35 Burst results for "Jewish"
#44 Trials (Holy Week 9) - burst 1
"As we said, Jesus is whisked off in the middle of the night, to his first questioning. This is by the high priest anise. Now, annis is not currently the official high priest. He was deposed by the Roman authorities. His son in law caiaphas is the official high priest, but since under Jewish law, the high priest office was an appointment for life and a still wielded considerable influence in the Jewish community, and he becomes the first one to examine Jesus. Where did this middle of the night examination occur? Well, it's at the home of Anna's. It's not even an official hearing. It's the Jewish leader's method for trying to figure out how to handle the disposition of this Jesus, this
Salem Radio's Dennis Prager on the Importance of Talk Radio
"Have written an amazing piece on your 40th anniversary of talk radio on the things you have learned in those four decades, 5 big lessons. I want to talk about a couple of them, but first, it's not in the article, but you told me how it all started and this peculiar weekend show where you had guests from different denominations. Will you tell us about that show at the beginning, Dennis? Because I love the concept. I began radio at the 32, I think 30, 34 years of age. And it was a blessing changed my life, obviously. There was an extremely popular show in Los Angeles on the ABC radio station. And I mean, so popular that eventually it became the most popular show in Los Angeles, despite the fact that it was broadcast on a Sunday Night, the least likely time for people to listen. But it dominated radio. It was called religion on the line, and it was dominant before I became the host. I just increased it, but I acknowledge it was I knew about it because everybody knew about it. A priest a minister in a rabbi would appear different ones each week, Catholic Protestant Jew, and the host. The host that I that they were thinking of letting go was secular and anti religious. And they were looking for a new host. I don't know if that was the reason, but they were. And by sheer good luck, my name was brought to the general manager of the station. And George green was a legend in radio and for whom I have only deepest gratitude for my life's journey, so he told this woman Roberta Weintraub May she rest in peace. The head of education in Los Angeles said, I need somebody who knows religion knows how to speak, but it's not a clergyman. And she said, I can't believe you're asking that. I just heard this kid at this Jewish institute here in Los Angeles. I went for a weekend there. I heard him lecture, he's terrific. And they said, oh, good, let's try him out. And in the middle of the show, the program director slipped me a note, I wish I had, I still had it. It changed my life. Tell them you'll be on next week.
Greg Laurie Explores Faith in 'Lennon, Dylan, Alice, & Jesus'
"Listen, this book is exciting to me, Greg. And you have written you've written many books, you're an evangelist. You're at harvest church in Orange County. But you write about the lives of people and their intersection with faith in Jesus. So this one Lennon Dylan Alice and Jesus, I just read a whole book talking about the spiritual Bob Dylan, the spiritual side of him. And it seems so clear that he still is a believer in Jesus. He doesn't talk about it the way he used to. But that do you cover that in the book? Yeah, I have a whole chapter on bob and you know, that's exactly my premise. I've heard it said that we'll Dylan abandoned his Christian faith, and returned to his Jewish roots. Well, he is Jewish. But he did not abandon his Christian faith. The fact that I just read a review of his recent concert Dylan never stopped touring is on the road constantly. He's playing this song, got his service somebody from slow train coming, which is an overt Christian song. And as another newer song that he's written, that is very much a faith song. So, you know, bob came under such attack when he came out publicly as a Christian. I don't know if he just got tired of all the drama and controversy, but I don't see that he ever stopped believing what he was saying. Not that long ago he did a Christmas record of all things above Dylan Christmas record and sing those old songs just as you would expect. Bob Dylan to sing them, but at the same time, one interviewer said, using those songs as though you believe them, he says, I do.
Detective: Alex Jones 'most dangerous' type of attack denier
"The jury and the Alex Jones defamation cases begun to hear testimony The detective who investigated the 2012 sandy hook elementary school massacre since there are three types of people who deny that it happened and harass victims mentally ill Those who got bad information and those who know the truth but twisted it for their own power or money and Daniel Jewish says conspiracy theories spreader Alex Jones is in that third group and he says those are the most dangerous It's the first testimony that the panel was heard in the case in which Jones has already lost to default judgment once they hear all the evidence Durer's will determine how much in damages Jones will have to pay families who have sued him for defamation I'm Oscar wells Gabriel
When Children'S Minds Are Made for Study
"Talking about children, I'd like to entertain a subject with you. The subject of my column today, it's a tennis prager dot com and town hall dot com and it'll go to the daily wire and American greatness and Jewish world review and many others. But it's up at my website and up at town hall dot com. And my thesis is that when I was 12 years old and not just I, my classmates and I at 12 had more wisdom than the vast majority of professors at American universities do today, let alone college students. Again, I repeat, I am certain that it's a big claim. I am certain that I and most of my classmates had more wisdom at the age of 12 than almost any professor in America today. From Harvard to anywhere else that you'd like to think about. The professors have more knowledge, but I believe that the average 12 year old at what I attended he yeshiva, which is a religious Jewish education, half the day, hit the Hebrew original sources, and half the day secular teaching. So I went from 9 to 6 very often, always at least 9 to 5, is a very long day, and I learned an immense amount, both secular studies, and religious studies.
The Notorious Gold Club Case in Atlanta With Mark Sewell
"The gold club case here for just first off, give an overview of that and endless job in 'cause I'm gonna have some legal questions for you. So we'll dive in as we go here. Sure. Actually, to get a full measure of the go club case, you have to go back to the Olympics. And the owner of the go club leading up to the Olympics was two brothers, last named kirkendall, but they got an offer that they couldn't refuse literally with cash money to sell the gold club to a very wealthy businessman, a Jewish businessman out of New York, and that'll become important later. Named Steve Kaplan, and he bought the gold club in 95 leading up to the Olympics in 96 because if nothing else, if he only owned it for during the Olympics, that would be a great investment because you're going to have primarily men in to the tune of tens of thousands flocking into the Olympics. And then where are they going to go at nighttime? These are sports oriented men, young men, and et cetera. So the short term gain was to own a strip club during the Olympics. All types of adult entertainment businesses sprung up during the Olympics and then went out of business as soon as the Olympics was over with. It was make the quick money. And Steve Kaplan's case and the gold club's case, they made their money during the Olympics, and then they kept the train rolling. And used the momentum of the Olympics to build the reputation of the goal club. And by the time that our case was over with or by the time we took our case down and made it public, the gold club was the most lucrative strip club in America to the tune of about $8 million a year. Probably 6 million of that was legitimate. If not more, and then a couple million of that was illegitimate ranging from skim tax money to perhaps prostitution money, et cetera but $8 million a year for one club. And that club was owned by a man named Steve Kaplan, as I mentioned, and when he bought the club, that he's from New York, he owns numerous businesses in the New York area. He was a known Gambino associate from the Gambino family, one of the 5 New York families. The New York Gambino squad basically picked up the phone called down to Atlanta and said, hey, we want you to know that one of our guys up here in New York, Steve Kaplan, who's in one of the most powerful crews in the Gambino family, has just bought a business down in Atlanta, and you should be aware of it. And that's the way the FBI exchanges information more or less. When one office knows about crime occurring in another office or the potential for crime or a criminal moving into their area, then we have formal and informal communications where we share that information. And
You're a Scientist? So What!
"I have been writing for over 20 years a column that comes out every Tuesday at Dennis prager dot com and starts at town hall and then my greats to daily wire American greatness. Jewish world review and many, many other places thank God, because I think I have something important to say, otherwise I wouldn't say it. So what happened was rare, I normally write the column over the course of the weekend and then polish it on Monday. It has to be submitted by Monday late afternoon. Obviously my time. And yesterday, a physician called many times. It took issue with me about Therapeutics, specifically Ivermectin. Which is fine. So I took his call. I like calls it. Take issue with me. But then he said, I'm a scientist. And that was a precious moment in my life. To which the responses so what? I can read reports just as well as you can. I don't know as much as he does about the way the human body works. So that there was no question. I pray that's true. He's a doctor. My the title of my column today, it's my website and town hall. Is your scientist so what?
The Left Takes America's Blessings for Granted
"A defining characteristic of the left is taking everything for granted. Specifically, the blessings of America. It takes a certain psychopathology to speak of a country as evil. It is a psychopathic. There is no reason in terms of political science, morality, sociology, to have that attitude toward America. It comes from a psychopathic place in a person's soul. And I don't know where that is, 'cause I can certainly relate to sin. I don't have a pure nature. That's why I've tried to work on my nature as I was told to do in my Shiva in my religious Jewish training till I was 19.
Tucker Carlson: People Are Not the Sum Total of Their Genetics
"This is not something that I've made out or found on the Internet. I don't even really go on the Internet. This is something that Democrats, including the architect of Obama's last victory, have talked about at great lengths in pieces monographs on television, written books about. So this is not like some crackpot Alex. Do you think when you talk about the central strategy of the Democratic Party? So to be like, I can't have any sense. You talked about a generational investment. How many generations makes you a legacy? I'm just saying people who live here now, including. Do you see? Do you have any do you have any empathy? Do you have any empathy for somebody who sees that flip, somebody who's grant whose parents are from India from China who are Jewish and say, wow, I don't think I just see that clip. And I don't really think this guy includes me in his vision of America. No, I don't have any, as you said, empathy for people to understand why they might think, well, please tell me if you don't mind if I could finish. I have no empathy for people who derive their judgments about anything from 32nd clips on media matters. I do an hour live every single night. If you want to know what I think, I don't know that there's anyone who's more transparent about it than I am, not all of my views are correct, not all of them are attractive. You may laugh at some of you, maybe offended by others, but I'm very clear about what I think. I believe that people are not the sum total of their genetics. I say that constantly. And as a question, I really mean it. I actually buy the kind of Dr. Seuss, please. Version of race understanding, which is judge a person by what he does, not by how he looks. I actually believe that. It goes like California was 70s. And I say it constantly. You have an hour every night, as you said. I want to move on to some other questions. Okay, don't fill up us for me.
Tucker Carlson: Goal of the Democrat Party Is to Bring in New People
"Three This is Tucker Carlson on with Ben Smith He's a lefty and Ben Smith is trying to do what every liberal does which has tried to attack conservatives for their replacement theory I'll play you by the way after this gym was kind enough to get it together A super cut of Democrats obsessed with this idea and Tucker Carlson's having none of it Check this out A lot of them don't buy the program of the modern Democratic Party because it doesn't serve them And so the center of the democratic electoral strategy going forward I'm not guessing they talk about it constantly You're a journalist You must have noticed is to bring in new people who will vote for them Now that we're looking at a line this is not something that I made up or found on the Internet I don't even really go on the Internet This is something that Democrats including the architect of Obama's last victory have talked about at great lengths in pieces monographs on television and written books about So this is not like some crackpot Alex Do you think when you talk about the central strategy of the Democratic Party So to be like I can't have said that You talked about a generational investment How many generations makes you a legacy I'm just saying people who live here now including do you think Do you have any do you have any empathy of any empathy for somebody who sees that clip somebody who's parents are from India from China who are Jewish and say wow I don't think I just see that clip And I don't really think this guy includes me in his vision of America No I don't have any as you said empathy for people Do you understand why they might be Please let me if you don't mind if I could finish I have no empathy for people who derive their judgments about anything from 32nd clips on media matters This is stunning
Charlie and Trans Marxist Ben Carollo Discuss Cultural Marxism
"Where does cultural Marxism fall under your ideology? Cultural Marxism is literally a Nazi conspiracy theory. Like literally, like literally the Nazis and Nazi Germany invented the phrase cultural Marxism. The fact that you're asking me about it is a pretty telling to who you are. Oh, you think I'm a Nazi? I'm most definitely. I mean, at this point, like you've made it pretty clear. Why am I not? Ask me questions about cultural Marxism. That's literally like so in case you let me ask you cultural laws. Who is he? Why are you bringing grams into this? No, but just tell me who he is. The Italian socialist. Yeah, so what phrase did he coin? I don't know, you tell me. Cultural Marxism. Was he a Nazi? Okay. No, Antonio. Oh, so maybe it didn't come from the Nazis. Okay, literally. So why would you say something so false when gramsci himself came up with the phrase? Do you know what the conspiracy theory is around cultural Marxism, then why it got so popular in Germany? So let's go back to Grom. She, what did he write about cultural Marxism? I don't know. Let us know in prison. Yeah, you're not familiar because you just keep on spouting out these things that call people Nazis which is super unhelpful and not true. And so yeah, Antonio gramsci from prison said that marxists must adopt a cultural framework alongside an economic framework in order to get the means of what they want to get done. That's not a conspiracy theory, just read his book. Okay, but that's different than the phrase cultural Marxism. How is it used? What do you mean? It's exactly the same thing. No, it's not exactly the same thing. So what happened is a Nazi Germany and they spread this theory called cultural Marxism. They literally had this theory that Jewish people were secretly like bringing Marxist theory into the mainstream and literally that's not at all what is anybody on the right talks
Lindsey Lohan Quietly Gets Hitched
"Lindsay Lohan, got married. Lindsay Lohan got married. A man's name is Bader shamas or Seamus. It's a Jewish name. SHA MMA S, shamus. He's a kuwaiti born financier. Whose net worth is about $4 million, and every single star from that legendary, well, remember that legendary car picture was a Paris Hilton, Britney Spears and Lindsay Lohan in that car in the early aughts. They were all looking crazy and effed up. They've all gotten married unless year. That picture is amazing. Because all of them got married this year. Isn't that something? But lelo and our man, they met in Dubai, this is where she lives now. They've been together for over two years. And the Lindsay Lohan of today is a little more low key because while Bader regularly shows up on her Instagram and she's like posts that claim she's pregnant, she really has been floating in our love, I mean, lilo got married in her wedding was an Instagram Live stream from the middle of a planet fitness, which is what she's working on a commercials lately. She didn't immediately sell the exclusive pictures to in touch and TMZ didn't post anything about how white Oprah was arrested after a wedding guest spotted white Oprah stealing the gifts and loading them into the trunk of an Uber now it's very low key. Nobody knew how it happened. The other day was lilo's 36th birthday and yesterday she paid tribute to her 35 year old man and called him her
Biden Nominee Elizabeth Frawley Bagley Goes on Anti-Semitic Tirade
"This is from the free Beacon Adam crater The Biden administration's nominee The service U.S. ambassador to Brazil spoke at length about the influence of Jewish money and politics Claiming the Jewish lobby exerts undue influence over the Democratic Party and its major money Where's the anti defamation league Where is it Where are they Where are all these groups I hear a more client I don't hear it from anybody Yeah Where are all the groups Elizabeth frawley Bagley A longtime diplomat and Democratic Party insider Is scheduled today to have her nomination advanced to the full Senate by the Senate foreign relations committee But her comments about Jewish money who else has talked about that Omar and Talib and they Love AI even though she's an anti semite and a bigot They love her
US Presbyterian Church Declares Israel 'Apartheid State'
"Is an apartheid state that they will every year celebrate or not celebrate as commemorate, knock by day, knock by as the Arab word for the disaster, the disaster of Israel's founding. In 1948, and they lied about Israeli Arabs not having the same rights as Israeli Jews, but it doesn't matter truth is not a left wing value. These are the death pangs of the Presbyterian Church. Because the left is taken over and whatever the left. Touches it destroys, and that is mainstream Protestantism non orthodox Jewish denominations and mainstream Catholicism. Be interesting to see if it affects the LVS. The Mormon church. I have reasons for concern, and I have reasons for optimism. That's another topic for another time. It is a very important topic. Because
Cruel Christianity? That's the Supreme Court Says Charlie Pierce
"On what happens when people of the Jewish or Muslim faith say abortion is allowed in our religion. You're trampling on our relationship. And they'll pursue it all the way to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court will rule against them because of reasons. So they don't get Supreme Court is being run right now by a remarkably cruel strain of misinterpreted Christianity. And I will leave the rest of that to reverend hugle saying, but this has nothing to do with
It's Total Bedlam in Front of the Supreme Court...
"Its total bedlam in front of the Supreme Court. It's not. Anything that is violent, I pray it remains that way. The people are using very charged language. In fact, let me read one of the tweets of somebody outside of the Supreme Court right now. One of the speakers with a megaphone also called for an uprising similar for the one in 2020 in the wake of George Floyd's death, any sort of mainstream media sympathy that these activists might be getting. I think is going to shatter as soon as they continue to use language like this. But from a legal analysis, we have the great Josh hammer, newsweek opinion, editor, and a constitutional expert to just walk us through what exactly this means. Josh, welcome back to the program. Tell our audience, does this outlaw abortion or does this send it back to the states? Tell us specifically what is in this opinion. So Charlie, first of all, great to be with you on such a great day for the constitution and great day for the country, really a great day for the human species for the very simple reason that we will have more unborn innocent human beings will actually be able to live as human beings. So it's a remarkable day for the country and on daylight they have Charlie. I think young pro lifers like you and I just have to have a debt of gratitude honestly to the past 50 years of pro life activists who got us. That's such a good point. Sorry to interrupt. You're exactly right. It's been a lot of prayer warriors and activists and grassroots folks and a lot of Jewish organizations, a lot of pro life organization, not a Catholic organization, it's great point,
Alan Dershowitz: We Can Make Legislative Solutions to Elections
"Anything And we don't see any of these comparisons being made between one party and the other Jamie you're asking who served in this committee tried to stop the election of president Trump I try to stop the election of president Bush I brought a lawsuit on behalf of the voters of Palm Beach county because they because of the butterfly ballot they voted for Pat Buchanan These were Jewish voters who go to a Patrick Harris about the least favorite candidate among Jews because they screwed up on the ballot So I brought lawsuits Am I committing crimes The American legal system permission to this And there isn't a word in this legislative hearing about what to do in the future We should set up an election commission the way Israel has an election commission in England some other countries have election commissions If you have a complaint you go to the commission the commission is nonpolitical with consistent university presidents ministers scientists people who have no party affiliation and they decide whether the election is fair We can make legislative solutions to this but nobody cares about the future People only care about pointing fingers Yeah the future They want to prevent the election of Trump That's the future But they don't want to change the law They don't want to improve the law They don't want to legislate some of these problems away All they want to do is expose and finger point It's an abusive legislative process It's an abuse of the constitution It's an abusive or system of checks and balances
Is Youth Wasted on the Young?
"So I wrote an essay, my junior year, and I actually think I have it. I can't believe I saved it. I hope I did. And it was all handwritten, and it was never typewritten or anything. And my theme was, I want to prove George Bernard Shaw wrong. So I had learned that George Bernard Shaw said, it's too bad youth is wasted on the young. And my essay was I want to prove sure wrong. That, in my life, youth will not have been wasted on me. Which is a very intelligent point of Shaw, because when you're young, you just don't take life all that seriously, you think you'll live forever, and so on. But I knew I wasn't going to live forever, even as a Jewish high school. And I just thought, I want to make use of the time. I know it's going to fly by. But anyway, I still return to my point. I think the week is the real
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Different faith. Traditions on baptists. Seventh day adventists mormons. I found a muslim version on reddit. on sue's various different cultures. That are thinking about is taboo on mix dancing but in the jewish context. What we get is the sort of slipping that happens where you might expect the thing. That would be taboo. Would the sex but because it's married couples on the thing that's the chap who isn't the sex. It's the mixed dancing. Even think maybe that the sex would be somehow more scandals in a jewish context. This can be taken as were gentle mockery of the principle in traditional jewish law. A building a fence around the tour basically there is something that is prohibited. And if you prohibit things that are one step removed that would lead potentially to doing the thing that is prohibited then. You're sure to not actually violate the really not supposed to be doing too. This apparatus develops things that are forbidden to avoid doing these other things that that are forbidden in the torah. What you also get in this context is that this joke becomes this way for juice that are engaged in the communities to talk about things that that are forbidden. Culturally we see this a lot. For instance in orthodox judaism on it could lead to mix. Dancing is often used as a punchline. For many things related to warms. And it's a way of signaling. All i'm in the no. I know what the rules are of my community. I found one website for instance that was giving advice to people who are interested in converting to orthodox judaism and one of the things that this website said was. You should learn how to use this. Punchline dancing appropriately his. That's a way of showing your that. You belong that you're sort of an inside so this joke and the punchline has taken a life of its own in this jewish organizational. Contexts is sort of a way of showing. That people really know what's going on that they're able to sort of gently rid communities. I think you pointed out here. The many different levels on which dancing operates where there's the actual history there's a way also in which this trope were. This theme has also taken on a life of its own and this also as you points out. It's also not just among the jews like you talk about so many different versions of the joke. As i'm sure we're going to talk about the issue of dancing and mixed-sex dancing particular this particular balance in jewish culture. But it's also much beyond that it's a it's an entire theme and when i first looked at the book and i think i was drawn to the book immediately first of all because it has just such a fantastic cover also because it's such an interesting topic but i immediately thought about the movie dirty dancing and this is obviously outside the main time period that you're considering in the book which is the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries though i think you do touch upon dirty dancing in the conclusion but there are so many other kinds of cultural productions that we can talk about where dancing is presented as transgressive or kind of against the rules and so on and so forth. So do you wanna say something about why. These kinds of stories are so striking there so repeated both in jewish culture and also beyond essentially why there are similar versions of the same joke. You and all these different cultures and what this represents in terms of thinking about what dance represents in terms of the development of modern culture in many settings both for the jews and also beyond that so one of the things that comes up a lot in modern literature certainly something. I've noticed in my literary scholarship because lot of the literature deals with like push back against a matchmaking. As a communal institution think fiddler on the roof and the diamond stories. If you're familiar with them but also in european literature more. Broadly not just european literature. There's a lot of concerns about the sort of romantic partnerships. People get into. They can be related to class You get that in economics on princeton's pride and prejudice nor also concerns related to questions like out on propriety like with the various adultery novels on take place in the nineteenth century. And you have all these of communal concerns. That aren't connected to marriage romance sex adultery and all these issues also come up on the dance floor and the dance floor becomes this way of playing out these sorts of stories in a recorded raft ways. And you get a lot of those. Those class issues In dirty dancing or you have a joie. Jewish woman wants young woman who wants to go to the peace corps before going to college and then she has this presumably non non-jewish working class lover Who's also teaching her. How to dance in like dancing in and of itself is actually considered completely. Okay in that context. The issue is that She's doing this sort of more earthy. Feeler lee call dirty. Dancing with working class resort employee's that her father us as being sexually immoral. Because the one of the these dancers ended up getting an abortion. So that's all that all get sort of connected. Jewish part is obvious people who studied the catskill resorts. It's not necessarily as obvious is in some other texts. But i think of dirty dancing really showing the success of this on these efforts had americanization that you get branston hester street which opens up with the dancing in the opening credits and that's based on. Yuck oh tilden.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Hi sean you're welcome to the podcast. Great to be here. This is such an interesting topic is to such a fascinating lens. We can use to look at all sorts of issues. What is important about dance and dancing sort of on the largest scale what is going on here. That makes dance such an interesting and important topic whether we're looking at jewish culture or beyond zoo. I think the first thing to about is that dancing was incredibly popular leisure activity today. When we have we have television we have all sorts of other sorts of activities. There's more options for sports that it's easy for us to forget dancing. Probably the main leisure activity that men and women did together across various S.'s in various geographic areas and that this was also something that for jews as they were becoming trying to become european in french german. Even american on this was seen as one of the ways that they could do this. In addition to this popularity which hasn't really been explored in a jewish context is the fact that it was something people were really trained to interpret. That are almost to view dancing as a text. Especially when you get dances at balls. I'm where there was this big expectation of following certain etiquette norms and being able to perform the dance choreography and also a sense. That being able to do these. Things was an indication of your class
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"First of all. That aren't expelled by law from where they are. They flee their refugees expellees. It's a slightly different thing. Some taken as captives but they never been forbidden for them to return. Police choose were deeply attached to the environment in which they lived. They soared as a key religious center. Jewish life villainous famously known as the jerusalem mania there are places the jerusalem of poland. This was a major center of jewish spiritual religious cultural life. And the jews didn't want to go. There is in fact one ruling made by some rabbis in ukraine. Things that such a disaster that you shouldn't go back to ukraine. They should leave. And some of the jews don't want to know they go back the soon as is possible. What's happened what the number of things happened that. Allow to work first of all when the jews flee when they get to other places whether that's inside poland with easy to return or even outside potent. They are given the possibility to support themselves. They're not made passive recipients of philanthropy given puppies to work and look after themselves. So that when it comes to the moment of returning reconstructing deciding what to do next. The options are in their hands. They can decide what they want to do. That's part of how that system work to that. Tom and i think it's key come back to it. And many many those jews would choose having been. Refugees remain treated very well in a town like slutsk or wherever they would choose to come back and reconstruct their lives legal terms. The situation of the jews was such that they were able to do so very interesting. That jews can bring the people who of the soldiers but anything that's been stuff that's been stolen from them. People who have been murdered not as part of a military action. Those criminals or those wrongdoers can be brought to justice in the polish courts by the jews which they do jews in. Poland have a very strong history of social organization. They take a very short time before jewish communities a- backup and functioning and so it's a very very rapid return generally speaking and the ability to reconstitute the jewish society in rapid very quick time to other things that are important first of all he comes back to this question of the jews response to tragedy in many places..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Today i'm joined by adam teller. Who's going to be speaking with us about the century jewish refugee crisis following the sixteen forty eight on. It's key pogroms. Aman how it helps us to understand the transnational transformations of jewish life in early modern times as well as when we want to think more deeply. Broadly about refugee issues on water scale both in history and also this is something which is still very relevant today. Adam teller is a professor of history and judaic studies at brown university. He has written widely on the economic social and cultural history of the jews in early modern pulling lithuania and his most recent book. Which we're going to talk about today is titled rescue the surviving souls the great jewish refugee crisis of the seventeenth century. This is going to be the starting point for our conversation today but in many ways it's not just about the book we're gonna be talking about the big issues that surrounds it. It's really an exciting book. It was recently a finalist for the national. Jewish book award in history is a pleasure to have adam here with us. Thank you so much. Adam for joining us on the podcast. Welcome really glad to have you. Here it's a real pleasure. Thrill pledged to be here. Jason absolutely i want to get us started by thinking about kind of what is this history in the first place when we look at the story of the malinowski pogroms and aftermath in the mid seventeenth century. What is going on here. And why does it matter when we wanna think about early. Modern jewish history well in the early period poland lithuania which was then called. The police between commonwealth was the largest wealthiest most develop jewish center in europe with in world terms. It was only rivaled by the ottoman empire and had gone through about one hundred fifty years very strong social economic cultural development. Making it this powerhouse. In the history of european jewry and the place where all of your looked in a number of different fails perhaps most particularly in terms of the jewish law. But not only that
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Is that jews are embedded in financial economic systems that exists within the different jewish communities. End exists outside of jewish communities existed the intersection and that they change over time. If one is carrying to think about in history it makes it quite impossible and improbable to draw any kind of a centralized relationship between jews. Not just american jews jews and financial power because these things all exist in contingent and conditional relationships and in the case of american jewish philanthropy. That it kind of core vector of that contingent relationship had to do with the policies of the american state and american jews. Were absolutely interested in them. And in dialogue with them and in negotiation with them and they were not ever the sole authors of them right and they were participating in any structures that were not of their making. Yeah i mean. I think one issue that we haven't really talked about too much here is israel but i think it's one that's really relevant it as much as two large extent. You're talking about the function of american jewish flat therapy within the context of the us but so much of american jewish flat therapy is directed towards the state of israel in one fashion. Other whether we're talking about a program like birthright which is meant to strengthen the jewish self identity of participants through travel to israel or whether we talk about american jewish flappy which is directed at supporting israel through israel bonds. I've always found it so interesting. That are kind of like sack. Relies through yunky poor and the bonds appeal right. But there's so many different ways in which flat therapy and the american jewish community is related to israel in one fashion or another. I think that you can trace a kind of india logical narrowing that happens a pace the accumulation of american jewish philanthropic capital in fewer and fewer places. Right as it becomes more. And more the case that there are these massive endowments and that you start to have more and more private family. Foundations started by jewish families. And these kind of particular figures or institutions. That really have convening power over this capital. It does seem to follow that. There is also a kind of ideological narrowing and that is most visible in thinking about politics related to israel and this ties back into an earlier point about the kind of disavowal philanthropy being political right because you have a parallel structure whereby these kinds of institutions are saying you know american jews relationship to israel's not about politics it's about love and it's about identity that same kind of language and the manifestation that american jews seem to know best in these final decades of the twentieth century of identity is through capital is through giving financial gifts and kind of exercising that identity based relationship through kind of financial relationship. It seems to certainly be the case. That as the kind of power structure of american jewish philanthropy calcified in various ways and calcified according to certain rules of finance and deregulation of finance. You know of the american state that there's also kind of calcification of a particular kind of limit of ideology and of what is and is not appropriate. When it comes to the relationship of american jews to the state of israel and part of that i is sort of patrolled by this constant of this is not about politics this is about identity it somehow removed from that so i think that's at least one little piece of this way that israel ends up even just as a concept or abstraction being really important piece of thinking about how american jewish philanthropy works. I think that some people will listen to our conversation. Read your book and they'll see okay..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And how do they deal with the basic problem of resource allocation. And so you know in a sense that history is as broad as like the history world right. I mean those are like really fundamental questions you know but it's also thinking about that through a kind of particular economic glenn's how do communities stitch themselves together by asking questions about resource distribution and sometime so in the jewish history philanthropy those questions were sometimes asked very specifically within jewish communities and sometimes we're really about interaction with non jewish communities or non jewish leaders right. What kinds of taxes in the middle ages did jewish communities owed to particular rulers. Or how did the kind of resources of the jewish community come to serve as a proxy for jews being able to claim that they had a place of importance when it came to you know operating in particular kingdom under a particular regime. I think it's so conditions by the environment in which it's occurring which to me is why it's really interesting. And why the ability to talk about the history of philanthropy. I think is also the ability to talk about philanthropy. It's actually quite impossible to name it as a historical force even though we might say that there are certain ideals like sadaqa that kind of cross time but are mobilized in totally different ways at different moments right. The different configurations of philanthropy generally speaking and specifically within the jewish context. Speak too much bigger issues about the place of jews within whatever society. They find themselves. So for instance one can talk about ways in which certain philanthropic activities have to do with jews trying to make themselves seem to be not a burden to the society in which they live right at the edge of the jews take care of themselves also ways in which jewish philanthropists have used. This is especially true..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"We choose to view Jewish history and the lachrymose view really does encourage us to create an historical memory rooted in the idea that Jews are victims and victims. When in fact, it's true I think across racial and ethnic and gender groups that all of us in some ways are victims and. All of us in some ways are victimisers since racial status is socially defined and fluid. It is constantly changing and lots of different ways. So I am less concerned about those who see complexities in the fact that all of this can be happening at the same time and as a scholar grow or concerned if anybody settles into a singular understanding of what a group is or isn't based upon any single factor. We only have a few minutes left. So I I, WanNa try to bring us towards a conclusion to this conversation, which, of course, I feel like we could go on for quite a long time with this set of issues, which as we said, is incredibly complex but what I want to ask. Is this what has been the response that you get from people when you talk about these issues whether you're speaking to your academic colleagues to Jewish communities? Jewish. Jewish organizations, and of course. I'm sure you get different responses from those two different sets of audiences in particular. But what is the response that you get? All, point out. One thing that you mentioned in the book I think it was in the epilogue were you mentioned the conversation that you had with some hec rabbinical students were you told them a bit about what you were doing in your research at the American Jewish archives in Cincinnati at the rabbinical school there and so you were talking with some folks there and when you laid out your argument over conversation did not go well, right So basically, what I'm saying is that is one thing for us to scholars to academics to hash out some of these issues. But when you talk about in the broader public, what happens in those kind of conversations and what is the response been on particularly within the context of what's going on now as people are trying to make sense of protests and you know black lives matter and you know the legacy of civil rights and so on. The response to this book I never imagined. And it's such a great question because the difference between my own consciousness when I wrote the book and then what happened when it came out is revealing and self reflective of myself as scholar, and also you know as as a white male you. I was interested in the line between what's Jewish and what's American. That's why I wrote the book and I thought that that was the book that I wrote. I figured based upon that story. I told of doing a lot of my research at the American Jewish archives in Cincinnati and hanging out with my friends who are rabbinic students there. They didn't like my thesis as I was reinventing the history that they like me had learned growing up I figured that the book would be received as a challenge by my peer group you know in organized Jewish life and I want to offer appreciation to Leah Danila. Legionella. Is An editor now on the NPR podcast called code switch and she reached out even before the book came out to say that she wanted to to talk about the book and she did a blog for it on the podcast. And what happened was members of the juice of color community reached out to me in ways that I did not expect and I did not imagine. The feedback that I got was that the story I was telling that was so new to me and new to my hec friends was very old to them. And in fact, they had known and seen it their entire lives and they appreciated that finally a book written about it white Jewish leftists reached out and they like the book I appreciated the support. I also found it a bit curious because I didn't write the book to appeal to White Jewish leftist if anything I found it deeply ironic that the almost all white male senior leadership of national Jewish Organizations was understanding systemic racism and they were the ones who were publicizing it at a time that nobody was listening. In terms of pushback and critique of the book it it came in in several I think well-founded places. I was a Alana Kaufman's critique that I wrote a book all about white people and the book was called Black Power Jewish politics and the way in which having a racial sense would have deepened and made the book more complex second. It was mostly about men because I chose to. Focus on Jewish organizational leaders for reasons that I did and of course that excluded women, it is not a gendered view and that that story needs to be told and there have been some really good Gendered Stories as well and in terms of politically between those on the left and those on the right I've mostly received some pushback on whether or not by saying what I said. I'm arguing that all the good stuff didn't happen. So I have to be careful that I also want to make sure on this podcast all the good stuff happened. It's absolutely true that White Jews were disproportionate involved in civil rights and risk their lives and sometimes gave their lives in order to achieve the goal. And that in academic history when we deepen and make more complex story doesn't say that the earlier versions didn't happen. It just says that we WANNA look at it in a more sophisticated way. After having written this book and what do you think is the biggest takeaway here and we've talked about why history matters for understanding for instance parts of the Civil Rights Movement for understanding the American Jewish context American Jewish culture. But of course you think this set of matters because you you dedicated years of your life you know doing research writing the book and so on. So when we think about this entire conversation What do you think is the biggest takeaway here from the book and from this set of issues about Jewish Whiteness Jewish ally ship the complexity of black Jewish relations. If we want to call it that you know for the lack of a better term, what's the big takeaway here for yourself for your students and for listeners? By redefining the split between blacks and Jews in the mid nineteen fifties, we can actually create a pathway for a new black Jewish alliance in the contemporary period. which is to say. If our historical memory was rooted in mythology. It's not going to be actually helpful today in confronting the challenges we face. When we understand that a lot of these insights about systemic racism where well known in the fifties that there was white Jewish support and advocacy for black power in the mid sixties that there was a lot of borrowing by Jewish or. From black power for Jewish empowerment. And the sense of what is the best role for White Jews to act as allies. Now that they know what happened over these previous fifty years or actually creating an opportunity that the split itself comes back together in.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"So highmark. . Welcome to the PODCAST. . Great to be here. . Thank you. . Yeah. . I'm really glad that you can join us for I. . Think Really Important and relevant conversation. . I read through the book I think it's a fantastic book. . I think that you're offering a revision of some of the ways in terms of how people have understood. . Especially, , Jewish people have understood the question of the history of black Jewish relations. . You maybe WANNA get US started off by saying a brief word about your argument in the book and what it is that you're putting forward. . Yes, , sure when I was growing up as a white suburban Jewish kitten in in La I learned that the civil rights movement was the story of a black Jewish alliance that brought heroic Jews to the south where they fought on behalf of racial justice until the mid nineteen sixties. . The. . Rise of black militancy of. . Black Power of anti-semitism. . Community purge Jews and ended what was a wonderful alliance. . When I looked in the archives though and began researching the book. . I discovered an entirely different story emerging instead of sort of the Dr King Rabbi Hessel arm in arm narrative that I was raised on. . I. . Found that even White Male Jewish leaders of National Jewish organizations understood as early as the nineteen fifties. . There was a fundamental difference between being white and Jewish in America and being black? ? In. . America. . And they in fact, , knew that there would be limits to the black Jewish alliance and <hes>. . That was my first sort of shocking discovery in terms of revising I knew growing up. . It's a really jarring perspective for a lot of people Jewish people I want to say who grow up thinking about and being taught about this alliance within the civil rights movement and the involvement of Jews within the civil rights movement. . So I think that what you're offering here is a almost radical perspective, , a radical revision of how we understand the role of the Jews in the civil rights movement. . I'd like to frame it s a both and and it's really important I to acknowledge the extraordinary American Jewish participation in the civil rights movement and in social justice causes. . When you look at the ethnic groups in America, , Jews are the most liberal. . Progressive. . Democratic. . Party. . Now Voting Group only African Americans vote more. . And by that standard I think there's justifiable pride amongst American Jews for the work that we have done and those perspectives have been covered in the historic. . Already. . What's also true is even as many heroic. . Jews. . Did go to the south to register voters and in some tragic cases, , of course, , gave their lives most Americans use didn't. . And there became almost sort of in the north, , a sense that watching on TV, , what the Jewish heroes were doing extended to them as well. . So what my book is trying to do is take a broader more inclusive look of all Americans, , or at least white American Jews, , and now we get to see more complexity to what's going on. . So I don't see this as as undermining. . The existing truth about Jewish involvement but I see it hopefully deepening it and making it more complex. . Why do you think that it's important to offer this complexity to the narrative of first of all? ? It's surprising in and of itself <hes> there's something that custodians recall historical memory, , which is what actually happened and what we remember or think happened what we were taught happened is often different. . In fact, , there's a history of historical memory which says the way in which we choose to remember or forget or analyze or spin. . If you want to be more cynical, , our historical past actually is meaningful in and of itself. . So what I found, , when I was surprised to find was that as early as the nineteen fifties, , Jewish leaders were calling out the limits of white Jewish liberalism and the inevitability of of African American autonomy and what would become the rise of black power. . So at the very time that the public narrative was consensus arm in arm. . But I love the called peace love and Bobby. . Sherman. . Everything's great. . At that moment, , even the Jewish leaders who were engaged in that kind of consensus politics understood its limits. . That's the part that we've forgotten. . I think over the last fifty or sixty years and I think it's really important especially in today's climate for us to understand better that it was always deep and complicated an intense and we knew about it at the time. . And then the real story is how in journalism and historiographer and in public memory, , we sort of forgotten that element until we've remembered it again with the national reckoning on race
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And also the history of discrimination. Is this question of. How do we expand our view in order to see these developments of what is happening in terms of Jewish history or even in terms of contemporary developments as not just a Jewish story? The part of a much bigger process. That's right I agree with that entirely. And I think that also applies to Israel issues in Israeli society status of Palestinian Arabs. Mizraki Jews Women Non Orthodox Judaism not to mention the West Bank. The occupied territories takes a very different cast. If we think about that in terms of the history of Jewish emancipation after all the founding fathers of Zionism wanted to create a society in which the emancipation that they thought had failed in Europe for Jews and others would be realized in a Jewish state. Well if you measure contemporary Israel against the vision of Theodor Herzl for example then you can see the current process in terms of the history of emancipation. Because that's how he understood it Ryan. It's not importing. Some foreign category Hertzel himself thought in terms of Mansa patient. He was a super emancipation Est. He wanted the new Jewish state to realize the emancipation that had failed in Europe. So I think that puts a different light on current problems in the state of Israel. Yeah so I think that the issue kind of dancing around or moving around a little bit just in the past couple of minutes. But it's something that I've been thinking about since reading your book is. It seems to me that in a in a certain way the in today's world we have a resurgence of ethno-nationalism white supremacy anti Semitism Satra That this history of masturbation is really important for us to wrap our heads around. Think about so as you think about these issues which you touched upon very briefly in the past couple minutes. Why do you think that emancipation matters today? Well I think emancipation matters today. Because in this country ethno-nationalist white supremacists Anti Semites. If you want to call them that those are people who historically have been the opponents of Jewish emancipation right. White supremacists are also buying large neo. Nazis the Nazis were opposed to Jewish emancipation. Where does the Holocaust began? The Holocaust begins in Nazi. Germany with the DEA Mansa patient of Jews. That was the first goal of the Nazis when they came to power in terms of Jewish policy was to deprive the Jews of citizenship. Which they said about doing i. They deprived Jews of political rights. They deprive them of civil rights ultimately deprive them of their labor their bodies their possessions and their lives so the white supremacist. Today in the ethno-nationalist are the heirs of the opponents of Jewish emancipation. So I think what what the Book Opens. Up is a perspective in which we can see. Today's developments historically. They are historically informed and historically intelligible historically legible. I well thank you so much. Thank you Jason. And thanks to you for listening to this episode. If you enjoyed it I hope that you will subscribe to the podcast and also follow us on social media where you can find us on twitter instagram and also in our facebook group until next time. I'm Jason Let's dig and thanks for listening to Jewish history matters..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"I'm Jason. Let's dig and I'm joined today by David. Sorkin to talk about the history of Jewish emancipation the process of Jews gaining and sometimes losing civic and civil rights in modern times. David Sorkin is the Lucy G Moses professor of modern Jewish history at Yells Department of history. He recently published Jewish emancipation a history across five centuries. He's a leading scholar in modern Jewish history and he focuses particularly on the social intellectual and political transformations from the Sixteenth Century. To the present which she looks at in this book through the Lens of Emancipation. He's also written about these same issues in some of his other major books including the transformation of German jewelry. Seventeen eighty to eighteen forty and Moses Mendelssohn and the religious enlightenment this new book Jewish Emancipation synthesizes the legal and historical pathways of emancipation against a broad geographical and chronological backdrop both in Western and central Europe. Which much of the traditional discussion of emancipation has emphasized and he also includes the Ottoman Empire and the US where many have passed over the history of emancipation on the basis of assumptions. That maceration is first of all a European story and secondly that Jews never needed emancipating in the US. So this book undermines a number of key assumptions about how we understand emancipation. The book also extends our timeline instead of focusing on the French revolution and its aftermath as a one time event. David traces the history of emancipation as a process from the sixteenth century. To the present. He suggests that this is a story that isn't over yet. Especially when we consider Israel and the question of rights and citizenship there. I'm really excited to share our conversation. David's book presents a starting point for a wide ranging discussion about how we understand Jewish emancipation and white matters as David suggests. We talk about emancipation and we know that this is an important juncture in modern Jewish history but it paradoxically has also been neglected so when we look at this history more closely we can think about why emancipation matters not only for how you understand. Jewish history but as a story that illuminates and illustrates the development of mcgarity on a much larger scale. If you enjoy this episode I hope you'll share it with a friend you can find it online along with a transcript of our conversation at Jewish history dot FM slash emancipation. I hope you enjoy our conversation. Thanks for listening so hi David. Welcome to the PODCAST. Thank you Jason. It's pleasure to be here. I'm really excited about this conversation. I saw this book a while ago and I said we have to talk about this. This is really really important topic and I think that one of the reasons why it's important is because it's an issue which we talk about a lot about emancipation. We teach about it in our classes everybody reads about it when they're studying for their PhD or when they want to understand monitoring history general. We always look at it in detail. We've got a couple different cases with the French Revolution et CETERA. But it's often oversimplified and so I'm hoping that today we can really dive into the details about a massive patient and also white matters Jason. I I agree entirely with what you just said. I think emancipation is always there in thinking about studying teaching modern Jewish history in some ways. It's ubiquitous it's unavoidable but. I do think that the understanding of emancipation has usually been too circumscribed to narrow. And I say that circumscribe narrow both Clinton logically and geographically but also conceptually and I think part of the problem has been is that there's a tremendous scholarship on emancipation in individual countries regions individual cities. But there hasn't been sort of broad. Synthetic thinking about emancipation. If you think about how central emancipation is in modern Jewish history. It's really shocking that there hasn't been an attempt at a synthetic account of emancipation since Jacob cats as nineteen seventy three out of the ghetto. So that's you know that's almost half a century that is the only synthetic account in any language that I know of and Jacob. Cats only dealt primarily with three countries. It's really about France Austria and Prussia He mentions England and Holland a little bit. He doesn't deal with Eastern Europe. And then he doesn't deal with anywhere else in the world And if you look at the structure of the book. It's more about the causes of emancipation its consequences and now about the actual process. There's only one chapter on actual legislation. I think that catches book really does Loom Large when we think about yours and a lot of ways but before we delve into kind of a historic graphical aspects of all of this. I think that what you just said One thing that maybe we can pick up on. Is this question of the synthetic approach and also thinking about. What is the patient to begin with where you said that people kind of talk about it? They think about it. But we don't always look at it in detail. And I want to broaden our lens a little bit and think about what even is a massive patient as you write about in the book. This is a term that applies in all sorts of different contexts and not just in terms of Jews. Jewish mathematician is just one in a whole series of cases that we can talk about emancipation as phenomenon in modern times in Europe but also in other places too so before we dive into the details of of Jewish mets patient. What would you say is the fundamental meaning of emancipation as a phenomenon of modernity at large and what are the big picture issues that it allows us to engage with and think about well? I guess I would argue that. A Mansa patient in general is really about equalization and a release from some kind of inferior status whether that's discrimination disabilities et Cetera. So in the modern period emancipation as applied to serfs. It's a term applied to slaves. It's apply to women it's applied to workers you know. I think it's Heinrich Heino. The poet and satirist who wrote that that the nineteenth century is the century of Mansa patient. I think one could broaden that and say the modern world is the world of emancipation where different groups however defined are always struggling to emancipate themselves. I mean I think one of the things that I try and show in in my book and I think that's important and is often lost. Is that the struggle for equalization or Mansa patient or rights in Europe actually begins with religion. It's really about I attaining some kind of notion of toleration and then toleration of different religions than the equality of members of different religions and that you can't understand what happened to Jews in isolation from the larger issue of religious toleration and religious equality in general and that one can see that first of all in the very term emancipation which is applied to choose after emancipation of Catholics in England in eighteen. Twenty nine. But you can also see it. In the Legislation Joseph the seconds edict of toleration which is often seen as a seventeen eighty two as a landmark in the toleration of Jews follows an edicts for Protestants and the Orthodox and the Habsburg Empire or even in France citizenship for Jews follows toleration for Protestants and citizenship. Protestants so these. These things are always linked so when we think about the development of Jewish emancipation in various countries various places as it relates to the toleration emancipation of other religious groups. Various classes masturbation of serfs emancipation of slaves. You're literally in America. We have the emancipation proclamation. And you're thinking about this process of equalization now of course. This was very much in theory in not in practice so we should always keep that in mind. But I'll go back to what I had asked for just a second ago in. What ways do you think that thinking about this process as it develops for the Jews and also for other groups helps us to think about really important questions about the nature of the development of of modernity or of of of Western societies? Or just in general in modern history. Well I think it is possible to think about modernity or the modern world as a series of overlapping and related processes or efforts at Amancio patient of different groups defined differently. Trying to find release from forms of discrimination and inequality and to gain equality after all with as I've just pointed out with the emancipation of Jews is related to the emancipation of other religious groups particularly in Europe Ryan of Catholics and Protestant countries dissenting Protestants in Protestant countries. But at the same time it also converges or has happened and concomitantly with the emancipation of serfs and late nineteenth century. It's happening with the emergence of the proletariat the attempt of workers to gain equality in recognition. That's at the same time in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as women trying to gain equality right Mansa patient of women suffrage movement etc And in our own time it converges with finance a patient of the Movement for gay and Lesbian People Right and so are transgender. So all of these things are always going on and I think one of the things that one can say. Is that even though in trying to understand the issue of JEWISH EMANCIPATION? The emancipation of any of the other groups That legislation is always important. Landmark is the legislation is only part of a much larger process and that for example the emancipation proclamation for slaves in the United States is a pivotal moment. But it's only one moment in an ongoing process and the Jewish Mansa patient needs to be seen the same way as not as previous historians have treated is not a linear process It is not narrowly circumscribed chronologically it? Not Start at Point A. An end at point B. It doesn't start with the French revolution in seventeen ninety ninety one and end with the Russian revolution in nineteen seventeen. It begins much earlier and it continues to the present day. I think that you're getting at here. The major interventions of your book. And if you're thinking about them as a patient as a whole you're talking about the connection between Jewish masturbation and emancipation of Catholics and Protestants to begin with and this suggests the way in which the history of masturbation begins in say the sixteenth century with the inclusion of the wars of religion in Europe. And as you have societies that include many different religious groups are trying to figure out how to deal with this religiously diverse society. The Jews are also a part of this as well and I think the you're also talking here about the way in which the patient also extends up to the present in a lot of ways and I think that some of the things that are coming through here has to do with the ways in which the development of debates about emancipation which I think might even be better with and just talking about masturbation as a thing. It's not just a thing but it's a process. It's a discussion one. That is not really fully complete. But that it's tied to these broader developments of the modern state the transformation of subjects and citizens the creation of unified codes of law. You know it Cetera. And as I think about some of these things we can look at this process of the development of the modern world from a lot of different perspectives so looking at Jewish emancipation in particular. How does it help us to understand Madera County and these various processes that you've touched upon and thought about in different ways? Well I think there are number of different ways of thinking about that. I think Jewish emancipation is an important case. Study as it were for Mansa patient in the modern world and especially since it's such a long term and geographically broad process. It's a process that extends across Europe As you've already mentioned from the sixteenth century to the present day it extends across the Ottoman Empire and now North Africa and the Middle East. It's a process that extends into the new world through the Dutch and British colonies and into the United States and it's a process that also encompasses the state of Israel. So as an instance or a case of emancipation I wouldn't say it's universal but it's extremely broad chronologically and geographically and for that reason has tremendous significance for historians. Were thinking about the nature of emancipation of groups gaining equality in the modern world. I also think it's significant in the in the sense that it can't be understood in isolation from the larger issues of Mansa patient in general as you've pointed out the creation of notions of citizenship the creation of nations and nation states on nationality states and nationalities empires I think it's often been the case that in the writing of history of Jewish Mansa Patient. There has been a very strong assumption that there is this thing citizenship or equality out there and the Jews are being excluded from it rather than seeing that nations are in formation there is this fluid notion of citizenship which is slowly emerging and. It's a painful process within various countries and that. Jews are part of that larger process as it unfolds. It's not as if they're simply being excluded and they're knocking at the door and trying to gain entrance. There isn't yet a door. The terms are not yet set. The terms are being defined the terms are fluid and Jewish. Emancipation is important. Part of that larger process..
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Of relations of Jews and Muslims in those countries of Jews and Christians in those countries and the existence of Jews in the region which goes beyond the scope of Zionism or Israel Biblical Israel Yeah you spoke before a bit about the diaspora and this is an issue which is very personal for me. I lived in La for a long time. So I am very familiar with the Persian Jewish community. And when interest me it's partially terminological question but I think that there's a greater significance here that we can think about. Which is that you tend to use the terminology of Iranian Jews as opposed to Persian Jews. And do you. Maybe WANNA clarify a bit of the difference between these two ideas and perhaps about the relationship of this history that you've talked about with the development of the Jewish asper around the world and especially in places like la. First of all we have to realize that pershing's an ethnic category and Iranians initial category some of the Iranian Jews in La are Persian. Some of them are Kurdish. Some of them are Iraqi so are ethnically but they all come together as part of this national group of the Astra which is Iran. We also I mean this is something that I'm I'm working on now. And they merged of the category of Persian in the diaspora is something very interesting. And I think it's mostly from the post nineteen seventy-nine wave of immigration. And this something that. Now it's been studied by by number of good friends of mine who work on Iranian identity in the ass brine and Iran after dilution in one thousand nine hundred nine when running to start to come to la. This is also the beginning of the twenty four hours news cycle and the twenty four hour news cycle was inspired by the hostage crisis and immediately in the American society Iran became synonymous with the hostage crisis and the barbarian Iranians that took over the embassy and the way for the new immigrants Jewish managers to distance himself from the from the crazy. People on television was to defend Persian and to invoke this ancient identity that is peaceful and you know go back to their to their biblical scraped and can create this war between them and the Iranians with television. I guess there's only one more thing that I might ask and I feel like I keep asking more things but I think it's just such an interesting topic. Is this book going to be translated into Persian? Parts of its have been translated to Persian from time to time. I see chapters published in the Iranian in Iranian Jewish magazine that is published in Tehran. I hope that it will be translated. Iran is not subject to copyright agreement. So well don't ask revisions the reason why I ask. I mean it's it's always good to have books translated into different languages but it speaks to audience. I think that a lot of what we spoken about in our conversation today has to do with what we learned from your book as Western juice right or as Jews in the English speaking world right and and I include Israel within that but part of the question is if this book were translated into Persian. It has a possibility of reaching a different audience in a way and I guess. Part of the question is here. What do other audiences perhaps have to gain from this history and not just from those who are reading a book in English? This is such a good question. I think the Iranian readers would appreciate getting a nuanced account of their society of their experience of not just the Jewish community in Iran in the twentieth century but also to see how it's connected to Iran in history Iran in modern history. That's IT I don't know I I. I'm hoping to get readers responses and and see if I can come back in a couple of years and tell you more about. We'll have to talk again then. Well thank you so much. This is just really a lot of fun and disability chapels conversation so thank you thank you so much. This was a pleasure and thanks to you for listening to this episode. If you enjoyed our conversation I hope you'll share the episode with a friend and subscribe to the podcast on Apple.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"And you're making this argument that that the emphasis on the expulsion of the Jews from Iran and also from other countries has to do with the erasure of Middle Eastern Jewish history in the service of a kind of a Zionist master narrative. I just I'm just bringing this forward because I think that this is really the critical aspect here. The part of what you're doing here is highlighting what I might even call it of the of the Arabic Jewish diaspora saying that. This history is over. We're creating a new Jewish history in in Israel and so on and so forth so like what's going on here. Why is this issue important? Same time the historic project here is not just to raise Jewish past it also to create this idea that Jewish Muslim Massey is something that pre dates everything else that there was no chance for Decent existence of Jews in Dr Blends in Iran? Even the name that they chose for this day expulsion of Jews from the Arab countries and Iran. When in fact Jews were never expelled from Iran? I mean as we started this conversation with the fact that Iran is still the home for the second largest community in the Middle East. But this is something that gets very little mentioned in the text of this day and essay that I coauthored dinar with Documenta Shansie from been Green University. We go against the LACHRYMOSE. Historic graphical tradition. But we also say that narratives or counter narratives of Golden Age are as useless and childish in the same way what we want to say. Is that histories complicated. Histories massive business. We cannot say that Joe suffered for four hundred years. They suffered from persecution and Vinnie status. And it was enforced in the same way in all the Arab Muslim lands and and we also go against the idea that choose experience this golden age under Islam. And it's as useless as a lachrymose narrative. I think that we keep throwing around these kind of insider terms among historians. Like if you were to pull it anybody at the Association for Jewish Studies which is actually where we're sitting right now and you start talking about the lachrymose conception of Jewish history. They'll understand what we're talking about because this is a reference to this kind of monumental essay by celebration but what I want us to think about here is not just how this fits into the trajectory of the way that historians approach history but white matters in a very broad sense. And I think that what you're talking about here about these essays that you wrote and Co wrote. Is that these issues matter. There's a reason why on the one hand these essays were shared so widely online and also why there was also a huge pushback from certain people who perhaps understood the claim that you're making t. v. threatening to the way in which they understand the world. I wonder if you WanNa comment a bit about why it is that these debates about the nature of Jewish life in Iran about the question of expulsion. What is the true stake here? When we're talking about about these debates why people react so much to the pieces that you've written recently on the issue. This is my personal opinion. And you or any other person who may have read. This essay can say other things. I think that now we're sitting here. In December two thousand nineteen now the relations between Jews and Muslims not just in Israel but also we see claims of Muslim anti-semitism across Europe and questions of relations between Jews and Muslims in America in Europe in Israel. And there's always wanted to go back to the Demi question choose leave this. Lamy's throughout them. The Muslim world and the Muslims always tried to show and exercise superiority and they will never accept any solution. That would give Jews dignity in this arrangement and I say well that's not true. I mean part of it is true for some periods for some places but this is not the way to characterize fourteen hundred years and you know over the years. There were many notorious attempts to write those long histories of linear narratives. There was this book by Martin. Gilbert came out about ten years ago in Ishmael tent in the House of Ishmael. I think it was called which literally tried to write history of Jews for over a thousand years from Iraq Iran as well. That's that's quite an aspiration to write something like that without having Middle Eastern languages without having any ability to read sources or to even speak to people who live there. And what I'm saying is that but unfortunately this kind of compelling simple narratives where pretty dominant in the conversation about Jewish Muslims relations and while I'm trying to show or to say or to claim is that all of these generalizations are useless when we talk about history in the Twentieth Century Modern Times even in early modern times. We have to really look at it case. By case and to see the Jewish life were characterized by lots of terrible events but also by many events of success and integration and assimilation and cultural mutual influence and and we cannot overlook one or the other. I think that you are describing here again as part of a much bigger trend of scholars trying to emphasize that it wasn't always so bad for the Jews and I think that we look at the history of the Jews in Iran and we try to period. Is it right between various eras times? One can certainly look for instance in the fifties and sixties and the seventies and say okay. Iran is a place where there are many Jews and people going back and forth to Israel event and then of course everything changes in seventy nine in a lot of ways so to. What extent does your argument and analysis hold up for the period after Nineteen seventy-nine up till the president essentially where I think that there are many people who will come to your book? Come to what you're saying to this conversation and say Okay Great. You're saying that it wasn't always so bad right right. But once you get to the revolution then it just turns dark so to what extent is the revolution changed things and also if I can just add one last thing you also make this argument about the role of Jews in the revolution. So how does that also affects sort of our understanding of how the history of the Jews in Iran shifted in that period and beyond the revolution certainly changed things for Iran Jews as well as for Iranian non-jews this was the most defining event of the second half of the twentieth century and today so this is something that we have to acknowledge that this was an event that changed everything? However I think that what proves that my argument is still relevant. Even after is again I go back to the fact that there is still a vibrant Jewish community in Iran even after this major transformational event as they stomach revolution. We still find a Jewish community that is trying to assert its place in the nation that is trying to respond to many contradicting streams in Iranian society fighting for the place fighting to voice their opinions and fighting. Even I would go back to the period of the presidency of Medina shod fighting anti-semitism and do it in ways that were in. Many ways were overlooked by by US by Western observers of Jews in in in the in the Muslim lens so I think that if anything it proves the document but another way to look at it is from the diaspora that we see today that Iranian identity is very much a defining feature for Iranian Jews in ways that perhaps I don't know how many how many other desperate groups have this kind of strong relations to the culture to the language today today idea of the Iranian nation as much of the Iranian Jewish diaspora communities. I WANNA come back to the to the spur of the Persian Jews or the Iranian Jews. In just a moment I want to focus a bit more still on the revolution because I think that this is really a critical argument that you're making here and something that really shocked me and a lot of ways which is to say that you were saying that the Jews in Iran part of the revolution and I think that you are also quick to qualify that by saying Jews were not the cause of the revolution and the of course we're not the leaders of the revolution you. This is the Islamic Revolution. But can you say a bit about the role of Jews in the revolution? Which again found to be so surprising and so interesting. And then what are we take away from that? How does that help us to reassess our understanding of the Islamic Republic of Iran? All right so I think that what it shows is that at some point in the twentieth century Jews started to think of themselves first and foremost is Iranian and when the struggle against the tyranny of the Shah started they didn't of themselves as Jewish Iranians Iranians and. It didn't matter much what it did but again it's complicated. They didn't think on the about the relationship between the China Jewish community which considered himself protector of a Jewish community beneficiary of the Jewish community. They thought of themselves as Iranians fighting against the dictatorship and when they run in revolution started it was an Iranian revolution. It wasn't an Islamic revolution and pretty much. Every group of the rang sightsee participated to some level in the revolution and we see that in the Jewish community. It was very it. Manifests itself in many ways. The story of the Jewish hospital that actually collaborated with revolutionary leaders and use the special status of Jews and the protection that they got from the government to treat one protesters from the demonstrations against the Shah. This is something this is. I think where we seen action. The level of loyalties to the Jewish values the day considers as a loving yourself and the commitment today run in nationalism and run in Hendaye run in nation building. This is again the nuanced reading of Stomach Revolution is not not an Islamic revolution. It turned out to be slam curve. Lucien but again if you see how. The fortieth anniversary of the rule was marked in the in the US and in popular newspapers and sophisticated newspapers like Washington Post New York Times. Sometimes the the question always pops up. Why did they running people decide to go on this uprising against liberal rulers? Such as the shy he was so good them he was so good too. I mean Iran was more of of liberalism in in that part of the world. Why did they and there is. No attempt to conceptualize it. It's always like they posed the mulas versus the shah. As if these were the only two options that existed BECCA. Dan and I think he tells us to say today that different shades of the groups that you know together. They form the Islamic republic when we read about the sanctions. And if you don't read too much into it it's easy to justify crippling sanctions against Iran. But when you realize that Iranians pay the price the it's not necessarily the leader of the country that pay the price but the many groups. There are Jews Christians. There are people who support the regime of people that oppose the regime. I hope that it helps us to humanizer on in ways that other sources do not allow us to. I think what you're saying here is really important because I think that it's very easy to demonize countries rogue nations or rogue states Iran. Being one of them you know I think about some of the other similar ones like North Korea and so on and having historical understanding helps us to understand the better. I mean that sounds kind of tolerable in a way. But I think that it's important because it's not about rehabilitating rogue states but it's about having a complex it's sophisticated understanding of the world in which we're living that's what I'm hoping So I I want. I wanted to draw on that in a way especially since we're getting towards the end of the time that we have an in a way. I feel like we've already talked about this but I was hoping that you might give us a little bit more of really what we're coming from wishes to say. You've written a book about the history of the Jews in Iran. I'd like to delve even further into this question of what we learned from it. We've talked about the ways in which it helps us to understand the revolution. We've talked about the ways in which helps us to understand. Zionism helps us understand various aspects of Jewish culture within Iran. But when we talk about the history of the Jews in Iran I think about this in three realms. I like us to think in the last few minutes that we have about how looking at the history of the Jews in Iran. Ron Helps us to gain a better understanding of Jewish history as a whole how it helps us to to have a new approach to the history of Iran and all sorts of the broader region. Maybe if you want to comment on that a little bit in terms of history of Iran what I'm hoping to do is to show that Iran is a complex society. It's a society of Minorities Society of many classes and it misses and languages and we cannot just treated as one cloth of people in terms of Jewish won't juicy story was never just about Holocaust or redemption or a golden age. History is never in the black or white. It's mostly in the grey zone. I mean this useful to think about Jewish history everywhere but especially in the Middle East where there is relatively very little curiosity and it takes very little place in our collective historical memory and what I want to think about is again a history.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"The Code Stern. Feld twenty for a twenty percent discount again. Thanks for listening. I hope you enjoyed this. Episode of Jewish History Matters With Lee or stern felt about the history of Jews in Iran. Highly are welcome to the podcast. Jason Thank you so much for hosting me. Yeah I'm just so glad that we get a chance to sit down and talk about your really exciting book which I think as listeners will will understand deals with a really important set of issues as we try to understand. Modern Jewish history has a whole history of the Middle East and the history of Iran in particular. So I want to start out actually something that I saw on the cover of your book. Which is that you know. The first thing I did was I got your book and I read the back. Cover something that was there that was just so striking and I know that the back of the book is often written by the publisher not by the author but nevertheless was that it noted besides Israel. Iran is the country with the largest Jewish population in the entire Middle East. And so this is just like so interesting. Because I think there's this popular perception about how people tend to think you know. There are a few Jews in Iran that history essentially over and I want us just to get started by thinking. About what extent do you think that people have overlooked the history of the Iranian Jews? And why you think it's important to look at this history of the Jews in Iran and to correct some of the misperceptions especially when we talk about it in terms of the numbers that people think Jewish. Iran is kaput. But actually it's the country with the second largest number choosing the whole region this great question but for me the issue of juicy story in Iran Jewish life in Iran Iran being home to the second largest community the Middle East about addressing assumptions. That people are have got in Iran because of the relations between Iran and Israel. After nine hundred seventy nine because of the history of Jews in the Middle East outside Iran since nineteen forty-eight and also the perception that Iranian Jews if there is a community to speak of they are like the Soviet Jews Behind Iron Curtain. They are not in touch with the wall waiting to be rescued. And I think that this is something. It's very existing notion when talking about Iranian Jews in the twentieth and twenty first century. I think that what you're saying. He is really important. You are comparing the history of Jews in Iran with other kinds of oppressed Jewish communities and has to do with the way in which it is perceived by Jews in the West particularly in the US and Israel. I think that what you're really getting here. Is that if we want to understand the history of Jews in the region of the Middle East. We need to kind of take off the perspective of the present where we see. Israel AND IRAN AS ANTAGONISTS. One another and we need to go back to another time when it was not exactly the same situation and we need to understand history through its own point of view and not from our own perspective from today and also to do away with the major generalizations that usually characterized this kind of conversation regarding Iran or other countries. We need to look. They story of Iranian Jews in. I chose to focus on the twentieth century in modern times every period in history presented new set of challenges and opportunities for Iranian Jews. And this is something that we should look and examine the context of Uranian Society Not in secluded way of looking at the Jewish community as one community that is not connected to the historical tradition. And this is something that I'm trying to do on the twenty century which presented several opportunities and challenges with Zionism with Iran nationalism with globalism and responses to different global trends. Yes he brought up how you're really focusing on the twentieth century. This brings for one of these challenges that you mentioned towards the beginning of the book where you talk about. There are a number of ways in which one can construct the history of Iran's Jews. You are focusing on the Twentieth Century. But there's also a much longer history going back essentially changing times. How does this dynamic play out in terms of Jews in Iran and the Persian Jewish asper? And how they see themselves and how they are perceived by others in terms of how we frame this history as a way of understanding the president so the ancient history is very essential to understanding the Iran interest identity in the twentieth and twenty first century. Look there's something that I mentioned is an anecdote in the beginning of my book that every personal history starts twenty seven hundred years ago when they first come to Iran Iranian Jews. Being almost original run-ins is something that is central today Iranian Jewish identity. It has been used and misused in many ways in the twentieth century and twenty-first-century especially in the despot communities this long into the pre Slavic period or the idea of Cyrus says the liberator of Jews. These are more than contracts. I mean are works that are now being done on the frustration of human rights which is very generous reading of artifact in any way they use of this long histories now to justify one of the readings why running Jews still remain in Iran today even though they have the opportunity to migrate to other places but also in the dashboard communities sometimes translate into reading of why running Jews shooed maybe lead opposition to the Islamic republic or to justify taking sides against Iran in the global politics. Today I think what you're talking about here about how a vision or imagination of the ancient past plays a role in terms of the politics of choose Iran and also Jews in the in the diaspora of Iran really struck a chord with a whole range of other elements of Jewish history. Where we see the idea of the ancient history of Jews in a place as a claim of rudeness in that place is really important. I most familiar in this instance with German Jews that being one of the areas where I focus in my research but you see also these claims of the Jews informs in Germany. They make this claim that Jews have been there since the sixth century BC. You have the claim that the Jews are part of the migration of the focus on during their all. These ways in which people are wanting to claim that they are a part of the society in which they're living and the association with the ancient past or with medieval or. Whatever is an important part of this. And I think that what you're highlighting here is that there is a distinction between how we look at things from the perspective of the group themselves. And how they want use history for the construction of their own narrative of self and the way in which we wanna look at it from the perspective of just what happened in the past hundred two. Hundred Years. Yeah and and the question that is essentially modern of question of authenticity. Like are we authentic enough? What is authentic you running identity? Who CAN CLAIM TO BE RYAN? This is certainly one of the angles that can be played. This really speaks to. I think one of the major interventions of your book which is question of how we understand the history of Iran in modern times and how the Iranians have understood themselves as well because you contrast the idea of the history of Iran as a history of minority groups the Jews among them in opposition to various attempts over the course of the twentieth century to try to unify the country under a single identity whether that has to do with Islam or with anything else. Can you maybe say a bit more about as you're thinking about the role of history and the construction of the identity of the Iranian Jews? How your approach to this history contributes to our understanding of this discourse throughout the course of the twentieth century of the attempt at constructing a unified national identity in a country. That is incredibly diverse. So this diversity. Something that distort. The tradition of Iranian history and tradition of juicy story didn't try to challenge the project unify neuron will something that especially under the pub. Monarchy is something that was the biggest project of the twentieth century. How do we take Country of twenty-seven ethnic and religious and linguistic minorities and turn them into one unified more or less unified nation. And the idea. Was that if you write this one history from above something that look at Iran is political unit unified by culture and administration. The differences will disappear. There were all sorts of of laws that prevented minorities from teaching the languages. Alright in publishing languages again trying to to create to manufacture this unified Iranian identity. It worked some extent many minorities essentially he came to send himself as Iranian. Others could not voiced their resistance effectively and in terms of in from the tradition of Jewish. History there was never until twenty years ago. There was not really an attempt to read Jewish history as part of the local society. It was always much more connected to the Jewish world on their western Jewish wall. Door the idea of a Jewish world. We never tried to see Iran just as part of the origin. Jesus part of the Egyptian side and so on and twenty years ago we started to see a revolution in Jewish history of Middle East with Jordanians book on Jews of Egypt and recently in the past ten fifteen years we. We saw many of the books about Iraq by Orrick Baskin and age by ragging. Not and other. So we're really see this new way of looking at the Jews part of society and not as secluded isolated community. Yes so I think this is a very important point that I want us to dig into a little bit more. Which is to say that that you are highlighting ways in which there has been a general shift in the way in which scholars are talking about the history of the Jews in the Middle East and the various communities in different countries. And so when you look at your discussion in your thinking about the history of the Jews in Iran and how you are contributing to this shifts. Why do you think that this approach is important? Why do you think that understanding the history and the role of the Jews within the Iranian Society? Both from the beginning of the twentieth century through the Poppy Dynasty and now in Post Revolution. Iran? What's going on there? How's this contributing to our understanding of broad set of issues and that we see this overarching historic graphical trend. That you were just talking about bringing us to a big picture. Understanding of of a new approach and white matters. Look a story in. I think the simple narrative simple explanations don't tell us and it doesn't help us in understanding Iranian history doesn't help us to understand their relations between Iran and Israel today doesn't have to understand the role of Iran. I was trained. Does is Taurean of modern Iran and I came to study run in Jewish communities as they story in Iran so for me the tapestry of Iranian society was something that I wanted to understand. Better not just to highlight the role of the Jews but also to see what it tells us about to talk about it very superficially there is a project in the US in Israel in the West. Broadly speaking of vilifying Ron and it's much easier to vilify country when you don't know anything about it and make those broad generalizations that everyone are made of the same cloth. It's much easier to create those horrible assessments of country when you know nothing about it but when you tell people that Iran is actually country minority when you tell people that Iranian Jews had many sets of loyalties to Judaism to the Took the Iranian nation to the society in which they lived to other minorities to Israel but in many levels and different connections. I think that it helps to start smarter conversations about the Middle East in general about Iran and about these rent as well so I think this is a really important point right because you are talking about the way in which historical ignorance feeds into fear.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Bible on topics including metaphor the nature of Biblical historical texts and gender issues his many books include the Jewish Study Bible which he co edited with Adele Berlin how to read Jewish Bible the Bible and believe her you're how to read the Bible critically and religiously and the creation of history in ancient Israel among many others Amy Jill Levine is university professor of New Testament and your studies and Mary Jane Worth in Professor of Jewish Studies at at Vanderbilt Divinity School and the College of Arts and Sciences. She's also an affiliated professor at the Center for the Study of Jewish Christian relations nations at Cambridge and she's taught at the pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome. Aj's books include the misunderstood Jew the church and the scandal of the Jewish Jesus the meaning of the Bible what the Jewish scriptures and the Christian Old Testament can teach us co authored with Douglas night the New Testament methods and Meanings Co authored with Warren Carter short stories by Jesus the Enigmatic Attic parables of a controversial rabbi entering the passion of Jesus and most recently the gospel of Luke Co authored with Ben Within the third Mark Aj as to tremendously prolific scholars of the Jewish Bible and the New Testament have deep knowledge of the historical Oh context of the New Testament as well as of how it has been interpreted over the centuries together they edited the Jewish annotated New Testament in twenty eleven van and they subsequently produced second expanded edition in two thousand seventeen. The Jewish.
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason Lustick. And I'm joined today by Simon Rabinovich to talk about Israel's recent nation state law and his volume defining Israel, the Jewish state democracy and the law. Simon is an assistant professor of history at Boston University, besides defining Israel. His other books include Jewish rights, national rights, nationalism and autonomy in late imperial Russia and the authority choose and aspirin nationalism, which was published as part of the Brandis library of modern Jewish thought. Simon's currently working on a book manuscript titled religious freedom and the Jews collective rights in modern states in July twenty teen the Knesset passed a basic law under the title, Israel, as the nation state of the Jewish people as a basic law. It's one of a series of laws that hold constitutional th off. Authority in Israel. And as we'll talk about today. Many of the basic laws that have been passed over the years relate to fundamental questions about how the state operates like how many members of the Knesset there should be and the balance of power in the government. But this law is in a certain way, quite prescriptive following the passage of two basic laws in the ninety s which emphasized the rights of individuals, this new nation state law has tried to center the rights of groups in particular, the rights of Jews by defining the Israeli state as a Jewish one. So to speak. Now defining Israel as Jewish may seem uncontroversial to some, but is actually really complicated for a whole bunch of reasons. First of all Israel is not just a state has Jewish citizens. There are millions of non-jewish citizens not to mention the Palestinian population in the occupied. Territories. So that's to say that when the nation state law defines Israel as the quote nation state of the Jewish people and says that the right of national self determination in Israel is exclusive to Jews it's clearly setting out Israel, not as a state of all of its citizens, but as a state specifically for its Jewish citizens, and so along side that another point among many is that what it is to be a quote Jewish state represents an enduring debate to which there are no final answers. Since the beginning of modern Jewish settlement in Palestine people have debated and really fought over major questions cultural unreligious about the nature of the society that they wanted to build when they talked about creating a Jewish state. Whether that mean, what would be the role of religion. What language should be spoken should Chabad be an official day of rest part of the challenge that the Jewish settlements in Palestine and later the state of Israel has faced is negotiating these questions and the nation state law provides one potential answer to them, but it's part of his much bigger debate Simon's volume defining Israel was published by HEC press in two thousand eighteen just months after the law was passed the volume originated in Simon's work as a senior editor at margin. Elia? A channel of the Los Angeles review of books focusing on religion history and culture, he coordinated a twenty four. Forum of the same title defining Israel, which brought together the then proposed nation state law and a set of responses to it by leading scholars of nationalism as well as figures who were involved in a debates themselves after the Knesset passed the nation state law, Simon and the contributors reworked the volume so that it would not just be a theoretical discussion about what might happen. If such a law was passed. But also to be a consideration of what it means in reality. I think that this book is really important. It's a contribution to an ongoing political debate, which has important historical underpinnings as I mentioned before the question of what it means to create a quote, Jewish state is essential debate within the history of Zionism. As is the issue of what should be the rights of minorities. This was something that I asked for Jews who in the early twentieth century turned design, ISM and other nationalist movements. Judaism, we're trying to figure out. So when we look at Israel. And the question of the rights of minorities in relation to the rights of the majority in this case now, a Jewish majority. The history has a lot to say, I hope this conversation is enlightening about the issues surrounding the nation state law. It's history context and implications and what we can learn by looking at it closely. If you enjoyed this episode, I hope you'll share it with a friend at Jewish history dot FM slash nation state law where there's also a transcript of the episode and links to some of the topics and issues, we'll talk about today. Anyway. Hi, Simon welcome to the podcast. Hi, jason. Thanks for having me. I think that the nation state law, which is what this book is about. I think that it has really profound ramifications, and it's really significant. There's so much talk about it's really exciting to see also the book that came out. So soon just after the the lot self was passed. I know you basically had to redo the book from scratch almost in a way in order to make it happen. And we'll talk maybe some more about that. Yeah. I think it's just really great. So we can talk about it. It's by pleasure. I'm really delighted. I mean, I think one place us to start is to think about the law itself, especially since I'm sure they're not. Everybody's actually read the text of the law. Right. We might have read some of the commentary some of the news that that has surrounded, you know, some of the controversies as well, do you maybe want to start us off? We can talk a little bit about you know, what actually is this law this nation state law. Sure, no problem. So the nation state law is a law that is intended to clarify. By what the identity of the state is and give constitutional grounding for a number of existing laws that were on the books about symbols. And like, I said, the identity of the state and into introduce news to relations or new articles that at least for those who wrote the final version of the law were intended to create a balance between individual rights and the collective rights of the Jews within the state of Israel and the meaning of the state itself, right? You've said a little bit about sort of the objectives of this law to create a kind of constitutional framing for a whole bunch of things that already exists. I guess one way to think about this is what's the significance of this being quote, unquote, basic law, right, especially when we talk about the fact that Israel does not have a constitution. So that's a great place to start the context for the basic laws in general. And this basic law in particular, Israel, does not have a constitution. And so as a sort of compromise. There was a proposal that a constitutional would be written essentially, add hawked and in place of writing a complete constitution. There would be a constitutional committee that would suggest pieces of a constitution bit by bit. And then they would be passed by simple majority within the Knesset the, but they would have constitutional grounding, those would be called basic laws and most of the basic laws for the first thirty forty years of the state where about how the state should function. And it wasn't really until the nineteen ninety s when two basic laws were passed that were part of I suppose, a turn to the idea of human rights and individual rights within international law within European law and had to do with basic liberty and dignity that. That were more in the John RA of what the individual human rights were of citizens of the state, but crucially, they also included language in their preambles about Israel as a Jewish and democratic state, and those laws the two laws on human dignity and freedom of occupation were interpreted by the supreme court, and in particular, the supreme court president at the time her on Barack as a constitutional revolution. Putting Israel's basic laws, and it's constitutional framework on par with that of other liberal democracies? And therefore as Israel's justices interpreted decisions and laws and the constitutionality. They had to measure the constitutionality of the laws against the democratic needs of the state and the individual liberties that were outlined in these laws, I suppose unsurprisingly many conservative saw this as the beginning of a period of extreme Jew. Digital activism liberal judicial activism that required. A response. You're saying that that when you look at the political contexts it's kind of a response to the interpretation of these laws on the books. That's exactly right. The laws were passed with fairly little controversy. But yes, the the really controversial element was their interpretation by the supreme court in particular in a couple of key cases, one of which was called the consumer case Kadan case, which was about the right of an Arab family to build a home on a plot. It had purchased in a mall shove, and the supreme court reaffirmed that right? And this created a considerable backlash among people who felt that the state was prioritizing these individual rights at the cost of Jewish national interests and the Jewish character of the state and its key institution. In that particular case, you're talking about a work community that was exclusively Jewish didn't want a non Jew to be purchasing land there, right which gets to some of the ways in which this new law is established in such a way as to not necessarily just as you say, protect or prioritize the quote unquote, Jewish aspects of the state, but also to exclude many people, you know, from their own rights as well. So it's a very complicated. Very quickly. Yes. Yes. It does. Indeed. I think similar to the basic laws of the nineteen ninety s where their significance came to be in the interpretation by the courts rather than specifically what they said in the law. The same is true with the nation state law where you know, we'll see what significance is in future as as interpreted by cords more than what it's actually changed on the ground. But in response to this sense of. People who felt that felt that the courts had gone too far in the direction of prioritizing, the individual rights of citizens within the state at the expense of the Jewish collective. There was a new wave of impetus to actually create a constitution to sort of finalize a constitutional document for the state a single constitutional as opposed to a collection of of laws. Right. And this was a sort of wave that emerges in the two thousands with some think tanks within Israel non-government organizations and in parallel to it. There is a wave of constitutional writing or constitution drafting by Israeli Arab non-governmental organizations that are seeking almost mirror image of these constitutional proposals. In constitutions that highlight strictly the individual rights of the citizens within the state. Date but just like in the late forties. Then the two thousands. Also, there's a level of support for the kind of conflict that a real push to create a constitution would create if the state would have to then determine the relationship between the religion in the state and all sorts of other controversial elements that would create major political crises. Right. I mean, I it's it's it's interesting because I think it parallels a much longer history where where you can see again
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason LA steak, and I'm very excited to welcome Lindsey king and Sarah off to the podcast today to talk about Sarah's new book masculinity, and the making of American Judaism Lindsey king is a PHD candidate at the UCLA department of history with a focus on modern Jewish history. And her research focuses on Jewish masculinity in nineteenth century Vienna. And Sarah, m Hof is a professor of Jewish. Studies and religious studies at the university of Indiana. Thanks Jay said, I'm Lindsay on especially excited to talk with Sarah about her book on Jewish masculinity in America between nineteen hundred nineteen twenty four my own work, obviously relates to a slightly different time and place in Sarah's. She deals with early twentieth century in America, and I write about mid nineteenth century Vienna. But we're both interested in understanding what Jewish men thought it meant to be a good, man. And how that sheep their behaviors Sarah argues in her book that normally of masculinity in the early twentieth century United States, such as the idea that men are rational or morally upright or physically fit where common to both Jews and non Jews and Christians a good. Religion with a masculine religion. Jewish men. It was important to demonstrate that Judaism was a good religion. Which meant that. They wanted American Judaism to conform to many of the values in colonies associated with good American masculinity. Like rash, analogy, strengths or integrity. She explains the surf series of really interesting examples that take us across the US from New York to Galveston to Atlanta, she talks about really fun things like Jewish crime. For example. Yeah. I mean, I saw Sarah's book a recognized immediately that there is a lot going on there. I think that she looks at some examples some historical incidents like Lille Frank trial, for instance, in well outside of Atlanta in the early twentieth century that people have talked about before. But with a new lens that I think is really interesting. I think this book is a really important one today on that was written now on because he has so much masculinity in the news and media and conversations with friends. What's your does is explain how ideas about masculinity have been shipping American Judaism or really religion in general in America for a long time? And I'd order to understand how American Judaism became. What is today we need to understand what the norms of masculinity were in the early twentieth century, especially during the time when many Jews for integrating the US this frame? The conversation will have about the differences similarities between Jewish and Christian masculinity is the role. Christianity. Played at shaping American Judaism. And why we need to understand gender in order to understand religion in America. Great. That sounds really fantastic. So thanks Lindsay for putting this together. Welcome to Jewish history matters, Sarah. And thank you for joining me. Thanks so much for having me on. This is a really exciting conversation for me to have. I thought to begin. I would ask you some broad questions about how you use the concept of gender in your work in universities gender. Studies departments and gender history. Have historically focused on women. You, of course, talk about men and masculinity. Why do we need to discuss masculinity? And why do you think we need to discuss American Jewish masculinity? Specifically. I think this is a great question. And the first thing I want to say about this is there's a really good reason that gender studies departments and gender history. Tends to focus on women. That is that the professional study of history has been lopsidedly focused on the study of men. So I'd certainly do wanna go on record in the support of the greater study of women and for gender studies departments and gender history in particular to keep paying attention to women. So I don't see my work as a critique of like, oh too much women or something like that. Instead I wanted to talk specifically about masculinity because it often goes on marked and in the field of research where I am American Jewish history. Icy that an awful lot. So when you say unmarked, I mean, it goes unnoticed or taken for granted or taken as the rule where women are the. Exception to the rule. So one way to think about this is we all already know that women's social roles and feminine ideals change over time, and they might be different in different cultures. But by not studying men and paying attention to men as men or paying attention to how men's gender roles and ideals are constructed. We can kind of leave ourselves with the impression that masculinity is like trans historical or essential. And I wanted to do a case study to think about American Jewish masculinity and to show the ways that it wasn't trans historical and essential that it was in fact contingent that it came out of many of the movements the social movements the economic movement that we can see at this time and that it's a product of booth how Jews talked about themselves, but also non Jews talked about
"jewish" Discussed on Jewish History Matters
"Welcome to Jewish history matters. I'm Jason Los dig and I'm glad to welcome Samuel Moines, Eugene shepherd and Moses Lapin to the podcast today to talk about the Brandeis library of modern Jewish thought a multi volume series that's been bringing together edited and translated sources related to modern Jewish thought broadly defined each of the books focuses on a theme and topics have included Jews race, they asked for nationalism the Scipion movement legal theories and more. Eugene shepherd is chair of the department of near eastern nj studies ever does university, and he's also an associate professor of modern Jewish history and thought there and Samuel Moines is a professor of law at Yale Law School and professor of history at Yale University together Sam and Eugene are the managing editors of the multi volume series Brandeis library of modern Jewish thought from Brandeis university press. And we're also joined today by Moses slapping, a graduate student in the department's history and philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Thanks jason. I'm Moses Lapin. And I'm the host of new books in Jewish. Studies. The podcast that lets you hear directly for some of the best authors in Jewish studies. Today, I'm thrilled to join you in Jewish history matters. Yeah, we're really glad to have you on the program. It's exciting to have this opportunity to reflect on and to discuss a book series in its entirety. I think that the Brandeis library of monitors thought is a fantastic series for a whole bunch of resents. And what speaks to me the most personally is that these books really are tremendous resource for teachers and students of all kinds. They open up and expansive definition. I think of what is quote unquote, Jewish thought which appeals to me as someone who deals my own work with Jewish intellectual and cultural history in a really broad frame Moses in your conversation today, you'll be talking with salmon Eugene about a number of the books which have come. And what ties them together? So do you wanna maybe say something about that? Yeah. I think my feelings about the series, really echo yours. Our discussion touches on each of the seven volumes that are currently in the series. But it also had the chance to reflect on ready. The goals of this series is a whole and its interventions in innovations and also to look ahead at some of the forthcoming volumes. I think that in my own reading that would two themes that stood out a central firstly the relationship between an internal Jewish discourse in its context. And Secondly, the very notion of Jewish thought itself as you can tell from the individual titles the series doesn't silo itself into sort of prefabricated disciplines or methods or topics. It's a bold disruption to many known themes, and it also introduces new thinkers and new ideas to the students of modern Jewish history thought while the figures in the volumes are Jews, and there's a deep engagement with Jewish tax. Jewish traditions. The series shows the ways in which the internal discourse was embedded in a very specific context or multiple contexts and thereby challenges us to think about what we mean when we say Jewish thought the thanks Moses. I think that that really brings out the core of so many of the issues that the series really delves into in that we'll talk about today. So I'm looking forward to this conversation. But before we jump in and just want to say quickly that if you want to learn more about the book series about the Brandeis library in modern Jewish thought, you can find links to the books, and and also to some excerpts in the show notes or at Jewish history dot FM slash Brandeis, where there's also a transcript of the episode and links to some of the other items and topics we'll talk about and if you enjoy the episode, I hope you'll check out the rest of the podcast, which you can find at Jewish history dot FM slash subscribe. Welcome guys. Thank you. Thank you would like to begin with a general question about the library. What are some of your goals and hopes, and what do you think sort of holds the project together as a whole? So I think initially one of our main motivations was from the standpoints of being teachers we were frustrated especially in terms of undergraduate teaching. That the kinds of texts we wanted to assign where either only available in very obscure places and usually not available in English. Translation, so one just basic heuristic task then was to bring together texts which we wanted to teach. And we we knew other rising scholars in in our fields wanted to teach and get them out in an affordable and reliable way that could be used in the classroom and as well used by instructors who aren't necessarily specialists in the field. I think you know, Eugene and I shared the goal of making tech successful to teachers and students who might not have facilities with original languages and have the time to organize things. I think we also wanted to cast some light on some under appreciated aspects of modern Jewish thought, you know, in the tradition in which he and I are trained, especially there is a kind of canon, and if you utter the phrase modern Jewish thought, you'd think of Moses Mendelssohn to him, you know, we we did dedicate a volume, but of his underappreciated writings and then a series of mostly German Jewish thinkers through the twentieth century. And what we hope to do is show that the the very idea of modern Jewish thought is very constrained, and we can use these volumes to give a new sense of just the different forms it. It has taken and still could take. And if I could just add onto that I think our choice of. Of editors who have really done incredible jobs with these volumes shows how different currents in the various fields of modern Jewish thought. They reflect the kind of dynamic change more generally, just how capitus modern Jewish thought can be in going to all kinds of areas that really went beyond that cannon that that Sam had mentioned Sam, you mentioned canonization, and I think somebody who's looking