also, you know, why you know, you mentioned that there are some kind of factors insulate Jewish studies in one of them is the fact that Jewish communities often support Jewish studies programs the study of Jewish history because they believe that has this